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Sample records for synthesize inp micrometer

  1. Syntheses, crystal and electronic structures of two new lead indium phosphates: Pb 2In 4P 6O 23 and Pb 2InP 3O 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Long; Zhang, Hao; Xie, Zhi; Yang, Song-Ling; Zhao, Dan; He, Chang-Zhen; Cheng, Wen-Dan

    2009-11-01

    Two compounds Pb 2In 4P 6O 23 and Pb 2InP 3O 11 in the new family of lead indium phosphates were synthesized by high temperature solution growth (HTSG) method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, powder diffraction and electron microscopy. Two title compounds display different types of 3D architectures with interesting tunnel structure are built up of the InO 6 octahedra and PO 4 tetrahedra, sharing the corners or edges, and the Pb 2+ cations are sitting in the tunnel. The structure of Pb 2In 4P 6O 23 features a novel 3D open framework which can be considered as built from the layer of {In 4(P 2O 7)(PO 4) 2} 2- parallel to the ac plane interconnected by bridging the single PO 4. The structure of Pb 2InP 3O 11 can be described by the assemblage of [InP 2O 11] units with monophosphate groups. The stereochemical activity of the Pb II lone pair has also been discussed. The electronic band structure calculations for the two compounds have also been performed with the density functional theory method. The study of calculations and optical diffuse reflectance absorption spectrum measurement show both compounds are indirect band-gap insulators.

  2. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions with biopolymer template synthesized mesoporous titania beads of hundreds of micrometers size.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Wei, Huanhuan; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated that mesoporous titania beads of uniform size (about 450 μm) and high surface area could be synthesized via an alginate biopolymer template method. These mesoporous titania beads could efficiently remove Cr(VI), Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), and Co(II) ions from simulated wastewater with a facile subsequent solid-liquid separation because of their large sizes. We chose Cr(VI) removal as the case study and found that each gram of these titania beads could remove 6.7 mg of Cr(VI) from simulated wastewater containing 8.0 mg·L(-1) of Cr(VI) at pH = 2.0. The Cr(VI) removal process was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption model and its kinetics followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The Cr(VI) removal mechanism of titania beads might be attributed to the electrostatic adsorption of Cr(VI) ions in the form of negatively charged HCrO(4)(-) by positively charged TiO(2) beads, accompanying partial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by the reductive surface hydroxyl groups on the titania beads. The used titania beads could be recovered with 0.1 mol·L(-1) of NaOH solution. This study provides a promising micro/nanostructured adsorbent with easy solid-liquid separation property for heavy metal ions removal. PMID:22129207

  3. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions with biopolymer template synthesized mesoporous titania beads of hundreds of micrometers size.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Wei, Huanhuan; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated that mesoporous titania beads of uniform size (about 450 μm) and high surface area could be synthesized via an alginate biopolymer template method. These mesoporous titania beads could efficiently remove Cr(VI), Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), and Co(II) ions from simulated wastewater with a facile subsequent solid-liquid separation because of their large sizes. We chose Cr(VI) removal as the case study and found that each gram of these titania beads could remove 6.7 mg of Cr(VI) from simulated wastewater containing 8.0 mg·L(-1) of Cr(VI) at pH = 2.0. The Cr(VI) removal process was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption model and its kinetics followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The Cr(VI) removal mechanism of titania beads might be attributed to the electrostatic adsorption of Cr(VI) ions in the form of negatively charged HCrO(4)(-) by positively charged TiO(2) beads, accompanying partial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by the reductive surface hydroxyl groups on the titania beads. The used titania beads could be recovered with 0.1 mol·L(-1) of NaOH solution. This study provides a promising micro/nanostructured adsorbent with easy solid-liquid separation property for heavy metal ions removal.

  4. When is an INP not an INP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Emma; Connolly, Paul; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Processes such as precipitation and radiation depend on the concentration and size of different hydrometeors within clouds therefore it is important to accurately predict them in weather and climate models. A large fraction of clouds present in our atmosphere are mixed phase; contain both liquid and ice particles. The number of drops and ice crystals present in mixed phase clouds strongly depends on the size distribution of aerosols. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), a subset of atmospheric aerosol particles, are required for liquid drops to form in the atmosphere. These particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. To nucleate ice particles in mixed phase clouds ice nucleating particles (INP) are required. These particles are rarer than CCN. Here we investigate the case where CCN and INPs are in direct competition with each other for water vapour within a cloud. Focusing on the immersion and condensation modes of freezing (where an INP must be immersed within a liquid drop before it can freeze) we show that the presence of CCN can suppress the formation of ice. CCN are more hydrophilic than IN and as such are better able to compete for water vapour than, typically insoluble, INPs. Therefore water is more likely to condense onto a CCN than INP, leaving the INP without enough condensed water on it to be able to freeze in the immersion or condensation mode. The magnitude of this suppression effect strongly depends on a currently unconstrained quantity. Here we refer to this quantity as the critical mass of condensed water required for freezing, Mwc. Mwc is the threshold amount of water that must be condensed onto a INP before it can freeze in the immersion or condensation mode. Using the detailed cloud parcel model, Aerosol-Cloud-Precipiation-Interaction Model (ACPIM), developed at the University of Manchester we show that if only a small amount of water is required for freezing there is little suppression effect and if a large amount of water is required there is a

  5. Optical contact micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  6. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  7. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  8. CNPq/INPE-LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debarrosaguirre, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities operated by Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) and the results achieved during the period from October 1, 1984 to August 31, 1985 are presented. INPE's Receiving Station at Cuiaba, MT, operates normally the two tracking and receiving systems it has installed, the old one (1973) for Band S and the new one (February 1983) for dual S- and X-band. Both MSS and TM recording capabilities are functional. Support to the NASA Backup Plan for MSS data also remains active. Routine recordings are being made for LANDSAT-5 only, for both MSS and TM. Originally, MSS was recorded over the full acquisition range. However, since December, 1984, due to further reduction of operational expenses, both instruments are being recorded over Brazilian territory only.

  9. Airborne astronomy with a 150 micrometer - 500 micrometer heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-254 awarded to the University of California. The project goal was to build a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer for NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and to use this instrument to observe atomic and molecular spectral lines from the interstellar medium. This goal was successfully achieved; the spectrometer is now in routine use aboard the KAO. Detections of particular note have been the 370 micrometers line of neutral atomic carbon, the 158 micrometers transition of ionized carbon, many of the high-J rotational lines of 12CO and 13CO between J=9-8 and J=22-21, the 119 micron ground-state rotational line of OH, and the 219 micron ground-state rotational line of H2D(+). All of these lines were observed at spectral resolutions exceeding 1 part in 10(exp 6), thereby allowing accurate line shapes and Doppler velocities to be measured.

  10. Toward Unraveling the Nature of the Mysterious 21 and 30 Micrometer Emission Features of Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, A.

    2014-01-01

    feature carriers are probably synthesized in the PPN phase while the 30 micrometer feature carrier is being destroyed in the PPN phase through decomposition or shattering.

  11. Cathodoluminescence of InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, C. H.; Vaughan, J. J.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence studies were carried out on p-type InP having carrier concentrations ranging from 7.2 x 10 to the 16th to 7.4 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm in the temperature range of 80-580 K. It was found that low-temperature spectra exhibited peaks at 1.41 and 1.38 eV. These peaks were attributed to band-to-band and band-acceptor transitions, respectively. The dependence of the band-to-band peak on temperature was used to extend knowledge of the temperature dependence of the energy gap of InP to 550 K. It was shown that the half-width of the cathodoluminescence peak can be used for the determination of carrier concentration and carrier-concentration inhomogeneities in the material. The variations of the cathodoluminescence peak height with temperature indicated the possibility of Auger recombination for high carrier concentrations (7.4 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm) at temperatures above 450 K.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of InP and Ga203 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhanghua; Wang, Fei; Forsberg, Erik; Cao, Xia

    2005-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of crystalline InP and Ga2O3 nanowires. The nanowires are synthesized using a simple method based on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth; a method we believe could form the basis of cheap and simple fabrication of crystalline nanowires of a broad range of semiconductor materials, including III-V compounds and semiconductor oxides. The reported InP nanowires have an average diameter of 30nm and the Ga2O3 nanowires diameters down to 100nm. Characterization data including SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are presented.

  13. Positioned growth of InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. J.; Dalacu, D.; Lapointe, J.; Kam, A.; Mnaymneh, K.

    2011-02-01

    We describe two different approaches to growing precisely positioned InP nanowires on InP wafers. Both of these approaches utilize the selective area growth capabilities of Chemical Beam Epitaxy, one using the Au catalysed Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth mode, the other being catalyst-free. Growth is performed on InP wafers which are first coated with 20 nm of SiO2. These are then patterned using e-beam lithography to create nanometer scale holes in the SiO2 layer to expose the InP surface. For the VLS growth Au is then deposited into the holes in the SiO2 mask layer using a self-aligned lift-off process. For the catalyst-free growth no Au is deposited. In both cases the deposition of InP results in the formation of InP nanowires. In VLS growth the nanowire diameter is controlled by the size of the Au particle, whereas when catalyst-free the diameter is that of the opening in the SiO2 mask. The orientation of the nanowires is also different, <111>B when using Au particles and <111>A when catalyst-free. For the catalysed growth the effect of the Au particle can be turned off by modifying growth conditions allowing the nanowire to be clad, dramatically enhancing the optical emission from InAs quantum dots grown inside the nanowire.

  14. Two-Step Nucleation and Growth of InP Quantum Dots via Magic-Sized Cluster Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, Dylan C.; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Cossairt, Brandi M.

    2015-01-30

    We report on the role of magic-sized clusters (MSCs) as key intermediates in the synthesis of indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) from molecular precursors. These observations suggest that previous efforts to control nucleation and growth by tuning precursor reactivity have been undermined by formation of these kinetically persistent MSCs prior to QD formation. The thermal stability of InP MSCs is influenced by the presence of exogenous bases as well as choice of the anionic ligand set. Addition of a primary amine, a common additive in previous InP QD syntheses, to carboxylate terminated MSCs was found to bypass the formation of MSCs, allowing for homogeneous growth of InP QDs through a continuum of isolable sizes. Substitution of the carboxylate ligand set for a phosphonate ligand set increased the thermal stability of one particular InP MSC to 400°C. The structure and optical properties of the MSCs with both carboxylate and phosphonate ligand sets were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, powder XRD analysis, and solution ³¹P{¹H} and ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the carboxylate terminated MSCs were identified as effective single source precursors (SSPs) for the synthesis of high quality InP QDs. Employing InP MSCs as SSPs for QDs effectively decouples the formation of MSCs from the subsequent second nucleation event and growth of InP QDs. The concentration dependence of this SSP reaction, as well as the shape uniformity of particles observed by TEM suggests that the stepwise growth from MSCs directly to QDs proceeds via a second nucleation event rather than an aggregative growth mechanism.

  15. Two-Step Nucleation and Growth of InP Quantum Dots via Magic-Sized Cluster Intermediates

    DOE PAGES

    Gary, Dylan C.; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Cossairt, Brandi M.

    2015-01-30

    We report on the role of magic-sized clusters (MSCs) as key intermediates in the synthesis of indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) from molecular precursors. These observations suggest that previous efforts to control nucleation and growth by tuning precursor reactivity have been undermined by formation of these kinetically persistent MSCs prior to QD formation. The thermal stability of InP MSCs is influenced by the presence of exogenous bases as well as choice of the anionic ligand set. Addition of a primary amine, a common additive in previous InP QD syntheses, to carboxylate terminated MSCs was found to bypass the formationmore » of MSCs, allowing for homogeneous growth of InP QDs through a continuum of isolable sizes. Substitution of the carboxylate ligand set for a phosphonate ligand set increased the thermal stability of one particular InP MSC to 400°C. The structure and optical properties of the MSCs with both carboxylate and phosphonate ligand sets were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, powder XRD analysis, and solution ³¹P{¹H} and ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the carboxylate terminated MSCs were identified as effective single source precursors (SSPs) for the synthesis of high quality InP QDs. Employing InP MSCs as SSPs for QDs effectively decouples the formation of MSCs from the subsequent second nucleation event and growth of InP QDs. The concentration dependence of this SSP reaction, as well as the shape uniformity of particles observed by TEM suggests that the stepwise growth from MSCs directly to QDs proceeds via a second nucleation event rather than an aggregative growth mechanism.« less

  16. Radiation effects on p+n InP junctions grown by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Walters, Robert J.; Panunto, M. J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    The superior radiation resistance of InP over other solar cell materials such as Si or GaAs has prompted the development of InP cells for space applications. The early research on radiation effects in InP was performed by Yamaguchi and co-workers who showed that, in diffused p-InP junctions, radiation-induced defects were readily annealed both thermally and by injection, which was accompanied by significant cell recovery. More recent research efforts have been made using p-InP grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). While similar deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) results were found for radiation induced defects in these cells and in diffused junctions, significant differences existed in the annealing characteristics. After injection annealing at room temperature, Yamaguchi noticed an almost complete recovery of the photovoltaic parameters, while the MOCVD samples showed only minimal annealing. In searching for an explanation of the different annealing behavior of diffused junctions and those grown by MOCVD, several possibilities have been considered. One possibility is the difference in the emitter structure. The diffused junctions have S-doped graded emitters with widths of approximately 0.3 micrometers, while the MOCVD emitters are often doped with Si and have widths of approximately 300A (0.03 micrometers). The difference in the emitter thickness can have important effects, e.g. a larger fraction of the total photocurrent is generated in the n-type material for thicker emitters. Therefore the properties of the n-InP material may explain the difference in the observed overall annealing behavior of the cells.

  17. InP concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. S.; Wanlass, M. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Emery, K. A.; Osterwald, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, n(+)/p InP shallow-homojunction (SHJ) concentrator solar cells are described. The InP device structures were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A preliminary assessment of the effects of grid-collection distance and emitter-sheet resistance on cell performance is presented. At concentration ratios of around 100, cells with efficiencies of 21.4 percent AM0 (24.3 percent direct) at 25 C are fabricated. These are the highest efficiencies yet reported for single-junction InP solar cells. The performance of these cells as a function of temperature is discussed, and areas for future improvement are outlined. Application of these results to other InP-based photovoltaic devices is discussed.

  18. Antimony Passivation of InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobusawa, Hajime; Ikoma, Hideaki

    1993-09-01

    Antimony passivation of InP was investigated. Sb was evaporated on a HCl-etched InP substrate and annealed at 300°C for 10 min. I--V characteristics of the Au/Sb/InP diode are substantially improved and the Schottky barrier height becomes higher as compared with the conventional Au/InP diode. The reverse current decreases by about two orders of magnitude upon Sb passivation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements show that the Sb oxide, Sb2O3, is formed near both the surface and the interface, i.e., the Sb2O3/Sb/Sb2O3 layered structure exists on the InP substrate. On the other hand, In2O3, the dominant component species of the native oxide of InP, is not observed in the Sb-passivated sample, which indicates that Sb passivation effectively removes that native oxide (In2O3) and suppresses reoxidation of the InP surface. Sb is considered to reduce In2O3 and is oxidized itself to become Sb2O3. This is a probable mechanism of Sb passivation. After the Sb-passivated substrate is washed in deionized water, the amount of Sb decreases and In2O3 is again observed. This is explained by the balance in the chemical reaction between In2O3 and Sb2O3 (the mass-action law). The low Schottky barrier height and the poor electrical characteristics are thus well correlated with the existence of the native oxide of InP, dominantly, In2O3.

  19. Photoluminescence lifetime measurements in InP wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    A simple apparatus to measure the minority carrier lifetime in InP has been developed. The technique stimulates the sample with a short pulse of light from a diode laser and measures the photoluminescence decay to extract the minority carrier lifetime. The photoluminescence lifetime in InP as a function of doping on both n- and p-type material is examined. The results also show a marked difference in the lifetime of n-type InP and p-type InP of similar doping levels. N-type InP shows a lifetime considerably longer than the expected radiative limited lifetime.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huajuan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple method for the synthesis of novel micrometer flower-like Cu/PVP architectures was introduced. Highlights: {yields} Micrometer flower-like copper/polyvinylpyrrolidone architectures were obtained by a simple chemical route. {yields} The amount of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of CuCl{sub 2} to PVP and different molecular weights of PVP play an important role in the controlling the morphology of the Cu/PVP architectures. {yields} A possible mechanism of the formation of Cu/PVP architectures was discussed. -- Abstract: Micrometer-sized flower-like Cu/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) architectures are synthesized by the reduction of copper (II) salt with hydrazine hydrate in aqueous solution in the presence of PVP capping agent. The resulting Cu/PVP architectures are investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Cu/PVP flowers have uniform morphologies with an average diameter of 10 {mu}m, made of several intercrossing plates. The formation of Cu/PVP flowers is a new kinetic control process, and the factors such as the amount of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, reaction temperature, molar ratio of CuCl{sub 2} to PVP and molecular weight of PVP have significant effect on the morphology of Cu/PVP architectures. A possible mechanism of the formation of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures was discussed.

  1. Investigation of InP processing techniques for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, James L.

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis was strongly oriented towards the overall technology of InP for photonic and other device applications. These investigations include such important and diverse subjects as the use of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) to study the solid phase epitaxial growth of InP after amorphization by heavy implant doses, the formation of a novel insulator in InP for passivation, the metallurgy of the traditional AuGe/Ni/Au contact for n-type InP and an analysis of the annealing of such contacts during the short times involved in RTA, the use of electrochemical profiling techniques to determine non-uniform implant distributions into InP, and the diffusion of the deep Fe trap in semi-insulting InP substrates as a result of standard thermal treatments. Significant progress was made in all of these areas.

  2. Electrochemical characterization of InP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Wilt, David M.; Goradia, Manju

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical (EC) techniques represent a simple and yet accurate method to characterize InP and related materials structures. With EC techniques, uncertainties in the measurements arising from factors such as surface effects, the composition and thickness of a front dead layer, the contacts, etc., can be significantly reduced when both a suitable electrolyte is used and the measuring conditions are carefully selected. In this work, the use of photoelectrochemical techniques with InP structures is reported. The work focuses on both the characterization and the optimization of structures grown by thermal diffusion and by epitaxial methods. Characterization of the structures is done by studying the variation in the density of surface states, number of defects, and net majority carrier concentration as a function of material removed. A step-by-step optimization process of n(sup +)p and p(sup+)n InP structures is also described. This involves the passivation and subsequent removal of damaged layers in order to extract the performance parameters of solar cells fabricated with these structures.

  3. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n + p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  4. Recent progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.; Jain, R. K.; Swartz, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    Significant new developments in InP solar cell research are reviewed. Recent accomplishments include monolithic multibandgap two junction cells (three and two terminal) using InP as the top cell and lattice matched GaInAs and GaInAsP as the bottom, low bandgap, component. Concentrator cells include the three terminal multibandgap cell and an n + p cell using an InP substrate. The review also includes small scale production of ITO/InP cells and results for n+p InP and ITO/InP cells in space on board the LIPS 3 satellite.

  5. Three-Stage InP Submillimeter-Wave MMIC Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Man, King; Gaier, Todd; Deal, William; Lai, Richard; Mei, Gerry; Makishi, Stella

    2008-01-01

    A submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated- circuit (S-MMIC) amplifier has been designed and fabricated using an indium phosphide (InP) 35-nm gate-length high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device, developed at Northrop Grumman Corporation. The HEMT device employs two fingers each 15 micrometers wide. The HEMT wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and make use of a pseudomorphic In0.75Ga0.25As channel, a silicon delta-doping layer as the electron supply, an In0.52Al0.48As buffer layer, and an InP substrate. The three-stage design uses coplanar waveguide topology with a very narrow ground-to-ground spacing of 14 micrometers. Quarter-wave matching transmission lines, on-chip metal-insulator-metal shunt capacitors, series thin-film resistors, and matching stubs were used in the design. Series resistors in the shunt branch arm provide the basic circuit stabilization. The S-MMIC amplifier was measured for S-parameters and found to be centered at 320 GHz with 13-15-dB gain from 300-345 GHz. This chip was developed as part of the DARPA Submillimeter Wave Imaging Focal Plane Technology (SWIFT) program (see figure). Submillimeter-wave amplifiers could enable more sensitive receivers for earth science, planetary remote sensing, and astrophysics telescopes, particularly in radio astronomy, both from the ground and in space. A small atmospheric window at 340 GHz exists and could enable ground-based observations. However, the submillimeter-wave regime (above 300 GHz) is best used for space telescopes as Earth s atmosphere attenuates most of the signal through water and oxygen absorption. Future radio telescopes could make use of S-MMIC amplifiers for wideband, low noise, instantaneous frequency coverage, particularly in the case of heterodyne array receivers.

  6. Unique Three-Dimensional InP Nanopore Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Liguo; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Faze; Song, Jingnan; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-08-31

    Ordered three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure arrays hold promise for high-performance energy harvesting and storage devices. Here, we report the fabrication of InP nanopore arrays (NPs) in unique 3D architectures with excellent light trapping characteristic and large surface areas for use as highly active photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution devices. The ordered 3D NPs were scalably synthesized by a facile two-step etching process of (1) anodic etching of InP in neutral 3 M NaCl electrolytes to realize nanoporous structures and (2) wet chemical etching in HCl/H3PO4 (volume ratio of 1:3) solutions for removing the remaining top irregular layer. Importantly, we demonstrated that the use of neutral electrolyte of NaCl instead of other solutions, such as HCl, in anodic etching of InP can significantly passivate the surface states of 3D NPs. As a result, the maximum photoconversion efficiency obtained with ∼15.7 μm thick 3D NPs was 0.95%, which was 7.3 and 1.4 times higher than that of planar and 2D NPs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoluminescence analyses further clarified that the improved PEC performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer across 3D NPs/electrolyte interfaces, the improved charge separation at 3D NPs/electrolyte junction, and the increased PEC active surface areas with our unique 3D NP arrays. PMID:27501479

  7. Unique Three-Dimensional InP Nanopore Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Liguo; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Faze; Song, Jingnan; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-08-31

    Ordered three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure arrays hold promise for high-performance energy harvesting and storage devices. Here, we report the fabrication of InP nanopore arrays (NPs) in unique 3D architectures with excellent light trapping characteristic and large surface areas for use as highly active photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution devices. The ordered 3D NPs were scalably synthesized by a facile two-step etching process of (1) anodic etching of InP in neutral 3 M NaCl electrolytes to realize nanoporous structures and (2) wet chemical etching in HCl/H3PO4 (volume ratio of 1:3) solutions for removing the remaining top irregular layer. Importantly, we demonstrated that the use of neutral electrolyte of NaCl instead of other solutions, such as HCl, in anodic etching of InP can significantly passivate the surface states of 3D NPs. As a result, the maximum photoconversion efficiency obtained with ∼15.7 μm thick 3D NPs was 0.95%, which was 7.3 and 1.4 times higher than that of planar and 2D NPs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoluminescence analyses further clarified that the improved PEC performance was attributed to the enhanced charge transfer across 3D NPs/electrolyte interfaces, the improved charge separation at 3D NPs/electrolyte junction, and the increased PEC active surface areas with our unique 3D NP arrays.

  8. Terahertz emission from InP

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, S.; Lewis, R. A.

    2010-01-04

    We investigate the generation of THz radiation by the application of ultra-short near-infrared optical pulses to bulk unbiased InP. The THz radiation is detected in the direction of the specular reflection. While the overall emission characteristics are similar to those displayed by InAs under similar excitation conditions, in contrast to InAs, a single-cycle only variation in THz signal, of about +-20%, is observed as the sample is rotated through 360 deg. around the surface normal.

  9. Improvements in InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keavney, Christopher; Vernon, Stanley M.; Haven, Victor E.

    1988-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells with very thin n-type emitters have been made by both ion implantation and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Air mass zero efficiencies as high as 18.8 percent (NASA measurement) have been achieved. The best cells, which were those made by ion implantation, show an open-circuit voltage of 873 mV, short-circuit current of 35.7 mA/sq cm, and fill factor of 0.829. Improvements are anticipated in all three of these parameters. Internal quantum efficiency peaks at over 90 percent in the red end of the spectrum, but drops to 54 percent in the blue end. Other cells have achieved 74 percent in the blue end. A preliminary investigation of InP solar cells on foreign substrates has been carried out. Although problems have been encountered with doping of the InP by the substrate, cells of 7.1 percent efficiency on silicon and cells of 9.4 percent, efficiency on GaAs have been made.

  10. Modular Synthesizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the basics of inexpensive modular synthesizers (which demonstrate various principles of sound). Topics considered include: oscillators and musical range; oscillator waveforms and characteristics; synthesizing simple musical sounds; and modulation and sweeping filter effects. Suggestions for purchasing or building synthesizer components…

  11. Progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/p homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators.

  12. Sinterless contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Fatemi, N. S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    In the past, the achievement of good electrical contact to InP has inevitably been accompanied by mechanical degradation of the InP itself. Most contact systems require heat treatment after metal deposition that results in the dissolution of substantial amounts of InP into the metallization. Devices such as the solar cell, where shallow junctions are the rule, can be severely degraded if the damage to the semiconductor substrate is not precisely controlled. Two contact systems are described that provide low contact resistance to InP solar cells that do not require subjecting the current carrying metallization to a post deposition sintering process. It is shown that these two systems, one nickel based and the other silver based, provide contact resistivity values in the low 10(exp -6) ohm sq cm range, as fabricated, without the need for sintering.

  13. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  14. Preferentially etched epitaxial liftoff of InP material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G. (Inventor); Wilt, David M. (Inventor); Deangelo, Frank L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a method of removing epitaxial substrates from host substrates. A sacrificial release layer of ternary material is placed on the substrate. A layer of InP is then placed on the ternary material. Afterward a layer of wax is applied to the InP layer to apply compressive force and an etchant material is used to remove the sacrificial release layer.

  15. InP MMIC Chip Set for Power Sources Covering 80-170 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We will present a Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chip set which provides high output-power sources for driving diode frequency multipliers into the terahertz range. The chip set was fabricated at HRL Laboratories using a 0.1-micrometer gate-length InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process, and features transistors with an f(sub max) above 600 GHz. The HRL InP HEMT process has already demonstrated amplifiers in the 60-200 GHz range. In this paper, these high frequency HEMTs form the basis for power sources up to 170 GHz. A number of state-of-the-art InP HEMT MMICs will be presented. These include voltage-controlled and fixed-tuned oscillators, power amplifiers, and an active doubler. We will first discuss an 80 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with 5 GHz of tunability and at least 17 mW of output power, as well as a 120 GHz oscillator providing 7 mW of output power. In addition, we will present results of a power amplifier which covers the full WRIO waveguide band (75-110 GHz), and provides 40-50 mW of output power. Furthermore, we will present an active doubler at 164 GHz providing 8% bandwidth, 3 mW of output power, and an unprecedented 2 dB of conversion loss for an InP HEMT MMIC at this frequency. Finally, we will demonstrate a power amplifier to cover 140-170 GHz with 15-25 mW of output power and 8 dB gain. These components can form a power source in the 155-165 GHz range by cascading the 80 GHz oscillator, W-band power amplifier, 164 GHz active doubler and final 140-170 GHz power amplifier for a stable, compact local oscillator subsystem, which could be used for atmospheric science or astrophysics radiometers.

  16. Reading Outside Micrometers. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Sandra; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Reading Outside Micrometers program developed by EMC Publishing Company. (The program--not contained in this document--uses high resolution graphics to illustrate the micrometer's components, functions, and practical applications.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area and equipment requirements…

  17. High-efficiency heteroepitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Ward, J. S.; Emery, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film InP solar cells grown heteroepitaxially on GaAs and Si single-crystal bulk substrates are being developed as a means of eliminating the problems associated with using single-crystal InP substrates. A novel device structure employing a compositionally graded Ga(x)In(1-x)As layer between the bulk substrate and the InP cell layers is used to reduce the dislocation density and improve the minority carrier properties in the InP. The structures are grown in a continuous sequence of steps using computer-controlled atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). Dislocation densities as low as 3 x 10(exp 7) sq cm and minority carrier lifetimes as high as 3.3 ns are achieved in the InP layers with this method using both GaAs or Si substrates. Structures prepared in this fashion are also completely free of microcracks. These results represent a substantial improvement in InP layer quality when compared to heteroepitaxial InP prepared using conventional techniques such as thermally cycled growth and post-growth annealing. The present work is is concerned with the fabrication and characterization of high-efficiency, thin-film InP solar cells. Both one-sun and concentrator cells were prepared for device structures grown on GaAs substrates. One-cell cells have efficiencies as high as 13.7 percent at 25 C. However, results for the concentrator cells are emphasized. The concentrator cell performance is characterized as a function of the air mass zero (AM0) solar concentration ratio and operating temperature. From these data, the temperature coefficients of the cell performance parameters are derived as a function of the concentration ratio. Under concentration, the cells exhibit a dramatic increase in efficiency and an improved temperature coefficient of efficiency. At 25 C, a peak conversion efficiency of 18.9 percent is reported. At 80 C, the peak AM0 efficiency is 15.7 percent at 75.6 suns. These are the highest efficiencies yet

  18. Atoms.inp Archive: Crystallographic Data from GSECARS

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The Atoms.inp Archive is a collection of crystallographic data for use in XAFS analysis. The crystallographic data is stored as atoms.inp files, which contain all the information necessary to describe the crystal, and can be used by the program ATOMS to generate feff.inp files. These files can then be used by the FEFF program [See http://leonardo.phys.washington.edu/feff/] to calculate a theoretical XAFS spectrum for the crystal. This archive exists because it can take a considerable amount of time to locate a suitable reference for a model structure to use for making theoretical XAFS standards. Even then, references sometimes give non-standard or incomplete crystallographic notation that ATOMS has difficulty interpreting. All of this means that getting a reliable atoms.inp file can take quite a bit of effort. It is hoped that this collection of well-documented and well-tested atoms.inp files will eliminate much of the work in creating theoretical XAFS standards from FEFF. [Taken from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/]. The collection currently has more than 200 crystal structures, 2748 data files, and it continues to expand. The collection is related to the UWXAFS Project [http://depts.washington.edu/uwxafs/] and to the work of the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). After searching the Archive, a user may also choose to run the web version of ATOMS software.

  19. Summary of Workshop on InP: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. J.; Weinberg, I.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of most of the programs in InP solar cells is the development of the most radiation hard solar cell technology. In the workshop, it was generally agreed that the goal is a cell which displays high radiation tolerance in a radiation environment equivalent to a 1 MeV electron fluence of about 10(exp 16)/sq cm. Furthermore, it is desired that the radiation response of the cell be essentially flat out to this fluence - i.e. that the power output of the cell not decrease from its beginning of life (BOL) value in this radiation environment. It was also agreed in the workshop that the manufacturability of InP solar cells needs to be improved. In particular, since InP wafers are relatively dense and brittle, alternative substrates need to be developed. Research on hetero-epitaxial InP cells grown on Si, Ge, and GaAs substrates is currently underway. The ultimate goal is to develop hetero-epitaxial InP solar cells using a cheap, strong, and lightweight substrate.

  20. Long-Term INP Measurements within the BACCHUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrod, Jann; Bingemer, Heinz; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The European research project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) studies the interactions between aerosols, clouds and the climate system, and tries to reconstruct pre-industrial aerosol and cloud conditions from data collected in pristine environments. The number concentration of Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) is an important, yet scarcely known parameter. As a partner of Work package 1 of BACCHUS we began in September 2014 to operate a globally spanned network of four INP sampling stations, which is the first of its kind. The stations are located at the ATTO observatory in the Brazilian Rainforest, the Caribbean Sea (Martinique), the Zeppelin Observatory at Svalbard in the Arctic, and in central Europe (Germany). Samples are collected routinely every day or every few days by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto Si substrates. The samples are stored in petri-slides, and shipped to our laboratory in Frankfurt, Germany. The number of ice nucleating particles on the substrate is analyzed in the isothermal static diffusion chamber FRIDGE by growing ice on the INP and photographing and counting the crystals. The measurements in the temperature range from -20°C to -30°C and relative humidities of 100-135% (with respect to ice) address primarily the deposition/condensation nucleation modes. Here we present INP and supporting aerosol data from this novel INP network for the first time.

  1. Electron guns and collectors developed at INP for electron cooling devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapa, A.N.; Shemyakin, A.V.

    1997-09-01

    Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) has a rich experience in designing electron guns and collectors for electron cooling devices. This paper is a review of the experience of several INP research groups in this field. Some results obtained at INP for systems without a guiding magnetic field are also discussed.

  2. [The influential factors of MOCVD growth of InP in opals].

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun-hua; Fan, Guang-han; Huang, Xu-guang

    2008-12-01

    The key problem of fabricating the 3-D InP inverse opal photonic crystal is to increase the loading of InP in opals. In the present paper, low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition (MOCVD) was used to infill the voids within synthetic opals with InP. The morphologies and optical properties of SiO2-InP photonic crystal were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). Several series of experiments were carried out in order to analyze the factors that influence the loading of InP in opals and determine the optimal InP growth conditions. The results of optical experiments are in good agreement with those derived from the theoretical considerations: By increasing the extent of InP infilling within the voids, the extent of refractive index contrast between the silica spheres and the void as well as the extent of natural optical properties change of the photonic crystal were increased. Cycle growth, low-pressure growth, and using the match substrate and the same configuration character between SiOi and InP are beneficial to increaseing the extent of InP infilling within the opal voids. The process has been optimized to achieve SiO2-InP photonic crystal with higher loading of InP. The study provides a scientific basis for manufacturing three-dimensional InP inverse opal photonic crystals.

  3. Radiation effects in heteroepitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Curtis, H. B.; Swartz, C. K.; Brinker, D. J.; Vargas-Aburto, C.

    1993-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial InP solar cells, with GaAs substrates, were irradiated by 0.5 and 3 MeV protons and their performance, temperature dependency, and carrier removal rates determined as a function of fluence. The radiation resistance of the present cells was significantly greater than that of non-heteroepitaxial InP cells at both proton energies. A clear difference in the temperature dependency of V(sub oc), was observed between heteroepitaxial and homoepitaxial InP cells. The analytically predicted dependence of dV(sub oc)/dT on Voc was confirmed by the fluence dependence of these quantities. Carrier removal was observed to increase with decreasing proton energy. The results obtained for performance and temperature dependency were attributed to the high dislocation densities present in the heteroepitaxial cells while the energy dependence of carrier removal was attributed to the energy dependence of proton range.

  4. Nanophotonic resonators for InP solar cells.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Daniel A; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy N

    2016-05-16

    We describe high efficiency thin-film InP solar cells that utilize a periodic array of TiO2 nanocylinders. These nanophotonic resonators are found to reduce the solar-weighted average reflectivity of an InP solar cell to ~1.3%, outperforming the best double-layer antireflection coatings. The coupling between Mie scattering resonances and thin-film interference effects accurately describes the optical enhancement provided by the nanocylinders. The spectrally resolved reflectivity and J-V characteristics of the device under AM1.5G illumination are determined via coupled optical and electrical simulations, resulting in a predicted power conversion efficiency > 23%. We conclude that the nanostructured coating reduces reflection without negatively affecting the electronic properties of the InP solar cell by separating the nanostructured optical components from the active layer of the device. PMID:27409965

  5. InP concentrator solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. S.; Wanlass, M. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Emery, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, n(+)/p InP shallow-homojunction (SHJ) concentrator solar cells is described. The InP device structures were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). A preliminary assessment of the effects of grid collection distance and emitter sheet resistance on cell performance is presented. At concentration ratios of over 100, cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 21 percent at 25 C and 19 percent at 80 C are reported. These results indicate that high-efficiency InP concentrator cells can be fabricated using existing technologies. The performance of these cells as a function of temperature is discussed, and areas for future improvement are outlined.

  6. Palladium nanoparticles on InP for hydrogen detection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Layers of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on indium phosphide (InP) were prepared by electrophoretic deposition from the colloid solution of Pd nanoparticles. Layers prepared by an opposite polarity of deposition showed different physical and morphological properties. Particles in solution are separated and, after deposition onto the InP surface, they form small aggregates. The size of the aggregates is dependent on the time of deposition. If the aggregates are small, the layer has no lateral conductance. Forward and reverse I-V characteristics showed a high rectification ratio with a high Schottky barrier height. The response of the structure on the presence of hydrogen was monitored. PMID:21711487

  7. Comparative modeling of InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The comparative modeling of p(+)n and n(+)p indium phosphide solar cell structures is studied using a numerical program PC-1D. The optimal design study has predicted that the p(+)n structure offers improved cell efficiencies as compared to n(+)p structure, due to higher open-circuit voltage. The various cell material and process parameters to achieve the maximum cell efficiencies are reported. The effect of some of the cell parameters on InP cell I-V characteristics was studied. The available radiation resistance data on n(+)p and p(+)p InP solar cells are also critically discussed.

  8. Workshop on Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Walters, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    In a generic sense, the justification for any sort of InP solar cell research applies, i.e. to take advantage of the inherently high radiation resistance and efficiency of InP solar cells. To be more specific, the approach is justified by its potential for significant cost reduction and the availability of greatly increased cell area afforded by substrates such as Si and Ge. The use of substrates, such as the latter two, would result in increased ruggedness, ease of handling, and improved manufacturability. The use of more rugged substrates would lead to a greatly increased capability for cell thinning leading to the desirable feature of reduced array weight.

  9. Synthesis of Cu-doped InP nanocrystals (d-dots) with ZnSe diffusion barrier as efficient and color-tunable NIR emitters.

    PubMed

    Xie, Renguo; Peng, Xiaogang

    2009-08-01

    Efficient Cu-doped InP quantum dots (Cu:InP d-dots) emitters were successfully synthesized by epitaxial growth of a ZnSe diffusion barrier for the dopants. The Cu dopant emission of the Cu:InP/ZnSe core/shell d-dots covered the important red and near-infrared (NIR) window for biomedical applicaitons, from 630 to 1100 nm, by varying the size of the InP host nanocrystals. These new d-dots emitters not only compensate for the emission wavelength of the existing noncadmium d-dots emitters, Cu- and Mn-doped ZnSe d-dots (450-610 nm), but also offer a complete series of efficient nanocrystal emitters based on InP nanocrystals. The one-pot synthetic scheme for the formation of Cu:InP/ZnSe core/shell d-dots was successfully established by systematically studying the doping process, the dopant concentration-dependent photophysical properties, and the dopant diffusion during shell epitaxy, etc. Complete elimination of InP bandgap emission and efficient pure dopant emission (with photoluminescence quantum yield as high as between 35-40%) of the core/shell d-dots were achieved by optimizing the final doping level and the diffusion barrier thickness. PMID:19588970

  10. Bridging the Gap between the Nanometer-Scale Bottom-Up and Micrometer-Scale Top-Down Approaches for Site-Defined InP/InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Rainville, Christophe; Salmon, Adrian; Takiguchi, Masato; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki

    2015-11-24

    This work presents a method that bridges the gap between the nanometer-scale bottom-up and micrometer-scale top-down approaches for site-defined nanostructures, which has long been a significant challenge for applications that require low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing processes. We realized the bridging by controlling the seed indium nanoparticle position through a self-assembly process. Site-defined InP nanowires were then grown from the indium-nanoparticle array in the vapor-liquid-solid mode through a "seed and grow" process. The nanometer-scale indium particles do not always occupy the same locations within the micrometer-scale open window of an InP exposed substrate due to the scale difference. We developed a technique for aligning the nanometer-scale indium particles on the same side of the micrometer-scale window by structuring the surface of a misoriented InP (111)B substrate. Finally, we demonstrated that the developed method can be used to grow a uniform InP/InAs axial-heterostructure nanowire array. The ability to form a heterostructure nanowire array with this method makes it possible to tune the emission wavelength over a wide range by employing the quantum confinement effect and thus expand the application of this technology to optoelectronic devices. Successfully pairing a controllable bottom-up growth technique with a top-down substrate preparation technique greatly improves the potential for the mass-production and widespread adoption of this technology. PMID:26348087

  11. Synthesizing speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siltanen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Samuli Siltanen explains how solving an "inverse problem" will improve the quality of life of people who can't speak and have to use voice synthesizers - particularly women and children, whose only current option is to sound like an adult male.

  12. [Study on pollution for the photoelectronic material InP].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-cheng; Ding, Xiao-ping; Chen, Ding-qin

    2002-08-01

    The mass spectrum analysis of crystal face (100) and (111) and the photoluminescence analysis of crystal face (100) in the photoelectronic material InP were given. The Hall coefficient, charge carrier concentration and Hall mobility were determined. Experimental results indicate that the pollution of silicon is predominant.

  13. [Study on pollution for the photoelectronic material InP].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-cheng; Ding, Xiao-ping; Chen, Ding-qin

    2002-08-01

    The mass spectrum analysis of crystal face (100) and (111) and the photoluminescence analysis of crystal face (100) in the photoelectronic material InP were given. The Hall coefficient, charge carrier concentration and Hall mobility were determined. Experimental results indicate that the pollution of silicon is predominant. PMID:12938361

  14. Experiences with digital processing of images at INPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascarenhas, N. D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Four different research experiments with digital image processing at INPE will be described: (1) edge detection by hypothesis testing; (2) image interpolation by finite impulse response filters; (3) spatial feature extraction methods in multispectral classification; and (4) translational image registration by sequential tests of hypotheses.

  15. c-Myc inhibits TP53INP1 expression via promoter methylation in esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Wenhao; Yang, Qinyuan; Huang, Miaolong; Qiao, Yongxia; Xie, Yuan; Yu, Yongchun; Jing, An; Li, Zhi

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} TP53INP1 expression is down-regulated in esophageal carcinoma and is associated with CGI-131 methylation. {yields} Inhibition of CGI-131 methylation upregulates TP53INP1 expression in ESCC cell lines. {yields} Ectopic expression of TP53INP1 inhibits growth of ESCC cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell cycle progression. {yields} c-Myc binds to the promoter of TP53INP1 in vivo and vitro and recruits DNMT3A to TP53INP1 promoter for CGI-131 methylation. -- Abstract: Tumor protein p53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is a well known stress-induced protein that plays a role in both cell cycle arrest and p53-mediated apoptosis. Loss of TP53INP1 expression has been reported in human melanoma, breast carcinoma, and gastric cancer. However, TP53INP1 expression and its regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports in that the expression of TP53INP1 was downregulated in 28% (10/36 cases) of ESCC lesions, and this was accompanied by significant promoter methylation. Overexpression of TP53INP1 induced G1 cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in ESCC cell lines (EC-1, EC-109, EC-9706). Furthermore, our study showed that the oncoprotein c-Myc bound to the core promoter of TP53INP1 and recruited DNA methyltransferase 3A to methylate the local promoter region, leading to the inhibition of TP53INP1 expression. Our findings revealed that TP53INP1 is a tumor suppressor in ESCC and that c-Myc-mediated DNA methylation-associated silencing of TP53INP1 contributed to the pathogenesis of human ESCC.

  16. Toward a micrometer resolution x-ray tomographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Michael D.

    1995-09-01

    Near-micrometer resolution, three-dimensional computed tomographic images were made of a test object using the hard x-ray microscope developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The microscope uses a cooled CCD camera with direct conversion of the incident x rays by a 512 multiplied by 512 chip with 19 micrometer by 19 micrometer cells. Magnification by a factor of 20 is achieved using asymmetric Bragg diffraction from a pair of silicon crystals. The imaging system is designed for samples of the order of 0.50 mm diameter by 0.50 mm height. From beamline X23A3 at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) 8.17 keV x rays were used. Two hundred, 512 multiplied by 512 two-dimensional projections were collected every 0.9 degrees about the test object using the NIST microscope. The projections were digitized and sent to a computer for volume tomographic reconstruction by a parallel-beam, convolution-backprojection algorithm into a 5123 image with (1 micrometer)3 voxels. The test object consisted of glass and nickel microspheres with distributions from about 4 t 40 micrometer (glass) or to 24 micrometer (nickel) diameters suspended in epoxy in order to demonstrate near one micrometer resolution in all three dimensions and probe contrast sensitivity. The effect and interplay of photon statistics and energy, and sample composition, density and size on tomographic performance are discussed as are resolution limitations and image artifacts from Fresnel diffraction.

  17. Multifunctional assembly of micrometer-sized colloids for cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chenyao; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jiangyan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2015-06-01

    Compared to the extensively studied nanometer-sized colloids, less attention has been paid to the assembly of micrometer-sized colloids with multifunctional characteristics. To address this need, a bottom-up approach is developed for constructing self-assemblies of micrometer-sized magnetic colloids possessing multifunctionality, including magnetic, optical, and biological activities. Biotinylated oligo (p-phenylene vinylene) (OPV) derivatives are designed to mediate the self-assembly of streptavidin-modified magnetic beads. The optical element OPV derivatives provide a fluorescence imaging ability for tracing the assembly process. Target cells can be recognized and assembled by the colloidal assembly with bioactive element antibodies. The colloidal assembly reveals better cell isolation performance by its amplified magnetic response in comparison to monodisperse colloids. The self-assembly of micrometer-sized magnetic colloids through a combination of different functional ingredients to realize multifunction is conceptually simple and easy to achieve.

  18. High sensitivity infrared 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a study on the design of an infrared 10.6-micrometer quantum-noise-limited optical receiver subsystem. Performance measurements of the HgCdTe photomixer preamplifier combination were carried out for photomixer temperatures up to 152 K and a photomixer frequency response of up to 420 MHz was obtained. Results of temperature and bias cycling of HgCdTe photomixers are reported. Design considerations for an operational 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver are presented. These consist of design data on required laser LO illumination, heat load levels for photomixer cooler, photomixer uniformity and the effects of photomixer impedance match on receiver sensitivity. Analysis and measurements of 10.6 micrometer heterodyne detection in an extrinsic photoconductive (p-type) HgCdTe photomixer are also presented.

  19. A single crystalline InP nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Bang; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystalline nanowires are critical for achieving high-responsivity, high-speed, and low-noise nanoscale photodetectors. Here, we report a metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on a single crystalline InP nanowire. The nanowires are grown by a self-catalyzed method and exhibit stacking-fault-free zinc blende crystal structure. The nanowire exhibits a typical n-type semiconductor property and shows a low room temperature dark current of several hundred pA at moderate biases. A photoresponsivity of 6.8 A/W is obtained at a laser power density of 0.2 mW/cm2. This work demonstrates that single crystalline InP nanowires are good candidates for future optoelectronic device applications.

  20. Surface characterization of InP using photoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, R. R.; Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been performed on InP samples in situ during various surface treatments including chemical etching, wet anodization, and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found, in agreement with previously published results, that the magnitude of the PL signal varies markedly with surface treatment due presumably to changes in either surface-state density, and/or surface potential. In an attempt to assess the effectiveness of this noninvasive method as a tool for characterizing and monitoring the progressive development of a semiconductor surface during processing, a number of experiments on InP have been performed. The results indicate that although some uncertainty may exist in assigning a mechanism for the PL change in any given experiment, the general trend appears to be that surface degradation results in a reduced signal. As a result, process steps which enhance the PL intensity are likely to be beneficial in the preparation of a high-quality interface.

  1. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brenny, B. J. M.; Osorio, C. I.; Polman, A.; Dam, D. van; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2015-11-16

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  2. Quantum confinement of excitons in wurtzite InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemasiri, K.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Wong, B. M.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-05-01

    Exciton resonances are observed in photocurrent spectra of 80 nm wurtzite InP nanowire devices at low temperatures, which correspond to transitions between the A, B, and C valence bands and the lower conduction band. Photocurrent spectra for 30 nm WZ nanowires exhibit shifts of the exciton resonances to higher energy, which are consistent with finite element calculations of wavefunctions of the confined electrons and holes for the various bands.

  3. Quantum confinement of excitons in wurtzite InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Pemasiri, K.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Wong, B. M.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-05-21

    Exciton resonances are observed in photocurrent spectra of 80 nm wurtzite InP nanowire devices at low temperatures, which correspond to transitions between the A, B, and C valence bands and the lower conduction band. Photocurrent spectra for 30 nm WZ nanowires exhibit shifts of the exciton resonances to higher energy, which are consistent with finite element calculations of wavefunctions of the confined electrons and holes for the various bands.

  4. Photoluminescence polarization of single InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zwiller, Valery; Jarlskog, Linda; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Pryor, Craig; Castrillo, Pedro; Seifert, Werner; Samuelson, Lars

    2001-06-15

    The linear polarization dependence of photoluminescence emission was measured on single self-assembled InP quantum dots. The dots were obtained by Stranski-Krastanow growth on Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P. The highest-intensity emission occurred for light polarized parallel to the elongation of the dots in agreement with theoretical calculations. The excitation intensity was varied to obtain the polarization dependence of higher (state-filled) levels.

  5. Texturing of InP surfaces for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A unique process for texturing InP (100) wafers by anisotropic etching was developed. The process produces irregular V-grooves on the surface, which reduce the surface reflectivity. The process does not require photolithography or masking. The etching characteristics depend on doping, with etching tending to proceed more rapidly on the more heavily doped samples. Reduced reflectivity surfaces formed using this process can be applied to solar cells, photodetectors, and other optoelectronic devices.

  6. Surface accumulation of hydrogen during capless annealing of InP

    SciTech Connect

    Haussler, W.

    1989-06-19

    InP samples, which had received a capless anneal in a phosphine/hydrogenatmosphere, were examined for hydrogen contamination by secondary-ion massspectrometry. It is found that hydrogen accumulates at the InP surface duringannealing. Annealing of Be-implanted InP leads to similar profile shapes for theBe and H atoms. Passivation of the Be acceptors, if effective at all, appears tobe of only minor significance.

  7. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-01-01

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications. PMID:27616584

  8. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-01-01

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  9. [Characterizations of InP in terahertz region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jin-Long; Jin, Biao-Bing; Xu, Wei-Wei; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), which directly measures the THz wave's temporal electric field, can give the amplitude and phase of the THz wave pulse simultaneously. THz-TDS is attracting more attention among scientists. InP with short carrier average collision time and low effective mass is growing up as one of the best photoconductive materials for emitting and detecting THz waves. An n-type InP of 0.35 omega x cm was characterized over the range from 0.2 to 4 THz at room temperature in the present paper with THz time-domain spectroscopy, which was placed in a closed box purged with dry nitrogen gas. Some THz optical properties, such as complex refractive index, dielectric constant, and conductivity, were extracted, based on more exact iterative method with new initial function. Drude model was also applied for simulation, which fitted well with the experimental results. Finally, the carrier average collision time, density and mobility of the InP were also characterized.

  10. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, Senpo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y. B.; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of “bottom-up” InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  11. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y. B.; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of “bottom-up” InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications. PMID:27616584

  12. Influence of doping in InP buffer on photoluminescence behavior of InPBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Pan, Wenwu; Cao, Chunfang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-11-01

    InP1‑ x Bi x epilayers with 1.0% bismuth concentration were grown on InP(001) substrates by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Silicon and beryllium were doped into the InP buffer layer, and their influences on the photoluminescence (PL) emission of InPBi were investigated. The PL emission of InPBi was found to be intensified by beryllium doping into the InP buffer layer. However, there was no influence of silicon doping. To investigate the reason for the PL intensity enhancement of InPBi, the carrier transport behavior at the interface was also discussed.

  13. High quality-factor Si/SiO(2)-InP hybrid micropillar cavities with submicrometer diameter for 1.55-μm telecommunication band.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Zhi; Takemoto, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Motomu; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-06-15

    We theoretically demonstrate high quality(Q)-factor micropillar cavities at 1.55-μm wavelength based on Si/SiO(2)-InP hybrid structure. An adiabatic design in distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) improves Q-factor for upto 3 orders of magnitude, while reducing the diameter to sub-micrometer. A moderate Q-factor of ~3000 and a Purcell factor of ~200 are realized by only 2 taper segments and fewer conventional DBR pairs, enabling single photon generation at GHz rate. As the taper segment number is increased, Q-factor can be boosted to ~10(5)-10(6), enabling coherent exchange between the emitter and the optical mode at 1.55 μm, which is applicable in quantum information networks.

  14. High-Energy 2-Micrometers Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy 2-micrometer wavelength lasers have been incorporated in a prototype coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Calibration tests and sample atmospheric data are presented on wind and aerosol profiling.

  15. 2 Micrometers InAsSb Quantum-dot Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Uhl, David; Keo, Sam

    2004-01-01

    InAsSb quantum-dot lasers near 2 micrometers were demonstrated in cw operation at room temperature with a threshold current density of 733 A,/cm(sup 2), output power of 3 mW/facet and a differential quantum efficiency of 13%.

  16. 11 micrometer emissivities and droplet radii for marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Gang; Lin, Xijian; Coakley, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a new multispectral infrared retrieval scheme for obtaining fractional cloud cover and 11 micrometer emissivity with those of the spatial coherence method which obtains fractional cloud cover assuming that the clouds are opaque at infrared wavelengths. Both methods are applied to 4-km NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer global area coverage data for 250-km-scale regions containing single-layered marine stratocumulus off the coast of South America. The average 11 micrometer emissivity for low level clouds is found to be between 0.70 and 0.85. The low emissivity is evidently due to the thinning of clouds at their edges. Semitransparent cloud edges evidently make up a substantial portion of the area covered by such clouds. This result indicates that cloud cover obtained using the spatial coherence method is underestimated by 0.1 to 0.2, as has been claimed in a previous study. The fractional cloud cover for the ensemble of 250-km-scale regions studied here increased slightly from 0.60 for daytime observations to 0.63 for nighttime observations. The 11 micrometer emissivity also increased slightly, but about half of the increase was related to the increase in cloud cover and a decrease in the relative area covered by cloud edge material. Presumably, the other half was due to an increase in cloud liquid water. Cloud height showed no significant change. The average effective droplet radius increased from 9.3 micrometers for daytime observations to 10.2 micrometers at night.

  17. Comparative Endothelial Cell Response on Topographically Patterned Titanium and Silicon Substrates with Micrometer to Sub-Micrometer Feature Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Kozaka, Ryan; Rodgers, Victor G. J.; Rao, Masaru P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the in vitro response of endothelial cells (EC) to variation in precisely-defined, micrometer to sub-micrometer scale topography on two different substrate materials, titanium (Ti) and silicon (Si). Both substrates possess identically-patterned surfaces composed of microfabricated, groove-based gratings with groove widths ranging from 0.5 to 50 µm, grating pitch twice the groove width, and groove depth of 1.3 µm. These specific materials are chosen due to their relevance for implantable microdevice applications, while grating-based patterns are chosen for the potential they afford for inducing elongated and aligned cellular morphologies reminiscent of the native endothelium. Using EA926 cells, a human EC variant, we show significant improvement in cellular adhesion, proliferation, morphology, and function with decreasing feature size on patterned Ti substrates. Moreover, we show similar trending on patterned Si substrates, albeit to a lesser extent than on comparably patterned Ti substrates. Collectively, these results suggest promise for sub-micrometer topographic patterning in general, and sub-micrometer patterning of Ti specifically, as a means for enhancing endothelialization and neovascularisation for novel implantable microdevice applications. PMID:25357245

  18. A portable spectrometer for use from 5 to 15 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, G.; Kahle, A. B.

    1986-01-01

    A field portable spectrometer suitable for collecting data relevant to remote sensing applications in the 8 to 12 micrometer atmospheric window has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The instrument employs a single cooled HgCdTe detector and a continuously variable filter wheel analyzer. The spectral range covered is 5 to 14.5 micrometers and the resolution is approximately 1.5 percent of the wavelength. A description of the hardware is followed by a discussion of the analysis of the spectral data leading to finished emissivity and radiance spectra. A section is devoted to the evaluation of the instrument performance with respect to spectral resolution, radiometric precision, and accuracy. Several examples of spectra acquired in the field are included.

  19. Gate tunable monolayer MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shisheng Wang, Peng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Wenli

    2015-10-12

    We demonstrate monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure with remarkable photovoltaic response. Furthermore, benefiting from the atomically thin and semiconductor nature of MoS{sub 2}, we have designed the gate tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure. Applied with a top gate voltage, the Fermi level of MoS{sub 2} is effectively tuned, and the barrier height at the MoS{sub 2}/InP heterojunction correspondingly changes. The power conversion efficiency of MoS{sub 2}/InP solar cells has reached a value of 7.1% under AM 1.5G illumination with a gate voltage of +6 V. The tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure may be promising for highly efficient solar cells.

  20. Electrochemical characterization of p(+)n and n(+)p diffused InP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Goradia, M.; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    The relatively well documented and widely used electrolytes for characterization and processing of Si and GaAs-related materials and structures by electrochemical methods are of little or no use with InP because the electrolytes presently used either dissolve the surface preferentially at the defect areas or form residual oxides and introduce a large density of surface states. Using an electrolyte which was newly developed for anodic dissolution of InP, and was named the 'FAP' electrolyte, accurate characterization of InP related structures including nature and density of surface states, defect density, and net majority carrier concentration, all as functions of depth was performed. A step-by-step optimization of n(+)p and p(+)n InP structures made by thermal diffusion was done using the electrochemical techniques, and resulted in high performance homojunction InP structures.

  1. Research on zinc diffusion in undoped InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, ChunQuan; Lv, YanQiu; Gong, HaiMei

    2005-10-01

    When Zinc diffuses into undoped InP, the diffusion profiles are severely influenced by the process parameters, such as the diffusion temperature, the diffusion time, etc. In order to reduce the surface damage and enhance reproducibility, the diffusion temperature and the diffusion time are optimized. Under optimized. diffusion temperature, curve of diffusion depth versus the square root of the diffusion time is achieved. From this curve, the diffusion coefficient for zinc under the optimized temperature is calculated. The zinc profile was determined by electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling (ECV), according to which zinc diffusion mechanism was explained.

  2. Lasers in InP generic photonic integration technology platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, Sylwester; Lenstra, Daan

    2015-04-01

    A review is given of a number of lasers in a form of photonic integrated circuits realized on InP substrate using a generic integration approach. The potential of these photonic circuits lies in their compactness, low power consumption, and significant reduction of fabrication cost by realization in generic foundry runs. Generic integration platforms offer the possibility of realizing functionally advanced photonic circuits using combinations of just a few standardized and parameterized building blocks. This vibrant field opens new doors to innovative product development for SMEs as well as curiosity-driven research.

  3. Electron irradiation effects in epitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsall, N. M.; Robson, N.; Sambell, A. J.; Anspaugh, B.; Cross, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Performance data for InP-based solar cells after irradiation with 1-MeV electrons up to a fluence of 1 x 1016 e/cm2 are presented. Three InP cell structures are considered. Two of these have epitaxially grown active regions, these being a homojunction design and in ITO/InP structure. These are compared with ITO/InP cells without the epitaxial base region. The cell parameter variations, the influence of illumination during irradiation, and the effect on cell spectral response and capacitance measurements are discussed. Substantial performance recovery after thermal annealing at 90 C is reported.

  4. Interband polarized absorption in InP polytypic superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Faria Junior, P. E.; Sipahi, G. M.; Campos, T.

    2014-11-21

    Recent advances in growth techniques have allowed the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures with mixed wurtzite/zinc-blende crystal phases. Although the optical characterization of these polytypic structures is well reported in the literature, a deeper theoretical understanding of how crystal phase mixing and quantum confinement change the output linear light polarization is still needed. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the mixing effects of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases on the interband absorption and in the degree of light polarization of an InP polytypic superlattice. We use a single 8 × 8 k⋅p Hamiltonian that describes both crystal phases. Quantum confinement is investigated by changing the size of the polytypic unit cell. We also include the optical confinement effect due to the dielectric mismatch between the superlattice and the vaccum and we show it to be necessary to match experimental results. Our calculations for large wurtzite concentrations and small quantum confinement explain the optical trends of recent photoluminescence excitation measurements. Furthermore, we find a high sensitivity to zinc-blende concentrations in the degree of linear polarization. This sensitivity can be reduced by increasing quantum confinement. In conclusion, our theoretical analysis provides an explanation for optical trends in InP polytypic superlattices, and shows that the interplay of crystal phase mixing and quantum confinement is an area worth exploring for light polarization engineering.

  5. Heterogenously-integrated InP on Si microdisk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morthier, G.; Spuesens, T.; Mechet, P.; Olivier, N.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Regreny, P.; Van Thourhout, D.; Roelkens, G.

    2015-03-01

    We review recent theoretical and experimental work on InP membrane microdisk lasers heterogeneously integrated on SOI and coupled to a Si bus waveguide. After a general introduction on the fabrication and the operation principles, we will describe various improvements in the fabrication technology. This includes improvements in the yield of the bonding of the InP die on the SOI die and in the controllability of the bonding layer thickness, as well as an optimization of the alignment of the microdisk with respect to the silicon waveguide and some proposals for better heat sinking and loss reduction. Improvement in the alignment and the bonding has led to interesting results on the uniformity in device characteristics. In a second part, unidirectional behaviour and reflection sensitivity will be briefly discussed. Theoretical, numerical and experimental results will be shown about the unidirectional behavior and it will be explained how unidirectional microdisk lasers can be a lot less sensitive to external reflections than other lasers. We will also show how such lasers can be used as optical signal regenerators that can work with low optical input powers and that have small power consumption. We will end with a description of demonstrations of optical interconnects based on heterogeneously integrated microdisk lasers and heterogeneously integrated photodetectors. Optical interconnects on chip have been demonstrated at 10 Gb/s. An epitaxial layer stack that contains both the laser and the detector structure has been used for this purpose.

  6. A 311-GHz Fundamental Oscillator Using InP HBT Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    This oscillator uses a single-emitter 0.3- m InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) device with maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) greater than 500 GHz. Due to high conductor and substrate losses at submillimeterwave frequencies, a primary challenge is to efficiently use the intrinsic device gain. This was done by using a suitable transmission-line media and circuit topology. The passive components of the oscillator are realized in a twometal process with benzocyclobutene (BCB) used as the primary transmission line dielectric. The circuit was designed using microstrip transmission lines. The oscillator is implemented in a common-base topology due to its inherent instability, and the design includes an on-chip resonator, outputmatching circuitry, and an injection-locking port, the port being used to demonstrate the injection-locking prin ciple. A free-running frequency of 311.6 GHz has been measured by down-converting the signal. Ad di tionally, injection locking has been successfully demonstrated with up to 17.8 dB of injection-locking gain. The injection-locking reference signal is generated using a 2 20 GHz frequency synthesizer, followed by a doubler, active tripler, a W-band amplifier, and then a passive tripler. Therefore, the source frequency is multiplied 18 times to obtain a signal above 300 GHz that can be used to injection lock the oscillator. Measurement shows that injection locking has improved the phase noise of the oscillator and can be also used for synchronizing a series of oscillators. A signal conductor is implemented near the BCP -InP interface and the topside of the BCB layer is fully metallized as a signal ground. Because the fields are primarily constrained in the lower permittivity BCB region, this type of transmission line is referred to as an inverted microstrip. In addition, both common-emitter and commonbase circuits were investigated to determine optimum topology for oscillator design. The common -base topology required smaller

  7. Surface etching for light trapping in encapsulated InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Reducing the reflection from the surface of InP is important for increasing the efficiency of solar cells and photodetectors. In this paper a new technique for reducing reflectance of glass-encapsulated InP is reported. Low-angle grooves are produced on the surface by a maskless anisotropic etch. Light reflected from the low angle grooves is trapped by total internal reflection at the glass/air interface and directed back to the InP surface. A significant decrease in surface reflection is measured.

  8. Possible identifications of the 3.4 micrometer feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Lambert, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A feature at 3.4 micrometer was first detected in Comet Halley by the IKS spectrometer on board the Vega 1 probe; and subsequently from the ground. The feature has since been reported in Comet Wilson. The presence of the feature is of considerable interest for a number of reasons. First, it may represent the detection of a new parent molecule, and when combined with data from Giotto and Vega yield new information on cometary chemistry and the early solar system composition. Secondly, it may represent a link to the interstellar medium, the feature corresponds in wavelength and shape with an interstellar feature seen in absorption in a luminous star, towards the Galactic center known as GC-IRS7. The feature in turn is thought to be related with a growing family of unidentified infrared emission features seen in stellar objects, planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, HII regions and extra galactic sources. These features occur at wavelengths 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.25 micrometers. Further identification theory is given.

  9. Diode laser pumped solid state laser with 2 micrometer wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, G.; Callenas, A.

    1994-06-01

    Research at the FOA in the field diode laser pumped solid state lasers with 2 micrometer wavelength is presented. The research was made within the project Antisensor laser. Basic models for CW and pulsed lasers are presented together with results and experience from the design of a diode laser pumped CW laser based on Thulium (Tm), Holmium (Ho) doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride (TLiF4), abbreviated Tm, Ho:YLF. Measurements on upconversion of energy from the upper laser level in the laser crystal has been made. The upconversion causes loss of energy which leads to higher laser threshold and lower upper state effective lifetime. The result shows less upconversion in Tm, Ho doped YLF than with the same active ions doped into Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Tm, Ho: YAG). A simple pump configuration was assembled which produced a pump focus of about 200 micrometers radius. With 1 W pump power, an output power of 50 mW was achieved with the laser crystal at room temperature (25 C). With the crystal cooled to 5 C temperature, 77 mW output power was achieved. The measured laser threshold was in good agreement with the calculated value. The efficiency was only 10% compared to the predicted value of 50%. Measurements of laser beam cross section, wavelength and longitudinal laser modes have also been made and is presented in the report.

  10. Isolation of microorganisms using sub-micrometer constrictions.

    PubMed

    Tandogan, Nil; Abadian, Pegah N; Epstein, Slava; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Goluch, Edgar D

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive and require no user interaction to perform their function. Device fabrication begins with the creation of a master mold that contains the desired constriction and chamber features. Replica molding is used to create patterned polymer chips from the master, which are bonded to glass microscope cover slips to create the constrictions. We tested constriction geometries ranging from 500 nanometers to 5 micrometers in width, 600 to 950 nanometers in height, and 10 to 40 micrometers in length. The devices were used to successfully isolate a pure Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture from a mixture that also contained Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that individual strains of the same species can be separated out from mixtures using red and green fluorescently-labeled E. coli. We also used the devices to isolate individual environmental species. Roseobacter sp. was separated from another marine species, Psychroserpens sp.

  11. Surface forces of colloidal particles from micrometer to nanometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jeong-Min

    2003-10-01

    Surface forces of colloidal particles play critical roles in the macroscopic behavior of particulate systems such as dispersion and coagulation, adhesion and coating, and the rheological behavior of ceramic slurries. As particle size is decreased from micrometer to nanometer range, surface forces are increasingly important. Polyelectrolytes are the chemical additives commonly used to efficiently control the stabilization of the colloidal system. Their conformations on the solid surfaces as well as the interactions between the adsorbed polyelectrolytes are important issues in colloidal processing. Most experimental and theoretical approaches to the surface forces are based on particle sizes in the micrometer range. However, nanoparticles at close proximity or high solids loading are expected to show different behavior than what can be estimated from conventional theories such as continuum or mean field theories. My study examined the effect of pH, ionic strength, and molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes on the surface forces of colloidal particles by the interplay with the adsorption, turbidity, and direct surface force measurement in terms of the conformation on the solid surfaces. The colloid probe technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) is well established for micron size particles; and could be extended for nanosize particles by using carbon nanotubes as proximal probes. Nanotubes with their high aspect ratio avoid the contribution from cone shapes that happens with AFM tips. The difference in particle size significantly influences surface forces for sterically dispersed colloidal systems.

  12. Electrical detection of spin hyperpolarization in InP

    SciTech Connect

    Caspers, Christian; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2014-09-29

    The electrical detection of surface spin polarization in Indium Phosphide (InP) is demonstrated. Using a planar four-terminal architecture on top of semi-insulating Fe:InP (001) wafers, optical orientation is separated from electrical detection. Spin filter tunnel contacts consisting of InP/oxide/Co reveal significant asymmetries in the differential resistance upon helicity change of the optical pumping. The iron-rich tunnel oxide provides the main spin selection mechanism. A reproducible helicity-dependent asymmetry as high as 18% could be observed at T = 55 K and an external induction field μ{sub 0}H = 1 T. At room temperature and zero external field, a helicity-dependent asymmetry of 6% suggests the stand-alone applicability of the device either as an electronic spin sensor or as an optical helicity sensor.

  13. Sulfur as a surface passivation for InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Chang, R. R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of liquid and gas phase sulfur pretreatment of the surface of InP as a way to form a near-ideal passivated surface prior to chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 was investigated. Results of high-frequency and quasi-static capacitance-voltage measurements, as well as enhancement mode insulated gate field-effect transistor (FET) transductance and drain current stability studies, all support the efficacy of this approach for metal-insulator-semiconductor application of this semiconductor. In particular, surface state values in the range of 10 to the 10th to a few 10 to the 11th/sq cm per eV and enhancement mode FET drain current drifts of less than 5 percent over a 12 h test period were measured.

  14. InAs nanowire formation on InP(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, H. J.; Ashwin, M. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of InAs on InP(001) by solid source molecular beam epitaxy has been studied for a range of different growth temperatures and annealing procedures. Atomic force microscopy images show that nanowires are formed for deposition in the temperature range of 400-480 deg. C, and also following high temperature annealing (480 deg. C) after deposition at 400 deg. C. The wires show preferential orientation along <110> and often exhibit pronounced serpentine behavior due to the presence of kinks, an effect that is reduced at increasing growth temperature. The results suggest that the serpentine behavior is related to the degree of initial surface order. Kinks in the wires appear to act as nucleation centers for In adatoms migrating along the wires during annealing, leading to the coexistence of large three-dimensional islands.

  15. Temperature dependence of impact ionization coefficients in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Kenko; Torikai, Toshitaka; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Makita, Kikuo; Ishihara, Hisahiro

    1986-01-01

    Impact ionization coefficients for electrons and holes in InP were measured experimentally at 25-175 °C in the 400-600 kV/cm electric field range with planar avalanche photodiodes, in which the n-InP avalanche region was separated from the light absorbing InGaAs and/or InGaAsP layers. α and β monotonically decreased with elevated temperatures; β/α slightly decreased with increasing temperature. Comparison of the experimental results with Okuto-Crowell formula on the impact ionization coefficient gave the phonon energy ERO=46 meV and the phonon scattering mean free path λ0=41.7 Å for electron impact ionization and ERO=36 meV and λ0=41.3 Å for hole impact ionization, respectively. Curves calculated by using these parameters agree with the experimental results quite satisfactorily at each temperature.

  16. High Efficiency InP Solar Cells from Low Toxicity Tertiarybutylphosphine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale manufacture of phosphide based semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p and n type respectively. 16 percent efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with Voc of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6 percent. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

  17. InP synthesis by the synthesis, solute diffusion (SSD) method using glassy-carbon crucibles

    SciTech Connect

    Miskys, C.R.; Oliveira, C.E.M. de; Carvalho, M.M.G. de

    1996-12-31

    An Indium Phosphide (InP) Synthesis system by the Synthesis, Solute Diffusion (SSD) method has been built. It provides high purity InP charges with low carrier densities (3 {times} 10{sup 14} to 2 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) to be used as starting material for InP single-crystal Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth. Glassy-carbon is a refractory material with low vapor pressure that can be moulded in various forms and sizes. Indeed the glassy-carbon crucible is reusable after the synthesis because InP does not stick to its walls. Preliminary electrical characteristics measurements showed residual carrier concentration below 3 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}. These results are comparable with those achieved utilizing quartz crucibles. The features denoted makes glassy-carbon an interesting alternative in comparison with quartz and PBN crucibles.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae Strain 429865 INP, Isolated from a Mexican Patient

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Juan Carlos A.; Bustos, Patricia; Sánchez-Varela, Alejandro; Palma-Martinez, Ingrid; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; García-Pérez, Carlos A.; López-López, María de Jesús; González, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae is an emerging human pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae strain 429865 INP which shows the presence of various putative virulence-related genes. PMID:26494682

  19. INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

  20. Microstructural and Compositional Relations of Granitoid Clasts in Lunar Breccias at the Micrometer to Sub-Micrometer Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. I.; Mills, R. D.; Ross, D. K.; Tappa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar granitoid lithologies have long been of interest for the information they provide on processes leading to silicic melt compositions on the Moon. The extraction of such melts over time affects the distribution and budget of incompatible materials (i.e., radiogenic heat producing elements and volatiles) of the lunar interior. We have recently shown that in addition to their high concentrations of incompatible lithophile elements, some granitoid clasts in lunar breccias have significant indigenous water contents in their alkali feldspars. This raises the importance of lunar granitoid materials in the expanding search for mineralogic/petrologic hosts of indigenous lunar water-related species. We are undertaking a detailed survey of the petrologic/mineralogical relations of granitoid clasts in lunar breccias to achieve a better understanding of the potential of these diverse assemblages as hosts for volatiles, and as candidates for additional isotope chronology studies. Our preliminary results reported here based on high-resolution field-emission SEM, EPMA and TEM studies uncover immense complexity in these materials at the micrometer to sub-micrometer scale that heretofore have not been fully documented.

  1. Enhancing optical absorption in InP and GaAs utilizing profile etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    The current state of profile etching in GaAs and InP is summarized, including data on novel geometries attainable as a function of etchant temperature, composition, and rate; substrate orientation; carrier concentration; and oxide thickness between substrate and photoresist. V-grooved solar cells were manufactured with both GaAs and InP, and the improved optical absorption was demonstrated. Preferred parameters for various applications are listed and discussed.

  2. Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-11-11

    The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.

  3. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  4. Wafer-scale self-organized InP nanopillars with controlled orientation for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Sanatinia, Reza; Berrier, Audrey; Dhaka, Veer; Perros, Alexander P; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Anand, Srinivasan

    2015-10-16

    A unique wafer-scale self-organization process for generation of InP nanopillars is demonstrated, which is based on maskless ion-beam etching (IBE) of InP developed to obtain the nanopillars, where the height, shape, and orientation of the nanopillars can be varied by controlling the processing parameters. The fabricated InP nanopillars exhibit broadband suppression of the reflectance, 'black InP,' a property useful for solar cells. The realization of a conformal p-n junction for carrier collection, in the fabricated solar cells, is achieved by a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) overgrowth step on the fabricated pillars. The conformal overgrowth retains the broadband anti-reflection property of the InP nanopillars, indicating the feasibility of this technology for solar cells. Surface passivation of the formed InP nanopillars using sulfur-oleylamine solution resulted in improved solar-cell characteristics. An open-circuit voltage of 0.71 V and an increase of 0.13 V compared to the unpassivated device were achieved. PMID:26403979

  5. Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hyung-Joon; Yeh, Ting-Wei; Stewart, Lawrence; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2010-06-22

    InP nanowires are a unique material phase because this normally zincblende material forms in the wurtzite crystal structure below a critical diameter owing to the contribution of sidewalls to the total formation energy. This may allow control of the carrier transport and optical properties of InP nanowires for applications such as nano scale transistors, lasers and detectors. In this work, we describe the fabrication of InP nanowire arrays by selective area growth using MOCVD in the diameter range where the wurtzite structure is formed. The spatial growth rate in selective area growth is modeled by a diffusion model for the precursors. The proposed model achieves an average error of 9%. Electron microscopy shows that the grown InP nanowires are in the wurtzite crystal phase with many stacking faults. The threshold diameter of the crystal phase transition of InP nanowires is larger than the thermodynamic estimation. In order to explain this tendency, we propose a surface kinetics model based on a 2×2 reconstruction. This model can explain the increased tendency for wurtzite nanowire formation on InP (111)A substrates and the preferred growth direction of binary III-V compound semiconductor nanowires.

  6. The (C2) 158 micrometer emission from the Horsehead nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, S.; Jaffe, D. T.; Howe, J. E.; Geis, N.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Poglitsch, A.; Stacey, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The C II 158 micrometer line and the several rotational lines of CO, CO-13, and CS toward selected positions in the Horsehead extinction region in IC 434 are mapped. The observations show that the region has a gas density of about 10,000 cu cm and an external UV (Ultraviolet) flux to 20 to 100 times the average interstellar UV field. Although this is a regime where the C+ emission varies rapidly with UV intensity, fine structure line emission from gas with this range of physical conditions were not investigated previously. Comparisons of results with models of photodissociation regions show that existing plane parallel photodissociation region models are in general agreement with the observed intensity. It is not necessary to invoke a clumpy structure in the boundary layer to explain the observations, but the overall geometry of the cloud is important in determining the distribution of C+ emission.

  7. Micrometer-scale porosity as a biosignature in carbonate crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, Tanja; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Corsetti, Frank A.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2004-09-01

    We formed calcite crusts in the presence and absence of the heterotrophic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20 to investigate microbial morphological signatures in fast-accreting carbonate precipitates. Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized pores (micropores) were present and ubiquitous in the G20 crusts but absent in abiotically precipitated crusts. Bacterial micropores resemble inclusions under transmitted light, but have distinct size, biological shapes and patterns (swirling or dendritic) and are distributed differently from common fluid inclusions. We observed similar porosity in both modern and ancient carbonate crusts of putative biotic origin. Our experiments support the microbial origin of micropores and help define specific criteria whereby to recognize these features as biosignatures in the rock record.

  8. Sub-micrometer epitaxial Josephson junctions for quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Jeffrey S.; Vissers, Michael R.; da Silva, Fabio C. S.; Wisbey, David S.; Weides, Martin; Weir, Terence J.; Turek, Benjamin; Braje, Danielle A.; Oliver, William D.; Shalibo, Yoni; Katz, Nadav; Johnson, Blake R.; Ohki, Thomas A.; Pappas, David P.

    2012-02-01

    We present a fabrication scheme and testing results for epitaxial sub-micrometer Josephson junctions. The junctions are made using a high-temperature (1170 K) ‘via process’ yielding junctions as small as 0.8 µm in diameter by use of optical lithography. Sapphire (Al2O3) tunnel-barriers are grown on an epitaxial Re/Ti multilayer base-electrode. We have fabricated devices with both Re and Al top-electrodes. While room temperature (295 K) resistance versus area data are favorable for both types of top-electrodes, the low-temperature (50 mK) data show that junctions with the Al top-electrode have a much higher subgap resistance. The microwave loss properties of the junctions have been measured by use of superconducting Josephson junction qubits. The results show that high subgap resistance correlates with improved qubit performance.

  9. Yeast 2-micrometer plasmid DNA replication in vitro: origin and direction.

    PubMed Central

    Kojo, H; Greenberg, B D; Sugino, A

    1981-01-01

    Most yeast strains harbor extrachromosomal 2-micrometer DNA, and this DNA synthesis, like nuclear DNA replication, is strictly under cell cycle control. A soluble extract of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries out semiconservative replication of added 2-micrometer DNA and Escherichia coli chimeric plasmids containing the 2-micrometer DNA. Replication is initiated on 10% of the DNA, and one round of replication is completed. The major products in early stages of replication are theta ("eye") forms which originate 140 +/- 50 nucleotides within one of the 599-base-pair inverted repeats of 2-micrometer DNA. Their replication is bidirectional and discontinuous. Extracts prepared from the cell division cycle mutant cdc8 show temperature-sensitive 2-micrometer DNA synthesis in vitro, suggesting that this in vitro system resembles in vivo 2-micrometer plasmid DNA replication. This system should provide a useful assay for the purification and characterization of yeast DNA replication proteins. Images PMID:7038673

  10. P/N InP solar cells on Ge wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Vernon, Stanley; Burke, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) P-on-N one-sun solar cells were epitaxially grown using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process on germanium (Ge) wafers. The motivation for this work is to replace expensive InP wafers, which are fragile and must be thick and therefore heavy, with less expensive Ge wafers, which are stronger, allowing use of thinner, lighter weight wafers. An intermediate InxGs1-xP grading layer starting as In(0.49)Ga(0.51) at the GaAs-coated Ge wafer surface and ending as InP at the top of the grading layer (backside of the InP cell) was used to attempt to bend some of the threading dislocations generated by lattice-mismatch between the Ge wafer and InP cell so they would be harmlessly confined in this grading layer. The best InP/Ge cell was independently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-sun 25 C AMO efficiently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-circuit photocurrent 22.6 mA/sq cm. We believe this is the first published report of an InP cell grown on a Ge wafer. Why get excited over a 9 percent InP/Ge cell? If we look at the cell weight and efficiency, a 9 percent InP cell on an 8 mil Ge wafer has about the same cell power density, 118 W/kg (BOL), as the best InP cell ever made, a 19 percent InP cell on an 18 mil InP wafer, because of the lighter Ge wafer weight. As cell panel materials become lighter, the cell weight becomes more important, and the advantage of lightweight cells to the panel power density becomes more important. In addition, although InP/Ge cells have a low beginning-of-life (BOL) efficiency due to dislocation defects, the InP/Ge cells are very radiation hard (end-of-life power similar to beginning-of-life). We have irradiated an InP/Ge cell with alpha particles to an equivalent fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 16) 1 MeV electrons/sq cm and the efficiency is still 83 percent of its BOL value. At this fluence level, the power output of these InP/Ge cells matches the GaAs/Ge cell data tabulated in the JPL handbook. Data are presented

  11. Photometry of 433 Eros from 0.65 to 2.2 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Bergstralh, J. T.; Johnson, T. V.

    1976-01-01

    Lightcurves of 433 Eros are reported for 11 bandpasses ranging from 0.65 to 2.2 micrometer in wavelength. The relative spectral reflectance was not seen to vary during our observations. Eros has a reflectance at 1.6 micrometers of about 1.5 and at 2.2 micrometers of about 1.7, where the spectral reflectance is scaled to unity at 0.56 micrometers. This spectral reflectance is suggestive of a mixture of silicates and material with high infrared reflectance, perhaps a metallic phase such as meteoritic 'iron'.

  12. High-efficiency, deep-junction, epitaxial InP solar cells on (100) and (111)B InP substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M. L.; Hutchby, J. A.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and performance of deep-junction (approximately 0.25 micron), graded-emitter-doped, n(sup +)-p InP solar cells grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A novel, diffusion-transport process for obtaining lightly-doped p-type base regions of the solar cell is described. The I-V data and external quantum-efficiency response of these cells are presented. The best active-area AMO efficiency for these deep-junction cells on (100)-oriented InP substrates is 16.8 percent, with a J(sub SC) of 31.8 mA/sq cm, a V(sub OC) of 0.843 V, and a fill-factor of 0.85. By comparison, the best cell efficiency on the (111)B-oriented InP substrates was 15.0 percent. These efficiency values for deep-junction cells are encouraging and compare favorably with performance of thin-emitter (0.03 micron) epitaxial cells as well as that of deep-emitter diffused cells. The cell performance and breakdown voltage characteristics of a batch of 20 cells on each of the orientations are presented, indicating the superior breakdown voltage properties and other characteristics of InP cells on the (111)B orientation. Spectral response, dark I-V data, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements on the InP cells are presented with an analysis on the variation in J(sub SC) and V(sub OC) of the cells. It is observed, under open-circuit conditions, that lower-V(sub OC) cells exhibit higher band-edge PL intensity for both the (100) and (111)B orientations. This anomalous behavior suggests that radiative recombination in the heavily-doped n(sup +)-InP emitter may be detrimental to achieving higher V(sub OC) in n(sup +)-p InP solar cells.

  13. InP shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keavney, Christopher; Spitzer, Mark B.; Vernon, Stanley M.; Haven, Victor E.; Augustine, Godfrey

    1989-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells with very thin n-type emitters have been made by both ion implantation and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Air mass zero efficiencies as high as 18.8 percent (NASA measurement) have been achieved. Although calculations show that, as is the case with GaAs, a heterostructure is expected to be required for the highest efficiencies attainable, the material properties of InP give the shallow-homojunction structure a greater potential than in the case of GaAs. The best cells, which were those made by ion implantation, show open-circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 873 mV, short-circuit current of 357 A/sq m (35.7 mA/sq cm), and fill factor of 0.829. Improvements are anticipated in all three of these parameters. Internal quantum efficiency peaks at over 90 percent in the red end of the spectrum, but drops to 54 percent in the blue end. Other cells have achieved 74 percent in the blue end. Detailed modeling of the data indicates that a high front surface recombination velocity is responsible for the low blue response, that the carrier lifetime is high enough to allow good carrier collection from both the base and the emitter, and that the voltage is base-limited.

  14. Modeling of InP metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Linda R.; Clark, Ivan O.; Kui, J.; Jesser, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of InP by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in a horizontal reactor is being modeled with a commercially available computational fluid dynamics modeling code. The mathematical treatment of the MOCVD process has four primary areas of concern: 1) transport phenomena, 2) chemistry, 3) boundary conditions, and 4) numerical solution methods. The transport processes involved in CVD are described by conservation of total mass, momentum, energy, and atomic species. Momentum conservation is described by a generalized form of the Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid and laminar flow. The effect of Soret diffusion on the transport of particular chemical species and on the predicted deposition rate is examined. Both gas-phase and surface chemical reactions are employed in the model. Boundary conditions are specified at the inlet and walls of the reactor for temperature, fluid flow and chemical species. The coupled set of equations described above is solved by a finite difference method over a nonuniform rectilinear grid in both two and three dimensions. The results of the 2-D computational model is presented for gravity levels of zero- and one-g. The predicted growth rates at one-g are compared to measured growth rates on fused silica substrates.

  15. 3D active stabilization system with sub-micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Kursu, Olli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95% attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70% attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  16. Experimental Study on Electrical Breakdown for Devices with Micrometer Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guodong; Cheng, Yonghong; Dong, Chengye; Wu, Kai

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of electrical breakdown in atmospheric air across micrometer gaps is critically important for the insulation design of micro & nano electronic devices. In this paper, planar aluminum electrodes with gaps ranging from 2 μm to 40 μm were fabricated by microelectromechanical system technology. The influence factors including gap width and surface dielectric states were experimentally investigated using the home-built test and measurement system. Results showed that for SiO2 layers the current sustained at 2-3 nA during most of the pre-breakdown period, and then rose rapidly to 10-30 nA just before breakdown due to field electron emission, followed by the breakdown. The breakdown voltage curves demonstrated three stages: (1) a constantly decreasing region (the gap width d < 5 μm), where the field emission effect played an important role just near breakdown, supplying enough initial electrons for the breakdown process; (2) a plateau region with a near constant breakdown potential (5 μm < d < 10 μm) (3) a region for large gaps that adhered to Paschen's curve (d > 10 μm). And the surface dielectric states including the surface resistivity and secondary electron yield were verified to be related to the propagation of discharge due to the interaction between initial electrons and dielectrics.

  17. Molecular beacons for DNA biosensors with micrometer to submicrometer dimensions.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Farmerie, W; Schuster, S; Tan, W

    2000-07-15

    Ultrasensitive molecular beacon (MB) DNA biosensors, with micrometer to submicrometer sizes, have been developed for DNA/RNA analysis. The fluorescence-based biosensors have been applied in DNA/ RNA detection without the need for a dye-labeled target molecule or an intercalation reagent in the testing solution. Molecular beacons are hairpin-shaped oligonucleotides that report the presence of specific nucleic acids. We have designed a surface-immobilizable biotinylated ssDNA molecular beacon for DNA hybridization at a liquid-solid interface. The MBs have been immobilized onto ultrasmall optical fiber probes through avidin-biotin binding. The MB DNA biosensor has been used directly to detect, in real time, its target DNA molecules without the need for a competitive assay. The biosensor is stable and reproducible. The MB DNA biosensor has selectivity with single base-pair mismatch identification capability. The concentration detection limits and mass detection limits are 0.3 nM and 15 amol for a 105-microm biosensor, and 10 nM and 0.27 amol for a submicrometer biosensor, respectively. We have also prepared molecular beacon DNA biosensor arrays for simultaneous analysis of multiple DNA sequences in the same solution. The newly developed DNA biosensors have been used for the precise quantification of a specific rat gamma-actin mRNA sequence amplified by the polymerase chain reaction.

  18. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10 μm to 31 nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77 K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18 K) to above the critical point (5.2 K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  19. A subnanosecond pulsed ion source for micrometer focused ion beams.

    PubMed

    Höhr, C; Fischer, D; Moshammer, R; Dorn, A; Ullrich, J

    2008-05-01

    A new, compact design of an ion source delivers nanosecond pulsed ion beams with low emittance, which can be focused to micrometer size. By using a high-power, 25 fs laser pulse focused into a gas region of 10(-6) mbar, ions at very low temperatures are produced in the small laser focal volume of 5 mum diameter by 20 mum length through multiphoton ionization. These ions are created in a cold environment, not in a hot plasma, and, since the ionization process itself does not significantly heat them, have as a result essentially room temperature. The generated ion pulse, up to several thousand ions per pulse, is extracted from the source volume with ion optical elements that have been carefully designed by simulation calculations. Externally triggered, its subnanosecond duration and even smaller time jitter allow it to be superimposed with other pulsed particle or laser beams. It therefore can be combined with any type of collision experiment where the size and the time structure of the projectile beam crucially affect the achievable experimental resolution.

  20. Pneumatic System for Concentration of Micrometer-Size Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David; Cooper, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a size-sorting method to separate and concentrate micrometer- size dust from a broad size range of particles without using sieves, fluids, or other processes that may modify the composition or the surface properties of the dust. The system consists of four processing units connected in series by tubing. Samples of dry particulates such as lunar soil are introduced into the first unit, a fluidized bed. The flow of introduced nitrogen fluidizes the particulates and preferentially moves the finer grain sizes on to the next unit, a flat plate impactor, followed by a cyclone separator, followed by a Nuclepore polycarbonate filter to collect the dust. By varying the gas flow rate and the sizes of various orifices in the system, the size of the final and intermediate particles can be varied to provide the desired products. The dust can be collected from the filter. In addition, electron microscope grids can be placed on the Nuclepore filter for direct sampling followed by electron microscope characterization of the dust without further handling.

  1. Improvements in epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, Nick H.; Mages, Phil A.; Zhang, Chong; Bowers, John E.

    2014-09-01

    Indium phosphide and silicon play important and complementary roles in communications wavelength photonic devices. Realizing high quality coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown (ELO) InP films on Si could greatly reduce cost and encourage the proliferation of energy efficient photonic integrated circuits in consumer devices. By adjusting a parallel line ELO mask and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth conditions, we have fully coalesced and partially coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on InP substrates and Si substrates having strain relaxed III/V buffer layers, respectively. Extended defects were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and were not found to originate at the coalescence of the nearest neighbor growth fronts for linear parallel growth windows oriented 60° off of [0-11] when using a high V/III ratio of 406. In addition, narrowly separated linear parallel growth windows having a large aspect ratio of 7.5 were seen to inhibit the upward propagation of stacking faults through several neighboring openings. Elimination of these two defect sources would leave primarily the challenge of optimizing the morphology of the overgrown InP as a substantial barrier to achieving coalesced ELO InP of sufficient quality for photonic device applications.

  2. Twinning and impurity segregation in Cr- and Fe-doped LEC InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, D. B.; Salviati, G.

    1990-03-01

    Slices of Cr- and Fe-doped LEC crystals of InP were studied by secondary electron (SE) and transmission cathodoluminescence (TCL) scanning electron microscopy. Growth striations, twins and, in the Cr-doped material, centres showing strong dot and halo contrast were seen. The twin boundaries were visible in TCL micrographs due to weak dot-and-halo (DAH) contrast at twinning dislocations so incoherent boundaries gave strong contrast and coherent twin interfaces gave contrast only at steps. The strong DAH contrast centres in InP: Cr had crystallographic forms in secondary electron SEM pictures and X-ray microanalysis showed high concentrations of Cr to be present. Weaker DAH contrast occurs at the (partial) twinning dislocations. Annealing InP: Cr at 500°C for 30 min did not produce any distinct change in the microstructure. There appeared to be two types of twin interface. Across most there was strong secondary electron channeling contrast but not across the few of the other type. Both types could be seen in TCL due to bright contrast at the dislocations along the boundary. Only weak, bright contrast was observed at twinning dislocations in InP: Fe and the absence of the gross DAH contrast centres makes it possible to study the TCL contrast properties of twins, twin interfaces and striations, which were obscured in InP: Cr.

  3. Characterization and ultrafiltration of semiconductor indium phosphide (InP) wastewater for recycling.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Sun, D D; Tay, J H

    2005-01-01

    This research work investigated the physical and chemical properties of a new type of wastewater produced from the semiconductor industry. The wastewater generated from indium phosphide (InP) wafer backgrinding and sawing processes was characterized in term of its particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential, suspended and dissolved solids, total organic carbon, and turbidity. The wastewater contained high concentration of fine InP dusts with a size ranging from 0.07 - 1.44 mm. In spite of its high concentration of suspended solids resulting in high turbidity up to 371 NTU, the wastewater contained very low organic matters (TOC < 2.2 mg l(-1)) and other inorganic impurities (SO4(2-) < 0.21 mg l(-1) and Na+ < 0.16 mg l(-1)). Based on the experimental data collected, the treatment technologies using chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration were applied to the wastewater. Both processes could effectively remove InP particles from the wastewater, however the coagulants in chemical precipitation introduced other ionic contents into the process resulting in difficulties of water recycling in the later stage. In comparison, ultrafiltration was more promising for InP wastewater treatment and recycling. Based on the results of this study, a full-scale UF system was built in a local semiconductor plant and it has successfully reclaimed water from the InP wastes for the past six months without any quality issue being raised.

  4. Near-infrared continuum and 3.3 micrometer(s) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon imaging of the starburst ring in the type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, J. M.; Voit, G. M.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J. R.; Armus, L.; Shupe, D.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution near-infrared images of the type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 have been obtained to probe its dusty nuclear environment. Direct J, H, and K images are relatively featureless, but residual images created by subtracting a smooth model based on best-fitting elliptical isophotes reveal a tight inner spiral whose high surface-brightness portions correspond to a previously detected 3 sec (1 kpc) diameter ring of radio continuum emission. The inner infrared spiral arms extended approximately equal to 4 sec NW and SE from the nucleus, and the NW arm joins up with large-scale spiral structure visible in the R band. The residual images also show a bar-like structure aligned with the brightest infrared/radio hotspots at PA approximately equal to 50 deg. Three infrared hotspots are detected which align remarkably well with 6 cm radio continuum sources. The near-infrared ring and the hotspots are visible in the residual images, and in a high-resolution direct K-band image restored to an effective resolution of 0.65 sec (FWHM) using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. The infrared hotspots have luminosities of nuL(sub nu) (2.2 micrometer(s)) approximately equal to 10(exp 8) solar luminosity (M(sub k) approximately equal to -16 mag), suggesting they are either giant H II regions or individual supernovae. The two brightest regions may be associated with enhanced star formation triggered by orbit crowding of gas where spiral arms emerge from an inner bar. Narrowband (delta lambda/lambda approximately 1.5%) imaging in the 3.28 micrometer(s) dust emission feature and surrounding continuum confirms the 3 sec diameter 3.28 micrometer(s) emission region detected previously using multiaperture photometry. The extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is slightly elongated and aligned with published 1O III1 line emission and 12.5 micrometer(s) continuum emission, apparently tracing the starburst. The presence of approximately equal to 25% of the total 3.28 micrometer(s

  5. Measurements with Reticle Micrometer Performed by a New Double Stars Observing Group from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupski, Marcin; Banacka, Natalia; Cupryjak, Justyna; Malinowska, Malgorzata; Bujel, Kamil; Koltek, Zdzislaw; Mazur, Jaroslaw; Muskala, Marcin; Plotkowski, Lukasz; Prowans, Barlomiej; Szkaplewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of 19 double stars using a reticle micrometer eyepiece are reported. The observational program was held in spring and summer of 2015 as an extended workshop for a new double stars observing group from Szczecin, Poland. The goal of the program was to learn how to measure position angle and separation using a reticle micrometer eyepiece.

  6. Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schlecht, Erich; Samoska, Lorene

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The differential configuration makes it possible to obtain gains greater than those of amplifiers having the single-ended configuration. To reduce losses associated with packaging, the MMIC chips are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages, with the additional benefit that the packages are compact enough to fit into phased transmitting and/or receiving antenna arrays. Differential configurations (which are inherently balanced) have been used to extend the upper limits of operating frequencies of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) amplifiers to the microwave range but, until now, have not been applied in millimeter- wave amplifier circuits. Baluns have traditionally been used to transform from single-ended to balanced configurations, but baluns tend to be lossy. Instead of baluns, finlines are used to effect this transformation in the present line of development. Finlines have been used extensively to drive millimeter- wave mixers in balanced configurations. In the present extension of the finline balancing concept, finline transitions are integrated onto the affected MMICs (see figure). The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of InP HEMT gate fingers, eliminating the need for inductive vias to ground. Elimination of these vias greatly reduces parasitic components of current and the associated losses within an amplifier, thereby enabling more nearly complete utilization of the full performance of each transistor. The differential configuration offers the additional benefit of multiplying (relative to the single-ended configuration) the input and output impedances of each transistor by a factor of four, so that it is possible to use large transistors that would otherwise have

  7. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of μm-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ∼210 K), μm-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of μm-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  8. Spin reorientation transition in ultrathin Co film on InP(2x4) reconstructed surface

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong-Sung; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2005-05-15

    We have investigated magnetic properties of monolayer (ML)-thickness Co film deposited on InP(2x4) reconstructed surface using in situ surface magneto-optical Kerr effects (SMOKE) measurement system. InP(2x4) reconstructed surface, obtained by several cycles of sputtering-and-annealing process, was confirmed by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. Co film grown on InP(2x4) reconstructed surface shows three distinguishable thickness regions which have different magnetic properties, depending on Co film thickness. In the Co film thickness region smaller than 7 ML, no SMOKE signal was detected. In the thickness region between 8 ML and 15 ML, both longitudinal and polar Kerr hysteresis loops were observed. In the film thickness larger than 16 ML, only longitudinal SMOKE signal without polar signal was detected.

  9. Defect reaction network in Si-doped InP : numerical predictions.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-10-01

    This Report characterizes the defects in the defect reaction network in silicon-doped, n-type InP deduced from first principles density functional theory. The reaction network is deduced by following exothermic defect reactions starting with the initially mobile interstitial defects reacting with common displacement damage defects in Si-doped InP until culminating in immobile reaction products. The defect reactions and reaction energies are tabulated, along with the properties of all the silicon-related defects in the reaction network. This Report serves to extend the results for intrinsic defects in SAND 2012-3313: %E2%80%9CSimple intrinsic defects in InP: Numerical predictions%E2%80%9D to include Si-containing simple defects likely to be present in a radiation-induced defect reaction sequence.

  10. Single-dot optical emission from ultralow density well-isolated InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, A.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Vamivakas, A. N.; Lombez, L.; Atatuere, M.

    2008-10-06

    We demonstrate a straightforward way to obtain single well-isolated quantum dots emitting in the visible part of the spectrum and characterize the optical emission from single quantum dots using this method. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultralow growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/{mu}m{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots embedded in an InGaP matrix are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Such low-density quantum dots show excitonic emission at around 670 nm with a linewidth limited by instrument resolution. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography.

  11. Twin and grain boundary in InP: A synchrotron radiation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Jiao, J.; Lin, L.; Jiang, J.; Wang, Z.; Tian, Y.

    1998-12-31

    Experimentally observed X-ray reflectivity curves show bi-crystal(twin) characteristics. The study revealed that there was defect segregation at the twin boundary. Stress was relaxed at the edge of the boundary. Relaxation of the stress resulted in formation of twin and other defects. As a result of formation of such defects, a defect-free and stress-free zone or low defect density and small stress zone is created around the defects. So a twin model was proposed to explain the experimental results. Stress(mainly thermal stress), chemical stoichiometry deviation and impurities nonhomogeneous distributions are the key factors that cause twins in LEC InP crystal growth. Twins on (111) face in LEC InP crystal were studied. Experimental evidence of above mentioned twin model and suggestions on how to get twin-free LEC InP single crystals will be discussed.

  12. Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped ELOG InP on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan-Ting Junesand, Carl; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Kataria, Himanshu; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Julian, Nick; Bowers, John; Pozina, Galia; Hultman, Lars

    2015-06-07

    Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) InP grown from nano-sized openings on Si are studied by room-temperature cathodoluminescence and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The dependence of luminescence intensity on opening orientation and dimension is reported. Impurity enhanced luminescence can be affected by the facet planes bounding the ELOG layer. Dark line defects formed along the [011] direction are identified as the facet planes intersected by the stacking faults in the ELOG layer. XTEM imaging in different diffraction conditions reveals that stacking faults in the seed InP layer can circumvent the SiO{sub 2} mask during ELOG and extend to the laterally grown layer over the mask. A model for Suzuki effect enhanced stacking fault propagation over the mask in sulfur-doped ELOG InP is constructed and in-situ thermal annealing process is proposed to eliminate the seeding stacking faults.

  13. Correlation of electron and proton irradiation-induced damage in InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    The measured degradation of epitaxial shallow homojunction n(+)/p InP solar cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation is correlated with that measured under 3 MeV proton irradiation based on 'displacement damage dose'. The measured data is analyzed as a function of displacement damage dose from which an electron to proton dose equivalency ratio is determined which enables the electron and proton degradation data to be described by a single degradation curve. It is discussed how this single curve can be used to predict the cell degradation under irradiation by any particle energy. The degradation curve is used to compare the radiation response of InP and GaAs/Ge cells on an absolute damage energy scale. The comparison shows InP to be inherently more resistant to displacement damage deposition than the GaAs/Ge.

  14. Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tze-An; Tani, Masahiko; Nakajima, Makoto; Hangyo, Masanori; Sakai, Kiyomi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichi; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2004-06-28

    Photoconductive (PC) antennas fabricated on InP bombarded with 180 keV protons of different dosages (InP:H+) all exhibit a useful bandwidth of about 30 THz, comparable to that of the LT-GaAs PC antenna. The peak signal current of the best InP: H+ device (dosage of 10;15 ions/cm;2) is slightly higher than that of the LT-GaAs one, while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the former is about half of that of the latter due to lower resistivity. This suggests that InP: H+ can be a good substrate for THz PC antennas with proper annealing and/or implantation recipe. PMID:19483812

  15. Growth mechanisms and crystallographic structure of InP nanowires on lattice-mismatched substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moewe, Michael; Chuang, Linus C.; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2008-08-01

    We present a growth model that predicts the growth phase and mechanism of InP nanowires (NWs) and the experimental verifications of the model. The NWs were grown on lattice-mismatched GaAs substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition via Au nanodrop-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth. Nanodrops with larger diameters are shown to grow longer NWs because growth is governed mainly by direct precursor impingement on the nanodrop surface. The theoretical and experimental results also show that growth phase is dependent on NW diameter. We show that InP NWs with a diameter less than a certain value exhibit coherent growth of a single crystalline wurtzite (WZ) phase, whereas larger diameter InP NWs often contain sequences of WZ and zincblende phases and stacking faults. These findings allow one to achieve coherent NW growth and WZ phases free from twinning if the NW diameter is below certain material-dependent critical diameters.

  16. Hollow melon-seed-shaped lithium iron phosphate micro- and sub-micrometer plates for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Feng; Yang, Jin-Hua; Zhong, Yu Lin; Gariepy, Vincent; Trudeau, Michel L; Zaghib, Karim; Ying, Jackie Y

    2014-06-01

    Melon-seed-shaped LiFePO4 hollow micro- and sub-micrometer plates have been synthesized via a polyol-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were new with regard to their single-crystalline shells with large ac surfaces. Based on the detailed analysis of time-dependent studies, a possible growth mechanism was proposed involving nucleation, anisotropic growth, selective etching, and reversed recrystallization. The effects of polyol concentration, reaction temperature, and feeding sequence of precursors on the growth of LiFePO4 materials were investigated. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were examined as cathode materials.

  17. One-step large-scale synthesis of micrometer-sized silver nanosheets by a template-free electrochemical method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized micrometer-sized Ag nanosheets via a facile, one-step, template-free electrochemical deposition in an ultra-dilute silver nitrate aqueous electrolyte. The nanosheet growth was revealed to occur in three stages: (1) formation of polygonal Ag nuclei on a substrate, (2) growth of {112}-faceted nanowire from the nuclei, and (3) anisotropic growth of (111)-planar nanosheets, approximately 20 to 50 nm in thickness and 10 μm in width, in the <112>−direction. The vertical growth of the facet nanowire was induced by the strong interface anisotropy between the deposit and electrolyte due to the ultra-dilute concentration of electrolyte and high reduction potential. The thickness of Ag nanosheets was controllable by the adjustment of the reduction/oxidation potential and frequency of the reverse-pulse potentiodynamic mode. PMID:23692676

  18. One-step large-scale synthesis of micrometer-sized silver nanosheets by a template-free electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Hwa; Son, Jin Gyeong; Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized micrometer-sized Ag nanosheets via a facile, one-step, template-free electrochemical deposition in an ultra-dilute silver nitrate aqueous electrolyte. The nanosheet growth was revealed to occur in three stages: (1) formation of polygonal Ag nuclei on a substrate, (2) growth of {112}-faceted nanowire from the nuclei, and (3) anisotropic growth of (111)-planar nanosheets, approximately 20 to 50 nm in thickness and 10 μm in width, in the <112>-direction. The vertical growth of the facet nanowire was induced by the strong interface anisotropy between the deposit and electrolyte due to the ultra-dilute concentration of electrolyte and high reduction potential. The thickness of Ag nanosheets was controllable by the adjustment of the reduction/oxidation potential and frequency of the reverse-pulse potentiodynamic mode. PMID:23692676

  19. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A symbolically defined InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor large-signal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuxiong, Cao; Zhi, Jin; Ji, Ge; Yongbo, Su; Xinyu, Liu

    2009-12-01

    A self-built accurate and flexible large-signal model based on an analysis of the characteristics of InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is implemented as a seven-port symbolically defined device (SDD) in Agilent ADS. The model accounts for most physical phenomena including the self-heating effect, Kirk effect, soft knee effect, base collector capacitance and collector transit time. The validity and the accuracy of the large-signal model are assessed by comparing the simulation with the measurement of DC, multi-bias small signal S parameters for InP DHBTs.

  20. Carrier removal and defect behavior in p-type InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Drevinsky, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    A simple expression, obtained from the rate equation for defect production, was used to relate carrier removal to defect production and hole trapping rates in p-type InP after irradiation by 1-MeV electrons. Specific contributions to carrier removal from defect levels H3, H4, and H5 were determined from combined deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and measured carrier concentrations. An additional contribution was attributed to one or more defects not observed by the present DLTS measurements. The high trapping rate observed for H5 suggests that this defect, if present in relatively high concentration, could be dominant in p-type InP.

  1. Surface recombination velocity and lifetime in InP measured by transient microwave reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothra, S.; Tyagi, S. D.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetime and surface recombination velocity are determined in organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE)-grown InP by a contactless microwave technique. For lightly doped n-type InP, a surface recombination velocity of 5000 cm/s is measured. However, in solar cells with a heavily doped n-type emitter a surface recombination velocity of 1 x 10 to the 6th cm/s is observed. Possible reasons for this due to surface pinning are discussed. The effects of various chemical treatments and SiO on the surface recombination velocity are measured.

  2. High Beginning-of-Life Efficiency p/n InP Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Ringel, Steven A.; Scheiman, David A.; Wilt, David M.; Brinker, David J.

    2004-01-01

    We have achieved a new record efficiency of 17.6%, (AM0) for a p/n InP homo-epitaxy solar cell. In addition, we have eliminated a previously observed photo-degradation of cell performance, which was due to losses in J(sub sc). Cells soaked in AM0 spectrum at one-sun intensity for an hour showed no significant change in cell performance. We have discovered carrier passivation effects when using Zn as the p-type dopant in the OMVPE growth of InP and have found a method to avoid the unexpected effects which result from typical operation of OMVPE cell growth.

  3. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  4. Investigation of the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Yang; Ji, Renjie; Cai, Baoping

    2013-02-01

    The charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets have attracted more and more attentions due to the development of the microfluidics technology since the electrophoretic motion of a charged droplet can be used as the droplet actuation method. This work proposed a novel method of investigating the charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model. With this method, the effects of the electric field strength, electrolyte concentration, and ion species on the charging characteristics of the aqueous droplets was investigated. Experimental results showed that the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets can be investigated by this method.

  5. On the Nature of the First Galaxies Selected at 350 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Willner, S. P.; Pearson, Chris P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Benford, Dominic J.; Clements, David L.; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J. S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Le Floc'H, Emeric; Mainetti, Gabriele; Harvey Moseley, S.; Negrello, Mattia; Serjeant, Stephen; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes; Sumner, Timothy J.; Vaccari, Mattia

    2009-01-01

    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 micrometers. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 micrometers (in the Bo6tes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 lam position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 micrometer counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 < z < 3 predominantly powered by star formation. The first spectrum of a 350 micrometer selected galaxy provides an additional confirmation, showing prominent dust grain features typically associated with star-forming galaxies. Compared to submillimeter galaxies selected at 850 and 1100 micrometers, galaxies selected at 350 micrometers have a similar range of far-infrared color temperatures. However, no 350 micrometer selected sources are reliably detected at 850 or 1100 micrometers. Galaxies in our sample with redshifts 1 < z < 2 show a tight correlation between the far- and mid-infrared flux densities, but galaxies at higher redshifts show a large dispersion in their mid- to far-infrared colors. This implies a limit to which the mid-IR emission traces the far-IR emission in star-forming galaxies. The 350 micrometer flux densities (15 < S(sub 350) < 40 mJy) place these objects near the Herschel/SPIRE 350 micrometer confusion threshold, with the lower limit on the star formation rate density suggesting the bulk of the 350 micrometers contribution will come from less luminous infrared sources and normal galaxies. Therefore, the nature of the dominant source of the 350 micrometers background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystalline Alumina from Mixed Nanometer and Micrometer Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Sintered aluminum oxide materials were formed using commercial methods from mechanically mixed powders of nano-and micrometer alumina. The powders were consolidated at 1500 and 1600 C with 3.2 and 7.2 ksi applied stress in argon. The conventional micrometer sized powders failed to consolidate. While 100 percent nanometer-sized alumina and its mixture with the micrometer powders achieved less than 99 percent density. Preliminary high temperature creep behavior indicates no super-plastic strains. However high strains (less than 0.65 percent) were generated in the nanometer powder, due to cracks and linked voids initiated by cavitation.

  7. Absence of tumor suppressor tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) sensitizes mouse thymocytes and embryonic fibroblasts to redox-driven apoptosis.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Prudence; Pouyet, Laurent; Gosset, Gaëlle; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Seillier, Marion; Cano, Carla E; Seux, Mylène; Stocker, Pierre; Culcasi, Marcel; Iovanna, Juan L; Dusetti, Nelson J; Pietri, Sylvia; Carrier, Alice

    2011-09-15

    The p53-transcriptional target TP53INP1 is a potent stress-response protein promoting p53 activity. We previously showed that ectopic overexpression of TP53INP1 facilitates cell cycle arrest as well as cell death. Here we report a study investigating cell death in mice deficient for TP53INP1. Surprisingly, we found enhanced stress-induced apoptosis in TP53INP1-deficient cells. This observation is underpinned in different cell types in vivo (thymocytes) and in vitro (thymocytes and MEFs), following different types of injury inducing either p53-dependent or -independent cell death. Nevertheless, absence of TP53INP1 is unable to overcome impaired cell death of p53-deficient thymocytes. Stress-induced ROS production is enhanced in the absence of TP53INP1, and antioxidant NAC complementation abolishes increased sensitivity to apoptosis of TP53INP1-deficient cells. Furthermore, antioxidant defenses are defective in TP53INP1-deficient mice in correlation with ROS dysregulation. Finally, we show that autophagy is reduced in TP53INP1-deficient cells both at the basal level and upon stress. Altogether, these data show that impaired ROS regulation in TP53INP1-deficient cells is responsible for their sensitivity to induced apoptosis. In addition, they suggest that this sensitivity could rely on a defect of autophagy. Therefore, these data emphasize the role of TP53INP1 in protection against cell injury.

  8. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-01

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores. PMID:27551948

  9. Pressure-Induced Metallization and Superconductivity in InP and InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyakutti, K.; Rejila, V.; Rajarajeswari, M.; Nirmala Louis, C.; Mahalakshmi, S.

    The electronic band structure, structural phase transition, metallization and superconducting transition of cubic zinc blende-type indium phosphide (InP) and indium nitride (InN), under pressure, are studied using TB-LMTO method. These indium compounds become metals and superconductors under high pressure but before that they undergo structural phase transition from ZnS to NaCl structure. The ground-state properties and band gap values are compared with the experimental and previous theoretical results. From our analysis, it is found that the metallization pressure increases with increase of lattice constant. The superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) of InP and InN are obtained as a function of pressure for both the ZnS and NaCl structures and these compounds are identified as pressure-induced superconductors. When pressure is increased Tc increases in both the normal (ZnS) and high pressure (NaCl) structures. The dependence of Tc on electron-phonon mass enhancement factor λ shows that InP and InN are electron-phonon mediated superconductors. The non-occurrence of metallization, phase transition and onset of superconductivity simultaneously in InP and InN are confirmed.

  10. Status and future directions of InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current status and future directions of InP space solar cell research is provided. The scope of the paper does not allow us to discuss other recent major developments in InP cell modeling, contacts, and characterization, or developments in other solar cell materials. Solar cells made from InP and related materials are not expected to be used in the near future for terrestrial applications, but significant Air-Mass1.5 (AM1.5) cell efficiencies are given for comparison. This paper deals with the developments in single-junction cells, multijunction tandem cells, and space flight testing, including radiation effects. Concentrator InP solar cells are also discussed, since they offer the possibility of simultaneous thermal and current injection annealing. These cells also promise cost effectiveness and the concentrator elements may provide cells with extra protection from space radiation. The concluding section addresses the steps to be taken in the future and provides guidelines for further research and development.

  11. A model for rapid synthesis of large volume InP melts

    SciTech Connect

    Iseler, G.; Anselmo, A.P.; Bliss, D.F.; Bryant, G.

    1996-12-31

    The rapid synthesis of InP is routinely carried out in the laboratory by subliming phosphorus into encapsulated liquid In. The authors have constructed the first model of this process by considering the equilibrium vapor pressure over red phosphorus as its temperature increases, and that over In{sub 1{minus}x}P{sub x} as its phosphorus content increases.

  12. Hot photoluminescence and valence band warping in GaAs and InP crytals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, M. A.; Karlik, I. Ya.; Merkulov, I. A.; Mirlin, D. N.; Sapega, V. F.

    1988-03-01

    The investigations of hot photoluminescence are shown to be a powerful technique for determination of band parameters (Luttinger parameters) of A 3B 5 compounds. The experiment and calculations are carried out for GaAs and InP crystals.

  13. Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum dot laers on InP substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Qiu, D.; Uhl, R.; Chacon, R.

    2003-01-01

    Single-stack InAs self-assembled quantum dots (QD) lasers based on InP substrate have been grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The narrow ridge waveguide lasers lased up to 260 K in continuous wave operation, and near room temperature in pulsed mode, with wavelengths between 1.59 to 1.74 mu m.

  14. Non-thermal 10 micrometers CO2 emission lines in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms for the excitation of strong 10 micrometer CO2 emission lines seen on Mars and Venus are examined. Line absorption of near IR solar flux directly by CO2 or by H2O with collisional transfer of energy to CO2 are proposed as likely excitation mechanisms. Altitudes for peak 10 micrometer emission are estimated to be near 80 km for Mars and 120 km for Venus.

  15. Infrared images of Jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the Voyager 1 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, R. J.; Capps, R. W.; Backman, D. E.; Becklin, E. E.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Brown, R. H.; Westphal, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  16. Infrared images of jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the voyager 1 encounter.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Backman, D E; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P; Beichman, C A; Brown, R H; Westphal, J A

    1979-06-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  17. Potential of polarization lidar to provide profiles of CCN- and INP-relevant aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R. E.; Ansmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the potential of polarization lidar to provide vertical profiles of aerosol parameters from which cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) and ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations can be estimated. We show that height profiles of number concentrations of aerosol particles with radius > 50 nm (APC50, reservoir of favorable CCN) and with radius > 250 nm (APC250, reservoir of favorable INP), as well as profiles of the aerosol particle surface area concentration (ASC, used in INP parameterization) can be retrieved from lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficients (AEC) with relative uncertainties of a factor of around 2 (APC50), and of about 25-50 % (APC250, ASC). Of key importance is the potential of polarization lidar to identify mineral dust particles and to distinguish and separate the aerosol properties of basic aerosol types such as mineral dust and continental pollution (haze, smoke). We investigate the relationship between AEC and APC50, APC250, and ASC for the main lidar wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064 nm and main aerosol types (dust, pollution, marine). Our study is based on multiyear Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness and column-integrated particle size distribution at Leipzig, Germany, and Limassol, Cyprus, which cover all realistic aerosol mixtures of continental pollution, mineral dust, and marine aerosol. We further include AERONET data from field campaigns in Morocco, Cabo Verde, and Barbados, which provide pure dust and pure marine aerosol scenarios. By means of a simple relationship between APC50 and the CCN-reservoir particles (APCCCN) and published INP parameterization schemes (with APC250 and ASC as input) we finally compute APCCCN and INP concentration profiles. We apply the full methodology to a lidar observation of a heavy dust outbreak crossing Cyprus with dust up to 8 km height and to a case during which anthropogenic pollution dominated.

  18. Submicron gate InP power MISFET's with improved output power density at 18 and 20 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, M. D.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Messick, L. J.; Nguyen, R.; Schmitz, D.; Juergensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The microwave characteristics are presented at 18 and 20 GHz of submicron gate indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFET's) for high output power density applications. InP power MISFET's were fabricated and the output power density was investigated as a function of drain-source spacing. The best output power density and gain were obtained for drain-source spacing of 3 microns. The output power density is 2.7 times greater than was previously measured for InP MISFET's at 18 and 20 GHz, and the power-added efficiency also increased.

  19. Growth of InP bulk crystals by VGF: A comparative study of dislocation density and numerical stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zemke, D.; Leister, H.J.; Mueller, G.

    1996-12-31

    The properties of electronic and optoelectronic devices produced on top of InP wafers are strongly affected by crystallographic defects, especially dislocations present in the InP substrate crystals. The potential of the VGF process is analyzed by using a flat bottom crucible for the growth of InP crystals with 2-inch diameter. Results of numerical simulations are used to design a set-up which can be run in a LEC facility. The EPD {approx} 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 3} cm{sup {minus}2} of the grown crystals as in accordance with calculated results based on an analysis of the thermal stress occurring during growth.

  20. Submicron gate InP power MISFET's with improved output power density at 18 and 20 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, Michael D.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Messick, Louis J.; Nguyen, Richard; Schmitz, Dietmar; Jurgensen, Holger

    1991-01-01

    The microwave characteristics are presented at 18 and 20 GHz of submicron gate indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) for high output power density applications. InP power MISFET's were fabricated and the output power density was investigated as a function of drain-source spacing. The best output power density and gain were obtained for drain-source spacing of 3 micron. The output power density is 2.7 times greater than was previously measured for InP MISFET's at 18 and 20 GHz, and the power-added efficiency also increased.

  1. First-principles study of the electronic properties of wurtzite, zinc-blende, and twinned InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dengfeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei

    2010-12-17

    The electronic properties of zinc blende, wurtzite, and rotationally twinned InP nanowires were studied using first-principles calculations. The results show that all the simulated nanowires exhibit a semiconducting character, and the band gap decreases with increasing the nanowire size. The band gap difference between the zinc blende, wurtzite, and twinned InP nanowires and a bulk InP can be described by several formulas proportional to the diameter of nanowires. The valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) originate mainly from the p-orbitals of the P atoms and s-orbitals of the In atoms at the core regions of the nanowires, respectively. The hexagonal (2H) stacking inside the cubic (3C) stacking has no effect on the electronic properties of thin InP nanowires.

  2. Temperature coefficients and radiation induced DLTS spectra of MOCVD grown n(+)p InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert J.; Statler, Richard L.; Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of temperature and radiation on n(+)p InP solar cells and mesa diodes grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were studied. It was shown that MOCVD is capable of consistently producing good quality InP solar cells with Eff greater than 19 percent which display excellent radiation resistance due to minority carrier injection and thermal annealing. It was also shown that universal predictions of InP device performance based on measurements of a small group of test samples can be expected to be quite accurate, and that the degradation of an InP device due to any incident particle spectrum should be predictable from a measurement following a single low energy proton irradiation.

  3. Potential of polarization lidar to provide profiles of CCN- and INP-relevant aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Ansmann, Albert

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the potential of polarization lidar to provide vertical profiles of aerosol parameters from which cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) and ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations can be estimated. We show that height profiles of particle number concentrations n50, dry considering dry aerosol particles with radius > 50 nm (reservoir of CCN in the case of marine and continental non-desert aerosols), n100, dry (particles with dry radius > 100 nm, reservoir of desert dust CCN), and of n250, dry (particles with dry radius > 250 nm, reservoir of favorable INP), as well as profiles of the particle surface area concentration sdry (used in INP parameterizations) can be retrieved from lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficients σ with relative uncertainties of a factor of 1.5-2 in the case of n50, dry and n100, dry and of about 25-50 % in the case of n250, dry and sdry. Of key importance is the potential of polarization lidar to distinguish and separate the optical properties of desert aerosols from non-desert aerosol such as continental and marine particles. We investigate the relationship between σ, measured at ambient atmospheric conditions, and n50, dry for marine and continental aerosols, n100, dry for desert dust particles, and n250, dry and sdry for three aerosol types (desert, non-desert continental, marine) and for the main lidar wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Our study is based on multiyear Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness and column-integrated particle size distribution at Leipzig, Germany, and Limassol, Cyprus, which cover all realistic aerosol mixtures. We further include AERONET data from field campaigns in Morocco, Cabo Verde, and Barbados, which provide pure dust and pure marine aerosol scenarios. By means of a simple CCN parameterization (with n50, dry or n100, dry as input) and available INP parameterization schemes (with n250, dry and sdry as input) we finally compute

  4. Performance, defect behavior and carrier enhancement in low energy, proton irradiated p+nn+ InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Rybicki, G. C.; Vargas-Aburto, C.; Jain, R. K.; Scheiman, D.

    1994-01-01

    The highest AMO efficiency (19.1 percent) InP solar cell consisted of an n+pp+ structure epitaxially grown on a p+ InP substrate. However, the high cost and relative fragility of InP served as motivation for research efforts directed at heteroepitaxial growth of InP on more viable substrates. The highest AMO efficiency (13.7 percent) for this type of cell was achieved using a GaAs substrate. Considering only cost and fracture toughness, Si would be the preferred substrate. The fact that Si is a donor in InP introduces complexities which are necessary in order to avoid the formation of an efficiency limiting counterdiode. One method used to overcome this problem lies in employing an n+p+ tunnel junction in contact with the cell's p region. A simpler method consists of using an n+ substrate and processing the cell in the p+ nn+ configuration. This eliminates the need for a tunnel junction. Unfortunately, the p/n configuration has received relatively little attention the best cell with this geometry having achieved an efficiency of 17 percent. Irradiation of these homoepitaxial cells, with 1 Mev electrons, showed that they were slightly more radiation resistant than diffused junction n/p cells. Additional p/n InP cells have been processed by some activity aimed at diffusion. Currently, there has been some activity aimed at producing heteroepitaxial p+nn+ InP cells using n+ Ge substrates. Since, like Si, Ge is an n-dopant in InP, use of this configuration obviates the need for a tunnel junction. Obviously, before attempting to process heteroepitaxial cells, one must produce a reasonably good homoepitaxial cell. In the present case we focus our attention on homoepitaxially on an n+ Ge substrate.

  5. Fabrication of Sn-3.5Ag Eutectic Alloy Powder by Annealing Sub-Micrometer Sn@Ag Powder Prepared by Citric Acid-Assisted Ag Immersion Plating.

    PubMed

    Chee, Sang-Soo; Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    A Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder has been developed by chemically synthesizing sub-micrometer Sn@Ag powder at room temperature. This synthesis was achieved by first obtaining a sub-micrometer Sn powder for the core using a modified variant of the polyol method, and then coating this with a uniformly thin and continuous Ag layer through immersion plating in 5.20 mM citric acid. The citric acid was found to play multiple roles in the Ag coating process, acting as a chelating agent, a reducing agent and a stabilizer to ensure coating uniformity; and as such, the amount used has an immense influence on the coating quality of the Ag shells. It was later verified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis that the coated Ag layer transfers to the Sn core via diffusion to form an Ag3Sn phase at room temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry also revealed that the synthesized Sn@Ag powder is nearly transformed into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder upon annealing three times at a temperature of up to 250 degrees C, as evidenced by a single melting peak at 220.5 degrees C. It was inferred from this that Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder can be successfully prepared through the synthesis of core Sn powders by a modified polyol method, immersion plating using citric acid, and annealing, in that order.

  6. On the usage of classical nucleation theory in quantification of the impact of bacterial INP on weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahyoun, Maher; Wex, Heike; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Nielsen, Niels W.; Finster, Kai; Sørensen, Jens H.; Stratmann, Frank; Korsholm, Ulrik S.

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial ice-nucleating particles (INP) are present in the atmosphere and efficient in heterogeneous ice-nucleation at temperatures up to -2 °C in mixed-phase clouds. However, due to their low emission rates, their climatic impact was considered insignificant in previous modeling studies. In view of uncertainties about the actual atmospheric emission rates and concentrations of bacterial INP, it is important to re-investigate the threshold fraction of cloud droplets containing bacterial INP for a pronounced effect on ice-nucleation, by using a suitable parameterization that describes the ice-nucleation process by bacterial INP properly. Therefore, we compared two heterogeneous ice-nucleation rate parameterizations, denoted CH08 and HOO10 herein, both of which are based on classical-nucleation-theory and measurements, and use similar equations, but different parameters, to an empirical parameterization, denoted HAR13 herein, which considers implicitly the number of bacterial INP. All parameterizations were used to calculate the ice-nucleation probability offline. HAR13 and HOO10 were implemented and tested in a one-dimensional version of a weather-forecast-model in two meteorological cases. Ice-nucleation-probabilities based on HAR13 and CH08 were similar, in spite of their different derivation, and were higher than those based on HOO10. This study shows the importance of the method of parameterization and of the input variable, number of bacterial INP, for accurately assessing their role in meteorological and climatic processes.

  7. The 2.5-12 micrometers spectrum of comet Halley from the IKS-VEGA experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combes, M.; Moroz, V. I.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Bibring, J. P.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Sanko, N. F.; Coron, N.; Crifo, J. F.; Gispert, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Owen, T.; Emerich, C.; Lamarre, J. M.; Rocard, F.

    1988-01-01

    The infrared instrument IKS flown on board the VEGA space probes was designed for the detection of emission bands of parent molecules, and for a measurement of the size and temperature of the thermal emitting nuclear region. The instrument had three channels with cooled detectors: an "imaging channel" designed to modulate the signal of the nucleus and two spectroscopic channels operating at 2.5-5 and 6-12 micrometers, respectively, equipped with circular variable filters of resolving power approximately 50. This paper presents and discusses the results from the spectral channels. On VEGA 1, usable spectra were obtained at distances D from the comet nucleus ranging from 250,000 to 40,000 km corresponding to fields of view 4000 and 700 km in diameter, respectively. The important internal background signal caused by the instrument itself, which could not be cooled, had to be eliminated. Since no sky chopping was performed, we obtain difference spectra between the current spectrum and a reference spectrum with little or no cometary signal taken at the beginning of the observing sequence (D approximately 200,000 km). Final discrimination between cometary signal and instrumental background is achieved using their different time evolution, since the instrumental background is proportional to the slow temperature drift of the instrument, and the cometary signal due to parent molecules or dust grains is expected to vary in first order as D-1. The 2.5-5 micrometers IKS spectra definitely show strong narrow signals at 2.7 and 4.25 micrometers, attributed to the nu 3 vibrational bands of H2O and CO2, respectively, and a broader signal in the region 3.2-3.5 micrometers, which may be attributed to CH-bearing molecules. All these signals present the expected D-1 intensity variation. Weaker emission features at 3.6 and 4.7 micrometers could correspond to the nu 1 and nu 5 bands of H2CO and the (1 - 0) band of CO, respectively. Molecular production rates are derived from the

  8. Observational constraints on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune from new measurements near 10 micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, A.T.; Caldwell, J.

    1983-10-01

    Uranus was detected at 10.3, 11.6 and 12.5 micrometers approximately 1 micrometer spectral bandpasses, with respective brightness temperatures of 74.0 + 0.9 or -1.1, 67.6 + 0.5 or -0.7, and 65.5 + 0.6 or -0.7 K and the first detection of Neptune at 10.3 micrometers with a brightness temperature of 77.5 + 0.7 or -0.9 K. We also detected Neptune at 11.36 micrometers with 2 percent spectral resolution at 81.0 + 0.8 or -0.9 K. The 10 micrometers continuous of both Uranus and Neptune may in part be due to reflected solar radiation as well as thermal emission. If all of the observed flux is reflected light, then the maximum geometric albedo of Uranus is 0.115 + or - 0.020, and that of Neptune is 0.229 + or - 0.043. In the context of previous observations in this region, the maximum stratospheric C2H6 mixing ratio is found to be 3 x 10 to the -8 power for Uranus and 3 x 10 to the -6 power for Neptune. A value for the maximum mixing ratio in the stratosphere of Neptune on the order of 1 - 0.004 appears to be consistent with the available data. Previously announced in STAR as N83-29155.

  9. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  10. Far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgarini, Gabriele Reimer, Michael E.; Zwiller, Val; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Lapointe, Jean

    2014-11-10

    We report on the far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires in comparison to InP nanowires with predominantly zincblende crystal structure. The emission profile is measured on individual nanowires using Fourier microscopy. The most intense photoluminescence of wurtzite nanowires is collected at small angles with respect to the nanowire growth axis. In contrast, zincblende nanowires present a minimum of the collected light intensity in the direction of the nanowire growth. Results are explained by the orientation of electric dipoles responsible for the photoluminescence, which is different from wurtzite to zincblende. Wurtzite nanowires have dipoles oriented perpendicular to the nanowire growth direction, whereas zincblende nanowires have dipoles oriented along the nanowire axis. This interpretation is confirmed by both numerical simulations and polarization dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. Knowledge of the dipole orientation in nanostructures is crucial for developing a wide range of photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells.

  11. The effect of phosphorus and sulfur treatment on the surface properties of InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Chang, R. R.; Dubey, A.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for InP surfaces treated by using red phosphorus as a source to create an excess overpressure of phosphorus during annealing and prior to silicon dioxide deposition. The surface has been probed by in situ photoluminescence, noncontacting remote gate C-V, and conventional high-frequency and quasi-static C-V methods. A study has also been made of the surface of sulfurized InP following heating in aqueous (NH4)2S(x). MISFETs fabricated using the benefits of these surface treatments show high transconductances and stabilities approaching those of thermal SiO2/Si with less than 5-percent variation in drain current over a 12-hr period.

  12. Influence of growth conditions on the performance of InP nanowire solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Alessandro; Cui, Yingchao; Kölling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Plissard, Sebastien R.; Wang, Jia; Koenraad, Paul M.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanowire based solar cells have attracted great attention due to their potential for high efficiency and low device cost. Photovoltaic devices based on InP nanowires now have characteristics comparable to InP bulk solar cells. A detailed and direct correlation of the influence of growth conditions on performance is necessary to improve efficiency further. We explored the effects of the growth temperature, and of the addition of HCl during growth, on the efficiency of nanowire array based solar cell devices. By increasing HCl, the saturation dark current was reduced, and thereby the nanowire solar cell efficiency was enhanced from less than 1% to 7.6% under AM 1.5 illumination at 1 sun. At the same time, we observed that the solar cell efficiency decreased by increasing the tri-methyl-indium content, strongly suggesting that these effects are carbon related.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of zigzag InP nanoribbons with Stone-Wales type defects.

    PubMed

    Longo, R C; Carrete, J; Varela, L M; Gallego, L J

    2016-02-17

    By means of density-functional-theoretic calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of a hexagonal InP sheet and of hydrogen-passivated zigzag InP nanoribbons (ZInPNRs) with Stone-Wales (SW)-type defects. Our results show that the influence of this kind of defect is not limited to the defected region but it leads to the formation of ripples that extend across the systems, in keeping with the results obtained recently for graphene and silicene sheets. The presence of SW defects in ZInPNRs causes an appreciable broadening of the band gap and transforms the indirect-bandgap perfect ZInPNR into a direct-bandgap semiconductor. An external transverse electric field, regardless of its direction, reduces the gap in both the perfect and defective ZInPNRs.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of zigzag InP nanoribbons with Stone-Wales type defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. C.; Carrete, J.; Varela, L. M.; Gallego, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    By means of density-functional-theoretic calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of a hexagonal InP sheet and of hydrogen-passivated zigzag InP nanoribbons (ZInPNRs) with Stone-Wales (SW)-type defects. Our results show that the influence of this kind of defect is not limited to the defected region but it leads to the formation of ripples that extend across the systems, in keeping with the results obtained recently for graphene and silicene sheets. The presence of SW defects in ZInPNRs causes an appreciable broadening of the band gap and transforms the indirect-bandgap perfect ZInPNR into a direct-bandgap semiconductor. An external transverse electric field, regardless of its direction, reduces the gap in both the perfect and defective ZInPNRs.

  15. Effect of dislocations on properties of heteroepitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, D. J.; Jenkins, P.; Faur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The apparently unrelated phenomena of temperature dependency, carrier removal and photoluminescence are shown to be affected by the high dislocation densities present in heteroepitaxial InP solar cells. Using homoepitaxial InP cells as a baseline, it is found that the relatively high dislocation densities present in heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs cells lead to increased volumes of dVoc/dt and carrier removal rate and substantial decreases in photoluminescence spectral intensities. With respect to dVoc/dt, the observed effect is attributed to the tendency of dislocations to reduce Voc. Although the basic cause for the observed increase in carrier removal rate is unclear, it is speculated that the decreased photoluminescence intensity is attributable to defect levels introduced by dislocations in the heteroepitaxial cells.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of InP Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Hara, Shinjiroh; Motohisa, Junichi

    2012-02-01

    We fabricated nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using InP nanowires (NWs). Indium phosphide NWs with axial p-n junction were grown by selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The results of secondary-electron-microscopy (SEM) observation and photoluminescence measurement showed the formation of wurtzite InP NWs with some mixture of zincblende crystal phase, as expected from the used growth conditions. NW-LEDs were fabricated by sputtering indium tin oxide (ITO) after a planarization process for the top contact and AuZn evaporation for the backside contact. Current-voltage characterisitics showed clear rectifying characteristics with a small leakage current, and fairly linear current-light output characteristics were observed. By designing the pitch of the NW array, emission from individual NWs was confirmed, which opens the possibility for realizing a single NW-LED applicable to single-photon emitters.

  17. X-ray diffraction analysis of multilayer porous InP(001) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, A. A.; Punegov, V. I.; Vasil'ev, A. L.; Nohavica, D.; Gladkov, P.; Kartsev, A. A.; Novikov, D. V.

    2010-03-15

    Multilayer structures composed of four porous bilayers have been studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, and the photoluminescence of these structures has been investigated at 4 K. The porous structures were formed by anodic oxidation of InP(001) substrates in aqueous HCl solution. The structural parameters of the sublayers were varied by changing the electrochemical etching mode (potentiostatic/galvanostatic). The X-ray scattering intensity maps near the InP 004 reflection are obtained. A model for scattering from such systems is proposed based on the statistical dynamical diffraction theory. Theoretical scattering maps have been fitted to the experimental ones. It is shown that a mathematical analysis of the scattering intensity maps makes it possible to determine the structural parameters of sublayers. The reconstructed parameters (thickness, strain, and porosity of sublayers and the shape and arrangement of pores) are in satisfactory agreement with the scanning electron microscopy data.

  18. Structure of InP (001) surfaces prepared by decapping and by ion bombardment and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Pahlke, D.; Kinsky, J.; Schultz, C.; Pristovsek, M.; Zorn, M.; Esser, N.; Richter, W.

    1997-07-01

    The structure of InP surfaces prepared by ion bombardment and annealing (IBA) and by decapping of InP (001) samples grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is studied. The structural changes of the surfaces during preparation are monitored by low-energy electron diffraction and related to the surface electronic modifications as revealed by reflectance-anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). For both preparation methods we find (2{times}4) reconstructions and almost identical RAS spectra. This finding contrasts with previous reports usually claiming a (4{times}2) surface after IBA Auger-electron spectroscopy as well as hydrogen-adsorbate vibrations recorded with high-resolution electron-energy spectroscopy indicate an In-rich surface stoichiometry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Porous InP array-directed assembly of InAs nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Xiao-Ling; Li, Lu; Liu, Feng-Qi; Huang, Xiu-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2006-06-01

    Fascinating features of porous InP array-directed assembly of InAs nanostructures are presented. Strained InAs nanostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on electrochemical etched porous InP substrate. Identical porous substrate with different pore depths defines different growth modes. Shallow pores direct the formation of closely spaced InAs dots at the bottom. Deep pores lead to progressive covering of the internal surface of pores by epitaxial material followed by pore mouth shrinking. For any depth an obvious dot depletion feature occurs on top of the pore framework. This growth method presages a pathway to engineer quantum-dot molecules and other nanoelements for fancy physical phenomena.

  20. Epitaxial InGaAsP/InP photodiode for registration of InP scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luryi, S.; Kastalsky, A.; Gouzman, M.; Lifshitz, N.; Semyonov, O.; Stanacevic, M.; Subashiev, A.; Kuzminsky, V.; Cheng, W.; Smagin, V.; Chen, Z.; Abeles, J. H.; Chan, W. K.; Shellenbarger, Z. A.

    2010-10-01

    Operation of semiconductor scintillators requires optically tight integration of the photoreceiver system on the surface of the scintillator slab. We have implemented an efficient and fast quaternary InGaAsP pin photodiode, epitaxially grown on the surface of an InP scintillator wafer and sensitive to InP luminescence. The diode is characterized by an extremely low room-temperature dark current, about 1 nA/cm2 at the reverse bias of 2 V. The low leakage makes possible a sensitive readout circuitry even though the diode has a large area (1×1 mm2) and therefore large capacitance (50 pF). Results of electrical, optical and radiation testing of the diodes are presented. Detection of individual α-particles and γ-photons is demonstrated.

  1. Effects of Be doping on InP nanowire growth mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, R. J.; Gibson, S. J.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Be-doped InP nanowires were grown by the gold-assisted vapour-liquid-solid mechanism in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. The InP nanowire length versus diameter [L(D)] dependence revealed an unexpected transition with increasing Be dopant concentration. At Be dopant concentration below ˜1018 cm-3, nanowires exhibited the usual inverse L(D) relationship, indicating a diffusion-limited growth regime. However, as dopant concentration increased, the nanowire growth rate was suppressed for small diameters, resulting in an unusual L(D) dependence that increased before saturating in height at about 400 nm. The cause of this may be a change in the droplet chemical potential, introducing a barrier to island nucleation. We propose a model accounting for the limitations of diffusion length and monolayer nucleation to explain this behaviour.

  2. Minority-carrier lifetime in InP as a function of light bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Weinberg, I.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Minority-carrier lifetime in InP is studied as a function of doping level and laser intensity using time-resolved photoluminescence. A continuous wave diode laser illuminates bulk InP and acts as a light bias, injecting a steady-state concentration of carriers. A 200 ps laser pulse produces a small transient signal on top of the steady-state luminescence, allowing lifetime to be measured directly as a function of incident intensity. For p-InP, lifetime increases with light bias up to a maximum value. Bulk recombination centers are presumably filled to saturation, allowing minority carriers to live longer. The saturation bias scales with dopant concentration for a particular dopant species. As light bias is increased for n-InP, minority-carrier lifetime increases slightly but then decreases, suggesting radiative recombination as a dominant decay mechanism.

  3. Observations of far-infrared fine structure lines: o III88.35 micrometer and oI 63.2 micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of the O III 88.35 micrometer line and the O I63.2 micrometer were made with a far infrared spectrometer. The sources M17, NGC 7538, and W51 were mapped in the O III line with 1 arc minute resolution and the emission is found to be quite widespread. In all cases the peak of the emission coincides with the maximum radio continuum. The far infrared continuum was mapped simultaneously and in M17, NGC 7538, and W51 the continuum peak is found to be distinct from the center of ionization. The O III line was also detected in W3, W49, and in a number of positions in the Orion nebula. Upper limits were obtained on NGS 7027, NGC 6572, DR21, G29.9-0.0 and M82. The 63.2 micrometer O I line was detected in M17, M42, and marginally in DR21. A partial map of M42 in this line shows that most of the emission observed arises from the Trapezium and from the bright optical bar to the southeast.

  4. InP sample preparation for the TEM by photochemical etching, ion milling, and chemical thinning.

    PubMed

    Lowes, T D; Cassidy, D T

    1992-11-01

    Photochemical etching (PCE) as a method for preparation of InP semiconductor plan view samples for the transmission electron microscope is demonstrated and compared to the methods of ion milling and chemical thinning. PCE can produce small area samples for TEM analysis quickly and accurately. Also, the resulting thin regions are surrounded by a built-in stabilizing structure that improves handleability and reduces the occurrence of handling induced fracture.

  5. InP and GaAs characterization with variable stoichiometry obtained by molecular spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massies, J.; Linh, N. T.; Olivier, J.; Faulconnier, P.; Poirier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Both InP and GaAs surfaces were studied in parallel. A molecular spray technique was used to obtain two semiconductor surfaces with different superficial compositions. The structures of these surfaces were examined by electron diffraction. Electron energy loss was measured spectroscopically in order to determine surface electrical characteristics. The results are used to support conclusions relative to the role of surface composition in establishing a Schottky barrier effect in semiconductor devices.

  6. Surface characterization of InP trenches embedded in oxide using scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarino, Manuel; Chintala, Ravi; Moussa, Alain; Merckling, Clement; Eyben, Pierre; Paredis, Kristof; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Metrology for structural and electrical analyses at device level has been identified as one of the major challenges to be resolved for the sub-14 nm technology nodes. In these advanced nodes, new high mobility semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, are grown in narrow trenches on a Si substrate. Probing the nature of the defects, the defect density, and the role of processing steps on the surface of such structures are prime metrology requirements. In order to enable defect analysis on a (III-V) surface, a proper sample preparation for oxide removal is of primary importance. In this work, the effectiveness of different chemical cleanings and thermal annealing procedures is investigated on both blanket InP and oxide embedded InP trenches by means of scanning probe microscopy techniques. It is found that the most effective approach is a combination of an HCl-based chemical cleaning combined with a low-temperature thermal annealing leading to an oxide free surface with atomically flat areas. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been the preferred method for such investigations on blanket films due to its intrinsic sub-nm spatial resolution. However, its application on oxide embedded structures is non-trivial. To perform STM on the trenches of interest (generally <20 nm wide), we propose a combination of non-contact atomic force microscopy and STM using the same conductive atomic force microscopy tip Our results prove that with these procedures, it is possible to perform STM in narrow InP trenches showing stacking faults and surface reconstruction. Significant differences in terms of roughness and terrace formation are also observed between the blanket and the oxide embedded InP.

  7. Monolithic InP receiver chip with a 90° hybrid and 56 GHz balanced photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Runge, Patrick; Schubert, Stefan; Seeger, Angela; Janiak, Klemens; Stephan, Jens; Trommer, Dirk; Domburg, Patrick; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup

    2012-12-10

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated quadrature coherent receiver photonic integrated circuit on an InP substrate with a 90° optical hybrid and two balanced 56 GHz pin-photodetectors on chip level and as a packaged device. The presented devices enable the use of 56/64 Gbaud dual polarisation 16-QAM signals either in the C-band or the L-band. PMID:23262859

  8. Minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1993-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles in InP specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure the edge surface-recombination velocity. These values were used in a fit of the experimental EBIC data with a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC (Donolato, 1982) to obtain the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length.

  9. Surface characterization of InP trenches embedded in oxide using scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarino, Manuel E-mail: manuelmannarino@gmail.com; Chintala, Ravi; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Moussa, Alain; Merckling, Clement; Eyben, Pierre; Paredis, Kristof

    2015-12-14

    Metrology for structural and electrical analyses at device level has been identified as one of the major challenges to be resolved for the sub-14 nm technology nodes. In these advanced nodes, new high mobility semiconductors, such as III–V compounds, are grown in narrow trenches on a Si substrate. Probing the nature of the defects, the defect density, and the role of processing steps on the surface of such structures are prime metrology requirements. In order to enable defect analysis on a (III–V) surface, a proper sample preparation for oxide removal is of primary importance. In this work, the effectiveness of different chemical cleanings and thermal annealing procedures is investigated on both blanket InP and oxide embedded InP trenches by means of scanning probe microscopy techniques. It is found that the most effective approach is a combination of an HCl-based chemical cleaning combined with a low-temperature thermal annealing leading to an oxide free surface with atomically flat areas. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been the preferred method for such investigations on blanket films due to its intrinsic sub-nm spatial resolution. However, its application on oxide embedded structures is non-trivial. To perform STM on the trenches of interest (generally <20 nm wide), we propose a combination of non-contact atomic force microscopy and STM using the same conductive atomic force microscopy tip Our results prove that with these procedures, it is possible to perform STM in narrow InP trenches showing stacking faults and surface reconstruction. Significant differences in terms of roughness and terrace formation are also observed between the blanket and the oxide embedded InP.

  10. Monolithic InP receiver chip with a 90° hybrid and 56 GHz balanced photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Runge, Patrick; Schubert, Stefan; Seeger, Angela; Janiak, Klemens; Stephan, Jens; Trommer, Dirk; Domburg, Patrick; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup

    2012-12-10

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated quadrature coherent receiver photonic integrated circuit on an InP substrate with a 90° optical hybrid and two balanced 56 GHz pin-photodetectors on chip level and as a packaged device. The presented devices enable the use of 56/64 Gbaud dual polarisation 16-QAM signals either in the C-band or the L-band.

  11. TP53INP1 is a novel p73 target gene that induces cell cycle arrest and cell death by modulating p73 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Richard; Seux, Mylène; Nowak, Jonathan; Bontemps, Caroline; Carrier, Alice; Dagorn, Jean-Charles; Pébusque, Marie-Josèphe; Iovanna, Juan L; Dusetti, Nelson J

    2005-12-01

    TP53INP1 is an alternatively spliced gene encoding two nuclear protein isoforms (TP53INP1alpha and TP53INP1beta), whose transcription is activated by p53. When overexpressed, both isoforms induce cell cycle arrest in G1 and enhance p53-mediated apoptosis. TP53INP1s also interact with the p53 gene and regulate p53 transcriptional activity. We report here that TP53INP1 expression is induced during experimental acute pancreatitis in p53-/- mice and in cisplatin-treated p53-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We demonstrate that ectopic expression of p73, a p53 homologue, leads to TP53INP1 induction in p53-deficient cells. In turn, TP53INP1s alters the transactivation capacity of p73 on several p53-target genes, including TP53INP1 itself, demonstrating a functional association between p73 and TP53INP1s. Also, when overexpressed in p53-deficient cells, TP53INP1s inhibit cell growth and promote cell death as assessed by cell cycle analysis and colony formation assays. Finally, we show that TP53INP1s potentiate the capacity of p73 to inhibit cell growth, that effect being prevented when the p53 mutant R175H is expressed or when p73 expression is blocked by a siRNA. These results suggest that TP53INP1s are functionally associated with p73 to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, independently from p53.

  12. Nanoscale Size-Selective Deposition of Nanowires by Micrometer Scale Hydrophilic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Meng, Gang; Zhuge, Fuwei; Rahong, Sakon; Li, Xiaomin; Kawai, Tomoji; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the post-growth assembly of nanowires is an important challenge in the development of functional bottom-up devices. Although various methods have been developed for the controlled assembly of nanowires, it is still a challenging issue to align selectively heterogeneous nanowires at desired spatial positions on the substrate. Here we report a size selective deposition and sequential alignment of nanowires by utilizing micrometer scale hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterned substrate. Nanowires dispersed within oil were preferentially deposited only at a water/oil interface onto the hydrophilic patterns. The diameter size of deposited nanowires was strongly limited by the width of hydrophilic patterns, exhibiting the nanoscale size selectivity of nanowires deposited onto micrometer scale hydrophilic patterns. Such size selectivity was due to the nanoscale height variation of a water layer formed onto the micrometer scale hydrophilic patterns. We successfully demonstrated the sequential alignment of different sized nanowires on the same substrate by applying this size selective phenomenon. PMID:25087699

  13. Radiation response of n-type base InP solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, S. R.; Summers, G. P.; Romero, M. J.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Araújo, D.; Garcia, R.

    2001-10-01

    The effects of particle irradiation on the electrical properties of high efficiency p/n InP solar cells have been studied using a variety of techniques including current-voltage and spectral quantum efficiency measurements (QE), electron beam induced currents (EBIC), and deep level transient spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of the radiation response of the solar cell photovoltaic response is presented, and the primary damage mechanisms are identified. Data measured after irradiation by protons of various energies are correlated in terms of displacement damage dose to produce a characteristic degradation curve for the p/n InP technology. This characteristic curve is compared to that of the n/p InP technology to provide an assessment of the relative radiation hardness of the p/n devices. Radiation-induced decreases in the minority carrier diffusion length in both the p-type emitter and n-type base at low damage levels have been extracted from the QE and EBIC measurements, and damage coefficients have been determined. At high damage levels, EBIC profiles suggest that the primary device degradation mechanism is an increase in bulk resistivity due to electron trapping in the base. However, capacitance-voltage measurements did not indicate any change in the junction capacitance. A model to account for these effects based on radiation-induced defect kinetics is presented.

  14. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2012-06-21

    Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

  15. Preparation of p-type InP layers for detection of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházková, O.; Grym, J.; Zavadil, J.; Zdánský, K.

    2005-02-01

    We have focused on the investigation of the impact of Ce, Tm, Tm 2O 3, and Lu addition in the liquid-phase epitaxial growth process on the structural and electro-optical properties of InP layers in the context of their possible application in detector structures, where detection will be mediated via the depletion layer of high quality Schottky contact. The effect of Tm 2O 3 and Lu is reported for the first time. The grown layers were examined via scanning electron microscopy, low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage measurements using the mercury probe and by the temperature-dependent Hall effect. Availing Tm addition with concentration 5.4×10 -2 at%, we have prepared thick (>10 μm) p-type conductivity InP layers with the structural defect density reduced by a half-order of magnitude and reduced electrically active impurity concentration up to ˜7×10 14 cm -3. We point out that Tm appears as a promising candidate for the preparation of very pure p-type InP layers. The mechanism of purification efficiency of different rare earths from donors and acceptors leading to the n→p conductivity type crossover has been discussed.

  16. Preparation of clean InP(100) surfaces studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Machuca, Francisco; Pianetta, Piero; Spicer, William E.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical cleaning of indium phosphide (InP),(100) surfaces is studied systematically by using photoemission electron spectroscopy. In order to achieve the necessary surface sensitivity and spectral resolution, synchrotron radiation with photon energies ranging from 60 to 600 eV are used to study the indium 4d, phosphorus 2p, carbon 1s, and oxygen 1s core levels, and the valence band. Typical H2SO4:H2O2:H2O solutions used to etch GaAs(100) surfaces are applied to InP(100) surfaces. It is found that the resulting surface species are significantly different from those found on GaAs(100) surfaces and that a second chemical cleaning step using a strong acid is required to remove residual surface oxide. This two-step cleaning process leaves the surface oxide free and with approximately 0.4 ML of elemental phosphorus, which is removed by vacuum annealing. The carbon coverage is also reduced dramatically from approximately 1 to about 0.05 ML. The chemical reactions are investigated, the resulting InP surface species at different cleaning stages are determined, and the optimum cleaning procedure is presented.

  17. Thin films of InP for photovoltaic energy conversion. Final report, July 5, 1979-July 4, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Manasevit, H. M.; Ruth, R. P.; Moudy, L. A.; Yang, J. J.J.; Johnson, R. E.

    1980-08-01

    Research to develop a low-cost high-efficiency thin-film InP heterojunction solar cell, using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique for InP film growth on suitable substrates is reported. Heterostructure devices of CdS/InP, using InP films prepared by CO-CVD, were prepared and characterized. The research effort involved three major technical tasks: (1) materials growth; (2) materials characterization; and (3) device fabrication and characterization. The principal results achieved in the investigations are as follows: (1) temperature-activated orientation-dependent background donor doping was observed in undoped epitaxial InP films; (2) p-type epitaxial InP films were prepared by Zn and by Cd doping during growth; (3) the efficacy of Cd doping was found to vary exponentially with the reciprocal of the deposition temperature in the range 650 to 730/sup 0/C; (4) Cd doping appeared to offer no clear advantages over Zn doping for preparation of p-type InP by the MO-CVD process; (5) GaP grown by MO-CVD was investigated as a possible intermediate-layer material for growth of InP films on low-cost substrates; (6) p/sup +/GaAs polycrystalline layers (p > /sup 19/ cm/sup -3/) were successfully prepared by Zn doping during MO-CVD growth on various low-cost substrates and used as surfaces for growth of p-type polycrystalline InP:Zn layers; (7) nCdS/pInP heterojunction solar cells were prepared by vacuum deposition of CdS onto p-type InP films grown by MO-CVD as well as on InP single-crystal wafers; (8) the best polycrystalline CdS/InP cells were obtained in structures on P/sup +/GaAs:Zn layers on both Mo sheet and Corning Code 0317 Glass; and (9) structure analyses of the Cds films used in the heterojunction cells indicated the presence of polycrystalline hexagonal CdS even in films grown on single-crystal InP films or bulk-wafer substrates. (WHK)

  18. Infrared images of jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the voyager 1 encounter.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Backman, D E; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P; Beichman, C A; Brown, R H; Westphal, J A

    1979-06-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period. PMID:17800441

  19. The Herschel ATLAS: Evolution of the 250 Micrometer Luminosity Function Out to z = 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Blain, A. W.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bremer, M.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cameron, E.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Frayer, D.; Leeuw, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the luminosity function of 250 micrometer-selected galaxies detected in the approximately equal to 14 deg(sup 2) science demonstration region of the Herschel-ATLAS project out to a redshift of z = 0.5. Our findings very clearly show that the luminosity function evolves steadily out to this redshift. By selecting a sub-group of sources within a fixed luminosity interval where incompleteness effects are minimal, we have measured a smooth increase in the comoving 250 micrometer luminosity density out to z = 0.2 where it is 3.6(sup +1.4) (sub -0.9) times higher than the local value.

  20. A micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a resonant tunneling light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinari, G.; Balakrishnan, N.; Makarovsky, O.; Campion, R. P.; Patanè, A.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.

    2013-12-09

    We report on the fabrication of a micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a GaAs/AlAs quantum well resonant tunneling p-i-n diode. The spatial position of the micrometer-size light emitting area shifts linearly with increasing applied bias, up to 30 μm for a bias increment of 0.2 V. Also, the simultaneous resonant tunneling injection of both electrons and holes into the quantum well states is achieved at specific positions of the diode, thus resulting in a tenfold increase of the electroluminescence intensity.

  1. InP tunnel junction for InGaAs/InP tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Freundlich, A.; Bensaoula, A.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450-530 C). We have previously shown that CBE is perfectly suited toward the fabrication of complex photovoltaic devices such as InP/InGaAs monolithically integrated tandem solar cells, because its low process temperature preserves the electrical characteristics of the InGaAs tunnel junction commonly used as an ohmic interconnect. In this work using CBE for the fabrication of optically transparent (with respect to the bottom cell) InP tunnel diodes is demonstrated. Epitaxial growth were performed in a Riber CBE 32 system using PH3 and TMIn as III and V precursors. Solid Be (p-type) and Si (n-type) have been used as doping sources, allowing doping levels up to 2 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm and 1 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm for n and p type respectively. The InP tunnel junction characteristics and the influence of the growth's conditions (temperature, growth rate) over its performance have been carefully investigated. InP p(++)/n(++) tunnel junction with peak current densities up to 1600 A/sq cm and maximum specific resistivities (V(sub p)/I(sub p) - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4) Omega-sq cm were obtained. The obtained peak current densities exceed the highest results previously reported for their lattice matched counterparts, In(0.53)Ga( 0.47)As and should allow the realization of improved minimal absorption losses in the interconnect InP/InGaAs tandem devices for Space applications. Owing to the low process temperature required for the top cell, these devices exhibit almost no degradation of its characteristics after the growth of subsequent thick InP layer suggesting

  2. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  3. Laser frequency offset synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D. A.; Evans, R. M.; Finn, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is reported for locking the frequency difference of two lasers with an accuracy of 0.5 kHz or less over a one-second interval which is simple, stable, and relatively free from systematic errors. Two 633 nm He-Ne lasers are used, one with a fixed frequency and the other tunable. The beat frequency between the lasers is controlled by a voltage applied to a piezoelectric device which varies the cavity length of the tunable laser. This variable beat frequency, scaled by a computer-controlled modulus, is equivalent to a synthesizer. This approach eliminates the need for a separate external frequency synthesizer; furthermore, the phase detection process occurs at a relatively low frequency, making the required electronics simple and straightforward.

  4. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  5. Micrometer scale spacings between fibronectin nanodots regulate cell morphology and focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horzum, Utku; Ozdil, Berrin; Pesen-Okvur, Devrim

    2014-04-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix is an important process for both health and disease states. Surface protein patterns that are topographically flat, and do not introduce other chemical, topographical or rigidity related functionality and, more importantly, that mimic the organization of the in vivo extracellular matrix are desired. Previous work showed that vinculin and cytoskeletal organization are modulated by size and shape of surface nanopatterns. However, quantitative analysis on cell morphology and focal adhesions as a function of micrometer scale spacings of FN nanopatterns was absent. Here, electron beam lithography was used to pattern fibronectin nanodots with micrometer scale spacings on a K-casein background on indium tin oxide coated glass which, unlike silicon, is transparent and thus suitable for many light microscopy techniques. Exposure times were significantly reduced using the line exposure mode with micrometer scale step sizes. Micrometer scale spacings of 2, 4 and 8 μm between fibronectin nanodots proved to modulate cell adhesion through modification of cell area, focal adhesion number, size and circularity. Overall, cell behavior was shown to shift at the apparent threshold of 4 μm spacing. The findings presented here offer exciting new opportunities for cell biology research.

  6. Efficient Single-Frequency Thulium Doped Fiber Laser Near 2-micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jihong; Wu, Jianfeng; Jiang, Shibin; Yu, Jirong

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient diode-pumped single-frequency fiber laser with 35% slope efficiency and 50mW output power operating near 2 micrometers, which generated from a 2-cm long piece of highly Tm(3+)-doped germanate glass fiber pumped at 800nm.

  7. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features

    DOEpatents

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.

    1998-06-02

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  8. Surface analysis of InP and InGaAs after low temperature diffusion of Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Florian; Mathiot, Daniel; Decobert, Jean; Le Goec, Jean-Pierre; Parillaud, Olivier; Reverchon, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-01

    In order to develop III–V based devices integrated directly above post-processed silicon wafers, low temperature diffusion of zinc in n-type InP and InGaAs is studied at compatible temperatures, below 425 oC. We particularly focus on the resulting surface degradation. Efficient Zn diffusion is obtained for InGaAs samples, where the surface remains mirror-like after thermal treatment. Conversely, no significant diffusion occurs in InP where the surface is deeply deteriorated. The stability study for InP under thermal annealing in various ambients allows us to rule out thermal dephosphorization as the main cause of the surface degradation. On the basis of experimental observations and thermodynamic considerations, it is suggested that InP degradation is linked to the direct interaction of Zn and P, inducing the formation of parasitic Zn x P2 alloys, which also hinders the efficient diffusion of Zn into the InP substrate.

  9. Surface analysis of InP and InGaAs after low temperature diffusion of Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Florian; Mathiot, Daniel; Decobert, Jean; Le Goec, Jean-Pierre; Parillaud, Olivier; Reverchon, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-01

    In order to develop III-V based devices integrated directly above post-processed silicon wafers, low temperature diffusion of zinc in n-type InP and InGaAs is studied at compatible temperatures, below 425 oC. We particularly focus on the resulting surface degradation. Efficient Zn diffusion is obtained for InGaAs samples, where the surface remains mirror-like after thermal treatment. Conversely, no significant diffusion occurs in InP where the surface is deeply deteriorated. The stability study for InP under thermal annealing in various ambients allows us to rule out thermal dephosphorization as the main cause of the surface degradation. On the basis of experimental observations and thermodynamic considerations, it is suggested that InP degradation is linked to the direct interaction of Zn and P, inducing the formation of parasitic Zn x P2 alloys, which also hinders the efficient diffusion of Zn into the InP substrate.

  10. MOCVD Growth and Optical Characterization of Strain-Induced Quantum Dots with InP Island Stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, M. C.; Lu, Z. H.; Cahill, A. F.; Heben, M. J.; Nozik, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Coherent InP islands, grown by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), were used to produce quantum dots by strain confinement. Lateral confinement of carriers in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well located near the surface was obtained from the inhomogeneous strain produced by the InP islands. The evolution of the InP islands on Al0.3Ga0.7As surfaces with increasing InP coverage at different growth temperatures and substrate orientations was studied using atomic force microscopy. Under certain growth conditions, a fairly uniform distribution of coherent InP islands was obtained which had an average apparent diameter of 140 nm with a standard deviation of 12.2 nm and height of 19.5 {+-} 1.1 nm. Lateral confinement depths up to 100 meV were obtained when using the islands as stressors. Photoluminescence from ensembles of the strain-induced dots exhibit peaks, narrow line widths (16 meV) and high efficiency up to room temperature.

  11. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  12. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  13. Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence

    SciTech Connect

    KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka; Wang, Weichao; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2014-01-14

    Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-κ deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.

  14. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an InP heterojunction solar cell employing an ultrathin layer (∼10 nm) of amorphous TiO2 deposited at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition as the transparent electron-selective contact. The TiO2 film selectively extracts minority electrons from the conduction band of p-type InP while blocking the majority holes due to the large valence band offset, enabling a high maximum open-circuit voltage of 785 mV. A hydrogen plasma treatment of the InP surface drastically improves the long-wavelength response of the device, resulting in a high short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm2 and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.2%. PMID:25679010

  15. Estimating the short-range forecast impact of observations in the CPTEC/INPE LETKF during an extratropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, F. L.; Herdies, D. L.; Todling, R.; Goncalves, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies from the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) through its Group on Data Assimilation Developments (GDAD) is evaluating the observation impacts in the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) that is on the way to complete development and testing at that center. Since 2011 an ensemble-based approach, following Liu and Kalnay (2008; QJRMS, 134, 1327-1355), for observation impact evaluation has been added to the CPTEC/INPE LETKF data assimilation system. Currently this capability only applies for conventional observations since the use of radiances within the LETKF framework is a work on the way. Thus the purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the short range forecasts impact of in situ and remote sensing observations currently available at CPTEC/INPE LETKF during an extratropical cyclone occurred at the South Atlantic ocean.

  16. Kirk effect mechanism in type-II InP /GaAsSb double heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, N. G.; Bolognesi, C. R.

    2007-09-01

    The Kirk effect mechanism is studied in type-II InP /GaAsSb/InP NpN double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) both experimentally and through two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations. We show that the large valence band discontinuity ΔEV at the GaAsSb-InP base/collector heterojunction does not allow hole injection into the InP collector as is the case in homojunction collectors. Instead, a blocking barrier is electrostatically induced in the base layer at high collector current densities: this barrier increases base recombination and decreases the current gain. We show that tunneling transport must be considered at the base/collector heterojunction and that the induced barrier depends on the base layer doping level—effectively, InP /GaAsSb DHBTs display high-current limitations that are also controlled to some extent by the base doping level.

  17. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Xingtian; Battaglia, Corsin; Lin, Yongjing; Chen, Kevin; Hettick, Mark; Zheng, Maxwell; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Kiriya, Daisuke; Javey, Ali

    2014-09-25

    We demonstrate an InP heterojunction solar cell employing an ultrathin layer (~10 nm) of amorphous TiO2 deposited at 120°C by atomic layer deposition as the transparent electron-selective contact. The TiO2 film selectively extracts minority electrons from the conduction band of p-type InP while blocking the majority holes due to the large valence band offset, enabling a high maximum open-circuit voltage of 785 mV. Lastly, a hydrogen plasma treatment of the InP surface drastically improves the long-wavelength response of the device, resulting in a high short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm2 and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.2%.

  18. The Dependence of the Oxidation Enhancement of InP(100) Surface on the Coverage of the Adsorbed Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yun

    2010-06-07

    We report the oxidation of the InP(100) surface promoted by adsorbed Cs by synchrotron radiation photoemission. Oxygen exposure causes reduction of the charge transferred to the InP substrate from Cs and the growth of indium oxide and phosphorous oxide. The oxide growth displays a clear dependence on the Cs coverage. The oxidation of phosphorous is negligible up to 1000 L of O{sub 2} exposure when the Cs coverage is less than half a monolayer (ML), but the formation of the second half monolayer of Cs greatly accelerates the oxidation. This different enhancement of the InP oxidation by the first and the second half monolayer of Cs is due to the double layer structure of the adsorbed Cs atoms, and consequently the higher 6s electron density in the Cs atoms when Cs coverage is larger than 0.5 ML.

  19. A novel mechanical cleavage method for synthesizing few-layer graphenes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to synthesize few layer graphene from bulk graphite by mechanical cleavage is presented here. The method involves the use of an ultrasharp single crystal diamond wedge to cleave a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite sample to generate the graphene layers. Cleaving is aided by the use of ultrasonic oscillations along the wedge. Characterization of the obtained layers shows that the process is able to synthesize graphene layers with an area of a few micrometers. Application of oscillation enhances the quality of the layers produced with the layers having a reduced crystallite size as determined from the Raman spectrum. Interesting edge structures are observed that needs further investigation. PMID:21711598

  20. Progress in p(+)n InP solar cells fabricated by thermal diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Vargas, C.; Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Fatemi, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The performance results of our most recently thermally diffused InP solar cells using the p(+)n (Cd,S) structures are presented. We have succeeded in fabricating cells with measured AMO, 25 C V(sub oc) exceeding 880 mV (bare cells) which to the best of our knowledge is higher than previously reported V(sub oc) values for any InP homojunction solar cells. The cells were fabricated by thinning the emitter, after Au-Zn front contacting, from its initial thickness of about 4.5 microns to about 0.6 microns. After thinning, the exposed surface of the emitter was passivated by a thin (approximately 50A) P-rich oxide. Based on the measured EQY and J(sub sc)-V(sub oc) characteristics of our experimental high V(sub oc) p(+)n InP solar cells, we project that reducing the emitter thickness to 0.3 microns, using an optimized AR coating, maintaining the surface hole concentration of 3 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3), reducing the grid shadowing from actual 10.55 percent to 6 percent and reducing the contact resistance will increase the actual measured 12.57 percent AMO 25 C efficiency to about 20.1 percent. By using our state-of-the-art p(+)n structures which have a surface hole concentration of 4 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3) and slightly improving the front surface passivation, an even higher practically achievable AMO, 25 C efficiency of 21.3 percent is projected.

  1. Temperature dependence of the electron spin g factor in CdTe and InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Pawel; Zawadzki, Wlodek

    2012-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the electron spin g factors in bulk CdTe and InP is calculated and compared with experiment. It is assumed that the only modification of the band structure related to temperature is a dilatation change in the fundamental energy gap. The dilatation changes of fundamental gaps are calculated for both materials using available experimental data. Computations of the band structures in the presence of a magnetic field are carried out employing five-level P.p model appropriate for medium-gap semiconductors. In particular, the model takes into account spin splitting due to bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA) of the materials. The resulting theoretical effective masses and g factors increase with electron energy due to band nonparabolicity. Average g values are calculated by summing over populated Landau and spin levels properly accounting for the thermal distribution of electrons in the band. It is shown that the spin splitting due to BIA in the presence of a magnetic field gives observable contributions to g values. Our calculations are in good agreement with experiments in the temperature range of 0 K to 300 K for CdTe and 0 K to 180 K for InP. The temperature dependence of g is stronger in CdTe than in InP due to different signs of band-edge g values in the two materials. Good agreement between the theory and experiments strongly indicates that the temperature dependence of spin g factors is correctly explained. In addition, we discuss formulas for the energy dependence of spin g factor due to band nonparabolicity, which are liable to misinterpretation.

  2. Correlation of electron and proton irradiation-induced damage in InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    When determining the best solar cell technology for a particular space flight mission, accurate prediction of solar cell performance in a space radiation environment is essential. The current methodology used to make such predictions requires extensive experimental data measured under both electron and proton irradiation. Due to the rising cost of accelerators and irradiation facilities, such extensive data sets are expensive to obtain. Moreover, with the rapid development of novel cell designs, the necessary data are often not available. Therefore, a method for predicting cell degradation based on limited data is needed. Such a method has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory based on damage correlation using 'displacement damage dose' which is the product of the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) and the particle fluence. Displacement damage dose is a direct analog of the ionization dose used to correlate the effects of ionizing radiations. In this method, the performance of a solar cell in a complex radiation environment can be predicted from data on a single proton energy and two electron energies, or one proton energy, one electron energy, and Co(exp 60) gammas. This method has been used to accurately predict the extensive data set measured by Anspaugh on GaAs/Ge solar cells under a wide range of electron and proton energies. In this paper, the method is applied to InP solar cells using data measured under 1 MeV electron and 3 MeV proton irradiations, and the calculations are shown to agree well with the measured data. In addition to providing accurate damage predictions, this method also provides a basis for quantitative comparisons of the performance of different cell technologies. The performance of the present InP cells is compared to that published for GaAs/Ge cells. The results show InP to be inherently more resistant to displacement energy deposition than GaAs/Ge.

  3. Improving INPE'S balloon ground facilities for operation of the protoMIRAX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello-Francisco, F.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Cardoso, L.; Cardoso, P.; Braga, J.

    2014-10-01

    The system requirements for reusing the scientific balloon ground facilities available at INPE were a challenge to the ground system engineers involved in the protoMIRAX X-ray astronomy experiment. A significant effort on software updating was required for the balloon ground station. Considering that protoMIRAX is a pathfinder for the MIRAX satellite mission, a ground infrastructure compatible with INPE's satellite operation approach would be useful and highly recommended to control and monitor the experiment during the balloon flights. This approach will make use of the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software-based architecture developed at INPE for satellite commanding and monitoring. SATCS complies with particular operational requirements of different satellites by using several customized object-oriented software elements and frameworks. We present the ground solution designed for protoMIRAX operation, the Control and Reception System (CRS). A new server computer, properly configured with Ethernet, has extended the existing ground station facilities with switch, converters and new software (OPS/SERVER) in order to support the available uplink and downlink channels being mapped to TCP/IP gateways required by SATCS. Currently, the CRS development is customizing the SATCS for the kernel functions of protoMIRAX command and telemetry processing. Design-patterns, component-based libraries and metadata are widely used in the SATCS in order to extend the frameworks to address the Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) for ground-balloon communication, in compliance with the services provided by the data handling computer onboard the protoMIRAX balloon.

  4. Status of Diffused Junction p(+)n InP Solar Cells for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Goradia, C.; Fatemi, N. S.; Jenkins, P. P.; Wilt, D. M.; Bailey, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, we have succeeded in fabricating diffused junction p(+)n(Cd,S) InP solar cells with measured AMO, 25 C open circuit voltage (V(sub OC)) of 887.6 mV, which, to the best of our knowledge, is higher than previously reported V(sub OC) values for any InP homojunction solar cells. The experiment-based projected achievable efficiency of these cells using LEC grown substrates is 21.3%. The maximum AMO, 25 C efficiency recorded to date on bare cells is, however, only 13.2%. This is because of large external and internal losses due to non-optimized front grid design, antireflection (AR) coating and emitter thickness. This paper summarizes recent advances in the technology of fabrication of p(+)n InP diffused structures and solar cells, resulted from a study undertaken in an effort to increase the cell efficiency. The topics discussed in this paper include advances in: 1) the formation of thin p(+) InP:Cd emitter layers, 2) electroplated front contacts, 3) surface passivation and 4) the design of a new native oxide/AI203/MgF2 three layer AR coating using a chemically-grown P-rich passivating oxide as a first layer. Based on the high radiation resistance and the excellent post-irradiation annealing and recovery demonstrated in the early tests done to date, as well as the projected high efficiency and low-cost high-volume fabricability, these cells show a very good potential for space photovoltaic applications.

  5. Status of diffused junction p+n InP solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Goradia, C.; Faur, Maria; Fatemi, N. S.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Wilt, D. M.; Bailey, S.; Goradia, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, we have succeeded in fabricating diffused junction p(sup +)n(Cd,S) InP solar cells with measured AMO, 25 C open circuit voltage (V(sub OC)) of 887.6 mV, which, to the best of our knowledge, is higher than previously reported V(sub OC) values for any InP homojunction solar cells. The experiment-based projected achievable efficiency of these cells using LEC grown substrates is 21.3 percent. The maximum AMO, 25 C internal losses due to date on bare cells is, however, only 13.2 percent. This is because of large external and internal losses due to non-optimized front grid design, antireflection (AR) coating and emitter thickness. This paper summarizes recent advances in the technology of fabrication of p(sup +)n InP diffused structures and solar cells, resulted from a study undertaken in an effort to increase the cell efficiency. The topics discussed in this paper include advances in: (1) the formation on thin p(sup +) InP:Cd emitter layers, (2) electroplated front contacts, (3) surface passivation and (4) the design of a new native oxide/Al2O3/MgF2 tree layer AR coating using a chemically-grown P-rich passivating oxide as a first layer. Based on the high radiation resistance and the excellent post-irradiation annealing and recovery demonstrated in the early tests done to date, as well as the projected high efficiency and low-cost high-volume fabricability, these cells show a very good potential for space photovoltaic applications.

  6. Hydrogen passivation of N(+)-P and P(+)-N heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Basab; Davis, William C.; Ringel, Steve A.; Hoffman, Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n-p and p-n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)-p and p(+)-n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5-7 x 10(exp 14) cm(exp -3), down to 3-5 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3). All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. One to five analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 100 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)-n structures. In addition to being passivated, dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  7. Hydrogen Passivation of N(+)P and P(+)N Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Davis, W. C.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n(+)p and p(+)n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)p and p(+)n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5 - 7 x 10(exp 14)/cc, down to 3 - 5 x 10(exp 12)/cc. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal With no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approx. 100 fold decrease In reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)n structures. ln addition to being passivated,dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  8. InP tunnel junctions for InP/InGaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, Mauro F.; Freundlich, Alex; Renaud, P.; Medelci, N.; Bensaoula, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report, for the first time, an epitaxially grown InP p(+)/n(++) tunnel junction. A diode with peak current densities up to 1600 A/cm and maximum specific resistivities (Vp/Ip - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4)Omega cm(exp 2) is obtained. This peak current density is comparable to the highest results previously reported for lattice matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junctions. Both results were obtained using chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In this paper we discuss the electrical characteristics of these tunnel diodes and how the growth conditions influence them.

  9. InP Tunnel Junctions for InP/InGaAs Tandem Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Renaud, P.

    1995-01-01

    We report, for the first time, an epitaxially grown InP p(+)/n(++) tunnel junction. A diode with peak current densities up to 1600 Al/sq cm and maximum specific resistivities (Vp/lp - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4)Om sq cm is obtained. This peak current density is comparable to the highest results previously reported for lattice matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junctions. Both results were obtained using chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In this paper we discuss the electrical characteristics of these tunnel diodes and how the growth conditions influence them.

  10. Flexible generation of optical nonuniform bit-mapping signal based on InP transmitter module.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Flexible generation of an optical nonuniform bit-mapping signal based on an InP transmitter module is demonstrated. It can realize flexible bit mapping through the photonic modulation method, which can break the limitations of an electrical digital-to-analog convertor and field-programmable gate array. This module has potential to easily increase the signal rate or refine the granularity without electronics, which indicates it may be a future application to replace the traditional transmitter. The feasibility and performance of the proposed scheme are demonstrated in the experiment.

  11. In-P based optoelectronic components for measurements, communications, and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, W.S.

    1996-12-31

    Optoelectronic and electronic devices will play a key role in the emerging information age. In particular, devices based on InP materials and operating in the 1--2 {micro}m wavelength regime are becoming a necessity for applications in long-haul fiber-optic communications, local area networks and lightwave test and measurement instrumentation. Some of these applications require very high-performance devices and, hence, are not very sensitive to cost. On the other hand, many other applications (for example, computer interconnects), cost is the most important parameter and large-scale manufacturing techniques must be implemented. Examples for both applications will be addressed.

  12. Temperature Dependent Photoluminescence Measurements of Single InP Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischle, Matthias; Beirne, Gareth J.; Rossbach, Robert; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2007-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated single InP quantum dots by way of photoluminescence measurements. The lower energy dots show emission from excited states at moderate excitation powers while those emitting at higher energies do not even at high power densities. Temperature dependent measurements were carried out with the objective of understanding this difference and to develop a better understanding of the carrier escape from the dots at elevated temperatures. We observed a strong correlation between the electronic level spacings and the activation energies obtained using an arrhenius model, which thereby indicates that the carriers escape via higher lying levels.

  13. InP materials. Annual technical summary report 1 Oct 82-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Iseler, G.W.

    1983-09-30

    This report covers the work on InP materials carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1982 through 30 September 1983. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. Residual donors in polycrystalline ingots and nominally undoped LEC boules have been identified by photoluminescence studies. The growth striations in doped LEC boules have been greatly reduced by increasing the seed of crucible rotation rates to promote mixing in the melt.

  14. Micrometer-sized ice particles for planetary-science experiments - I. Preparation, critical rolling friction force, and specific surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, B.; Kilias, S.; Beitz, E.; Blum, J.

    2011-08-01

    Coagulation models assume a higher sticking threshold for micrometer-sized ice particles than for micrometer-sized silicate particles. However, in contrast to silicates, laboratory investigations of the collision properties of micrometer-sized ice particles (in particular, of the most abundant H 2O-ice) have not been conducted yet. Thus, we used two different experimental methods to produce micrometer-sized H 2O-ice particles, i.e. by spraying H 2O droplets into liquid nitrogen and by spraying H 2O droplets into a cold nitrogen atmosphere. The mean particle radii of the ice particles produced with these experimental methods are (1.49 ± 0.79) μm and (1.45 ± 0.65) μm. Ice aggregates composed of the micrometer-sized ice particles are highly porous (volume filling factor: ϕ = 0.11 ± 0.01) or rather compact (volume filling factor: ϕ = 0.72 ± 0.04), depending on the method of production. Furthermore, the critical rolling friction force of FRoll, ice = (114.8 ± 23.8) × 10 -10 N was measured for micrometer-sized ice particles, which exceeds the critical rolling friction force of micrometer-sized SiO 2 particles (F=(12.1±3.6)×10-10N). This result implies that the adhesive bonding between micrometer-sized ice particles is stronger than the bonding strength between SiO 2 particles. An estimation of the specific surface energy of micrometer-sized ice particles, derived from the measured critical rolling friction forces and the surface energy of micrometer-sized SiO 2 particles, results in γice = 0.190 J m -2.

  15. Method for synthesizing HMX

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  16. Colloidal Synthesis of Quantum Confined Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Nanosheets with Lateral Size Control up to the Micrometer Range

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the nontemplated colloidal synthesis of single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets with lateral sizes up to a few micrometers and with thickness of just a few unit cells (i.e., below 5 nm), hence in the strong quantum confinement regime, by introducing short ligands (octanoic acid and octylamine) in the synthesis together with longer ones (oleic acid and oleylamine). The lateral size is tunable by varying the ratio of shorter ligands over longer ligands, while the thickness is mainly unaffected by this parameter and stays practically constant at 3 nm in all the syntheses conducted at short-to-long ligands volumetric ratio below 0.67. Beyond this ratio, control over the thickness is lost and a multimodal thickness distribution is observed. PMID:27228475

  17. Colloidal Synthesis of Quantum Confined Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Nanosheets with Lateral Size Control up to the Micrometer Range.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Javad; Dang, Zhiya; Bianchini, Paolo; Canale, Claudio; Stasio, Francesco Di; Brescia, Rosaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2016-06-15

    We report the nontemplated colloidal synthesis of single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets with lateral sizes up to a few micrometers and with thickness of just a few unit cells (i.e., below 5 nm), hence in the strong quantum confinement regime, by introducing short ligands (octanoic acid and octylamine) in the synthesis together with longer ones (oleic acid and oleylamine). The lateral size is tunable by varying the ratio of shorter ligands over longer ligands, while the thickness is mainly unaffected by this parameter and stays practically constant at 3 nm in all the syntheses conducted at short-to-long ligands volumetric ratio below 0.67. Beyond this ratio, control over the thickness is lost and a multimodal thickness distribution is observed.

  18. Solvent resistant microfluidic DNA synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyi; Castrataro, Piero; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Quake, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a microfluidic DNA synthesizer out of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), an elastomer with excellent chemical compatibility which makes it possible to perform organic chemical reactions, and synthesized 20-mer oligonucleotides on chip. PMID:17180201

  19. Jupiter's Cloud Distribution Between the Voyager 1 and 2 Encounters: Results from 5-Micrometer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P

    1979-11-23

    As part of a continuing effort of ground-based support for Voyager target selection, infrared images in the 5-micrometer wavelength region were acquired in preparation for the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter. Observations were made during May 1979 from the Palomar 5-meter telescope and the new 3-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and are compared to previous observations. Variations seen in the 5-micrometer flux distribution suggest global patterns of clouding over of some Jovian belts and clearing ofothers. These data were used to predict the Jovian cloud distribution at the time of the Voyager 2 encounter in order to target the imaging and infrared experiments to areas free of high obscuring clouds.

  20. High T(sub c) Superconducting Bolometer on Chemically Etched 7 Micrometer Thick Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pique, A.; Fettig, R.; Mott, B.; Babu, S.; Cushman, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    A transition-edge IR detector, using a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) thin film deposited on a chemically etched, 7 micrometer thick sapphire substrate has been built. To our knowledge it is the first such high T(sub c) superconducting (HTS) bolometer on chemically thinned sapphire. The peak optical detectivity obtained is l.2 x 10(exp 10) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W near 4Hz. Result shows that it is possible to obtain high detectivity with thin films on etched sapphire with no processing after the deposition of the YBCO film. We discuss the etching process and its potential for micro-machining sapphire and fabricating 2-dimensional detector arrays with suspended sapphire membranes. A 30 micrometer thick layer of gold black provided IR absorption. Comparison is made with the current state of the art on silicon substrates.

  1. Jupiter's Cloud Distribution Between the Voyager 1 and 2 Encounters: Results from 5-Micrometer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P

    1979-11-23

    As part of a continuing effort of ground-based support for Voyager target selection, infrared images in the 5-micrometer wavelength region were acquired in preparation for the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter. Observations were made during May 1979 from the Palomar 5-meter telescope and the new 3-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and are compared to previous observations. Variations seen in the 5-micrometer flux distribution suggest global patterns of clouding over of some Jovian belts and clearing ofothers. These data were used to predict the Jovian cloud distribution at the time of the Voyager 2 encounter in order to target the imaging and infrared experiments to areas free of high obscuring clouds. PMID:17733922

  2. Novel magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snovski, Ron; Grinblat, Judith; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB)/magnetite micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution were prepared by entrapping Fe(CO)5 within the pores of uniform porous PDVB particles, followed by the thermal decomposition of the encapsulated Fe(CO)5 at 300 °C in a sealed cell under inert atmosphere. Magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of the PDVB/magnetite magnetic microspheres at 1100 °C under inert atmosphere. The graphitic coating protects the elemental iron particles from oxidation and thereby preserves their very high magnetic moment for at least a year. Characterization of these unique magnetic carbon graphitic particles was also performed.

  3. The ubiquity of micrometer-sized dust grains in the dense interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jürgen; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas

    2010-09-24

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves.

  4. A diagnostic for micrometer sensitive positioning of solid targets in intense laser-matter interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kakolee, K. F.; Jeong, T. W.; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2016-09-01

    A target position monitoring diagnostic, relevant to intense laser-solid interaction, is presented. The alignment system, having a sensitivity of few micrometers, consist of an infinity corrected long working distance objective, a broadband illuminating source and a CCD camera. The imaging system, placed along the axis of incident laser pulse, serves the dual purpose of laser focus diagnosis and precise positioning of the target in three dimension axis. By employing this technique, solid targets with thickness varying from opaque micrometer thick foils to few nanometer thin transparent foils can be aligned precisely. The effectiveness of the entire alignment system is demonstrated in enhanced acceleration of ions in intense laser-matter interaction, with very high reproducibility.

  5. Brightness Temperatures of Saturn's Disk and Rings at 400 and 700 Micrometers.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, S E; Hildebrand, R H; Keene, J

    1980-11-14

    Saturn was observed in two broad submillimeter photometric bands with the rings nearly edge-on. The observed brightness temperatures fall below the predictions of atmospheric models constructed from data at shorter wavelenths, indicating the presence of an opacity source besides pressure-broadened hydrogen lines in the submillimeter region. In combination with earlier measurements at larger inclination angles, these results yield a 400-micrometer brightness temperature for the rings of approximately 75 K.

  6. Micrometer-scale mixing with Pickering emulsions: biphasic reactions without stirring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Fu, Luman; Yang, Hengquan

    2014-02-01

    A general strategy that avoids stirring for organic/aqueous reactions involving solid catalysts is reported. The strategy involves converting a conventional biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion phase with micrometer-scale droplets ensuring good mixing. In test reactions, nitrotoluene reduction and epoxidation of allylic alcohols, the reaction efficiency is comparable to conventional stirrer-driven biphasic catalysis reaction systems. Short diffusion distances, arising from the compartmentalization of densely packed droplets, play an important role in boosting the reaction efficiency.

  7. The penetration of acoustic cavitation bubbles into micrometer-scale cavities.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Haresh Anant; Ertunç, Özgür; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Delgado, Antonio; Skupin, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of acoustically induced cavitation bubbles in micrometer-scale cavities is investigated experimentally by means of high-speed photography and acoustic measurements. Micrometer-scale cavities of different dimensions (width=40 μm, 80 μm, 10 mm and depth=50 μm) are designed to replicate the cross section of microvias in a PCB. The aim here is to present a method for enhancing mass transfer due to the penetration of bubbles in such narrow geometries under the action of ultrasound. The micrometer-scale cavities are placed in a test-cell filled with water and subjected to an ultrasound excitation at 75 kHz. A cavitation bubble cluster is generated at the mouth of the cavity which acts as a continuous source of bubbles that penetrate into the cavity. The radial oscillation characteristics and translation of these bubbles are investigated in detail here. It is observed that the bubbles arrange themselves into streamer-like structures inside the cavity. Parameters such as bubble population and size distribution and their correlation with the phase of the incident ultrasound radiation are investigated in detail here. This provides a valuable insight into the dynamics of bubbles in narrow confined spaces. Mass transfer investigations show that fresh liquid can be continuously introduced in the cavities under the action of ultrasound. Our findings may have important consequences in optimizing the filling processes for microvias with high aspect ratios. PMID:26763751

  8. The penetration of acoustic cavitation bubbles into micrometer-scale cavities.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Haresh Anant; Ertunç, Özgür; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Delgado, Antonio; Skupin, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of acoustically induced cavitation bubbles in micrometer-scale cavities is investigated experimentally by means of high-speed photography and acoustic measurements. Micrometer-scale cavities of different dimensions (width=40 μm, 80 μm, 10 mm and depth=50 μm) are designed to replicate the cross section of microvias in a PCB. The aim here is to present a method for enhancing mass transfer due to the penetration of bubbles in such narrow geometries under the action of ultrasound. The micrometer-scale cavities are placed in a test-cell filled with water and subjected to an ultrasound excitation at 75 kHz. A cavitation bubble cluster is generated at the mouth of the cavity which acts as a continuous source of bubbles that penetrate into the cavity. The radial oscillation characteristics and translation of these bubbles are investigated in detail here. It is observed that the bubbles arrange themselves into streamer-like structures inside the cavity. Parameters such as bubble population and size distribution and their correlation with the phase of the incident ultrasound radiation are investigated in detail here. This provides a valuable insight into the dynamics of bubbles in narrow confined spaces. Mass transfer investigations show that fresh liquid can be continuously introduced in the cavities under the action of ultrasound. Our findings may have important consequences in optimizing the filling processes for microvias with high aspect ratios.

  9. Modeling thermal infrared (2-14 micrometer) reflectance spectra of frost and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Andrew E.

    1994-01-01

    Existing theories of radiative transfer in close-packed media assume that each particle scatters independently of its neighbors. For opaque particles, such as are common in the thermal infrared, this assumption is not valid, and these radiative transfer theories will not be accurate. A new method is proposed, called 'diffraction subtraction', which modifies the scattering cross section of close-packed large, opaque spheres to account for the effect of close packing on the diffraction cross section of a scattering particle. This method predicts the thermal infrared reflectance of coarse (greater than 50 micrometers radius), disaggregated granular snow. However, such coarse snow is typically old and metamorphosed, with adjacent grains welded together. The reflectance of such a welded block can be described as partly Fresnel in nature and cannot be predicted using Mie inputs to radiative transfer theory. Owing to the high absorption coefficient of ice in the thermal infrared, a rough surface reflectance model can be used to calculate reflectance from such a block. For very small (less than 50 micrometers), disaggregated particles, it is incorrect in principle to treat diffraction independently of reflection and refraction, and the theory fails. However, for particles larger than 50 micrometers, independent scattering is a valid assumption, and standard radiative transfer theory works.

  10. Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Forrest, Stephen R.; Renshaw, Christopher K.

    2010-09-06

    We demonstrate multiple growths of flexible, thin-film indium tin oxide-InP Schottky-barrier solar cells on a single InP wafer via epitaxial lift-off (ELO). Layers that protect the InP parent wafer surface during the ELO process are subsequently removed by selective wet-chemical etching, with the active solar cell layers transferred to a thin, flexible plastic host substrate by cold welding at room temperature. The first- and second-growth solar cells exhibit no performance degradation under simulated Atmospheric Mass 1.5 Global (AM 1.5G) illumination, and have a power conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub p}=14.4{+-}0.4% and {eta}{sub p}=14.8{+-}0.2%, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics for the solar cells and atomic force microscope images of the substrate indicate that the parent wafer is undamaged, and is suitable for reuse after ELO and the protection-layer removal processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation, and three-dimensional surface profiling show a surface that is comparable or improved to the original epiready wafer following ELO. Wafer reuse over multiple cycles suggests that high-efficiency; single-crystal thin-film solar cells may provide a practical path to low-cost solar-to-electrical energy conversion.

  11. Growth and characterization of GaAsSb metamorphic samples on an InP substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedy, F.M.; Hulko, O.; Robinson, B.J.; Thompson, D.A.; Deen, M.J.; Simmons, J.G.

    2006-05-15

    Buffer layers of GaAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} were grown on an InP substrate starting at x=0.49 (lattice matched to InP) and increasing x in steps of 0.03-1.0 (GaSb), followed by a 0.5 {mu}m thick GaSb metamorphic layer. A 10 nm thick InAs quantum well was grown on top and capped with a 100 nm GaSb. All layers were grown using gas source molecular beam epitaxy by reducing the As flux in small steps while keeping the Sb flux fixed. The substrate temperature during growth was {approx}490 deg.C. High-Resolution x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the metamorphic layer was almost fully relaxed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images show that a postgrowth anneal at 600 deg.C for 30 s successfully reduces the number of dislocations threading through the metamorphic layer. Hence the top layer can be used satisfactorily as a pseudosubstrate for subsequent layer growths assuming a GaSb lattice constant.

  12. Pressure-Dependent Photoluminescence Study of Wurtzite InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Nicolas; Mavel, Amaury; Patriarche, Gilles; Masenelli, Bruno; Gendry, Michel; Machon, Denis

    2016-05-11

    The elastic properties of InP nanowires are investigated by photoluminescence measurements under hydrostatic pressure at room temperature and experimentally deduced values of the linear pressure coefficients are obtained. The pressure-induced energy shift of the A and B transitions yields a linear pressure coefficient of αA = 88.2 ± 0.5 meV/GPa and αB = 89.3 ± 0.5 meV/GPa with a small sublinear term of βA = βB = -2.7 ± 0.2 meV/GPa(2). Effective hydrostatic deformation potentials of -6.12 ± 0.04 and -6.2 ± 0.04 eV are derived from the results for the A and B transitions, respectively. A decrease of the integrated intensity is observed above 0.5 GPa and is interpreted as a carrier transfer from the first to the second conduction band of the wurtzite InP. PMID:27046672

  13. High-efficiency red electroluminescent device based on multishelled InP quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2016-09-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly fluorescent red-emitting InP quantum dots (QDs) and their application to the fabrication of a high-efficiency QD-light-emitting diode (QLED). The core/shell heterostructure of the QDs is elaborately tailored toward a multishelled structure with a composition-gradient ZnSeS intermediate shell and an outer ZnS shell. Using the resulting InP/ZnSeS/ZnS QDs as an emitting layer, all-solution-processible red InP QLEDs are fabricated with a hybrid multilayered device structure having an organic hole transport layer (HTL) and an inorganic ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. Two HTLs of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) or poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenyl-amine), whose hole mobilities are different by at least three orders of magnitude, are individually applied for QLED fabrication and such HTL-dependent device performances are compared. Our best red device displays exceptional figures of merit such as a maximum luminance of 2849  cd/m2, a current efficiency of 4.2  cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency of 2.5%. PMID:27607953

  14. Triple and Quadruple Junctions Thermophotovoltaic Devices Lattice Matched to InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhusal, L.; Freundlich, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of IR radiation emanating from a radioisotope heat source is under consideration for deep space exploration. Ideally, for radiator temperatures of interest, the TPV cell must convert efficiently photons in the 0.4-0.7 eV spectral range. Best experimental data for single junction cells are obtained for lattice-mismatched 0.55 eV InGaAs based devices. It was suggested, that a tandem InGaAs based TPV cell made by monolithically combining two or more lattice mismatched InGaAs subcells on InP would result in a sizeable efficiency improvement. However, from a practical standpoint the implementation of more than two subcells with lattice mismatch systems will require extremely thick graded layers (defect filtering systems) to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the sub-cells and could detrimentally affect the recycling of the unused IR energy to the emitter. A buffer structure, consisting of various InPAs layers, is incorporated to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the high and low bandgap subcells. There are evidences that the presence of the buffer structure may generate defects, which could extend down to the underlying InGaAs layer. The unusual large band gap lowering observed in GaAs(1-x)N(x) with low nitrogen fraction [1] has sparked a new interest in the development of dilute nitrogen containing III-V semiconductors for long-wavelength optoelectronic devices (e.g. IR lasers, detector, solar cells) [2-7]. Lattice matched Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x on InP has recently been investigated for the potential use in the mid-infrared device applications [8], and it could be a strong candidate for the applications in TPV devices. This novel quaternary alloy allows the tuning of the band gap from 1.42 eV to below 1 eV on GaAs and band gap as low as 0.6eV when strained to InP, but it has its own limitations. To achieve such a low band gap using the quaternary Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x, either it needs to be strained on InP, which creates further

  15. Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Shiu, K. T.; Zimmerman, J.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate multiple growths of flexible, thin-film indium tin oxide-InP Schottky-barriersolar cells on a single InP wafer via epitaxial lift-off (ELO). Layers that protect the InP parent wafer surface during the ELO process are subsequently removed by selective wet-chemical etching, with the active solar cell layers transferred to a thin, flexible plastic host substrate by cold welding at room temperature. The first- and second-growth solar cells exhibit no performance degradation under simulated Atmospheric Mass 1.5 Global (AM 1.5G) illumination, and have a power conversion efficiency of η{sub p}=14.4±0.4% and η{sub p}=14.8±0.2%, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics for the solar cells and atomic force microscope images of the substrate indicate that the parent wafer is undamaged, and is suitable for reuse after ELO and the protection-layer removal processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation, and three-dimensional surface profiling show a surface that is comparable or improved to the original epiready wafer following ELO. Wafer reuse over multiple cycles suggests that high-efficiency; single-crystal thin-filmsolar cells may provide a practical path to low-cost solar-to-electrical energy conversion.

  16. Transport Properties of Thin Bismuth Films on InP (110) Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Potentiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenstra, R. M.; Briner, B. G.; Chin, T. P.; Woodall, J. M.

    1996-03-01

    Charge transport in 20--30 Å thick Bi-films is studied by scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) at room temperature. The Bi is deposited on cleaved InP(110) surfaces at temperatures near 140 K, yielding atomically flat films interspersed with 12 Å deep holes. The InP substrates contain conducting/insulating/conducting layers, which in cross-section are used to form contacts to the film, thus enabling lateral current densities as high as 8 × 10^6 A/cm^2 . Potential variations due to scattering of this lateral current is detected using STP, by locating the zero-crossing of current-voltage characteristics at each pixel in an image. Potential images reveal, on a coarse scale, a smooth ramp arising from the electric field due to phonon scattering in the film, from which an electron-phonon scattering length of >1000 Å is deduced. On a finer scale, potential steps 2--10 mV high are seen near surface holes and grain boundaries in the film. Detailed study of the ballistic scattering near the holes reveals a dipole shaped feature, which is identified as a residual resistivity dipole. *present address: Physics, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213 **now at: Fritz-Haber-Institut, 14195 Berlin, briner@fhi-berlin.mpg.de

  17. Annealing of irradiated n+p InP buried homojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Timmons, M. L.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Hancock, J. A.; Hills, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    At the last SPRAT conference, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) presented results from two experiments. One studied n+p diffused junction (DJ) InP solar cells, and the other studied n+p shallow homojunction (SHJ) InP mesa diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The former work showed that a DJ solar cell in which the maximum power P(sub max) had been degraded by nearly 80 percent under irradiation recovered completely under short circuit illumination at 450K. The recovery was accompanied by the removal of all but one of the radiation-induced defect levels. The latter work, on the other hand, showed that the radiation-induced defects in the SHJ diodes did not anneal until the temperature reached 650K. These results suggest that an irradiated DJ solar cell, under illumination, will anneal at a temperature 200K lower than an irradiated SHJ cell. This is an unexpected result considering the similarity of the devices. The goal of the present research is to explain this different behavior. This paper investigates two points which arose from the previous studies. The first point is that the DJ cells were annealed under illumination while the SHJ diodes were annealed without bias. The second point investigated here is that the emitters of the DJ and SHJ devices were significantly different.

  18. The effect of process conditions on the performance of epitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandi, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells have a higher resistance to electron irradiation than Si or GaAs cells of comparable junction depth. As a result, there is much interest in the use of this material for space applications. Cells of this material were made in bulk InP by a number of techniques, including ion implantation, direct diffusion in sealed ampoules, and by open tube diffusion. However, it is generally considered that the epitaxial approach will be superior to all of these techniques. The epitaxy of InP is considerably more difficult than that of gallium arsenide, for a number of reasons. Perhaps the most important is the fact that the native oxides of Indium are extremely difficult to remove, as compared to that of Gallium. In addition, thermal treatments for the desorption of these oxides often result in the formation of phosphorus vacancies and free indium on the surface. Thus, inadequate sample preparation before epitaxy, poor reactor cleaning procedures, or poor transition procedures between the growth of successive layers, all give rise to trap phenomena and to high interface recombination velocities. Moreover, the lifetime of the grown material is dominated by the occurrence of native defects, so that it is a strong function of growth parameters. These problems are of special interest to the fabrication of solar cells, where long life-time, combined with the absence of traps, is highly desirable. A study of this problem is described using a non-invasive diagnostic technique which was developed.

  19. Multiple growths of epitaxial lift-off solar cells from a single InP substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Renshaw, Christopher K.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate multiple growths of flexible, thin-film indium tin oxide-InP Schottky-barrier solar cells on a single InP wafer via epitaxial lift-off (ELO). Layers that protect the InP parent wafer surface during the ELO process are subsequently removed by selective wet-chemical etching, with the active solar cell layers transferred to a thin, flexible plastic host substrate by cold welding at room temperature. The first- and second-growth solar cells exhibit no performance degradation under simulated Atmospheric Mass 1.5 Global (AM 1.5G) illumination, and have a power conversion efficiency of ηp=14.4±0.4% and ηp=14.8±0.2%, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics for the solar cells and atomic force microscope images of the substrate indicate that the parent wafer is undamaged, and is suitable for reuse after ELO and the protection-layer removal processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation, and three-dimensional surface profiling show a surface that is comparable or improved to the original epiready wafer following ELO. Wafer reuse over multiple cycles suggests that high-efficiency; single-crystal thin-film solar cells may provide a practical path to low-cost solar-to-electrical energy conversion.

  20. The Josephson locked synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneret, Blaise; Overney, Frédéric; Rüfenacht, Alain

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the development of a Josephson locked synthesizer (JoLoS) where a calibrator is used as a sine wave generator whose output is controlled by the calculable fundamental of the stepwise sinusoidal wave generated by a programmable Josephson junction array. Such a system combines the versatility of a calibrator with the stability and accuracy of the Josephson voltage standard. The accuracy of the JoLoS was confirmed by a high precision comparison with a pulse-driven Josephson voltage standard. This comparison showed agreement between the two systems of 0.3 μV V-1 at a frequency of 500 Hz and an rms amplitude of 100 mV. As an example of the calibration ability of the JoLoS, the calibration of a thermal transfer standard (TTS) is reported. This calibration is in good agreement with a calibration performed against a multi-junction thermal converter for voltages below 1 V and frequencies below 1 kHz. The agreement between the JoLoS and the calibrated TTS is better than 1 μV V-1 at 1 V. On the lowest voltage ranges, the uncertainties measured with the JoLoS are significantly smaller than the calibration uncertainties of the TTS. This result demonstrates the present potential of the JoLoS at voltages up to 1 V and frequencies up to 1 kHz.

  1. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  2. Controllable growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia Li, Junshuai; Cui, Jiangong; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-12-07

    The growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on GaAs nanowires are investigated. InP quantum well and quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires successively with increasing the deposition time of InP. The GaAs/InP nanowire heterostructure exhibits a type-II band alignment. The wavelength of the InP quantum well is in the range of 857–892 nm at 77 K, which means that the quantum well is nearly fully strained. The InP quantum dot, which has a bow-shaped cross section, exhibits dislocation-free pure zinc blende structure. Stranski-Krastanow InAs quantum dots are subsequently formed on the GaAs/InP nanowire core-shell structure. The InAs quantum dots are distributed over the middle part of the nanowire, indicating that the In atoms contributing to the quantum dots mainly come from the vapor rather than the substrate. The longest emission wavelength obtained from the InAs QDs is 1039 nm at 77 K. The linewidth is as narrow as 46.3 meV, which is much narrower than those on planar InP substrates and wurtzite InP nanowires, suggesting high-crystal-quality, phase-purity, and size-uniformity of quantum dots.

  3. Wet chemical cleaning of InP surfaces investigated by in situ and ex situ infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchery, O.; Chabal, Y. J.; Opila, R. L.

    2003-08-01

    Wet chemical cleaning is central to semiconductor device processing. For InP-based optoelectronic devices, controlling wet processing is challenging because of the high reactivity of InP surfaces in ambient air. In situ techniques are therefore critical to monitor and understand wet chemical etching and oxidation. We have combined in situ and ex situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, in direct transmission and multiple internal reflection configurations, with ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the wet-chemical removal of "epi-ready" oxides on InP(100). Even dilute solutions of HCl, HF, or H2SO4 are found to completely remove the epi-ready oxides. For both HCl and HF, the InP surface is left unpassivated, exhibiting rapid recontamination and reoxidation upon air exposure. In contrast, H2SO4 aggressively etches the surface, and forms a thick and fragile oxide cap that can be washed away during a subsequent water rinse. This systematic in situ vibrational study of InP oxide chemistry provides a basis for a mechanistic understanding of wet chemical etching and oxidation.

  4. Study of surface passivation as a function of InP closed-ampoule solar cell fabrication processing variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Jenkins, Phillip; Goradia, Manju; Goradia, Chandra; Bailey, Sheila; Weinberg, Irving; Jayne, Douglas

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various surface preparation procedures, including chemical treatment and anodic or chemical oxidation, closed-ampoule diffusion conditions, and post-diffusion surface preparation and annealing conditions, on the passivating properties of InP have been investigated in order to optimize the fabrication procedures of n(+)p InP solar cells made by closed-ampoule diffusion of sulfur into p-type InP. The InP substrates used were p-type Cd-doped to a level of 1.7 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm, Zn-doped to levels of 2.2 x 10 to the 16th and 1.2 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm, and n-type S-doped to 4.4 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm. The passivating properties have been evaluated from photoluminescence (PL) and conductance-voltage (G-V) data. Good agreement was found between the level of surface passivation and the composition of different surface layers as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

  5. Comparison of Steady-State and Transient Electron Transport in InAs, InP and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, H.; Khalvati, M. R.; Rokn-Abadi, M. Rezaee

    An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare high field electron transport in bulk InAs, InP and GaAs. In particular, velocity overshoot and electron transit times are examined. For all materials, we find that electron velocity overshoot only occurs when the electric field is increased to a value above a certain critical field, unique to each material. This critical field is strongly dependent on the material, about 400 kVm-1 for the case of GaAs, 300 kVm-1 for InAs and 700 kVm-1 for InP. We find that InAs exhibits the highest peak overshoot velocity and that this velocity overshoot lasts over the longest distances when compared with GaAs and InP. Finally, we estimate the minimum transit time across a 1 μm GaAs sample to be a bout 3 ps. Similar calculations for InAs and InP yield 2.2 and 5 ps, respectively. The steady-state and transient velocity overshoot characteristics are in fair agreement with other recent calculations.

  6. Correlation between overgrowth morphology and optical properties of single self-assembled InP quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M. K.-J.; Håkanson, U.; Holm, M.; Persson, J.; Sass, T.; Johansson, J.; Pryor, C.; Montelius, L.; Seifert, W.; Samuelson, L.; Pistol, M.-E.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the early stages of GaInP overgrowth on InP quantum dots (QD’s) experimentally and theoretically. A direct correlation between the surface morphology and the optical properties of individual InP QD’s is made using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling luminescence. The geometric structure of the islands is further investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overgrowth occurs in three stages; initially the InP QD’s act as seeding points for the overgrowth, where the GaInP grows laterally from the side facets of the QD. The growth occurs preferentially in the [110] direction and elongated GaInP/InP islands are formed. As the overgrowth continues the islands increase laterally in size and GaInP also starts to grow between the islands, but not covering the top of the InP QD’s. The growth of GaInP on top of the QD’s commences once the islands have begun to coalesce. Using a model based on the STM and TEM results the electronic structures of the QD’s have been calculated by eight-band kṡp theory. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings unravel the details of the strain induced energy shift of the QD luminescence previously reported [Pistol et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1438 (1995)].

  7. Radiation resistance and comparative performance of ITO/InP and n/p InP homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Coutts, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation resistance of ITO/InP cells processed by DC magnetron sputtering is compared to that of standard n/p InP and GaAs homojunction cells. After 20 MeV proton irradiations, it is found that the radiation resistance of the present ITO/InP cell is comparable to that of the n/p homojunction InP cell and that both InP cell types have radiation resistance significantly greater than GaAs. The relatively lower radiation resistance, observed at higher fluence, for the InP cell with the deepest junction depth, is attributed to losses in the cells emitter region. Diode parameters obtained from I sub sc - V sub oc plots, data from surface Raman spectroscopy, and determinations of surface conductivity types are used to investigate the configuration of the ITO/InP cells. It is concluded that thesee latter cells are n/p homojunctions, the n-region consisting of a disordered layer at the oxide semiconductor.

  8. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films. PMID:27455379

  9. 1.12 Tb/s superchannel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC).

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Fisher, M; Malendevich, R; James, A; Goldfarb, G; Vallaitis, T; Kato, M; Samra, P; Corzine, S; Strzelecka, E; Studenkov, P; Salvatore, R; Sedgwick, F; Kuntz, M; Lal, V; Lambert, D; Dentai, A; Pavinski, D; Zhang, J; Cornelius, J; Tsai, T; Behnia, B; Bostak, J; Dominic, V; Nilsson, A; Taylor, B; Rahn, J; Sanders, S; Sun, H; Wu, K-T; Pleumeekers, J; Muthiah, R; Missey, M; Schneider, R; Stewart, J; Reffle, M; Butrie, T; Nagarajan, R; Ziari, M; Kish, F; Welch, D

    2011-12-12

    In this work, a 10-wavelength, polarization-multiplexed, monolithically integrated InP coherent QPSK transmitter PIC is demonstrated to operate at 112 Gb/sec per wavelength and total chip superchannel bandwidth of 1.12 Tb/s. This demonstration suggests that increasing data capacity to multi-Tb/s per chip is possible and likely in the future.

  10. SiC nanowires synthesized from graphene and silicon vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichenpei, Luo; Gong-yi, Li; Zengyong, Chu; Tianjiao, Hu; Xiaodong, Li; Xuefei, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    The preparation of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires is basically important for its potential applications in nanodevices, nanocomposites, etc. In the present work, a simple route was reported to synthesize SiC nanowires by heating commercial graphene with silicon vapors and no catalyst. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy scattering, X-ray diffraction, and Raman dispersive spectrum demonstrates the products are composed of β-SiC crystal. The SiC nanowires have the average diameter of about 50 nm and length of tens of micrometers. The vapor-solid mechanism was employed to interpret the SiC nanowires growth. Gaseous SiO which was produced by the reaction of Si powders with its surface oxidation reacted with the solid graphene to form SiC crystal nuclei. And SiC crystal nuclei would act as active sites for further growing into nanowires.

  11. Hydrogen passivation of n+p and p+n heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    High-efficiency, heteroepitaxial (HE) InP solar cells, grown on GaAs, Si or Ge substrates, are desirable for their mechanically strong, light-weight and radiation-hard properties. However, dislocations, caused by lattice mismatch, currently limit the performance of the HE cells. This occurs through shunting paths across the active photovoltaic junction and by the formation of deep levels. In previous work we have demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of dislocations in specially designed HE InP test structures. In this work, we present the first report of successful hydrogen passivation in actual InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in HE n+n InP cell structures from as-grown values of approximately 10(exp 15)/cm(exp -3), down to 1-2 x 10(exp 13)/cm(exp -3). The deep levels in the p-type base region of the cell structure match those of our earlier p-type test structures, which were attributed to dislocations or related point defect complexes. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 10 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and no change in the forward biased series resistance of the cell structure which indicates complete reactivation of the n+ emitter. Furthermore, electrochemical C-V profiling indicates greatly enhanced passivation depth, and hence hydrogen diffusion, for heteroepitaxial structures when compared with identically processed homoepitaxial n+p InP structures. An analysis of hydrogen diffusion in dislocated InP will be discussed, along with comparisons of passivation effectiveness for n+p versus p+n heteroepitaxial cell configurations. Preliminary hydrogen

  12. Formulation of the Microbicide INP0341 for In Vivo Protection against a Vaginal Challenge by Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Christian; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Andersson, Sara B. E.; Fagerberg, Jonas H.; Bergström, Christel A. S.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2014-01-01

    The salicylidene acylhydrazide (SA) compounds have exhibited promising microbicidal properties. Previous reports have shown the SA compounds, using cell cultures, to exhibit activity against Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus and HIV-1. In addition, using an animal model of a vaginal infection the SA compound INP0341, when dissolved in a liquid, was able to significantly protect mice from a vaginal infection with C. trachomatis. To expand upon this finding, in this report INP0341 was formulated as a vaginal gel, suitable for use in humans. Gelling agents (polymers) with inherent antimicrobial properties were chosen to maximize the total antimicrobial effect of the gel. In vitro formulation work generated a gel with suitable rheology and sustained drug release. A formulation containing 1 mM INP0341, 1.6 wt% Cremophor ELP (solubility enhancer) and 1.5 wt% poly(acrylic acid) (gelling and antimicrobial agent), was chosen for studies of efficacy and toxicity using a mouse model of a vaginal infection. The gel formulation was able to attenuate a vaginal challenge with C. trachomatis, serovar D. Formulations with and without INP0341 afforded protection, but the inclusion of INP0341 increased the protection. Mouse vaginal tissue treated with the formulation showed no indication of gel toxicity. The lack of toxicity was confirmed by in vitro assays using EpiVaginal tissues, which showed that a 24 h exposure to the gel formulation did not decrease the cell viability or the barrier function of the tissue. Therefore, the gel formulation described here appears to be a promising vaginal microbicide to prevent a C. trachomatis infection with the potential to be expanded to other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:25356686

  13. The effect of bulk traps on the InP (Indium Phosphide) accumulation type MISFET (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, L. G.

    The enclosed reports represent work performed at USCD on Contract N00014-82-K-2032 entitled Surface and Interfacial Properties of InP and provides a full account of the results obtained during the contract period: May 1, 1984 through April 31, 1985. The paper, Space charge-limited currents and trapping in semi-insulating InP, has now been published in Electron. Device Letters, volume EDL-6, page 356 (1985). The manuscript, Effect of bulk traps on the InP accumulation type MISFET, will be presented as an invited talk at the fall meeting in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society.

  14. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Sánchez, Paula; Bodensiek, Kai; Li, Sai; Simons, Mikael; Schaap, Iwan A T

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components. PMID:23028915

  15. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-06-20

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to {approx}30 m s{sup -1} within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  16. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F. Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-15

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  17. Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarre, Delphine; Supatto, Willy; Farge, Emmanuel; Moulia, Bruno; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2004-12-01

    We demonstrate the association of third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis as a novel functional imaging technique for automated micrometer-scale characterization of morphogenetic movements in developing embryos. Using a combined two-photon-excited fluorescence and THG microscope, we characterize the optical properties of Drosophila embryos and show that sustained THG imaging does not perturb sensitive developmental dynamics. Velocimetric THG imaging provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of internal structures in unstained wild-type and mutant embryos.

  18. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

  19. Radiation cooler for 10 micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver model no. 7172, serial no. 201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a radiative cooler are described. This cooler is an engineering model suitable for bench testing in the laboratory as a part of the 10-micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver, and conforms to the standard radiative cooler configuration, except that the inner stage and its support system were redesigned to accommodate the larger, heavier SAT detector. This radiative cooler will cool the detector to cryogenic temperature levels when the receiver is in a space environment or in a suitable thermal vacuum chamber. Equipment specifications are given along with the results of thermal tests, vibration tests, and electrical integrity tests.

  20. Anomalous photoluminescence in InP1−xBix

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiren; Pan, Wenwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Liyao; Li, Yaoyao; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from InP1−xBix thin films with Bi concentrations in the 0–2.49% range reveals anomalous spectral features with strong and very broad (linewidth of 700 nm) PL signals compared to other bismide alloys. Multiple transitions are observed and their energy levels are found much smaller than the band-gap measured from absorption measurements. These transitions are related to deep levels confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy, which effectively trap free holes and enhance radiative recombination. The broad luminescence feature is beneficial for making super-luminescence diodes, which can theoretically enhance spatial resolution beyond 1 μm in optical coherent tomography (OCT). PMID:27291823

  1. InP nanowire p-type doping via Zinc indiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Otnes, Gaute; Mourão, Renato; Dagyte, Vilgaile; Hultin, Olof; Lindelöw, Fredrik; Borgström, Magnus; Samuelson, Lars

    2016-10-01

    We report an alternative pathway for p-type InP nanowire (NW) doping by diffusion of Zn species from the gas phase. The diffusion of Zn was performed in a MOVPE reactor at 350-500 °C for 5-20 min with either H2 environment or additional phosphorus in the atmosphere. In addition, Zn3P2 shells were studied as protective caps during post-diffusion annealing. This post-diffusion annealing was performed to outdiffuse and activate Zn in interstitial locations. The characterization methods included photoluminescence and single NW conductivity and carrier concentration measurements. The acquired carrier concentrations were in the order of >1017 cm-3 for NWs without post-annealing, and up to 1018 cm-3 for NWs annealed with the Zn3P2 shells. The diffused Zn caused redshift to the photoluminescence signal, and the degree of redshift depended on the diffusion process.

  2. A 20-GHz ultra-high-speed InP DHBT comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Huang; Lei, Zhou; Yongbo, Su; Zhi, Jin

    2012-07-01

    An ultra-high-speed, master-slave voltage comparator circuit is designed and fabricated using InP/GaInAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology with a current gain cutoff frequency of 170 GHz. The complete chip die, including bondpads, is 0.75 × 1.04 mm2. It consumes 440 mW from a single -4 V power supply, excluding the clock part. 77 DHBTs have been used in the monolithic comparator. A full Nyquist test has been performed up to 20 GHz, with the input sensitivity varying from 6 mV at 10 GHz to 16 mV at 20 GHz. To our knowledge, this is the first InP based integrated circuit including more than 70 DHBTs, and it achieves the highest sampling rate found on the mainland of China.

  3. Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, M. P.; Yakes, M. K.; González, M.; Bennett, M. F.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I.; Walters, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm2 to be realized.

  4. Simultaneous Selective-Area and Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of InP Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Caroff, Philippe; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Li, Li; Guo, Yanan; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-07-13

    Selective-area epitaxy is highly successful in producing application-ready size-homogeneous arrays of III-V nanowires without the need to use metal catalysts. Previous works have demonstrated excellent control of nanowire properties but the growth mechanisms remain rather unclear. Herein, we report a detailed growth study revealing that fundamental growth mechanisms of pure wurtzite InP ⟨111⟩A nanowires can indeed differ significantly from the simple picture of a facet-limited selective-area growth process. A dual growth regime with and without metallic droplet is found to coexist under the same growth conditions for different diameter nanowires. Incubation times and highly nonmonotonous growth rate behaviors are revealed and explained within a dedicated kinetic model. PMID:27253040

  5. Deep level transient spectroscopy study in n-type InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Sagnes, G.; Bastide, G.; Rouzeyre, M.

    1982-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) study on 14 InP diodes fabricated from five different crystals. From 16 observed DLTS peaks and corresponding Arrhenius plots, seven (or eight) trapping levels have been identified whose characteristics are as follows: Trapping levels Characteristics E1 = 210 meV S1 = 3×10-16 cm2 E2 = 190 mev S2 = 7×10-19 cm2 E3 = 330 meV S3 = 4×10-16 cm2 E4 = 500 meV S4 = 2×10-12 cm2 E5 = 410 mev S5 = 1×10-16 cm2 E6 = 630 meV S6 = 2×10-14 cm2 E7 = 330 meV S7 = 5×10-14 cm2

  6. Experimentally estimated dead space for GaAs and InP based planar Gunn diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel Maricar, Mohamed; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G.; Cumming, D.; Oxley, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method has been used to estimate the dead space of planar Gunn diodes which were fabricated using GaAs and InP based materials, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the dead space was approximately 0.23 μm and the saturation domain velocity 0.96 × 105 m s-1 for an Al0.23Ga0.77As based device, while for an In0.53Ga0.47As based device, the dead space was approximately 0.21 μm and the saturation domain velocity 1.93 × 105 m s-1. Further, the results suggest that the saturation domain velocity is reduced or there is an increase in the dead-space due to local field distortions when the active channel length of the planar Gunn diode is less than 1 micron.

  7. Photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells grown by OMVPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, S.; Singh, K.; Bhimnathwala, H.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)/p/p(+) homojunction InP solar cells fabricated by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are described. The cells are characterized by I-V, C-V and quantum efficiency measurements, and simulations are used to obtain various device and material parameters. The I-V characteristics show a high recombination rate in the depletion region; this is shown to be independent of the impurity used. It is shown that cadmium is easier to use as an acceptor for the p base and p(+) buffer and is therefore beneficial. The high quantum efficiency of 98 percent at long wavelengths measured in these cells indicates a very good collection efficiency in the base. The short-wavelength quantum efficiency is poor, indicating a high surface recombination.

  8. Nonresonant tunneling in single asymmetric pairs of vertically stacked InP quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Roßbach, R.; Jetter, M.; Schweizer, H.; Michler, P.

    2007-08-01

    Single pairs of vertically stacked asymmetric pairs of InP quantum dots embedded in GaInP barriers have been investigated as a function of interdot spacer thickness. Time integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements have been performed, with the former showing a change in the intensity ratio between the two dots and the latter an increasing difference in the photoluminescence decay time of the two dots when reducing the spacer thickness. Hence, we suggest transitions from vanishing tunnel coupling to electron tunneling and, finally, to electron and hole tunneling for decreasing barrier widths. The different times are estimated from the measurement data, and the changes are described by a rate equation model. The results clearly show the nonresonant character of the tunneling process as a result of the different ground state energies (approximately 40meV ) of the unequally sized dots.

  9. Determining the base resistance of InP HBTs: An evaluation of methods and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardmann, Tobias; Krause, Julia; Pawlak, Andreas; Schroter, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Many different methods can be found in the literature for determining both the internal and external base series resistance based on single transistor terminal characteristics. Those methods are not equally reliable or applicable for all technologies, device sizes and speeds. In this review, the most common methods are evaluated regarding their suitability for InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) based on both measured and simulated data. Using data generated by a sophisticated physics-based compact model allows an evaluation of the extraction method precision by comparing the extracted parameter value to its known value. Based on these simulations, this study provides insight into the limitations of the applied methods, causes for errors and possible error mitigation. In addition to extraction methods based on just transistor terminal characteristics, test structures for separately determining the components of the base resistance from sheet and specific contact resistances are discussed and applied to serve as reference for the experimental evaluation.

  10. Studies of Nonradiative Recombination Centers in GaAs and InP*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzemen, S.; Liang, Difei; Ucer, K. B.; Williams, R. T.

    2001-03-01

    The "reverse contrast" recombination center in semi-insulating GaAs, so named because of its anti-correlation with EL2 defects in spatial mapping, has been attributed to As-vacancy centers.^1 Several details of the nature of its optical transitions and of its spatial distribution are among questions open to experimental investigation. We report experiments on spectroscopy and spatial mapping of defects in semi-insulating GaAs and Fe-doped InP. *ST acknowledges the CIES for support as a Fulbright Scholar at WFU. The research at WFU is supported by NSF grant DMR-9732023. Confocal microscopy in cooperation with K. Grant and the MicroMed Facility of WFU. 1. C. Le Berre, C. Corbel, R. Mih, M. R. Brozel, S. Tüzemen, S. Kuisma, K. Saarinen, P. Hautojarvi, and R. Fornari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2354 (1995).

  11. InAs nanostructures grown by droplet epitaxy directly on InP(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, David; Abderrafi, Kamal; Alén, Benito; González, Yolanda; Wewior, Lukasz; González, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the development of growth processes by droplet epitaxy to obtain InAs quantum dots directly on InP (001) surfaces (without any InGaAs or InAlAs intermediate layer). The indium atoms for droplet formation were deposited at different substrate temperatures, TS, below 300 °C in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy system. From the evolution of the size and shape of the nanostructures with TS, values of magnitudes related with indium atoms diffusivity have been extracted. The photoluminescence signal is investigated for ensemble and single InAs nanostructures emitting around 1.3-1.5 μm. The emission properties drastically change with thermal annealing processes that improve the crystalline quality.

  12. Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, M; Ren, H W; Nishi, K; Masumoto, Y

    2001-05-21

    Fluorescence intermittency in InP self-assembled dots is investigated by means of far field imaging and single dot spectroscopy. Based on our observation that blinking dots are found in the vicinity of scratches and the blinking frequency is drastically enhanced under a near-infrared laser irradiation, we attribute the origin of the fluorescence intermittency to a local electric field due to a carrier trapped at a deep localized center in the Ga0.5In0.5P matrix. The validity of this explanation is confirmed by a thermal activation-type behavior of the switching rate and artificial reproduction of the blinking phenomenon by an external electric field.

  13. Locally measuring the adhesion of InP directly bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si.

    PubMed

    Pantzas, K; Le Bourhis, E; Patriarche, G; Troadec, D; Beaudoin, G; Itawi, A; Sagnes, I; Talneau, A

    2016-03-18

    A nano-scale analogue to the double cantilever experiment that combines instrumented nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy is used to precisely and locally measure the adhesion of InP bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si using oxide-free or oxide-mediated bonding. Surface-bonding energies of 0.548 and 0.628 J m(-2), respectively, are reported. These energies correspond in turn to 51% and 57% of the surface bonding energy measured in unpatterned regions on the same samples, i.e. the proportion of unetched Si surface in the patterned areas. The results show that bonding on patterned surfaces can be as robust as on unpatterned surfaces, provided care is taken with the post-patterning surface preparation process and, therefore, open the path towards innovative designs that include patterns embedded in the Si guiding layer of hybrid III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits. PMID:26878333

  14. Locally measuring the adhesion of InP directly bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantzas, K.; Le Bourhis, E.; Patriarche, G.; Troadec, D.; Beaudoin, G.; Itawi, A.; Sagnes, I.; Talneau, A.

    2016-03-01

    A nano-scale analogue to the double cantilever experiment that combines instrumented nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy is used to precisely and locally measure the adhesion of InP bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si using oxide-free or oxide-mediated bonding. Surface-bonding energies of 0.548 and 0.628 J m-2, respectively, are reported. These energies correspond in turn to 51% and 57% of the surface bonding energy measured in unpatterned regions on the same samples, i.e. the proportion of unetched Si surface in the patterned areas. The results show that bonding on patterned surfaces can be as robust as on unpatterned surfaces, provided care is taken with the post-patterning surface preparation process and, therefore, open the path towards innovative designs that include patterns embedded in the Si guiding layer of hybrid III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits.

  15. Anomalous photoluminescence in InP1‑xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiren; Pan, Wenwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Liyao; Li, Yaoyao; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-06-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from InP1‑xBix thin films with Bi concentrations in the 0–2.49% range reveals anomalous spectral features with strong and very broad (linewidth of 700 nm) PL signals compared to other bismide alloys. Multiple transitions are observed and their energy levels are found much smaller than the band-gap measured from absorption measurements. These transitions are related to deep levels confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy, which effectively trap free holes and enhance radiative recombination. The broad luminescence feature is beneficial for making super-luminescence diodes, which can theoretically enhance spatial resolution beyond 1 μm in optical coherent tomography (OCT).

  16. Electric field control of magnetoresistance in InP nanowires with ferromagnetic contacts.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, F A; van der Mast, D W; Heersche, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; Bakkers, E P A M

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate electric field control of sign and magnitude of the magnetoresistance in InP nanowires with ferromagnetic contacts. The sign change in the magnetoresistance is directly correlated with a sign change in the transconductance. Additionally, the magnetoresistance is shown to persist at such a high bias that Coulomb blockade has been lifted. We also observe the magnetoresistance when one of the ferromagnets is replaced by a nonmagnetic metal. We conclude that it must be induced by a single ferromagnetic contact, and that spin transport can be ruled out as the origin. Our results emphasize the importance of a systematic investigation of spin-valve devices in order to discriminate between ambiguous interpretations. PMID:19537736

  17. The role of vapour etching in the growth of epitaxial InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashen, D. J.; Anderson, D. A.; Apsley, N.; Emeny, M. T.

    1982-12-01

    Undoped single epitaxial layers of InP have been grown by the In-PCI 3-H 2 technique. Hall data, carrier concentration profile and layer surface quality have been studied as a function of pre-growth vapour etching and source saturation conditions. Incomplete vapour etching is shown to lead to layers with low room temperature mobility, large carrier freeze-out between 290 and 77 K, and a large density of defects on the epitaxial layer surface. Carrier concentration profiles through such layers show evidence of a high conductivity region at the interface with the substrate which we suggest is formed by material grown during source saturation. We demonstrate that the growth of high carrier concentration material can take place from an unsaturated source, and we show that a two-layer model accounts quantitatively for the Hall data. These results can be used to specify the appropriate etching conditions to grow epitaxial layers with abrupt interfaces and high mobility.

  18. Diffusion length damage coefficient and annealing studies in proton-irradiated InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Bailey, Sheila G.; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the diffusion length damage coefficient (K(sub L)) and the annealing characteristics of the minority carrier diffusion length (L(sub n)) in Czochralski-grown zinc-doped indium phosphide (InP), with a carrier concentration of 1 x 10(exp l8) cm(exp -3). In measuring K(sub L) irradiations were made with 0.5 MeV protons with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(exp 11) to 3 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Pre- and post-irradiation electron-beam induced current (EBIC) measurements allowed for the extraction of L(sub n) from which K(sub L) was determined. In studying the annealing characteristics of L(sub n) irradiations were made with 2 MeV protons with fluence of 5 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Post-irradiation studies of L(sub n) with time at room temperature, and with minority carrier photoinjection and forward-bias injection were carried out. The results showed that recovery under Air Mass Zero (AMO) photoinjection was complete. L(sub n) was also found to recover under forward-bias injection, where recovery was found to depend on the value of the injection current. However, no recovery of L(sub n) after proton irradiation was observed with time at room temperature, in contrast to the behavior of 1 MeV electron-irradiated InP solar cells reported previously.

  19. A comparison study of the agglomeration mechanism of nano- and micrometer aluminum particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Z.X.; Deng, J.; Luo, Z.M.

    2010-02-15

    The agglomeration mechanism of micro- and nanosize aluminum particles with a primary mean particle diameter of 4.5 {mu}m and 75 nm, respectively, was comparatively investigated under an incident shock wave. The morphology, particle size, and agglomeration process of micro- and nanometer alumina particles were comprehensibly compared by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Images of X-ray diffraction reveal that a varied of phases of alumina ({gamma}-, {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were simultaneously found in the nanosize alumina products, which may give some detail information of the wide variety of reacting temperature of aluminum nanoparticles, while Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was detected in micrometer alumina products, which also gives some dynamic information of aluminum to alumina, i.e., aluminas have actually reacted with the free active carbon atoms to produce their intermediates. The microstructure of aluminas induced by the incident shock waves was detected and analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum. These results are an additive evidence to support that the initial stage sintering of the alumina nanosize powders is dominated by grain boundary diffusion, while the volume diffusion is the main character for the initial stage sintering of the micrometer alumina powders.

  20. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  1. Nanometer-resolution electron microscopy through micrometers-thick water layers

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Niels; Poirier-Demers, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Peckys, Diana B.; Drouin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to image gold nanoparticles on top of and below saline water layers of several micrometers thickness. The smallest gold nanoparticles studied had diameters of 1.4 nm and were visible for a liquid thickness of up to 3.3 µm. The imaging of gold nanoparticles below several micrometers of liquid was limited by broadening of the electron probe caused by scattering of the electron beam in the liquid. The experimental data corresponded to analytical models of the resolution and of the electron probe broadening, as function of the liquid thickness. The results were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations of the STEM imaging on modeled specimens of similar geometry and composition as used for the experiments. Applications of STEM imaging in liquid can be found in cell biology, e.g., to study tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells in liquid, and in materials science to study the interaction of solid:liquid interfaces at the nanoscale. PMID:20542380

  2. Design, microfabrication, and analysis of micrometer-sized cylindrical ion trap arrays.

    PubMed

    Cruz, D; Chang, J P; Fico, M; Guymon, A J; Austin, D E; Blain, M G

    2007-01-01

    A description of the design and microfabrication of arrays of micrometer-scale cylindrical ion traps is offered. Electrical characterization and initial ion trapping experiments with a massively parallel array of 5 microm internal radius (r(0)) sized cylindrical ion traps (CITs) are also described. The ion trap, materials, and design are presented and shown to be critical in achieving minimal trapping potential while maintaining minimal power consumption. The ion traps, fabricated with metal electrodes, have inner radii of 1, 2, 5, and 10 microm and range from 5 to 24 microm in height. The electrical characteristics of packaged ion trap arrays were measured with a vector network analyzer. The testing focused on trapping toluene (C(7)H(8)), mass 91, 92, or 93 amu, in the 5 microm sized CITs. Ions were formed via electron impact ionization and were ejected by turning off the rf voltage applied to the ring electrode; a current signal was collected at this time. Optimum ionization and trapping conditions, such as a sufficient pseudopotential well and high ionization to ion loss rate ratio (as determined by simulation), proved to be difficult to establish due to the high device capacitance and the presence of exposed dielectric material in the trapping region. However, evidence was obtained suggesting the trapping of ions in 1%-15% of the traps in the array. These first tests on micrometer-scale CITs indicated the necessary materials and device design modifications for realizing ultrasmall and low power ion traps.

  3. Filtration of bioaerosols using a granular metallic filter with micrometer-sized collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Damit, Brian E; Bischoff, Brian L; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental studies with granular bed filters composed of micrometer-sized spherical or sintered metallic granules have demonstrated their use in aerosol filtration. However, the effectiveness of these metallic membrane filters against bioaerosols has not been established. In this work, the filtration efficiency and filter quality of these filters against airborne B. subtilis endospore and MS2 virus were determined as a function of face velocity and loading time. In experiments, a physical removal efficiency greater than 99.9% and a viable removal efficiency of greater than 5-log were observed for both bacterial spore and viral aerosols. A lower face velocity produced both higher collection efficiency and filter quality for virus but was not statistically significant for spore filtration. Although the filter had high filtration efficiency of the test bioaerosols, the filter's high pressure drop resulted in a low filter quality (0.25-0.75 kPa- 1). Overall, filters with micrometer-sized collectors capture bioaerosols effectively but their applications in aerosol filtration may be limited by their high pressure drop.

  4. Design and analysis of a laser micrometer for undulator gap measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khullar, Roma; Tiwari, Shradha; Bhanage, Viraj P.; Mishra, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report the design of a laser micrometer for undulator gap measurement studies. In this scheme, the parallel light emerging from the rotating polygon mirror passes through an F-theta lens makes a vertical line on the image plane. When an object intercepts the line, the interrupted and the uninterrupted light is detected in a DSO through a detector. The beam spot size and the linear velocity of the beam spot on the scan line are the two important parameters of the laser micrometer. The beam spot size measurements show that it is constant along the scan line for a number of RPMs. It measures a constant value at ±3 mm to the effective focal length of the F-theta lens. The measurements are verified for two types of objects i.e. solid object and a circular hole and also for an electromagnet undulator. The electromagnet undulator is measured with an accuracy of 3-5 μm.

  5. Reactions of etched, single crystal (111)B-oriented InP to produce functionalized surfaces with low electrical defect densities

    SciTech Connect

    Sturzenegger, M.; Prokopuk, N.; Kenyon, C.N.; Royea, W.J.; Lewis, N.S.

    1999-12-09

    Synthetic routes have been developed that allow attachment of a variety of functional groups to etched, single-crystal InP surfaces. Benzyl halides, alkyl halides, silyl halides, and esters reacted readily with InP to yield covalently attached overlayers on the semiconductor surface. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the functionalization chemistry was consistent with the reactivity of surficial hydroxyl groups. Analysis of the XP spectra of the (111)B-oriented (P-rich) face in ultrahigh vacuum revealed signals ascribable to a monolayer of oxidized P atoms on the etched (111)B InP surface. The lack of reactivity of the (111)A-oriented (In-rich) face with these same functionalization reagents is therefore attributed to the difference in the nucleophilicity and acidity of the In and P oxides that are present on the (111)A and (111)B faces, respectively. The coverage of benzylic groups obtained through functionalization of (111)B-oriented InP with benzyl halides was estimated to be 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2}. This coverage implies that the functionalization can only proceed at alternate surface P atom sites in this system, which is expected from molecular packing considerations of these particular functional groups. Photoluminescence decay measurements were performed to investigate the electrical properties of the etched and modified InP surfaces, and these data indicated that the surface recombination velocity of the functionalized InP surface was {approx}10{sup 2} cm s{sup {minus}1}. This low surface recombination velocity implies that <1 electrically active defect is present for every 10{sup 5} atoms on the modified InP surface, indicating that high electrical quality can be maintained while introducing a variety of chemical functionalities onto the (111)B surface of InP.

  6. The Synaptojanin-like Protein Inp53/Sjl3 Functions with Clathrin in a Yeast TGN-to-Endosome Pathway Distinct from the GGA Protein-dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seon-Ah; Torabinejad, Javad; DeWald, Daryll B.; Wenk, Markus R.; Lucast, Louise; De Camilli, Pietro; Newitt, Richard A.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Nothwehr, Steven F.

    2003-01-01

    Yeast TGN resident proteins that frequently cycle between the TGN and endosomes are much more slowly transported to the prevacuolar/late endosomal compartment (PVC) than other proteins. However, TGN protein transport to the PVC is accelerated in mutants lacking function of Inp53p. Inp53p contains a SacI polyphosphoinositide phosphatase domain, a 5-phosphatase domain, and a proline-rich domain. Here we show that all three domains are required to mediate “slow delivery” of TGN proteins into the PVC. Although deletion of the proline-rich domain did not affect general membrane association, it caused localization to become less specific. The proline-rich domain was shown to bind to two proteins, including clathrin heavy chain, Chc1p. Unlike chc1 mutants, inp53 mutants do not mislocalize TGN proteins to the cell surface, consistent with the idea that Chc1p and Inp53p act at a common vesicular trafficking step but that Chc1p is used at other steps also. Like mutations in the AP-1 adaptor complex, mutations in INP53 exhibit synthetic growth and transport defects when combined with mutations in the GGA proteins. Taken together with other recent studies, our results suggest that Inp53p and AP-1/clathrin act together in a TGN-to-early endosome pathway distinct from the direct TGN-to-PVC pathway mediated by GGA/clathrin. PMID:12686590

  7. Dynamics of the cascade capture of electrons by charged donors in GaAs and InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Gavrilenko, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The times for the cascade capture of an electron by a charged impurity have been calculated for pulsed and stationary excitations of impurity photoconductivity in GaAs and InP. The characteristic capture times under pulsed and continuous excitations are shown to differ noticeably both from each other and from the value given by the Abakumov-Perel-Yassievich formula for a charged impurity concentration greater than 1010 cm-3. The cause of this difference has been established. The Abakumov-Perel-Yassievich formula for the cascade capture cross section in the case of stationary excitation has been generalized. The dependences of the cascade capture rate on the charged impurity concentration in GaAs and InP have been found for three temperatures in the case of pulsed excitation.

  8. Self-catalyzed growth of pure zinc blende 〈110〉 InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia Li, Junshuai; Wu, Yao; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-07-13

    We demonstrate the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth of 〈110〉 InP nanowires (NWs) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The 〈110〉 InP nanowire is formed via a spontaneous kinking from the original 〈111〉 growth direction, which is attributed to instabilities at the liquid/solid interface caused by a fast In incorporation into the droplet. The NW length before kinking has a nearly linear relationship with the diameter, offering a way to control the NW morphology for different applications. The 〈110〉 nanowire exhibits pure zinc blende crystal structure and a narrower emission linewidth in comparison with a typical 〈111〉 nanowire, demonstrating its potential applications in high-performance electronic and photonic devices.

  9. Current impulse response of thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes using full band structure Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, A. H.; Cheang, P. L.

    2007-02-01

    A random response time model to compute the statistics of the avalanche buildup time of double-carrier multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using full band structure Monte Carlo (FBMC) method is discussed. The effect of feedback impact ionization process and the dead-space effect on random response time are included in order to simulate the speed of APD. The time response of InP p+-i-n+ diodes with the multiplication region of 0.2μm is presented. Finally, the FBMC model is used to calculate the current impulse response of the thin InP p+-i-n+ diodes with multiplication lengths of 0.05 and 0.2μm using Ramo's theorem [Proc. IRE 27, 584 (1939)]. The simulated current impulse response of the FBMC model is compared to the results simulated from a simple Monte Carlo model.

  10. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of ZnxCd1-xSnP2 on InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. A.; Wolfe, C. M.

    1982-05-01

    The chalcopyrite alloy ZnxCd1-xSnP2 is a potentially use-ful electronic material. In addition to having effective masses lower than and energy gaps similar to its III-V compound analogs, this alloy can also be lattice matched to InP. We have used an open-tube, sliding-boat, liquid-phase system to grow ZnxCd1-xSnP2 epitaxially on InP sub-strates. Unintentionally-doped layers have electron con-centrations as high as 3 × 1019cm-3 with mobility values of about 2,000 cm2/V-sec. These mobility values are sub-stantially larger than have been obtained in the equivalent III-V materials at similar concentrations.

  11. Annealing-related conductivity conversion in lightly Fe-doped n-type InP wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Fornari, R.; Zappettini, A.; Gombia, E.; Mosca, R.; Curti, M.

    1996-12-31

    As-grown semiconducting InP wafers containing iron at a level between 5 and 8 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} were seen to convert to semi-insulating, with high resistivity and good mobility, after a thermal treatment at 900 C. This fact is interesting since it allows the preparation of semi-insulating InP with Fe content substantially lower than in standard LEC material. In this paper the authors report the annealing parameters and the results of an extensive electro-optical characterization of the treated samples. The experimental results suggest that the conductivity drop is mainly due to a considerable loss of shallow donors.

  12. Non-destructive, ultra-low resistance, thermally stable contacts for use on shallow junction InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Fatemi, N. S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Contact formation to InP is plagued by violent metal-semiconductor intermixing that takes place during the contact sintering process. Because of this the InP solar cell cannot be sintered after contact deposition. This results in cell contact resistances that are orders of magnitude higher than those that could be achieved if sintering could be performed in a non-destructive manner. We report here on a truly unique contact system involving Au and Ge, which is easily fabricated, which exhibits extremely low values of contact resistivity, and in which there is virtually no metal-semiconductor interdiffusion, even after extended sintering. We present a description of this contact system and suggest possible mechanisms to explain the observed behavior.

  13. Chemical nature of silicon nitride-indium phosphide interface and rapid thermal annealing for InP MISFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, M. D.; Kapoor, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process in pure N2 or pure H2 was developed for ion-implanted and encapsulated indium phosphide compound semiconductors, and the chemical nature at the silicon nitride-InP interface before and after RTA was examined using XPS. Results obtained from SIMS on the atomic concentration profiles of the implanted silicon in InP before and after RTA are presented, together with electrical characteristics of the annealed implants. Using the RTA process developed, InP metal-insulator semiconductor FETs (MISFETS) were fabricated. The MISFETS prepared had threshold voltages of +1 V, transconductance of 27 mS/mm, peak channel mobility of 1200 sq cm/V per sec, and drain current drift of only 7 percent.

  14. The LANDSAT system operated in Brazil by CNPq/INPE - results obtained in the area of mapping and future perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT system, operated in the country by CNPg/INPE since 1973, systematically acquires, produces, and distributes both multispectral and panchromatic images obtained through remote sensing satellites to thousands of researchers and technicians involved in the natural resources survey. To cooperate in the solution of national problems, CNPq/INPE is developing efforts in the area of manipulation of those images with the objective of making them useful as planimetric bases for the simple revision of already published maps or for its utilization as basic material in regions not yet reliability mapped. The results obtained from performed tests are presented and the existing limitations are discussed. The new system purchased to handle data from the next series of LANDSAT as well as from MAPSAT and SPOT which will be in operation within the 80's decade, and are designed not only for natural resources survey but also for the solution of cartographic problems.

  15. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies for Zn diffusion into undoped and S-doped InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, H. S.; Serreze, H. B.

    1987-12-01

    We present results of open tube Zn diffusion into undoped and S-doped n-type InP over the temperature range 550-675 °C. The process yields reproducible results which are consistent with an interstitial-substitutional diffusion model. For the undoped samples, an activation energy of 1.52 eV and a diffusion constant of 4.9×10-2 cm2/s are obtained. For heavily S-doped samples, values of 2.34 eV and 1.4×103 cm2/s, respectively, result. The difference in activation energy which is comparable to the Fermi level difference in the two substrate types is consistent with the different diffusion mechanisms which occur in these two types of InP.

  16. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  17. Characterization of ion-irradiation-induced nanodot structures on InP surfaces by atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Gnaser, Hubert; Radny, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar(+) ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence the samples were exposed to was varied from 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 3 × 10(18)cm(-2) and ion flux densities f of (0.4-2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1) were used. Nanodot structures were found to evolve on the surface from these ion irradiations, their dimensions however, depend on the specific bombardment conditions. The resulting surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius, height, and spacing of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that by APT the composition of individual InP nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of ~1 nm and amount to 1.3-1.8. However, several aspects critical for the analyses were identified: (i) because of the small dimensions of these nanostructures a successful tip preparation proved very challenging. (ii) The elemental compositions obtained from APT were found to be influenced pronouncedly by the laser pulse energy; typically, low energies result in the correct stoichiometry whereas high ones lead to an inhomogeneous evaporation from the tips and deviations from the nominal composition. (iii) Depending again on the laser energy, a prolific emission of Pn cluster ions was observed, with n ≤ 11. PMID:25980895

  18. Characterization of ion-irradiation-induced nanodot structures on InP surfaces by atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Gnaser, Hubert; Radny, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar(+) ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence the samples were exposed to was varied from 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 3 × 10(18)cm(-2) and ion flux densities f of (0.4-2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1) were used. Nanodot structures were found to evolve on the surface from these ion irradiations, their dimensions however, depend on the specific bombardment conditions. The resulting surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius, height, and spacing of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that by APT the composition of individual InP nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of ~1 nm and amount to 1.3-1.8. However, several aspects critical for the analyses were identified: (i) because of the small dimensions of these nanostructures a successful tip preparation proved very challenging. (ii) The elemental compositions obtained from APT were found to be influenced pronouncedly by the laser pulse energy; typically, low energies result in the correct stoichiometry whereas high ones lead to an inhomogeneous evaporation from the tips and deviations from the nominal composition. (iii) Depending again on the laser energy, a prolific emission of Pn cluster ions was observed, with n ≤ 11.

  19. Growth of InP single crystals by liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) using glassy-carbon crucibles

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, C.E.M. de; Miskys, C.R.; Carvalho, M.M.G. de

    1996-12-31

    Using a high pressure puller and Glassy-Carbon crucibles, undoped InP single crystals weighing 100g and with 25 mm diameter were grown in the <100> direction. The residual carrier concentration of samples, measure by the Van der Pauw method at 300K, was about 5 {times} 10{sup 15}cm{sup {minus}3}, result as good as those obtained with Quartz crucibles with the advantage that Glassy-Carbon crucibles are fully reusable.

  20. Characteristics of highly stacked InAs quantum-dot laser grown on vicinal (001)InP substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    We fabricate broad-area laser diodes consisting of 30-layer stacks of InAs quantum dots by using a strain-compensation technique on a vicinal (001)InP substrate. These laser diodes exhibit ground-state lasing at 1576 nm in the pulsed mode with a high characteristic temperature of 111 K at around room temperature (20-80 °C).

  1. Improved dot size uniformity and luminescense of InAs quantum dots on InP substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Uhl, D.

    2002-01-01

    InAs self-organized quantum dots have been grown in InGaAs quantum well on InP substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed of quantum dot formation with dot density of 3X10(sup 10) cm(sup -2). Improved dot size uniformity and strong room temperature photoluminescence up to 2 micron were observed after modifying the InGaAs well.

  2. A rational route to synthesize BiS nanorods in large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Duoli; Yuan, XinSong; Yang, BaoJun; Qian, Yitai

    2008-12-01

    Bismuth sulfide nanorods were synthesized on a large scale via a simple self-sacrificing template route, by the direct reaction between the pre-prepared precursor metallic bismuth NT arrays and thiourea (Tu) in air at 100 ∘C for 16 h. XRD, TEM, SEM and HRTEM characterizations show that the prepared Bi 2S 3 samples are all phase pure and the Bi 2S 3 nanorods have uniform diameters of approximately 30-50 nm and lengths up to several micrometers.

  3. 158 micrometers (CII) mapping of NGC 6946: Probing the atomic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, S. C.; Geis, N.; Genzel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The strong 158 micrometers (C2) cooling line of the NGC 6946 galaxy is investigated. The data was acquired with a far infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer with 55 minutes resolution. About 1 percent of the total far infrared luminosity of the galaxy is analyzed. The (C2) emission comes from a mizture of components of interstellar gas. The brightest emission is associated with the nucleus, a second component traces the spiral arms and the largest star forming/H2 regions contained within them, and a third extended component of low brightness can be detected at least 12 kpc from the nucleus. The nuclear and spiral arm components are most likely associated with dense photon dominated regions at molecular cloud surfaces that are exposed to ultraviolet radiation produced by young massive stars. The (C2) emission is analyzed and the cooling rate in the atomic medium is consistent with photoelectric heating by diffuse ultraviolet radiation.

  4. Micrometer-Thick Graphene Oxide-Layered Double Hydroxide Nacre-Inspired Coatings and Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Yan, You-Xian; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-02-10

    Robust, functional, and flame retardant coatings are attractive in various fields such as building construction, food packaging, electronics encapsulation, and so on. Here, strong, colorful, and fire-retardant micrometer-thick hybrid coatings are reported, which can be constructed via an enhanced layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets. The fabricated GO-LDH hybrid coatings show uniform nacre-like layered structures that endow them good mechanic properties with Young's modulus of ≈ 18 GPa and hardness of ≈ 0.68 GPa. In addition, the GO-LDH hybrid coatings exhibit nacre-like iridescence and attractive flame retardancy as well due to their well-defined 2D microstructures. This kind of nacre-inspired GO-LDH hybrid thick coatings will be applied in various fields in future due to their high strength and multifunctionalities.

  5. Stimulated Raman scattering in micrometer-sized droplets: time-resolved measurements.

    PubMed

    Pinnick, R G; Biswas, A; Chyălek, P; Armstrong, R L; Latifi, H; Creegan, E; Srivastava, V; Jarzembski, M; Fernández, G

    1988-06-01

    Time-resolved measurements of elastic scattering and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in micrometer-sized water and carbon tetrachloride droplets irradiated with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (pulse width 8 nsec, lambda = 532 nm, peak intensity ~1 GW cm(-2)) are reported. Elastic scattering of light is instantaneous within our measurement error, estimated to be <+/-3 nsec. On the other hand, the first Stokes shift in water and multiple-order (through ninth-order) Stokes shifts in carbon tetrachloride are delayed from the elastically scattered light by 5-7 nsec. The delay in SRS is apparently a consequence of structure resonances within the droplet, which acts as an optical cavity with relatively high Q. Quasi-periodic peaks in SRS spectra of water droplets are shown to be associated with elastic-scattering structure resonances having the same mode order.

  6. Observations of Descartes ring stimulated Raman scattering in micrometer-sized water droplets.

    PubMed

    Xie, J G; Ruekgauer, T E; Gu, J; Armstrong, R L; Pinnick, R G

    1991-09-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) from micrometer-sized droplets, which results from coupling of spontaneous Raman emission to droplet morphology-dependent resonances (MDR's), exhibits unique characteristics. Spatial patterns consist of bright SRS arcs on the droplet rim. A second source of SRS emission has recently been observed from a ringlike region encircling the droplet axis near the geometric focus (the Descartes ring). Investigation of the time and spectral characteristics of Descartes ring SRS and its suppression by the addition of absorptive dye to the droplet reveals it to be an additional manifestation of droplet MDR's. We conjecture that the Descartes ring results when the MDR light is scattered by refractive-index inhomogeneities produced by the intense pump field within the droplet.

  7. Friability and crushing strength of micrometer-size diamond abrasives used in microgrinding of optical glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yiyang; Takahashi, Toshio; Quesnel, David J.; Funkenbusch, Paul D.

    1996-04-01

    In abrasive grinding, the properties of the abrasives and their response to impact loading play a significant role in determining the results achievable. For micrometer-size diamond abrasives used for bound-abrasive microgrinding of optical glass, friability testing is used to estimate the related particle properties. Friability and crushing strength of diamond abrasives are estimated based on the data from comminution of sample powders on a commercial SPEX mixer/mill. Different diamond abrasives as well as a CBN abrasive are tested. Evolution of powder size and size distribution with comminution time is characterized with a HORIBA laser scattering analyzer. Correlation is established for the impact stress and the probability of fracture during comminution. This study demonstrates how to combine the ease of data acquisition found in a conventional friability test with the capability of predicting specific mechanical properties normally found only by crushing individual abrasive particles.

  8. Imaging Nano- and Micrometer-sized Magnetic Insulator Devices in the Presence of Spin-Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Jermain, Colin; Nowack, Katja; Kirtley, John; Paik, Hanjong; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Heron, John; Schlom, Darrell; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Dan; Moler, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Recent results demonstrate that a giant spin-hall effect in Tantalum can produce large spin torques. We intend to employ this large spin torque to manipulate the magnetic moment in electrically insulating ferrimagnetic Lu3Fe5O12(LuIG)andY3Fe5O12 (YIG) devices. Using a scanning SQUID microscope, we can study the possibility of performing reversible switching between magnetic states of nano- and micrometer-sized iron garnet devices induced by current pulses applied to a Tantalum layer in contact with the devices by directly imaging the magnetic state of the device before and after a current pulse. Successful manipulation of magnetic insulators by electrical pulses can be a platform for magnetic memory devices and spintronics.

  9. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  10. Micrometer-Thick Graphene Oxide-Layered Double Hydroxide Nacre-Inspired Coatings and Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Yan, You-Xian; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-02-10

    Robust, functional, and flame retardant coatings are attractive in various fields such as building construction, food packaging, electronics encapsulation, and so on. Here, strong, colorful, and fire-retardant micrometer-thick hybrid coatings are reported, which can be constructed via an enhanced layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets. The fabricated GO-LDH hybrid coatings show uniform nacre-like layered structures that endow them good mechanic properties with Young's modulus of ≈ 18 GPa and hardness of ≈ 0.68 GPa. In addition, the GO-LDH hybrid coatings exhibit nacre-like iridescence and attractive flame retardancy as well due to their well-defined 2D microstructures. This kind of nacre-inspired GO-LDH hybrid thick coatings will be applied in various fields in future due to their high strength and multifunctionalities. PMID:26682698

  11. Observation of fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction in micrometer-sized tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yu-Ren; Yu, Kai-Fu; Lin, Yong-Han; Wu, Jong-Ching; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Micrometer-sized Al/AlOx/Y tunnel junctions were fabricated by the electron-beam lithography technique. The thin (≈ 1.5-2 nm thickness) insulating AlOx layer was grown on top of the Al base electrode by O2 glow discharge. The zero-bias conductances G(T) and the current-voltage characteristics of the junctions were measured in a wide temperature range 1.5-300 K. In addition to the direct tunneling conduction mechanism observed in low-G junctions, high-G junctions reveal a distinct charge transport process which manifests the thermally fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction (FITC) through short nanoconstrictions. We ascribe the experimental realization of the FITC mechanism to originating from the formations of "hot spots" (incomplete pinholes) in the AlOx layer owing to large junction-barrier interfacial roughness.

  12. Surface Dipole Formation and Lowering of the Work Function by Cs Adsorption on InP(100) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Liu, Z.; Pianetta, P.

    2007-06-08

    The Cs adsorption on InP(100) surface is studied with Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The charge transfer from Cs to the InP substrate is observed from the Cs induced In4d and P2p components, and this charge transfer results in surface dipole formation and lowering of the work function. The Cs4d intensity saturates at coverage of one monolayer (ML). However, a break point is observed at 0.5 ML, which coincides with the achievement of the minimum work function. This break point is due to the different vertical placement of the first and the second half monolayer of Cs atoms. Based on this information, a simple bi-layer structure for the Cs layer is presented. This bi-layer structure is consistent with the behavior of the charge transfer from the Cs to the InP substrate at different Cs coverages. This, in turn, explains why the work function decreases to a minimum at 0.5 ML of Cs and remains almost constant beyond this coverage. The depolarization of the surface dipoles is attributed to the saturation of charge transfer to the surface In atoms and the polarization of the Cs atoms in the second half monolayer induced by the positively charged Cs atoms in the first half monolayer.

  13. Plasma etching processes for the integration of InP based compounds on 200mm Si wafer for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargon, E.; Gay, G.; Petit-Etienne, C.; Brihoum, M.; Bizouerne, M.; Burtin, P.; Barnola, S.

    2016-03-01

    Ar/Cl2/CH4 gas mixture has been investigated for the development of plasma etching process dedicated to the patterning of 3μm-deep InP structures integrated on 200mm SiO2 carrier wafer. The plasma process requirements are: high InP etch rates (>500nm.min-1), high InP/SiO2 selectivity (<40), anisotropic profiles and smooth bottom and sidewalls surfaces. The process development mainly focuses on the impact of the gas ratio and gas flow on the etch rates, selectivity, pattern profile and surface roughness. It is demonstrated that the CH4 flow drives the process performance and that by adjusting it properly, a narrow process window provides acceptable selectivity of 25, anisotropic profiles and smooth surface. The difficulty of the process development using Ar/Cl2/CH4 gas mixture is to combine high InP/SiO2 selectivity and anisotropic profiles since to passivate efficiently the InP sidewalls and prevent from lateral etching, it seems that a SiOC like deposition is needed, which is only possible if the SiO2 wafer is etched.

  14. Application of nano-EBIC to the characterization of GaAs and InP homojunctions.

    PubMed

    Smaali, K; Troyon, M

    2008-04-16

    High resolution electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) analyses were carried out on InP and GaAs substrates with a home-made atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). With this scanning nano-EBIC microscope, a sample can be conventionally imaged by SEM, its local topography investigated by AFM and nano-EBIC image simultaneously obtained. In this study, we report the utilization of nano-EBIC microscopy for imaging and characterizing GaAs and InP homojunctions. I-V characteristic measurements allow understanding of the electrical behavior of the AFM tip-sample contact. The electron probe intensity must be larger than about 100 pA to be able to generate an induced current because of the surface states which act as non-radiative recombination centers. The minority carrier diffusion length of InP and GaAs is measured and compared for different electron probe currents and it is shown that the measurements are not perturbed by photon recycling, i.e. the self-absorption of photons that gives rise to an extra generation of electron-hole pairs.

  15. Electron beam induced damage in PECVD Si3N4 and SiO2 films on InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantic, Dragan M.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Young, Paul G.; Williams, Wallace D.; Dickman, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphorus rich plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films on n-type indium phosphide (InP) substrates were exposed to electron beam irradiation in the 5 to 40 keV range for the purpose of characterizing the damage induced in the dielectic. The electron beam exposure was on the range of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -3) C/sq cm. The damage to the devices was characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. These results were compared to results obtained for radiation damage of thermal silicon dioxide on silicon (Si) MOS capacitors with similar exposures. The radiation induced damage in the PECVD silicon nitride films on InP was successfully annealed out in an hydrogen/nitrogen (H2/N2) ambient at 400 C for 15 min. The PECVD silicon dioxide films on InP had the least radiation damage, while the thermal silicon dioxide films on Si had the most radiation damage.

  16. Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hannah J; Docherty, Callum J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2013-05-31

    We have performed a comparative study of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in a range of III-V nanowires using optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. This versatile technique allows measurement of important parameters for device applications, including carrier lifetimes, surface recombination velocities, carrier mobilities and donor doping levels. GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires of varying diameters were measured. For all samples, the electronic response was dominated by a pronounced surface plasmon mode. Of the three nanowire materials, InAs nanowires exhibited the highest electron mobilities of 6000 cm² V⁻¹ s⁻¹, which highlights their potential for high mobility applications, such as field effect transistors. InP nanowires exhibited the longest carrier lifetimes and the lowest surface recombination velocity of 170 cm s⁻¹. This very low surface recombination velocity makes InP nanowires suitable for applications where carrier lifetime is crucial, such as in photovoltaics. In contrast, the carrier lifetimes in GaAs nanowires were extremely short, of the order of picoseconds, due to the high surface recombination velocity, which was measured as 5.4 × 10⁵  cm s⁻¹. These findings will assist in the choice of nanowires for different applications, and identify the challenges in producing nanowires suitable for future electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Rapid thermal anneal in InP, GaAs and GaAs/GaAlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouts, B.; Duhamel, N.; Godefroy, S.; Krauz, P.

    Ion implantation in semiconductors provides a doping technique with several advantages over more conventional doping methods and is now extensively used for device applications, e.g. field effect transistors (MESFET GaAs, MIS (InP), GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT). Because of the lattice disorder produced by the implantation, the dopant must be made electrically active by a postimplant anneal. As the device performances are very dependent on its electrical characteristics, the anneal is a very important stage of the process. Rapid anneal is known to provide less exodiffusion and less induffusion of impurities compared to conventional furnace anneal, so this technique has been used in this work to activate an n-type dopant (Si) in InP and a p-type dopant (Mg) in GaAs and GaAs/GaAIAs. These two ions have been chosen to realize implanted MIS InP and the base contacts for GaAs/GaAlAs HBTs. The experimental conditions to obtain the maximum electrical activity in these two cases will be detailed. For example, although we have not been able to obtain a flat profile in Mg + implanted GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure by conventional thermal anneal, rapid thermal anneal gives a flat hole profile over a depth of 0.5 μm with a concentration of 1 x 10 19 cm -3.

  18. The Trp53-Trp53inp1-Tnfrsf10b Pathway Regulates the Radiation Response of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kei; Ishiai, Masamichi; Morimoto, Hiroko; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Niwa, Ohtsura; Takata, Minoru; Shinohara, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Germ cells are thought to exhibit a unique DNA damage response that differs from that of somatic stem cells, and previous studies suggested that Trp53 is not involved in the survival of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) after irradiation. Here, we report a critical role for the Trp53-Trp53inp1-Tnfrsf10b pathway during radiation-induced SSC apoptosis. Spermatogonial transplantation revealed that Trp53 deficiency increased the survival of SSCs after irradiation. Although Bbc3, a member of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, was implicated in apoptosis of germ and somatic stem cells, Bbc3 depletion inhibited apoptosis in committed spermatogonia, but not in SSCs. In contrast, inhibition of Tnfrsf10b, an extrinsic apoptosis regulator, rescued SSCs. Tnfrsf10b, whose deficiency protected SSCs, was upregulated by Trp53inp1 upon irradiation. These results suggest that the Trp53-Trp53inp1-Tnfrsf10b pathway responds to genotoxic damage in SSCs and that stem and progenitor cells exhibit distinct DNA damage responses in self-renewing tissue. PMID:25358794

  19. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality InSb on InP and GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.E.; Bhattacharya, P.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Tsukamoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of InSb were grown on InP and GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The dependence of the epilayer quality on flux ratio, J sub Sb4/J sub In, was studied. Deviation from an optimum value of J sub Sb4/J sub In (approx. 2) during growth led to deterioration in the surface morphology and the electrical and crystalline qualities of the films. Room temperature electron mobilities as high as 70,000 and 53,000 sq cm /V-s were measured in InSb layers grown on InP and GaAs substrates, respectively. Unlike the previous results, the conductivity in these films is n-type even at T = 13 K, and no degradation of the electron mobility due to the high density of dislocations was observed. The measured electron mobilities (and carrier concentrations) at 77 K in InSb layers grown on InP and GaAs substrates are 110,000 sq cm/V-s (3 x 10(15) cm(-3)) and 55,000 sq cm/V-s (4.95 x 10(15) cm(-3)), respectively, suggesting their application to electronic devices at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Design, microfabrication, and analysis of micrometer-sized cylindrical ion trap arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, D.; Chang, J. P.; Fico, M.; Guymon, A. J.; Austin, D. E.; Blain, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A description of the design and microfabrication of arrays of micrometer-scale cylindrical ion traps is offered. Electrical characterization and initial ion trapping experiments with a massively parallel array of 5μm internal radius (r0) sized cylindrical ion traps (CITs) are also described. The ion trap, materials, and design are presented and shown to be critical in achieving minimal trapping potential while maintaining minimal power consumption. The ion traps, fabricated with metal electrodes, have inner radii of 1, 2, 5, and 10μm and range from 5to24μm in height. The electrical characteristics of packaged ion trap arrays were measured with a vector network analyzer. The testing focused on trapping toluene (C7H8), mass 91, 92, or 93amu, in the 5μm sized CITs. Ions were formed via electron impact ionization and were ejected by turning off the rf voltage applied to the ring electrode; a current signal was collected at this time. Optimum ionization and trapping conditions, such as a sufficient pseudopotential well and high ionization to ion loss rate ratio (as determined by simulation), proved to be difficult to establish due to the high device capacitance and the presence of exposed dielectric material in the trapping region. However, evidence was obtained suggesting the trapping of ions in 1%-15% of the traps in the array. These first tests on micrometer-scale CITs indicated the necessary materials and device design modifications for realizing ultrasmall and low power ion traps.

  1. Design, microfabrication, and analysis of micrometer-sized cylindrical ion trap arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, D.; Chang, J. P.; Fico, M.; Guymon, A. J.; Austin, D. E.; Blain, M. G.

    2007-01-15

    A description of the design and microfabrication of arrays of micrometer-scale cylindrical ion traps is offered. Electrical characterization and initial ion trapping experiments with a massively parallel array of 5 {mu}m internal radius (r{sub 0}) sized cylindrical ion traps (CITs) are also described. The ion trap, materials, and design are presented and shown to be critical in achieving minimal trapping potential while maintaining minimal power consumption. The ion traps, fabricated with metal electrodes, have inner radii of 1, 2, 5, and 10 {mu}m and range from 5 to 24 {mu}m in height. The electrical characteristics of packaged ion trap arrays were measured with a vector network analyzer. The testing focused on trapping toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}), mass 91, 92, or 93 amu, in the 5 {mu}m sized CITs. Ions were formed via electron impact ionization and were ejected by turning off the rf voltage applied to the ring electrode; a current signal was collected at this time. Optimum ionization and trapping conditions, such as a sufficient pseudopotential well and high ionization to ion loss rate ratio (as determined by simulation), proved to be difficult to establish due to the high device capacitance and the presence of exposed dielectric material in the trapping region. However, evidence was obtained suggesting the trapping of ions in 1%-15% of the traps in the array. These first tests on micrometer-scale CITs indicated the necessary materials and device design modifications for realizing ultrasmall and low power ion traps.

  2. Controlling the magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale and generation of magnetic bead patterns for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xu; Feng, Xuan; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2011-04-19

    As is well known, controlling the local magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale in a microfluidic chip is significant and has many applications in bioanalysis based on magnetic beads. However, it is a challenge to tailor the magnetic field introduced by external permanent magnets or electromagnets on the micrometer scale. Here, we demonstrated a simple approach to controlling the local magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale in a microfluidic chip by nickel patterns encapsulated in a thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film under the fluid channel. With the precisely controlled magnetic field, magnetic bead patterns were convenient to generate. Moreover, two kinds of fluorescent magnetic beads were patterned in the microfluidic channel, which demonstrated that it was possible to generate different functional magnetic bead patterns in situ, and could be used for the detection of multiple targets. In addition, this method was applied to generate cancer cell patterns.

  3. Realistic multiband k .p approach from ab initio and spin-orbit coupling effects of InAs and InP in wurtzite phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Campos, Tiago; Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav; Sipahi, Guilherme M.

    2016-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires based on non-nitride III-V compounds can be synthesized under certain growth conditions to favor the appearance of the wurtzite crystal phase. Despite reports in the literature of ab initio band structures for these wurtzite compounds, we still lack effective multiband models and parameter sets that can be simply used to investigate physical properties of such systems, for instance, under quantum confinement effects. In order to address this deficiency, in this study we calculate the ab initio band structure of bulk InAs and InP in the wurtzite phase and develop an 8 ×8 k .p Hamiltonian to describe the energy bands around the Γ point. We show that our k .p model is robust and can be fitted to describe the important features of the ab initio band structure. The correct description of the spin-splitting effects that arise due to the lack of inversion symmetry in wurtzite crystals is obtained with the k -dependent spin-orbit term in the Hamiltonian, often neglected in the literature. All the energy bands display a Rashba-like spin texture for the in-plane spin expectation value. We also provide the density of states and the carrier density as functions of the Fermi energy. Alternatively, we show an analytical description of the conduction band, valid close to the Γ point. The same fitting procedure is applied to the 6 ×6 valence band Hamiltonian. However, we find that the most reliable approach is the 8 ×8 k .p Hamiltonian for both compounds. The k .p Hamiltonians and parameter sets that we develop in this paper provide a reliable theoretical framework that can be easily applied to investigate electronic, transport, optical, and spin properties of InAs- and InP-based nanostructures.

  4. Aerosol measurements during COPE: composition, size, and sources of CCN and INPs at the interface between marine and terrestrial influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan W.; Choularton, Thomas W.; Blyth, Alan M.; Flynn, Michael J.; Williams, Paul I.; Young, Gillian; Bower, Keith N.; Crosier, Jonathan; Gallagher, Martin W.; Dorsey, James R.; Liu, Zixia; Rosenberg, Philip D.

    2016-09-01

    Heavy rainfall from convective clouds can lead to devastating flash flooding, and observations of aerosols and clouds are required to improve cloud parameterisations used in precipitation forecasts. We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size, and composition from a series of research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We place emphasis on periods of southwesterly winds, which locally are most conducive to convective cloud formation, when marine air from the Atlantic reached the peninsula. Accumulation-mode aerosol mass loadings were typically 2-3 µg m-3 (corrected to standard cubic metres at 1013.25 hPa and 273.15 K), the majority of which was sulfuric acid over the sea, or ammonium sulfate inland, as terrestrial ammonia sources neutralised the aerosol. The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations in these conditions were ˜ 150-280 cm-3 at 0.1 % and 400-500 cm-3 at 0.9 % supersaturation (SST), which are in good agreement with previous Atlantic measurements, and the cloud drop concentrations at cloud base ranged from 100 to 500 cm-3. The concentration of CCN at 0.1 % SST was well correlated with non-sea-salt sulfate, meaning marine sulfate formation was likely the main source of CCN. Marine organic aerosol (OA) had a similar mass spectrum to previous measurements of sea spray OA and was poorly correlated with CCN. In one case study that was significantly different to the rest, polluted anthropogenic emissions from the southern and central UK advected to the peninsula, with significant enhancements of OA, ammonium nitrate and sulfate, and black carbon. The CCN concentrations here were around 6 times higher than in the clean cases, and the cloud drop number concentrations were 3-4 times higher. Sources of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were assessed by comparing different parameterisations used to predict INP concentrations, using measured

  5. Thin films of InP for photovoltaic energy conversion. Second quarterly technical progress report, September 29, 1979-December 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Manasevit, H M; Ruth, R P; Moudy, L A; Yang, J J.J.; Johnson, R E

    1980-01-01

    A research study is being conducted for the purpose of developing a low-cost high-efficiency thin-film InP heterojunction solar cell based on InP films grown by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) process on suitable substrates. Heterostructure devices of CdS/InP (and possibly indium-tin oxide/InP) are to be prepared at Stanford University using the MO-CVD InP films grown at Rockwell. The work of the second quarter of the program is summarized. Growth parameters have been established using new triethylindium, diethylzinc (DEZn), and PH/sub 3/ sources for the formation of Zn-doped p-type InP films in the modified MO-CVD reactor system. Appropriately doped films have been prepared and sent to Stanford for use in deposition of CdS layers. An investigation of the properties of grains and grain boundaries in polycrystalline InP films was begun using several polycrystalline film/substrate combinations, including tungsten (W) layers produced by roller coating and screen-printing on polycrystalline alumina, and mechanically abraded surfaces of single-crystal bulk InP:Fe wafers. An investigation was also undertaken into the use of GaP as an alternative intermediate-layer material to GaAs on low-cost substrates for subsequent growth of InP films. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis done on a group of specially prepared Zn-treated films of polycrystalline InP indicated the presence of Zn at surfaces of InP:Zn films grown on Al and/or heat-treated in high concentrations of DEZn at approx. 600/sup 0/C. However, no Zn was detected in polycrystalline films grown under deposition conditions that would be expected to produce highly doped p-type epitaxial films if single-crystal substrates were used.

  6. Broadband Phase-Sensitive Single InP Nanowire Photoconductive Terahertz Detectors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Boland, Jessica L; Gao, Qian; Wenas, Yesaya C; Davies, Christopher L; Li, Ziyuan; Fu, Lan; Johnston, Michael B; Tan, Hark H; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-08-10

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has emerged as a powerful tool for materials characterization and imaging. A trend toward size reduction, higher component integration, and performance improvement for advanced THz-TDS systems is of increasing interest. The use of single semiconducting nanowires for terahertz (THz) detection is a nascent field that has great potential to realize future highly integrated THz systems. In order to develop such components, optimized material optoelectronic properties and careful device design are necessary. Here, we present antenna-optimized photoconductive detectors based on single InP nanowires with superior properties of high carrier mobility (∼1260 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and low dark current (∼10 pA), which exhibit excellent sensitivity and broadband performance. We demonstrate that these nanowire THz detectors can provide high quality time-domain spectra for materials characterization in a THz-TDS system, a critical step toward future application in advanced THz-TDS system with high spectral and spatial resolution.

  7. Adaptation of the 70 kV INP ion implanter to the IBAD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajchel, B.; Drwiega, M.; Lipińska, E.; Wierba, M.

    1994-05-01

    The ion implanter facility of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow was used during many years in different fields of research and technical application. This laboratory type machine equipped with a mass analyzer gives the possibility to accelerate single charged ions of almost all the elements up to the energy of 70 keV with the beam current reaching (e.g. for N 2+) several mA. Mass resolution of the implanter is about 350, and the typical current density during implantation is in the range of 0.1 {μA}/{cm 2} to 100 {μA}/{cm 2}. Adaptation works at the INP implanter to the Ion Beam Assisted Deposition technique were performed. The present research activity due to the modified implanter includes: investigation of high temperature corrosion resistant surfaces (alloys of the type Al-Mo); investigation of special (e.g. ceramics, composites) thin layers produced on crystal surfaces; production of the surfaces of improved mechanical properties. Targets produced by the IBAD technique are investigated next by the RBS method using a 3 MV Van de Graaff setup at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow.

  8. Activation energy and capture cross section of majority carrier traps in Zn doped InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on Zn doped InP Wafers. The diodes were radiation damaged with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 2 x 10(exp 12)cm(sup -2). The damage was analyzed by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) using the double correlation technique. Capture cross sections were measured directly. Two major defects were observed in the DLTS spectra. The first defect, was H4 at Ev + 0.29 eV, with capture cross section 1.1 x 10(exp -17)cm(sup 2). The second defect, was H5 at Ev + 0.53 eV. Its capture cross section varied with temperature as described by the relationship sigma = sigma(sub 0) exp(delta(E)/kT) where sigma(sub 0) = 1.3 x 10(exp -19)cm(sup 2) and delta(E) = .08 eV. This relationship yields a sigma of 5.9 x 10(exp -21)cm(sup 2) at room temperature. The surprisingly small capture cross section of H5 and its temperature dependence are discussed in terms of the multiphonon emission process for carrier capture at the defect. The advantages of the improved experimental techniques used are also discussed.

  9. Direct observation of charge-carrier heating at WZ-ZB InP nanowire heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chaw Keong; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Joyce, Hannah J; Lloyd-Hughes, James; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2013-09-11

    We have investigated the dynamics of hot charge carriers in InP nanowire ensembles containing a range of densities of zinc-blende inclusions along the otherwise wurtzite nanowires. From time-dependent photoluminescence spectra, we extract the temperature of the charge carriers as a function of time after nonresonant excitation. We find that charge-carrier temperature initially decreases rapidly with time in accordance with efficient heat transfer to lattice vibrations. However, cooling rates are subsequently slowed and are significantly lower for nanowires containing a higher density of stacking faults. We conclude that the transfer of charges across the type II interface is followed by release of additional energy to the lattice, which raises the phonon bath temperature above equilibrium and impedes the carrier cooling occurring through interaction with such phonons. These results demonstrate that type II heterointerfaces in semiconductor nanowires can sustain a hot charge-carrier distribution over an extended time period. In photovoltaic applications, such heterointerfaces may hence both reduce recombination rates and limit energy losses by allowing hot-carrier harvesting.

  10. InP Nanoflag Growth from a Nanowire Template by in Situ Catalyst Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kelrich, Alexander; Sorias, Ofir; Calahorra, Yonatan; Kauffmann, Yaron; Gladstone, Ran; Cohen, Shimon; Orenstein, Meir; Ritter, Dan

    2016-04-13

    Quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor materials are desirable for electronic, photonic, and energy conversion applications as well as fundamental science. We report on the synthesis of indium phosphide flag-like nanostructures by epitaxial growth on a nanowire template at 95% yield. The technique is based on in situ catalyst unpinning from the top of the nanowire and its induced migration along the nanowire sidewall. Investigation of the mechanism responsible for catalyst movement shows that its final position is determined by the structural defect density along the nanowire. The crystal structure of the "flagpole" nanowire is epitaxially transferred to the nanoflag. Pure wurtzite InP nanomembranes with just a single stacking fault originating from the defect in the flagpole that pinned the catalyst were obtained. Optical characterization shows efficient highly polarized photoluminescence at room temperature from a single nanoflag with up to 90% degree of linear polarization. Electric field intensity enhancement of the incident light was calculated to be 57, concentrated at the nanoflag tip. The presented growth method is general and thus can be employed for achieving similar nanostructures in other III-V semiconductor material systems with potential applications in active nanophotonics. PMID:26999355

  11. Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

  12. A laser dry etch process for smooth continuous relief structures in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, H.; Matz, R.; Weimann, G.

    1996-11-01

    A laser induced etch process is described which uses a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser and Cl2 atmosphere for the fabrication of monolithic continuously curved reliefs in InP substrate. In a bakeable processing chamber with low base pressure a wide range of laser fluences is available for damage-free etching. Especially, by photothermal heating far above the melting point, mirrorlike smooth surfaces are obtained. The etch rate characteristics are correlated to the maximum surface temperature reached during the laser pulse. The etch rate is independent of pressure and gas flux in the ranges 0.1 10 mbar and 20 300 sccm, respectively. It increases, however, with the background substrate temperature. Etch rates of up to 3.6 nm/pulse or 4.3 lm/min are possible at 20 Hz pulse repetition rate without visible surface damage. The process exhibits a smooth increase of the etch rate from 1 to 3 nm/pulse between 200 and 300 mJ/cm2, which could be used for making curved reliefs by optical transmission variations on the projection mask.

  13. Evidence for two pinning mechanisms with noble metals on InP(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, R.; Miyano, K.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.

    1989-05-01

    Interfacial chemistry and Fermi-level movement for interfaces of noble metals on InP(110) prepared at room temperature (RT) and 80 K low temperature (LT) have been examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. An interfacial reaction is detected for all the RT interfaces as well as the LT Cu/InP interface, and the Fermi levels are pinned at 0.95 eV above the valence-band maximum (VBM). However, for LT Au/InP and Ag/InP, no reaction is seen, and the Fermi level is pinned around 0.7 eV above the VBM. The 0.7-eV pinning position at the near ideal LT Au/InP and Ag/InP interface is associated with metal induced gap states (MIGS), whereas, that at 0.95 eV is associated with defects formed during the interfacial reaction. These results indicate that both MIGS and defects can be important in the Fermi-level pinning and that the former is dominant only when the defect density is sufficiently low.

  14. Temporal and spatial evolution of nuclear polarization in optically pumped InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.; Klug, C. A.; Sauer, K. L.; Yesinowski, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    The electron-nuclear interaction in optically pumped NMR of semiconductors manifests itself through changes in spectral features (resonance shifts, linewidths, signal amplitudes) and through the magnitude of the nuclear-spin polarization. We show that these spectral features can provide a measure of the parameters that govern the optical pumping process: electron-nuclear cross-relaxation rate, Bohr radius and fractional occupancy of the optically relevant defect (ORD), and electron polarization at the ORD. Applying a model of the spatial and temporal evolution of the nuclear spins under optical pumping to 31 P in semi-insulating InP we find an ORD Bohr radius of 6 nm, independent of the electron polarization used to fit the data, confirming the ORD is a shallow donor. For an electron polarization of -0.15 , the ORD fractional occupancy is 0.02, leading to an electron-nuclear cross-relaxation time of 0.20 s and a hyperfine frequency shift of 8.1 kHz for super-bandgap irradiation. Allowing the electron polarization to vary in the model constrained to the hyperfine shift data, we find the fractional occupancy and electron-nuclear cross-relaxation rate to be approximately inversely proportional to the electron polarization. From the long-time evolution of the nuclear polarization we calculate an ORD density of 5 ×1015cm-3 .

  15. Doping evaluation of InP nanowires for tandem junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindelöw, F.; Heurlin, M.; Otnes, G.; Dagytė, V.; Lindgren, D.; Hultin, O.; Storm, K.; Samuelson, L.; Borgström, M.

    2016-02-01

    In order to push the development of nanowire-based solar cells further using optimized nanowire diameter and pitch, a doping evaluation of the nanowire geometry is necessary. We report on a doping evaluation of n-type InP nanowires with diameters optimized for light absorption, grown by the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in particle-assisted growth mode using tetraethyltin (TESn) as the dopant precursor. The charge carrier concentration was evaluated using four-probe resistivity measurements and spatially resolved Hall measurements. In order to reach the highest possible nanowire doping level, we set the TESn molar fraction at a high constant value throughout growth and varied the trimethylindium (TMIn) molar fraction for different runs. Analysis shows that the charge carrier concentration in nanowires grown with the highest TMIn molar fraction (not leading to kinking nanowires) results in a low carrier concentration of approximately 1016 cm-3. By decreasing the molar fraction of TMIn, effectively increasing the IV/III ratio, the carrier concentration increases up to a level of about 1019 cm-3, where it seems to saturate. Axial carrier concentration gradients along the nanowires are found, which can be correlated to a combination of changes in the nanowire growth rate, measured in situ by optical reflectometry, and polytypism of the nanowires observed in transmission electron microscopy.

  16. An ab initio study of the polytypism in InP

    PubMed Central

    Dacal, Luis C. O.; Cantarero, A.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of polytypism in semiconductor nanostructures gives rise to the appearance of stacking faults which many times can be treated as quantum wells. In some cases, despite of a careful growth, the polytypism can be hardly avoided. In this work, we perform an ab initio study of zincblende stacking faults in a wurtzite InP system, using the supercell approach and taking the limit of low density of narrow stacking faults regions. Our results confirm the type II band alignment between the phases, producing a reliable qualitative description of the band gap evolution along the growth axis. These results show an spacial asymmetry in the zincblende quantum wells, that is expected due to the fact that the wurtzite stacking sequence (ABAB) is part of the zincblende one (ABCABC), but with an unexpected asymmetry between the valence and the conduction bands. We also present results for the complex dielectric function, clearly showing the influence of the stacking on the homostructure values and surprisingly proving that the correspondent bulk results can be used to reproduce the polytypism even in the limit we considered. PMID:27666092

  17. Passive and electro-optic polymer photonics and InP electronics integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Katopodis, V.; Groumas, P.; Konczykowska, A.; Dupuy, J.-.; Beretta, A.; Dede, A.; Miller, E.; Choi, J. H.; Harati, P.; Jorge, F.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Dinu, R.; Cangini, G.; Vannucci, A.; Felipe, D.; Maese-Novo, A.; Keil, N.; Bach, H.-.; Schell, Martin; Avramopoulos, H.; Kouloumentas, Ch.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid photonic integration allows individual components to be developed at their best-suited material platforms without sacrificing the overall performance. In the past few years a polymer-enabled hybrid integration platform has been established, comprising 1) EO polymers for constructing low-complexity and low-cost Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) with extremely high modulation bandwidth; 2) InP components for light sources, detectors, and high-speed electronics including MUX drivers and DEMUX circuits; 3) Ceramic (AIN) RF board that links the electronic signals within the package. On this platform, advanced optoelectronic modules have been demonstrated, including serial 100 Gb/s [1] and 2x100 Gb/s [2] optical transmitters, but also 400 Gb/s optoelectronic interfaces for intra-data center networks [3]. To expand the device functionalities to an unprecedented level and at the same time improve the integration compatibility with diversified active / passive photonic components, we have added a passive polymer-based photonic board (polyboard) as the 4th material system. This passive polyboard allows for low-cost fabrication of single-mode waveguide networks, enables fast and convenient integration of various thin-film elements (TFEs) to control the light polarization, and provides efficient thermo-optic elements (TOEs) for wavelength tuning, light amplitude regulation and light-path switching.

  18. Doping evaluation of InP nanowires for tandem junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lindelöw, F; Heurlin, M; Otnes, G; Dagytė, V; Lindgren, D; Hultin, O; Storm, K; Samuelson, L; Borgström, M

    2016-02-12

    In order to push the development of nanowire-based solar cells further using optimized nanowire diameter and pitch, a doping evaluation of the nanowire geometry is necessary. We report on a doping evaluation of n-type InP nanowires with diameters optimized for light absorption, grown by the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in particle-assisted growth mode using tetraethyltin (TESn) as the dopant precursor. The charge carrier concentration was evaluated using four-probe resistivity measurements and spatially resolved Hall measurements. In order to reach the highest possible nanowire doping level, we set the TESn molar fraction at a high constant value throughout growth and varied the trimethylindium (TMIn) molar fraction for different runs. Analysis shows that the charge carrier concentration in nanowires grown with the highest TMIn molar fraction (not leading to kinking nanowires) results in a low carrier concentration of approximately 10(16) cm(-3). By decreasing the molar fraction of TMIn, effectively increasing the IV/III ratio, the carrier concentration increases up to a level of about 10(19) cm(-3), where it seems to saturate. Axial carrier concentration gradients along the nanowires are found, which can be correlated to a combination of changes in the nanowire growth rate, measured in situ by optical reflectometry, and polytypism of the nanowires observed in transmission electron microscopy. PMID:26762762

  19. DNA damage on nano- and micrometer scales impacts dicentric induction: computer modelling of ion microbeam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Schmitt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    Detailed understanding of the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions, in particular at high linear energy transfer (LET) values, is needed to fully explore the radiation risk of manned space missions. It is generally accepted that the enhanced RBE of high-LET particles results from the DNA lesion patterns, in particular DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), due to the spatial clustering of energy deposits around their trajectories. In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, however, clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale that is relevant for the induction and local complexity of DSB is inherently interlinked with regional (sub-)micrometer-scale DSB clustering along the particle tracks. Due to this limitation, the role of both (nano- and micrometer) scales on the induction of diverse biological endpoints cannot be frankly separated. To address this issue in a unique way, experiments at the ion microbeam SNAKE [1] and corresponding track-structure based model calculations of DSB induction and subsequent repair with the biophysical code PARTRAC [2] have been performed. In the experiments, hybrid human-hamster A_{L} cells were irradiated with 20 MeV (2.6 keV/μm) protons, 45 MeV (60 keV/μm) lithium ions or 55 MeV (310 keV/μm) carbon ions. The ions were either quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5 x 1 μm^{2} spots on regular matrix patterns of 5.4 μm, 7.6 μm and 10.6 μm grid size, with pre-defined particle numbers per spot so as to deposit a mean dose of 1.7 Gy for all irradiation patterns. As expected, the induction of dicentrics by homogeneous irradiation increased with LET: lithium and carbon ions induced about two- and four-fold higher yields of dicentrics than protons. The induction of dicentrics is, however, affected by µm-scale, too: focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6 μm grid induced two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a

  20. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  1. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  2. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  3. ESTIMATING THE STRENGTH OF SINGLE-ENDED DISLOCATION SOURCES IN MICROMETER-SIZED SINGLE CRYSTALS

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S I; Dimiduk, D M; Tang, M; Parthasarathy, T A; Uchic, M D; Woodward, C

    2007-05-03

    A recent study indicated that the behavior of single-ended dislocation sources contributes to the flow strength of micrometer-scale crystals. In this study 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations of micrometer-sized volumes are used to calculate the effects of anisotropy of dislocation line tension (increasing Poisson's ratio, {nu}) on the strength of single-ended dislocation sources and, to compare them with the strength of double-ended sources of equal length. This is done by directly modeling their plastic response within a 1 micron cubed FCC Ni single crystal using DDS. In general, double-ended sources are stronger than single-ended sources of an equal length and exhibit no significant effects from truncating the long-range elastic fields at this scale. The double-ended source strength increases with Poisson ratio ({nu}), exhibiting an increase of about 50% at u = 0.38 (value for Ni) as compared to the value at {nu} = 0. Independent of dislocation line direction, for {nu} greater than 0.20, the strengths of single-ended sources depend upon the sense of the stress applied. The value for {alpha}, in the expression for strength, {tau} = {alpha}(L){micro}b/L is shown to vary from 0.4 to 0.84 depending upon the character of the dislocation and the direction of operation of the source at {nu} corresponding to that of Ni, 0.38 and a length of 933b. By varying the lengths of the sources from 933b to 233b, it was shown that the scaling of the strength of single-ended and double-ended sources with their length both follow a ln(L/b)/(L/b) dependence. Surface image stresses are shown to have little effect on the critical stress of single-ended sources at a length of {approx}250b or greater. The relationship between these findings and a recent statistical model for the hardening of small volumes is also discussed.

  4. Attenuation on an Earth-space path measured in the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W

    1970-06-19

    A telescope operating over the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers has been added to the Crawford Hill sun tracker for the purpose of measuring attenuation in that atmospheric window. Over a 9-month period the attenuation (typically from clouds) exceeded 10, 20, and 30 decibels for 48, 43, and 34 percent of the time.

  5. Opto-mechanical subsystem of a 10 micrometer wavelength receiver terminal. Waveguide laser local oscillator. Servo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An engineering model opto-mechanical subsystem for a 10.6-micrometer laser heterodyne receiver is developed, and a CO2 waveguide local oscillator and servo electronics are provided for the receiver. Design goals are presented for the subsystems and overall package design is described. Thermal and mechanical distortion loading tests were performed and the results are included.

  6. A high frequency GaAlAs travelling wave electro-optic modulator at 0.82 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chorey, Christopher M.; Ferendeci, Altan; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental GaAlAs modulators operating at 0.82 micrometers using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration were designed and fabricated. Coplanar 50 ohm travelling wave microwave electrodes were used to obtain a bandwidth length product of 11.95 GHz-cm. The design, fabrication and dc performance of the GaAlAs travelling wave modulator is presented.

  7. Infrared receivers for low background astronomy: Incoherent detectors and coherent devices from one micrometer to one millimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, N. W.; Greenberg, L. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Mccreight, C. R.; Rank, D. M.; Richards, P. L.; Weiss, R.

    1979-01-01

    The status of incoherent detectors and coherent receivers over the infrared wavelength range from one micrometer to one millimeter is described. General principles of infrared receivers are included, and photon detectors, bolometers, coherent receivers, and important supporting technologies are discussed, with emphasis on their suitability for low background astronomical applications. Broad recommendations are presented and specific opportunities are identified for development of improved devices.

  8. Impact of P/In flux ratio and epilayer thickness on faceting for nanoscale selective area growth of InP by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fahed, M; Desplanque, L; Coinon, C; Troadec, D; Wallart, X

    2015-07-24

    The impact of the P/In flux ratio and the deposited thickness on the faceting of InP nanostructures selectively grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is reported. Homoepitaxial growth of InP is performed inside 200 nm wide stripe openings oriented either along a [110] or [1-10] azimuth in a 10 nm thick SiO2 film deposited on an InP(001) substrate. When varying the P/In flux ratio, no major shape differences are observed for [1-10]-oriented apertures. On the other hand, the InP nanostructure cross sections strongly evolve for [110]-oriented apertures for which (111)B facets are more prominent and (001) ones shrink for large P/In flux ratio values. These results show that the growth conditions allow tailoring the nanocrystal shape. They are discussed in the framework of the equilibrium crystal shape model using existing theoretical calculations of the surface energies of different low-index InP surfaces as a function of the phosphorus chemical potential, directly related to the P/In ratio. Experimental observations strongly suggest that the relative (111)A surface energy is probably smaller than the calculated value. We also discuss the evolution of the nanostructure shape with the InP-deposited thickness.

  9. Self-Catalyzed Growth and Characterization of In(As)P Nanowires on InP(111)B Using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeung Hun; Pozuelo, Marta; Setiawan, Bunga P D; Chung, Choong-Heui

    2016-12-01

    We report the growth of vertical <111>-oriented InAs x P1-x (0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.27) nanowires via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the presence of indium droplets as catalysts on InP(111)B substrates at 375 °C. Trimethylindium, tertiarybutylphosphine, and tertiarybutylarsine are used as the precursors, corresponding to P/In and As/In molar ratios of 29 and 0.01, respectively. The as-grown nanowire growth morphologies, crystallinity, composition, and optical characteristics are determined using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopies. We find that the InAs x P1-x nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and In-rich In-As alloy tips, characteristic of vapor-liquid-solid process. The wires exhibit a mixture of zinc blende and wurtzite crystal structures and a high density of structural defects such as stacking faults and twins. Our results suggest that the incorporation of As into InP wires decreases with increasing substrate temperature. The Raman spectra obtained from the In(As)P nanowires reveal a red-shift and lower intensity of longitudinal optical mode relative to both InP nanowires and InP(111)B bulk, due to the incorporation of As into the InP matrix. PMID:27094822

  10. Self-Catalyzed Growth and Characterization of In(As)P Nanowires on InP(111)B Using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeung Hun; Pozuelo, Marta; Setiawan, Bunga P D; Chung, Choong-Heui

    2016-12-01

    We report the growth of vertical <111>-oriented InAs x P1-x (0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.27) nanowires via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the presence of indium droplets as catalysts on InP(111)B substrates at 375 °C. Trimethylindium, tertiarybutylphosphine, and tertiarybutylarsine are used as the precursors, corresponding to P/In and As/In molar ratios of 29 and 0.01, respectively. The as-grown nanowire growth morphologies, crystallinity, composition, and optical characteristics are determined using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopies. We find that the InAs x P1-x nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and In-rich In-As alloy tips, characteristic of vapor-liquid-solid process. The wires exhibit a mixture of zinc blende and wurtzite crystal structures and a high density of structural defects such as stacking faults and twins. Our results suggest that the incorporation of As into InP wires decreases with increasing substrate temperature. The Raman spectra obtained from the In(As)P nanowires reveal a red-shift and lower intensity of longitudinal optical mode relative to both InP nanowires and InP(111)B bulk, due to the incorporation of As into the InP matrix.

  11. Impact of P/In flux ratio and epilayer thickness on faceting for nanoscale selective area growth of InP by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahed, M.; Desplanque, L.; Coinon, C.; Troadec, D.; Wallart, X.

    2015-07-01

    The impact of the P/In flux ratio and the deposited thickness on the faceting of InP nanostructures selectively grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is reported. Homoepitaxial growth of InP is performed inside 200 nm wide stripe openings oriented either along a [110] or [1-10] azimuth in a 10 nm thick SiO2 film deposited on an InP(001) substrate. When varying the P/In flux ratio, no major shape differences are observed for [1-10]-oriented apertures. On the other hand, the InP nanostructure cross sections strongly evolve for [110]-oriented apertures for which (111)B facets are more prominent and (001) ones shrink for large P/In flux ratio values. These results show that the growth conditions allow tailoring the nanocrystal shape. They are discussed in the framework of the equilibrium crystal shape model using existing theoretical calculations of the surface energies of different low-index InP surfaces as a function of the phosphorus chemical potential, directly related to the P/In ratio. Experimental observations strongly suggest that the relative (111)A surface energy is probably smaller than the calculated value. We also discuss the evolution of the nanostructure shape with the InP-deposited thickness.

  12. Self-Catalyzed Growth and Characterization of In(As)P Nanowires on InP(111)B Using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeung Hun; Pozuelo, Marta; Setiawan, Bunga P. D.; Chung, Choong-Heui

    2016-04-01

    We report the growth of vertical <111>-oriented InAs x P1- x (0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.27) nanowires via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the presence of indium droplets as catalysts on InP(111)B substrates at 375 °C. Trimethylindium, tertiarybutylphosphine, and tertiarybutylarsine are used as the precursors, corresponding to P/In and As/In molar ratios of 29 and 0.01, respectively. The as-grown nanowire growth morphologies, crystallinity, composition, and optical characteristics are determined using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopies. We find that the InAs x P1- x nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and In-rich In-As alloy tips, characteristic of vapor-liquid-solid process. The wires exhibit a mixture of zinc blende and wurtzite crystal structures and a high density of structural defects such as stacking faults and twins. Our results suggest that the incorporation of As into InP wires decreases with increasing substrate temperature. The Raman spectra obtained from the In(As)P nanowires reveal a red-shift and lower intensity of longitudinal optical mode relative to both InP nanowires and InP(111)B bulk, due to the incorporation of As into the InP matrix.

  13. Observations of the 10 micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model; the flux observed from Venus is 74% of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T = 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T = 204 + or - 10 K.

  14. Gamma-radiation synthesis of nano/micrometer-scale single-crystalline large gold plates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haiqian

    2012-04-01

    An original solution phase approach was developed for the synthesis of single-crystal Au nanoprims with anisotropic structure of triangular, hexagonal and truncated triangular, nanometre or micrometer scale, and nanometer thickness. It has been confirmed that the Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) coated on the magnetite nanoparticles play important roles in the formation of Au nanoplates. Significantly, such Au nanoplates exhibit remarkable optical properties, both the dipole plasmon resonance and the quadrupole plasmon resonance were observed. And the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern shows the nanoplates obtained were single crystals with (111) plans as two basal surfaces. The growth of gold nanoplates in the solution with time had been monitored by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to allow the detection of several key intermediates in the growth process. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of large planar gold nanostructures with gamma irradiation in combination of another nanocomposite materials (APTES-Fe3O4).

  15. IR and green femtosecond laser machining of heat sensitive materials for medical devices at micrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolberg, Klaus; Friedel, Susanna; Kremser, Bert; Roehner, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In medical device manufacturing there is an increasing interest to enhance machining of biocompatible materials on a micrometer scale. Obviously there is a trend to generate smaller device structures like cavities, slits or total size of the device to address new applications. Another trend points to surface modification, which allows controlling selective growth of defined biological cell types on medical implants. In both cases it is interesting to establish machining methods with minimized thermal impact, because biocompatible materials often show degradation of mechanical properties under thermal treatment. Typical examples for this effect is embrittlement of stainless steel at the edge of a cutting slit, which is caused by oxidation and phase change. Also for Nitinol (NiTi alloy) which is used as another stent material reduction of shape-memory behavior is known if cutting temperature is too high. For newest biodegradable materials like Polylactic acid (PLA) based polymers, lowest thermal impact is required due to PLA softening point (65°C) and melting temperature (~170 °C ). Laser machining with ultra-short pulse lasers is a solution for this problem. In our work we demonstrate a clean laser cut of NiTi and PLA based polymers with a high repetition-rate 1030 nm, 400-800 fs laser source at a pulse energy of up to 50 μJ and laser repetition rate of up to 500 kHz.

  16. Laue-DIC: a new method for improved stress field measurements at the micrometer scale

    PubMed Central

    Petit, J.; Castelnau, O.; Bornert, M.; Zhang, F. G.; Hofmann, F.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Faurie, D.; Le Bourlot, C.; Micha, J. S.; Robach, O.; Ulrich, O.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the effective mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior at a scale smaller than the grain size. The X-ray Laue microdiffraction technique available at beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is ideally suited for probing elastic strains (and associated stresses) in deformed polycrystalline materials with a spatial resolution smaller than a micrometer. However, the standard technique used to evaluate local stresses from the distortion of Laue patterns lacks accuracy for many micromechanical applications, mostly due to (i) the fitting of Laue spots by analytical functions, and (ii) the necessary comparison of the measured pattern with the theoretical one from an unstrained reference specimen. In the present paper, a new method for the analysis of Laue images is presented. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique, which is essentially insensitive to the shape of Laue spots, is applied to measure the relative distortion of Laue patterns acquired at two different positions on the specimen. The new method is tested on an in situ deformed Si single-crystal, for which the prescribed stress distribution has been calculated by finite-element analysis. It is shown that the new Laue-DIC method allows determination of local stresses with a strain resolution of the order of 10−5. PMID:26134802

  17. Large increase in fracture resistance of stishovite with crack extension less than one micrometer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kimiko; Wakai, Fumihiro; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Sekine, Risako; Shinoda, Yutaka; Akatsu, Takashi; Nagoshi, Takashi; Sone, Masato

    2015-01-01

    The development of strong, tough, and damage-tolerant ceramics requires nano/microstructure design to utilize toughening mechanisms operating at different length scales. The toughening mechanisms so far known are effective in micro-scale, then, they require the crack extension of more than a few micrometers to increase the fracture resistance. Here, we developed a micro-mechanical test method using micro-cantilever beam specimens to determine the very early part of resistance-curve of nanocrystalline SiO2 stishovite, which exhibited fracture-induced amorphization. We revealed that this novel toughening mechanism was effective even at length scale of nanometer due to narrow transformation zone width of a few tens of nanometers and large dilatational strain (from 60 to 95%) associated with the transition of crystal to amorphous state. This testing method will be a powerful tool to search for toughening mechanisms that may operate at nanoscale for attaining both reliability and strength of structural materials. PMID:26051871

  18. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2015-08-01

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr+ ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1 eV ) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |gAegAe/4 π ℏc | ≤1.2 ×10-17 . Assuming C P T invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Laser Cochleostomy: Towards the Accuracy on Tens of Micrometer Scale

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Marcel; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Schipper, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Klenzner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lasers have been proven to be precise tools for bone ablation. Applying no mechanical stress to the patient, they are potentially very suitable for microsurgery on fragile structures such as the inner ear. However, it remains challenging to control the laser-bone ablation without injuring embedded soft tissue. In this work, we demonstrate a closed-loop control of a short-pulsed CO2 laser to perform laser cochleostomy under the monitoring of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. A foresighted detection of the bone-endosteum-perilymph boundary several hundred micrometers before its exposure has been realized. Position and duration of the laser pulses are planned based on the residual bone thickness distribution. OCT itself is also used as a highly accurate tracking system for motion compensation between the target area and the optics. During ex vivo experimental evaluation on fresh porcine cochleae, the ablation process terminated automatically when the thickness of the residual tissue layer uniformly reached a predefined value. The shape of the resulting channel bottom converged to the natural curvature of the endosteal layer without injuring the critical structure. Preliminary measurements in OCT scans indicated that the mean absolute accuracy of the shape approximation was only around 20 μm. PMID:25295253

  20. Vacuolization in Cytoplasm and Cell Membrane Permeability Enhancement Triggered by Micrometer-Sized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Congyu; Wang, Chong; Zheng, Jing; Luo, Chao; Li, Yanfang; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2015-08-25

    A deep understanding of the interaction of a graphene oxide (GO) sheet with cells at the molecular level may expedite its biomedical application and predict its new functions and adverse effects. Herein we inspect the interaction between micrometer-sized GO (mGO), commonly used in biomedical research, and cells at the molecular level through a variety of techniques. A major finding is that, instead of direct cellular penetration, the mGO sheets can stimulate the cellular response by interacting with the membrane protein and the membrane. Specifically, it is illustrated that even within a short exposure time the mGO sheets can induce the formation of vacuoles in the cytosolic compartment and enhance the cell permeability. The vacuolization is only observed in the cells that strongly express aquaporin (AQP1), indicating the specific interaction of the mGO with AQP1. Moreover, inhibition of the AQP1 activity prevents the formation of vacuoles, revealing that the interaction of the mGO with AQP1 occurs most probably at the vestibule of AQP1 at the extracellular side. Additionally, though the cell permeability was enhanced, it only improves the penetration of small molecules, not for macromolecules such as proteins. These findings are potentially valuable in cancer therapy because AQPs are strongly expressed in tumor cells of different origins, particularly aggressive tumors, and it will also be beneficial for drug transport across barrier membranes. PMID:26207693

  1. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene. PMID:25434431

  2. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  3. Application of sub-micrometer patterned permalloy thin film in tunable radio frequency inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, B. M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Wang, Guoan

    2015-05-01

    Electrical tunable meander line inductor using coplanar waveguide structures with patterned permalloy (Py) thin film has been designed and implemented in this paper. High resistivity Si substrate is used to reduce the dielectric loss from the substrate. Inductor is implemented with a 60 nm thick Py deposited and patterned on top of the gold meander line, and Py film is patterned with dimension of 440 nm × 10 μm to create the shape anisotropy field, which in turn increases the FMR frequency. Compared to a regular meanderline inductor without the application of sub-micrometer patterned Py thin film, the inductance density has been increased to 20% for the implemented inductor with patterned Py. Measured FMR frequency of the patterned Py is 4.51 GHz without the application of any external magnetic field. This has enabled the inductor application in the practical circuit boards, where the large external magnet is unavailable. Inductance tunability of the implemented inductor is demonstrated by applying a DC current. Applied DC current creates a magnetic field along the hard axis of the patterned Py thin film, which changes the magnetic moment of the thin film and thus, decreases the inductance of the line. Measured results show that the inductance density of the inductor can be varied 5% by applying 300 mA DC current, larger inductance tunability is achievable by increasing the thickness of Py film.

  4. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; et al

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzagmore » directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.« less

  5. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles. PMID:21111176

  6. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene. PMID:25434431

  7. Biomolecular self-assembly of micrometer sized silica beads on patterned glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Martin; Yacoub-George, Erwin; Hell, Waltraud; Landesberger, Christof; Bock, Karlheinz

    2009-06-01

    A self-assembly process for the two-dimensional arrangement of micrometer sized silica beads on glass slides was developed. It is based on the hybridization of two single stranded DNA-oligonucleotides to a DNA double helix. To prepare for the self-assembly process the silica beads as well as the glass slides were modified covalently with matching DNA-molecules. The patterned areas on the slides were defined by printing DNA-molecules with an optimized micro contact printing procedure using agarose gel stamps. In the following hybridization experiment the addressed beads self-assemble selectively on the matching areas of the glass substrate. Control experiments with mismatching DNA-oligonucleotides showed that silica beads tend to adhere strongly to the glass surfaces. Washing conditions must be controlled carefully to differentiate between hybridized beads and non-specifically bound beads. With regard to the use of this method in microelectronic chip assembly it could be shown that the salt concentration during the hybridization step can be reduced drastically without affecting the hybridization reaction.

  8. The 1.06 micrometer wideband laser modulator: Fabrication and life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing and delivery of an optical modulator which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 micrometers were performed. The system transfers data at a nominal rate of 400 Mbps. This wideband laser modulator can transmit either Pulse Gated Binary Modulation (PGBM) or Pulse Polarization Binary Modulation (PPBM) formats. The laser beam enters the modulator and passes through both crystals; approximately 1% of the transmitted beam is split from the main beam and analyzed for the AEC signal; the remaining part of the beam exits the modulator. The delivered modulator when initially aligned and integrated with laser and electronics performed very well. The optical transmission was 69.5%. The static extinction ratio was 69:1. A 1000 hour life test was conducted with the delivered modulator. A 63 bit pseudorandom code signal was used as a driver input. At the conclusion of the life test the modulator optical transmission was 71.5% and the static extinction ratio 65:1.

  9. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  10. A Rotating Coil Apparatus with Sub-Micrometer Magnetic Center Measurement Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Anderson, Scott, D.; Jensen, David R.; Wolf, Zachary R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-02

    A rotating double coil apparatus has been designed and built so that the relative magnetic center change of a quadrupole is measured to an uncertainty smaller than 0.02 micrometers (=micron, {micro}m) for a single measurement. Furthermore, repeated measurements over about an hour vary by less than 0.1 {micro}m and by less than 1 {micro}m for periods of 24 hrs or longer. Correlation analyses of long data runs show that the magnet center measurement is sensitive to mechanical effects, such as vibration and rotating part wear, as well as to environmental effects, such as temperature and relative humidity. Evolving apparatus design has minimized mechanical noise and environmental isolation has reduced the effects of the surrounding environment so that sub-micron level measurement uncertainties and micron level stability have been achieved for multi-day measurement periods. Apparatus design evolution will be described in detail and correlation data taken on water-cooled electromagnet and adjustable permanent quadrupoles, which are about 350 mm in overall length, will be shown. These quads were prototypes for the linac quads of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) that had to meet the requirement that their magnetic centers change less than 1 micron during a 20% change in field strength. Thus it was necessary to develop an apparatus that could track the magnetic center with a fraction of a micron uncertainty.

  11. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levental, I.; Levental, K. R.; Klein, E. A.; Assoian, R.; Miller, R. T.; Wells, R. G.; Janmey, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  12. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  13. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  14. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  15. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  16. TSS-Thermal Synthesizer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimenti, Edward; Rickman, Steven; Vogt, Robert; Longo, Carlos R. Ortiz; Bauman, Noel; Lepore, Joseph; Mackey, Phil; Pavlovsky, James, II; Welch, Mark; Fogerson, Peter; Dawber, Mark; Fong, Cynthia Jone; Hecke, Peter; Morrison, Susan; Castillo, Ernie; Chou, ZU; Fried, Lawrence; Howard, Jerry; Lombardi, Mike; Middleton, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Thermal Synthesizer System (TSS) is integrated set of thermal-analysis application programs designed to solve problems encountered by thermal engineers. Combines functionality of Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) and radiation analysis with friendly and easily understood user-interface environment coupled with powerful interactive color graphics and geometric modeling capability. Enables thermal engineers to spend more time solving engineering problems instead of laboriously constructing and verifying math models. Written in FORTRAN and C language.

  17. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  18. Microstructural improvements of InP on GaAs (001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy by in situ hydrogenation and postgrowth annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, F. M.; Garcia, R.; Molina, S. I.; Aouni, A.; Postigo, P. A.; Fonstad, C. G.

    2009-01-26

    The characterization of high quality InP on GaAs (001) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy using a two-step growth method involving hydrogenation during growth is reported. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that {approx}2 {mu}m thick InP epilayers on GaAs are heteroepitaxial and strain relaxed. Stacking faults and threading dislocations are mostly confined near the InP/GaAs interface and their densities decrease monotonically toward the InP surface. Additionally, rapid-thermal annealing following growth is found to result in a marked reduction in the number of dislocations and the disappearance of planar defects.

  19. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xingtian; Battaglia, Corsin; Lin, Yongjing; Chen, Kevin; Hettick, Mark; Zheng, Maxwell; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Kiriya, Daisuke; Javey, Ali

    2014-09-25

    We demonstrate an InP heterojunction solar cell employing an ultrathin layer (~10 nm) of amorphous TiO2 deposited at 120°C by atomic layer deposition as the transparent electron-selective contact. The TiO2 film selectively extracts minority electrons from the conduction band of p-type InP while blocking the majority holes due to the large valence band offset, enabling a high maximum open-circuit voltage of 785 mV. Lastly, a hydrogen plasma treatment of the InP surface drastically improves the long-wavelength response of the device, resulting in a high short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm2 and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.2%.

  20. Self-assembled InAs quantum wire lasers on (001)InP at 1.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, F.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, L.; Gonzalez, Y.; Garcia, J. M.; Dotor, M. L.

    2006-08-28

    In this work, the authors present results on the growth by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of lasers with one and three stacked layers of InAs quantum wires (QWRs) as active zone and aluminum-free waveguides on (001) InP substrates. The separated confinement heterostructure consists of n-p InP claddings and a waveguide formed by short period superlattices of (InP){sub 5}/(GaInAs){sub 4} lattice matched to the InP substrate. The optimum growth conditions (substrate temperature and As and P pressures) have been determined to obtain waveguides with a flat surface in order to get a uniform QWR distribution. Lasing emission is observed at a wavelength of {approx}1.66 {mu}m up to 270 K from 15x3000 {mu}m{sup 2} devices, with a threshold current density at that temperature of 2 kA/cm{sup 2}.

  1. Composition of phosphorus-nitride film deposited on InP surfaces by a photochemical vapor deposition technique and electrical properties of the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha; Lee, Jae-Hak; Bae, Young-Ho; Hong, Young-Tae

    1990-12-01

    Low-temperature (100-200 °C) growth of phosphorus nitride (P3N5) on InP surfaces has been successfully developed using a mixture of PCl3 and NH3 gases by a direct photochemical vapor deposition. The films have a resistivity of 1×1014 Ω cm and a breakdown voltage of 1×107 V/cm. The minimum density of interface trap states for the aluminum (Al)-P3N5-InP metal-insulator-semiconductor structure after the in situ processes is about 3.6×1010 cm-2 eV-1 near the midgap of InP. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to evaluate the film and the film/InP interface.

  2. Investigation of anodic and chemical oxides grown on p-type InP with applications to surface passivation for n(+)-p solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Goradia, Manju; Goradia, Chandra; Jenkins, Phillip; Jayne, Douglas; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Most of the previously reported InP anodic oxides were grown on a n-type InP with applications to fabrication of MISFET structures and were described as a mixture of In2O3 and P2O5 stoichiometric compounds or nonstoichiometric phases which have properties similar to crystalline compounds In(OH)3, InPO4, and In(PO3)3. Details of the compositional change of the anodic oxides grown under different anodization conditions were previously reported. The use of P-rich oxides grown either by anodic or chemical oxidation are investigated for surface passivation of p-type InP and as a protective cap during junction formation by closed-ampoule sulfur diffusion. The investigation is based on but not limited to correlations between PL intensity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical composition data.

  3. High performance etchant for thinning p(+)-InP and its application to p(+)n InP solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, David; Goradia, Manju; Weinberg, Irving; Fatemi, Navid

    1991-01-01

    An etchant, namely (o-H3PO4)u: (HNO3)v: (H2O2)t: (H2O)1-(u+v+t) is developed for thinning, after contacting, the p(+) emitter layer of p(+)n InP structures made by thermal diffusion. Varying u, v, and t, reproducible etch rates of 5 to 110 nm/min are obtained. After thinning the 0.6- to 2.5-micron thick p(+) InP layer down to 60-250 nm, specular surfaces are obtained at up to 80 nm/min etch rate. Due to its intrinsic qualities the resisual P-rich oxide after thinning the emitter layer provides surface passivation of p(+) InP surfaces and can also serve as a first-layer AR coating.

  4. Progress in p(+)n InP solar cells fabricated by thermal diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Fatemi, N. S.; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Goradia, C.; Goradia, Manju

    1992-01-01

    In SPRAT XI, we proposed that p(sup +)n diffused junction InP solar cells should exhibit a higher conversion efficiency than their n(sup +)p counterparts. This was mainly due to the fact that our p(sup +)n (Cd,S) cell structures consistently showed higher V (sub OC) values than our n(sup +)p (S,Cd) structures. The highest V(sub OC) obtained with the p(sup +)n (Cd,S) cell configuration was 860 mV, as compared to the highest V(sub OC) 840 mV obtained with the n(sup +)p (S,Cd) configuration (AMO, 25 C). In this work, we present the performance results of our most recent thermally diffused cells using the p(sup +)n (Cd,S) structure. We have been able to fabricate cells with V(sub OC) values approaching 880 mV. Our best cell with an unoptimized front contact grid design (GS greater than or equal to 10%) showed a conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AMO, 25 C) without an AR coating layer. The emitter surface was passivated by a -50A P rich oxide. Achievement of such high V(sub OC) values was primarily due to the fabrication of emitter surfaces, having EPD densities as low as 2E2 cm(sup -2) and N(sub a)N(sub d) of about 3E18 cm (sup -3). In addition, our preliminary investigation of p(sup +)n structures seem to suggest that Cd-doped emitter cells are more radiation resistant than Zn-doped emitter cells against both high energy electron and proton irradiation.

  5. Performance, Defect Behavior and Carrier Enhancement in Low Energy, Proton Irradiated p(+)nn(+) InP Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Rybicki, G. C.; Vargas-Aburto, C.; Jain, R. K.; Scheiman, D.

    1994-01-01

    InP p(+)nn(+) cells, processed by MOCVD, were irradiated by 0.2 MeV protons and their performance and defect behavior observed to a maximum fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Their radiation induced degradation, over this fluence range, was considerably+less than observed for similarly irradiated, diffused junction n p InP cells. Significant degradation occurred in both the cell's emitter and base regions the least degradation occurring in the depletion region. A significant increase in series resistance occurs at the highest fluenc.e. Two majority carrier defect levels, E7 and E10, are observed by DLTS with activation energies at (E(sub C) - 0.39)eV and (E(sub C) - 0.74)eV respectively. The relative concentration of these defects differs considerably from that observed after 1 MeV electron irradiation. An increased carrier concentration in the cell's n-region was observed at the highest proton fluence, the change in carrier concentration being insignificant at the lower fluences. In agreement with previous results, for 1 and 1.5 MeV electron irradiated InP p(+)n junctions, the defect level E10 is attributed to a complex between zinc, diffused into the n-region from the zinc doped emitter, and a radiation induced defect. The latter is assumed to be either a phosphorus vacancy or interstitial. The increased, or enhanced carrier concentration is attributed to this complex acting as a donor.

  6. Thin films of InP for photovoltaic energy conversion. Third quarterly technical progress report, December 29, 1979-March 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Manasevit, H M; Ruth, R P; Moudy, L A; Yang, J J.J.; Johnson, R E

    1980-04-01

    A research study is being conducted for the purpose of developing a low-cost high-efficiency thin-film InP heterojunction solar cell based on InP films grown by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) process on suitable substrates. Heterostructure devices of CdS/InP (and possibly indium tin oxide/InP) are to be prepared at Stanford University under subcontract, using the MO-CVD InP films grown at Rockwell. The work of the third quarter of the program is summarized. Experiments continued on evaluation of GaP as an intermediate layer material for subsequent growth of InP films on various substrate materials, and Cd (obtained from dimethylcadmium) was evaluated as a p-type dopant (an alternative to Zn obtained from diethylzinc) for InP films made by the MO-CVD process. A preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis was conducted of the crystallographic structure of the vacuum-deposited CdS films prepared at Stanford as part of the process of fabricating CdS/InP heterojunction solar cells. A group of CdS/InP heterostructure cells involving vacuum-deposited CdS and p-type epitaxial InP films grown by MO-CVD was prepared and evaluated. High J/sub 0/ values and low fill factors were observed in all of the cells, resulting in AM1.5 efficiencies in the 2 to 5 percent range. (WHK)

  7. Kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on InP and Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 from SiH4 and O2 has been investigated for the case of an indirect (remote) plasma process. Homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous operating ranges have been experimentally identified. The process was shown to be consistent within the heterogeneous surface-reaction dominated range of operation. A kinetic rate equation is given for growth at 14 W RF power input and 400 mtorr total pressure on both InP and Si substrates. The process exhibits an activation energy of 8.4 + or - 0.6 kcal/mol.

  8. On the explanation of the barrier heights of InP Schottky contacts by metal-induced gap states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönch, Winfried

    2008-10-01

    The barrier heights of metal-semiconductor or Schottky contacts are explained by the continuum of metal-induced gap states (MIGSs). A verification of the theoretically predicted values requires experimental barrier heights of Schottky contacts, which are not only intimate, abrupt, and free of impurities but also laterally homogeneous. Such data may be obtained from current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics. Results of corresponding studies with Ag, Au, Cr, Pd, and Ti contacts on InP were recently published. The barrier heights of the respective laterally homogeneous Schottky contacts evaluated from those experimental data quantitatively confirm the predictions of the MIGS theory.

  9. Defect behavior, carrier removal and predicted in-space injection annealing of InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Drevinsky, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Defect behavior, observed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), is used to predict carrier removal and the effects of simultaneous electron irradiation and injection annealing of the performance of InP solar cells. For carrier removal, the number of holes trapped per defect is obtained from measurements of both carrier concentrations and defect concentrations during an isochronal anneal. In addition, from kinetic considerations, the behavior of the dominant defect during injection annealing is used to estimate the degradation expected from exposure to the ambient electron environment in geostationary orbit.

  10. Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    1993-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).

  11. The effect of nanoscratching direction on the plastic deformation and surface morphology of InP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Y.; Ponce, F. A.; Caldas, P. G.; Prioli, R.; Almeida, C. M.

    2013-11-28

    The microstructure of (001) InP crystals scratched with a sharp diamond tip depends strongly on the scratching direction. The scratch surface is found to conform to the radius of curvature of the tip (∼60 nm) by the formation of atomic crystal steps produced by dislocation glide along (111) planes. 〈110〉 scratches lead to coherent local crystal lattice movement and rotation causing deep dislocation propagation into the crystal and irregular pileups at the sides of the scratch surface. 〈100〉 scratches lead to incoherent lattice movement causing dislocation locking that inhibits their propagation and results in regular pileups.

  12. Investigation of macroscopic uniformity during CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} reactive ion etching of InP and improvement using a guard ring

    SciTech Connect

    Janiak, K.; Niggebruegge, U.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have found that CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}-RIE of InP tends to produce macroscopically nonuniform etching which is more prominent for higher gas pressures and lightly masked wafers. Presumably the enhanced etch attack near the wafer edge is caused by excess reactants originating from the surrounding non-etched cathode surface. The reduction of the gas pressure as well as the use of an InP getter plate considerably decrease the degree of nonuniformity. The most effective and practicable way however to achieve a nearly perfect etch uniformity across the wafer is the application of a guard ring.

  13. Ultraviolet illuminated molecular cloud boundaries: Extended (C II) 158 micrometer emission toward L1630

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Zhou, S.; Howe, J. E.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Poglitsch, A.; Vanderwerf, P. P.; Stacey, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    The construction of a large scale map of the 158 micrometer C+ line toward the L1630/Orion B molecular cloud, covering an approximately 35' by 45' area which includes the NGC 2024 H II region, zeta-Ori, the reflection nebula NGC 2023, and the Horsehead nebula, is reported. Emission in the C II line is very widespread. The line was detected at levels in excess of a few 0.0001 erg/sq cm/s/sr over almost the entire mapped region. Extended emission associated with the NGC 2024 H II region and its envelope accounts for more than half of the C II flux. Over this approximately 1.5 by 2.5 pc region, the amount of gas phase carbon in the form of C+ is comparable to the amount of carbon in CO. This result, together with the C II distribution implies that C II emission arises on the surface of clumps throughout the cloud rather than in a single layer at the H II region boundary. Away from the H II region, most of the C II emission comes from the western edge of the L1630 cloud and probably results from excitation by external OB stars. The overall extent of the C II emission is comparable to that of millimeter molecular lines but the distributions are different in detail. The difference in C II and molecular line distributions, in particular, the larger extent of the C II emission west of NGC 2024 implies large variations in the ratio of the C II and J = 1 towards 0 intensities. Models of photon dominated regions can explain the relation between C II and CO intensities only if the cloud edges and cloud interior are considered separately. A method for using C II and radio continuum emission to characterize the relationship between OB stars and photon dominated regions is proposed.

  14. HD 172555: Detection of 63 micrometers [OI] Emission in a Debris Disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Augereau, J. -C.; Thi, W. F.; Roberge, A.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lebreton, J.; Mendigutia, I.; Huelamo, N.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. HD 172555 is a young A7 star belonging to the Beta Pictoris Moving Group that harbours a debris disc. The Spitzer IRS spectrum of the source showed mid-IR features such as silicates and glassy silica species, indicating the presence of a warm dust component with small grains, which places HD 172555 among the small group of debris discs with such properties. The IRS spectrum also shows a possible emission of SiO gas. Aims. We aim to study the dust distribution in the circumstellar disc of HD 172555 and to asses the presence of gas in the debris disc. Methods. As part of the GASPS Open Time Key Programme, we obtained Herschel-PACS photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source. We analysed PACS observations of HD 172555 and modelled the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with a modified blackbody and the gas emission with a two-level population model with no collisional de-excitation. Results. We report for the first time the detection of [OI] atomic gas emission at 63.18 micrometers in the HD 172555 circumstellar disc.We detect excesses due to circumstellar dust toward HD 172555 in the three photometric bands of PACS (70, 100, and 160 m). We derive a large dust particle mass of (4.8 plus-minus 0.6)x10(exp -4) Mass compared to Earth and an atomic oxygen mass of 2.5x10(exp -2)R(exp 2) Mass compared to Earth, where R in AU is the separation between the star and the inner disc. Thus, most of the detected mass of the disc is in the gaseous phase.

  15. Science Rationale for a Micro-Met Mission to Augment InterMarsNet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The 2003 opportunity has the potential to carry out for the first time in Mars exploration history, coordinated measurements from the surface and from orbit that can address fundamental issues associated with the Martian global circulation and climate system. Coordinated measurements are defined here to mean collecting meteorological data from a network of 12-16 globally distributed surface stations simultaneously with an orbiter carrying an atmospheric sounder. With such measurements it is possible to define the horizontally varying (barotropic) and vertically varying (baroclinic) components of the global circulation from which the full 3-dimensional horizontal wind field can be reconstructed. It is also possible to precisely define the CO2 cycle, the main component of the current climate system. InterMarsNet, as currently envisioned, consists of 3-4 landers with a supporting communications orbiter that may carry some instrumentation. The landers are likely to touch down in low latitudes and will probably be configured to optimize seismological objectives. We propose to augment the InterMarsNet meteorological objectives by flying an additional 10-15 "MicroMet" landers equipped to measure surface pressure and nothing else. Surface pressure is the most fundamental meteorological parameter and it is the easiest to measure. The sensors are light, operate with minimal power, and do not require orientation or deployment. Consequently the landers can be very small (< 10 kg) and 10-15 of them can be delivered by a Med-lite launcher. This would enable global network science for meteorology and, when combined wAh the more sophisticated measurements from the InterMarsNet landers and the simultaneous temperature and dust profiling measurements from an atmospheric sounder aboard the orbiter, it would enable us to reconstruct global scale circulation patterns.

  16. Sub-micrometer particles produced by a low-powered AC electric arc in liquids.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Jacek A; Fleury, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the report of the production of composites of sub-micrometer metal particles in matrix consisted of the metal compounds by means of an AC electric arc in water and paraffin solutions using electrodes carbon-metal and metal-metal (metal: Ni, Fe, Co, Cu). The advantage of this method is the low electric power (from 5 to 10 W) needed in comparison to standard DC arc-discharge methods (0.8 to 3 kW). This method enables the production of particles from conductive material also in wide range of temperature and in solvent which could be either transparent to light or opaque. Moreover the solvent can be electrolyte or insulating liquid. The microstructure of the composite layer was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray. During particles production in water metal oxides were created. Additionally using cobalt-copper, nickel-copper as couple electrodes, insoluble in water copper (II) hydroxide crystal grains were created additionally which crystals shape was depended on transition metal. For iron-copper couple electrodes system the copper (II) hydroxide was not formed. Experiments with sequence production of Ni and Fe particles with C electrode assisting in molten paraffin let to obtain both Ni and Fe particles surrounded by paraffin. After solidification the material was insulator but if locally magnetic field influenced on the liquid solution in that place after solidification a new composite was created which was electric current conductor with resistivity around 0.1 omega x m, was attracted by magnetic field and presented magneto resistance around 0.4% in changing magnetic field in a range 150 mT. After mixing the concentrated paraffin with normal paraffin resistivity of the mixture increased and it became photosensitive and created small voltage under light influence. PMID:22524027

  17. Study of Potential Sub-Micrometer-Thick Frost Events and Soil Water Content at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Meslin, P. Y.; Kemppinen, O.; Genzer, M.; Harri, A. M.; Ramos, M.; Borlina, C.; Schröder, S.; Gómez-Elvira, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the highest confidence measurements of relative humidity [1] and ground temperature [2] to identify potential frost events at the surface of Gale Crater during the first 600 sols of the MSL mission. We find that between 4 and 6 am on sols 533, 535, 555, 557, 559 and 560 the ground temperature falls below the calculated frost point. Order-of-magnitude estimate for the thickness of the frost layer indicates that it is of the order of micrometers or less. Additionally, we analyze the relation between water vapor pressure and ground temperature to provide additional constraints on potential frost events and to quantify the exchange of adsorbed water between the surface and the atmosphere. Adsorbed water could be forced into liquid-like state at the of Gale because van der Waals forces between water ice molecules and mineral surfaces reduces the freezing point [3]. This form of liquid water is relevant to habitability because microorganisms could survive in liquid-like adsorbed water [4].References: [1] Harri, Ari-Matti et al., Mars Science Laboratory Relative Humidity Observations - Initial Results (2014), JGR (in press). [2] Martínez, G. M. et al., Surface Energy Budget and Thermal Inertia at Gale Crater: Calculations from Ground-Based Measurements (2014), JGR (in press). [3] Möhlmann, D., The influence of van der Waals forces on the state of water in the shallow subsurface of Mars (2008), Icarus 195 (1), 131-139. [4] Rivkina, E. M. et al., Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point (2000), Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66(8), 3230-3233.

  18. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  19. Control of vascular network location in millimeter-sized 3D-tissues by micrometer-sized collagen coated cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yen; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-25

    Engineering three-dimensional (3D) vascularized constructs remains a central challenge because capillary network structures are important for sufficient oxygen and nutrient exchange to sustain the viability of engineered constructs. However, construction of 3D-tissues at single cell level has yet to be reported. Previously, we established a collagen coating method for fabricating a micrometer-sized collagen matrix on cell surfaces to control cell distance or cell densities inside tissues. In this study, a simple fabrication method is presented for constructing vascular networks in 3D-tissues over micrometer-sized or even millimeter-sized with controlled cell densities. From the results, well vascularized 3D network structures can be observed with a fluorescence label method mixing collagen coated cells and endothelia cells, indicating that constructed ECM rich tissues have the potential for vascularization, which opens up the possibility for various applications in pharmaceutical or tissue engineering fields.

  20. Exploration of synchrotron Mossbauer micrscopy with micrometer resolution: forward and a new backscattering modality on natural samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, L.; Zhao, J.; Toellner, T.S.; Divan, R.; Xu, S.; Cai, Z.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Freidrich, J.M.; Cramer, S.P.; Alp, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    New aspects of synchrotron Moessbauer microscopy are presented. A 5 {micro}m spatial resolution is achieved, and sub-micrometer resolution is envisioned. Two distinct and unique methods, synchrotron Moessbauer imaging and nuclear resonant incoherent X-ray imaging, are used to resolve spatial distribution of species that are chemically and magnetically distinct from one another. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed on enriched {sup 57}Fe phantoms, and on samples with natural isotopic abundance, such as meteorites.

  1. Effects of radiation of InP cells epitaxially grown on Si and GaAs substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Brinker, D. J.; Wilt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of heteroepitaxial InP cells were determined both before and after 10-MeV proton irradiations. Numerical values, obtained for the diffusion and recombination components of the reverse saturation currents, were found to be consistent with the distribution of dislocations. The radiation resistance of the heteroepitaxial cells was significantly greater than that observed for n/p homoepitaxial InP cells. The carrier removal rate, obtained by C-V measurements, was 1800/cm for 10-MeV protons compared with 2.2/cm for 1-MeV electrons. The high carrier removal rate was found to have no significant effect on the cell's series resistance. It was concluded that the heteroepitaxial cell performance is dominated by the high dislocation density attributable to lattice constant mismatch. Although the efficiencies of the present cells are low, the recent achievement of 13.7 percent AM0 efficiencies using a GaAs substrate demonstrates the marked improvement that can be attained using more appropriate transition layers.

  2. Hydrogen Passivation of Interstitial Zn Defects in Heteroepitaxial InP Cell Structures and Influence on Device Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringel, S. A.; Chatterjee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation of heteroepitaxial InP solar cells is of recent interest for deactivation of dislocations and other defects caused by the cell/substrate lattice mismatch that currently limit the photovoltaic performance of these devices. In this paper we present strong evidence that, in addition to direct hydrogen-dislocation interactions, hydrogen forms complexes with the high concentration of interstitial Zn defects present within the p(+) Zn-doped emitter of MOCVD-grown heteroepitaxial InP devices, resulting in a dramatic increase of the forward bias turn-on voltage by as much as 280 mV, from 680 mV to 960 mV. This shift is reproducible and thermally reversible and no such effect is observed for either n(+)p structures or homoepitaxial p(+)n structures grown under identical conditions. A combination of photoluminescence (PL), electrochemical C-V dopant profiling, SIMS and I-V measurements were performed on a set of samples having undergone a matrix of hydrogenation and post-hydrogenation annealing conditions to investigate the source of this voltage enhancement and confirm the expected role of interstitial Zn and hydrogen. A precise correlation between all measurements is demonstrated which indicates that Zn interstitials within the p(+) emitter and their interaction with hydrogen are indeed responsible for this device behavior.

  3. High-Yield Growth and Characterization of ⟨100⟩ InP p-n Diode Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Alessandro; Wang, Jia; Esmaeil Zadeh, Iman; Reimer, Michael E; Verheijen, Marcel A; Soini, Martin; Plissard, Sebastien R; Zwiller, Val; Haverkort, Jos E M; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2016-05-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are nanoscale structures holding promise in many fields such as optoelectronics, quantum computing, and thermoelectrics. Nanowires are usually grown vertically on (111)-oriented substrates, while (100) is the standard in semiconductor technology. The ability to grow and to control impurity doping of ⟨100⟩ nanowires is crucial for integration. Here, we discuss doping of single-crystalline ⟨100⟩ nanowires, and the structural and optoelectronic properties of p-n junctions based on ⟨100⟩ InP nanowires. We describe a novel approach to achieve low resistance electrical contacts to nanowires via a gradual interface based on p-doped InAsP. As a first demonstration in optoelectronic devices, we realize a single nanowire light emitting diode in a ⟨100⟩-oriented InP nanowire p-n junction. To obtain high vertical yield, which is necessary for future applications, we investigate the effect of the introduction of dopants on the nanowire growth. PMID:27045232

  4. Electrical and optical properties of InP nanowire ensemble p⁺-i-n⁺ photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Håkan; Zubritskaya, Irina; Nghia, Ngo Tuan; Wallentin, Jesper; Borgström, Magnus T; Storm, Kristian; Landin, Lars; Wickert, Peter; Capasso, Federico; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-04-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of electrical and optical properties of efficient near-infrared p⁺-i-n⁺ photodetectors based on large ensembles of self-assembled, vertically aligned i-n⁺ InP nanowires monolithically grown on a common p⁺ InP substrate without any buffer layer. The nanowires have a polytype modulated crystal structure of wurtzite and zinc blende. The electrical data display excellent rectifying behavior with an ideality factor of about 2.5 at 300 K. The ideality factor scales with 1/T, which possibly reflects deviations from classical transport models due to the mixed crystal phase of the nanowires. The observed dark leakage current is of the order of merely ∼100 fA/nanowire at 1 V reverse bias. The detectors display a linear increase of the photocurrent with reverse bias up to about 10 pA/nanowire at 5 V. From spectrally resolved measurements, we conclude that the photocurrent is primarily generated by funneling photogenerated carriers from the substrate into the NWs. Contributions from direct excitation of the NWs become increasingly important at low temperatures. The photocurrent decreases with temperature with an activation energy of about 50 meV, which we discuss in terms of a temperature-dependent diffusion length in the substrate and perturbed transport through the mixed-phase nanowires.

  5. DX centers in III-V semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure. [GaAs:Si; InP:S

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    DX centers are deep level defects found in some III-V semiconductors. They have persistent photoconductivity and large difference between thermal and optical ionization energies. Hydrostatic pressure was used to study microstructure of these defects. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) was observed in hydrostatically stressed, Si-doped GaAs. Corresponding infrared absorption peak is distinct from the Si[sub Ga] shallow donor LVM peak, which is the only other LVM peak observed in our samples, and is assigned to the Si DX center. Analysis of the relative intensities of the Si DX LVM and the Si shallow donor LVM peaks, combined with Hall effect and resistivity indicate that the Si DX center is negatively charged. Frequency of this new mode provides clues to the structure of this defect. A pressure induced deep donor level in S-doped InP was also discovered which has the properties of a DX center. Pressure at which the new defect becomes more stable than the shallow donor is 82 kbar. Optical ionization energy and energy dependence of the optical absorption cross section was measured for this new effect. Capture barrier from the conduction band into the DX state were also determined. That DX centers can be formed in InP by pressure suggests that DX states should be common in n-type III-V semiconductors. A method is suggested for predicting under what conditions these defects will be the most stable form of the donor impurity.

  6. Information retrieval for ecological syntheses.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Helen R; Beyer, Fiona R

    2015-06-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with medicine that should be considered when planning and undertaking searches. We present ten recommendations for anyone considering undertaking information retrieval for ecological research syntheses that highlight the main differences with medicine and, if adopted, may help reduce biases in the dataset retrieved, increase search efficiency and improve reporting standards. They are as follows: (1) plan for information retrieval at an early stage, (2) identify and use sources of help, (3) clearly define the question to be addressed, (4) ensure that provisions for managing, recording and reporting the search are in place, (5) select an appropriate search type, (6) identify sources to be used, (7) identify limitations of the sources, (8) ensure that the search vocabulary is appropriate, (9) identify limits and filters that can help direct the search, and (10) test the strategy to ensure that it is realistic and manageable. These recommendations may be of value for other disciplines where search infrastructures are not yet sufficiently well developed.

  7. Chemical Composition of Micrometer-Sized Filaments in an Aragonite Host by a Miniature Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tulej, Marek; Neubeck, Anna; Ivarsson, Magnus; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Detection of extraterrestrial life is an ongoing goal in space exploration, and there is a need for advanced instruments and methods for the detection of signatures of life based on chemical and isotopic composition. Here, we present the first investigation of chemical composition of putative microfossils in natural samples using a miniature laser ablation/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS). The studies were conducted with high lateral (∼15 μm) and vertical (∼20-200 nm) resolution. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the instrument performance on micrometer-sized samples both in terms of isotope abundance and element composition. The following objectives had to be achieved: (1) Consider the detection and calculation of single stable isotope ratios in natural rock samples with techniques compatible with their employment of space instrumentation for biomarker detection in future planetary missions. (2) Achieve a highly accurate chemical compositional map of rock samples with embedded structures at the micrometer scale in which the rock matrix is easily distinguished from the micrometer structures. Our results indicate that chemical mapping of strongly heterogeneous rock samples can be obtained with a high accuracy, whereas the requirements for isotope ratios need to be improved to reach sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  8. SOFIA Observations of SN 2010jl: Another Non-Detection of the 9.7 Micrometer Silicate Dust Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Fox, Ori D.

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 micrometers of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millennia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 micrometer feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01-0.05 solar mass of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of approximately 550-620 degrees Kelvin. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-infrared observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their infrared spectra.

  9. Chemical Composition of Micrometer-Sized Filaments in an Aragonite Host by a Miniature Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tulej, Marek; Neubeck, Anna; Ivarsson, Magnus; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Detection of extraterrestrial life is an ongoing goal in space exploration, and there is a need for advanced instruments and methods for the detection of signatures of life based on chemical and isotopic composition. Here, we present the first investigation of chemical composition of putative microfossils in natural samples using a miniature laser ablation/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS). The studies were conducted with high lateral (∼15 μm) and vertical (∼20-200 nm) resolution. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the instrument performance on micrometer-sized samples both in terms of isotope abundance and element composition. The following objectives had to be achieved: (1) Consider the detection and calculation of single stable isotope ratios in natural rock samples with techniques compatible with their employment of space instrumentation for biomarker detection in future planetary missions. (2) Achieve a highly accurate chemical compositional map of rock samples with embedded structures at the micrometer scale in which the rock matrix is easily distinguished from the micrometer structures. Our results indicate that chemical mapping of strongly heterogeneous rock samples can be obtained with a high accuracy, whereas the requirements for isotope ratios need to be improved to reach sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:26247475

  10. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    PubMed

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  11. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  12. Exploring the effective photon management by InP nanoparticles: Broadband light absorption enhancement of InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP thin-film photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dong; Liu, Jietao; Zhu, Xi; Li, Jian; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin

    2015-05-01

    High-index dielectric and semiconductor nanoparticles with the characteristics of low absorption loss and strong scattering have attracted more and more attention for improving performance of thin-film photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we focus our attention on InP nanoparticles and study the influence of the substrate and the geometrical configurations on their scattering properties. We demonstrate that, compared with the InP sphere, the InP cylinder has higher coupling efficiency due to the stronger interactions between the optical mode in the nanoparticle and its induced mirror image in the substrate. Moreover, we propose novel thin-film InGaAs photodetectors integrated with the periodically arranged InP nanoparticles on the substrate. Broadband light absorption enhancement is achieved over the wavelength range between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. The highest average absorption enhancement of 59.7% is realized for the photodetector with the optimized cylinder InP nanoparticles. These outstanding characteristics attribute to the preferentially forward scattering of single InP nanoparticle along with the effective coupling of incident light into the guided modes through the collective diffraction effect of InP nanoparticles array.

  13. Exploring the effective photon management by InP nanoparticles: Broadband light absorption enhancement of InP/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP thin-film photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Dong; Zhu, Xi; Li, Jian; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin; Liu, Jietao

    2015-05-28

    High-index dielectric and semiconductor nanoparticles with the characteristics of low absorption loss and strong scattering have attracted more and more attention for improving performance of thin-film photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we focus our attention on InP nanoparticles and study the influence of the substrate and the geometrical configurations on their scattering properties. We demonstrate that, compared with the InP sphere, the InP cylinder has higher coupling efficiency due to the stronger interactions between the optical mode in the nanoparticle and its induced mirror image in the substrate. Moreover, we propose novel thin-film InGaAs photodetectors integrated with the periodically arranged InP nanoparticles on the substrate. Broadband light absorption enhancement is achieved over the wavelength range between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. The highest average absorption enhancement of 59.7% is realized for the photodetector with the optimized cylinder InP nanoparticles. These outstanding characteristics attribute to the preferentially forward scattering of single InP nanoparticle along with the effective coupling of incident light into the guided modes through the collective diffraction effect of InP nanoparticles array.

  14. Beam emittance forming line of the CW race-track microtron of the institute of nuclear physics of Moscow State University (INP MSU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, A. S.; Gevorkyan, V. G.; Gorbatov, Yu. I.; Gribov, I. V.; Ibadov, A. Kh.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Korneenkov, V. A.; Lazutin, E. V.; Makulbekov, E. A.; Piskarev, I. M.; Platov, K. Yu.; Savitsky, A. B.; Shumakov, A. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sorvin, V. M.; Tiunov, A. V.; Ushkanov, V. A.; Zinoviev, S. V.

    1989-06-01

    The transverse and longitudinal emittance forming line (EFL) of the race-track microtron of INP MSU is described. The work presents the principles of operation, parameters of EFL elements, description of rf power supply system and automated control system. The method of EFL tuning and experimental results are discussed.

  15. Selective area growth of InP in shallow trench isolation on large scale Si(001) wafer using defect confinement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckling, C.; Waldron, N.; Jiang, S.; Guo, W.; Richard, O.; Douhard, B.; Moussa, A.; Vanhaeren, D.; Bender, H.; Collaert, N.; Heyns, M.; Thean, A.; Caymax, M.; Vandervorst, W.

    2013-07-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors on Si substrate has been attracting much attention as building blocks for next-generation electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. In the present paper, we studied the selective area epitaxial studies of InP grown on 300 mm on-axis Si (001) substrates patterned with Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) using the necking effect technique to trap crystalline defects on the sidewalls. We make use of a thin Ge buffer in the bottom of the trench to reduce interfacial strain at the interface and to promote InP nucleation. We could show here, by systematic analysis, the strong impact of the growth temperatures and pressures of the InP layer on the growth uniformity along the trench and crystalline quality that we correlated with resistance changes and interdiffusion measured in the III-V layer. The key challenge remains in the ultimate control of crystalline quality during InP selective growth in order to reduce defect density to enable device-quality III-V virtual substrates on large-scale Si substrates.

  16. A Ploidy-Sensitive Mechanism Regulates Aperture Formation on the Arabidopsis Pollen Surface and Guides Localization of the Aperture Factor INP1

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Sarah H.; Lee, Byung Ha; Fox, Ronald; Dobritsa, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen presents a powerful model for studying mechanisms of precise formation and deposition of extracellular structures. Deposition of the pollen wall exine leads to the generation of species-specific patterns on pollen surface. In most species, exine does not develop uniformly across the pollen surface, resulting in the formation of apertures–openings in the exine that are species-specific in number, morphology and location. A long time ago, it was proposed that number and positions of apertures might be determined by the geometry of tetrads of microspores–the precursors of pollen grains arising via meiotic cytokinesis, and by the number of last-contact points between sister microspores. We have tested this model by characterizing Arabidopsis mutants with ectopic apertures and/or abnormal geometry of meiotic products. Here we demonstrate that contact points per se do not act as aperture number determinants and that a correct geometric conformation of a tetrad is neither necessary nor sufficient to generate a correct number of apertures. A mechanism sensitive to pollen ploidy, however, is very important for aperture number and positions and for guiding the aperture factor INP1 to future aperture sites. In the mutants with ectopic apertures, the number and positions of INP1 localization sites change depending on ploidy or ploidy-related cell size and not on INP1 levels, suggesting that sites for aperture formation are specified before INP1 is brought to them. PMID:27177036

  17. High uniformity of self-organized InAs quantum wires on InAlAs buffers grown on misoriented InP(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuanli; Jin, P.; Ye, X.L.; Zhang, C.L.; Shi, G.X.; Li, R.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Wang, Z.G.

    2006-03-20

    Highly uniform InAs quantum wires (QWRs) have been obtained on the In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As buffer layer grown on the InP substrate 8{sup (convolutionsign)} off (001) towards (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy. The quasi-periodic composition modulation was spontaneously formed in the In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As buffer layer on this misoriented InP (001). The width and period of the In-rich bands are about 10 and 40 nm, respectively. The periodic In-rich bands play a major role in the sequent InAs QWRs growth and the InAs QWRs are well positioned atop In-rich bands. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed a significant reduction in full width at half maximum and enhanced PL efficiency for InAs QWRs on misoriented InP(001) as compared to that on normal InP(001)

  18. Growing InGaAs quasi-quantum wires inside semi-rhombic shaped planar InP nanowires on exact (001) silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Chang, Shih-Pang; Hsu, Wen-Da; Lau, Kei May

    2016-06-01

    We report InGaAs quasi-quantum wires embedded in planar InP nanowires grown on (001) silicon emitting in the 1550 nm communication band. An array of highly ordered InP nanowire with semi-rhombic cross-section was obtained in pre-defined silicon V-grooves through selective-area hetero-epitaxy. The 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si was accommodated by an ultra-thin stacking disordered InP/GaAs nucleation layer. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope characterizations suggest excellent crystalline quality of the nanowires. By exploiting the morphological evolution of the InP and a self-limiting growth process in the V-grooves, we grew embedded InGaAs quantum-wells and quasi-quantum-wires with tunable shape and position. Room temperature analysis reveals substantially improved photoluminescence in the quasi-quantum wires as compared to the quantum-well reference, due to the reduced intrusion defects and enhanced quantum confinement. These results show great promise for integration of III-V based long wavelength nanowire lasers on the well-established (001) Si platform.

  19. Photoreflectance and DLTS evaluation of plasma-induced damage in GaAs and InP prior to solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, L.; Anderson, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect is considered of plasma etching on both GaAs and InP followed by damage removal using rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Effects of these processes were studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). These techniques are useful in evaluation of wafers prior to and effects of plasma processing during solar cell fabrication.

  20. High resolution electrolyte for thinning InP by anodic dissolution and its applications to EC-V profiling, defect revealing and surface passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Weinberg, Irving; Goradia, Manju; Vargas, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    An extensive experimental study was conducted using various electrolytes in an effort to find an appropriate electrolyte for anodic dissolution of InP. From the analysis of electrochemical characteristics in the dark and under different illumination levels, x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SEM/Nomarski inspection of the surfaces, it was determined that the anodic dissolution of InP front surface layers by FAP electrolyte is a very good choice for rendering smooth surfaces, free of oxides and contaminants and with good electrical characteristics. The FAP electrolyte, based on HF, CH3COOH, and H2O2 appears to be inherently superior to previously reported electrolytes for performing accurate EC-V profiling of InP at current densities of up to 0.3 mA/sq cm. It can also be used for accurate electrochemical revealing of either precipitates or dislocation density with application to EPD mapping as a function of depth, and for defect revealing of multilayer InP structures at any depth and/or at the interfaces.

  1. Titan's Aerosol and Stratospheric Ice Opacities Between 18 and 500 Micrometers: Vertical and Spectral Characteristics from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie M.; Samuelson, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical distributions and spectral characteristics of Titan's photochemical aerosol and stratospheric ices are determined between 20 and 560 per centimeter (500-18 micrometers) from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). Results are obtained for latitudes of 15 N, 15 S, and 58 S, where accurate temperature profiles can be independently determined. In addition, estimates of aerosol and ice abundances at 62 N relative to those at 15 S are derived. Aerosol abundances are comparable at the two latitudes, but stratospheric ices are approximately 3 times more abundant at 62 N than at 15 S. Generally, nitrile ice clouds (probably HCN and HC3N), as inferred from a composite emission feature at approximately 160 per centimeter, appear to be located over a narrow altitude range in the stratosphere centered at approximately 90 km. Although most abundant at high northern latitudes, these nitrile ice clouds extend down through low latitudes and into mid southern latitudes, at least as far as 58 S. There is some evidence of a second ice cloud layer at approximately 60 km altitude at 58 S associated with an emission feature at approximately 80 per centimeter. We speculate that the identify of this cloud may be due to C2H6 ice, which in the vapor phase is the most abundant hydrocarbon (next to CH4) in the stratosphere of Titan. Unlike the highly restricted range of altitudes (50-100 km) associated with organic condensate clouds, Titan's photochemical aerosol appears to be well-mixed from the surface to the top of the stratosphere near an altitude of 300 km, and the spectral shape does not appear to change between 15 N and 58 S latitude. The ratio of aerosol-to-gas scale heights range from 1.3-2.4 at about 160 km to 1.1-1.4 at 300 km, although there is considerable variability with latitude, The aerosol exhibits a very broad emission feature peaking at approximately 140 per centimeter. Due to its extreme breadth and low wavenumber, we speculate that this feature may

  2. Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation source pumped by 1.1-1.5 micrometer dual-wavelength fiber amplifier for trace-gas detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.; Lancaster, D. G.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    Continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation near 3.5 micrometers is generated by difference-frequency mixing of the output of a compact 1.1-1.5 micrometer dual-wavelength fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. The diode side-pumped amplifier is constructed with double-cladding Yb-doped fiber followed by single-mode Er/Yb codoped fiber. Output powers of as much as 11 microW at 3.4 micrometers are obtained, and spectroscopic detection of CH4 and H2CO is demonstrated. c 1998 Optical Society of America.

  3. A general method for synthesizing enzyme-polymer conjugates in reverse emulsions using Pluronic as a reactive surfactant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoling; Ge, Jun; Zhu, Jingying; Zhang, Yifei; Yong, You; Liu, Zheng

    2015-06-14

    Using aldehyde-functionalized Pluronic as the reactive surfactant, enzyme-Pluronic conjugates with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers were synthesized in reverse emulsions. Compared with the direct conjugation in aqueous solution, this method gave an increased conjugation efficiency and well-controlled size of the conjugates. The versatility of this method was validated using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). The resulting enzyme-Pluronic conjugates showed greatly enhanced apparent activity compared to free enzymes in organic media.

  4. Strain relaxation properties of InAs{sub y}P{sub 1-y} metamorphic materials grown on InP substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hudait, Mantu K.; Lin, Y.; Ringel, S. A.

    2009-03-15

    The strain relaxation mechanism and defect properties of compositionally step-graded InAs{sub y}P{sub 1-y} buffers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP have been investigated. InAsP layers having lattice misfits ranging from 1% to 1.4% with respect to InP, as well as subsequently grown lattice matched In{sub 0.69}Ga{sub 0.31}As overlayers on the metamorphic buffers were explored on both (100) and 2 deg. offcut (100) InP substrates. The metamorphic graded buffers revealed very efficient relaxation coupled with low threading dislocation densities on the order of (1-2)x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} for the range of misfit values explored here. A detailed analysis via high resolution x-ray diffraction revealed that the strain relaxed symmetrically, with equivalent numbers of {alpha} and {beta} dislocations, and to greater than 90% for all cases, regardless of substrate offcut. Further analysis showed the relaxation to always be glide limited in these materials when grown on a graded buffer compared to a single step layer. The threading dislocation density was observed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy to be constant for the range of misfit values studied here in the top layer of the graded structures, which is attributed to the very efficient use of residual dislocations and the dominance of dislocation glide over nucleation in these graded anion metamorphic buffers, suggesting great promise for metamorphic devices with lattice constants greater than that of InP to be enabled by InAsP metamorphic structures on InP.

  5. Micrometer-sized water droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation on a flat dry surface.

    PubMed

    Briones, Alejandro M; Ervin, Jamie S; Putnam, Shawn A; Byrd, Larry W; Gschwender, Lois

    2010-08-17

    A comprehensive numerical and experimental investigation on micrometer-sized water droplet impact dynamics and evaporation on an unheated, flat, dry surface is conducted from the standpoint of spray-cooling technology. The axisymmetric time-dependent governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and species are solved. Surface tension, wall adhesion effect, gravitational body force, contact line dynamics, and evaporation are accounted for in the governing equations. The explicit volume of fluid (VOF) model with dynamic meshing and variable-time stepping in serial and parallel processors is used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain. The numerical model includes temperature- and species-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. The contact line dynamics and the evaporation rate are predicted using Blake's and Schrage's molecular kinetic models, respectively. An extensive grid independence study was conducted. Droplet impingement and evaporation data are acquired with a standard dispensing/imaging system and high-speed photography. The numerical results are compared with measurements reported in the literature for millimeter-size droplets and with current microdroplet experiments in terms of instantaneous droplet shape and temporal spread (R/D(0) or R/R(E)), flatness ratio (H/D(0)), and height (H/H(E)) profiles, as well as temporal volume (inverted A) profile. The Weber numbers (We) for impinging droplets vary from 1.4 to 35.2 at nearly constant Ohnesorge number (Oh) of approximately 0.025-0.029. Both numerical and experimental results show that there is air bubble entrapment due to impingement. Numerical results indicate that Blake's formulation provides better results than the static (SCA) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) approach in terms of temporal evolution of R/D(0) and H/D(0) (especially at the initial stages of spreading) and equilibrium flatness ratio (H(E)/D(0)). Blake's contact line

  6. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal

  7. Micromachining of mesa and pyramidal-shaped objects in (1 0 0) InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliás, P.; Martaus, J.; Soltýs, J.; Kostic, I.

    2005-05-01

    Generally oriented mesas and pyramidal-shaped objects were patterned in (1 0 0) InP substrate by etching in 3HCl:1H3PO4 at (16 ± 0.05) °C through convex InGaAs mask patterns. The mesas were revealed through long (~2 mm) parallelogram-shaped mask strips whose long edges lay between [0 1 1] and [0\\,\\bar{1} \\,1] at a variable angle ω, with ω ≡ 0° at [0 1 1]. The mesas were re-entrant for ω epsi [0°, 45°) and ordinary for ω epsi (45°, 90°]. The tilt of mesa side facets α and the associated mask underetching rates were evaluated using SEM, AFM and optical microscopy. The underetching rate was zero at ω = 0° and 90°. With |(ω - 45°)| → 0° it increased asymmetrically about [0 0 1]: for |(ω1 - 45°)| = |(ω2 - 45°)| it was higher at ω1 < 45° than at ω2 > 45°. At ω = 45.5° ordinary (1 1 0)- and (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) -related facets, tilted at α ap 45°, were revealed at a rate of (310.1 ± 8.1) nm min-1. Likewise at ω = 45.5° off [0 1 1] to [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] (1 0 1)- and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) -related facets formed. In theory, (1 1 0), (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) , (1 0 1) and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) define a pyramidal shape with the sides tilted at 45° to (1 0 0). In practice, an object confined by facets related to (1 1 0), (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) , (1 0 1) and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) cannot be revealed via a convex-cornered lozenge-shaped pattern with the edges at ω = 45.5° and diagonals parallel with [0 1 1] and [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] because the 'pyramidal' facets are suppressed by fast-etching re-entrant facets that form at the [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] - and [0\\,\\bar{1} \\,1] -oriented corners. If compensated with e.g. rectangular strips, the pyramidal facets can be revealed at the lozenge edges. Etch-stop (2 1 1)A-related facets were formed along the compensation strip edges and fast-etching re-entrant facets at the convex corners of the compensation strips. The angular orientation of the pyramidal facets slightly shifted with etching time: the normal vector of the

  8. Mercury: Evidence for anorthosite and basalt from mid-infrared (7.3-13.5 micrometers) spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Wooden, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations (7.3-13.5 micrometers) of three locations on the surface of Mercury are reported. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low altitude regions between 12 and 32 deg mercurian longitude on 8 December 1990, from the longitudinal region 22-44 deg on 10 December 1990, and from the longitudinal region 110-130 deg on 12 July 1992; all locations are primarily intercrater plains. Spectra indicate compositional differences among these three locations. The emissivity maximum, or Christiansen emission peak, occurs at 8.1 micrometers in the 8 December 1990 spectra, but at shorter wavelengths in the data of 10 December 1990 and 12 July 1992. Emission peaks near 8 micrometers indicate rocks of intermediate or mafic composition. Spectra from 22 to 44 deg longitude resemble spectra of terrestrial basalt and diorite with SiO2 content between 49 and 55%. The Christiansen feature in spectra from near 110-130 deg longitude strongly suggests the presence of plagioclase, in particular labradorite, while the overall spectrum resembles anorthosite. The spectra from all three locations on Mercury show distinct and recognizable features, the principal Christiansen emission peak being the most prominent, but they also contain features that we have not yet identified. The general indication from the spectra is that Mercury's surface consists of minerals more depleted in oxidized iron than those on the Moon. We also explore the theoretical and observational complexities of ground-based mid-infrared spectroscopy of airless bodies in general and Mercury in particular. A spectroscopic study of quartzite in both reflectance and emittance illustrates the practical, spectral validity of Kirchhoff's law.

  9. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Teemu T T; Nonappa; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X X; Ikkala, Olli

    2016-09-14

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20-50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions. PMID:27491728

  10. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Teemu T T; Nonappa; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X X; Ikkala, Olli

    2016-09-14

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20-50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions.

  11. In situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H.; KC, Santosh; Azcatl, A.; Cabrera, W.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-11-28

    The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.

  12. Integrated remotely tunable optical delay line for millimeter-wave beam steering fabricated in an InP generic foundry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Tessema, N; Latkowski, S; Zhao, X; Chen, Z; Moskalenko, V; Williams, K A; van der Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2015-09-01

    A compact and fabrication-tolerant integrated remotely tunable optical delay line is proposed for millimeter-wave beam steering and is fabricated in an InP generic foundry. The proposed delay line is based on a spectrally cyclic-arrayed waveguide grating feedback loop. Its major features include the tolerant architecture with reduced chip size, and bi-directional operation with simplified remote tuning. Moreover, its cyclic feature guarantees further cascaded operations either for 2D radio beam steering or for high-resolution delay generation. The experimental results show less than 6.5-dB insertion loss of the integrated delay line. Five different delays from 0 to 71.6 ps are generated with less than 0.67-ps delay errors.

  13. Materials properties and dislocation dynamics in InAsP compositionally graded buffers on InP substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jandl, Adam Bulsara, Mayank T.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2014-04-21

    The properties of InAs{sub x}P{sub 1−x} compositionally graded buffers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. We report the effects of strain gradient (ε/thickness), growth temperature, and strain initiation sequence (gradual or abrupt strain introduction) on threading dislocation density, surface roughness, epi-layer relaxation, and tilt. We find that gradual introduction of strain causes increased dislocation densities (>10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}) and tilt of the epi-layer (>0.1°). A method of abrupt strain initiation is proposed which can result in dislocation densities as low as 1.01 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −2} for films graded from the InP lattice constant to InAs{sub 0.15}P{sub 0.85}. A model for a two-energy level dislocation nucleation system is proposed based on our results.

  14. LPE growth of 1.3 micron InGaAsP CW lasers on /110/ InP substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, F. Z.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) growth of high-quality InGaAsP/InP continuous-wave (CW) laser structures on (110) InP substrates using conventional LPE without the need for special growth procedures. Double heterojunction laser structures were grown using the LPE supercooling method with a horizontal sliding boat. Low broad-area current densities (970 A/sq cm) and CW operation achieved at room temperature indicate that results comparable to up-to-date devices may be achieved. The inherent tendency for surface planarity maintenance due to the perfect surface stoichiometry of the (110) surface is a feature that may lend itself to the generation of improved interface growth in quaternary III-V and related semiconductor alloy systems. The similar cross-sectional appearance of structures grown on (110) and (100) orientations show that conventional LPE can be used with (110) surface planes without introducing special growth procedures.

  15. A mass spectrometric study of the simultaneous reaction mechanism of TMIn and PH3 to grow InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, N. I.; Larsen, C. A.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms for the growth of InP from various mixtures of trimethyl indium (TMIn) and PH3 by OMVPE were investigated using mass spectrometry and a D2 ambient for isotopic labeling of the reaction products. It was found that, whereas TMIn alone pyrolyzes homogeneously, forming CH3D, and PH3 alone pyrolyzes heterogeneously, producing H2, the pyrolysis reactions of TMIn and PH3 together are completely different. The pyrolysis temperatures of both TMIn and PH3 are reduced (by 50 C for TMIn and 225 C for PH3), and the sole product is CH4 at high values of the PH3/TMIn ratio. The pyrolysis reaction is shown to be coupled (as evidenced by the equal depletion of TMIn and PH3 from the vapor) and, at temperatures below 400 C, heterogeneous.

  16. Monolithic InP strictly non-blocking 8×8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Tanemura, Takuo; Higo, Akio; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-17

    A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

  17. Nearly lattice-matched short-wave infrared InGaAsBi detectors on InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Chen, X. Y.; Ma, Y. J.; Xi, S. P.; Du, B.; Li, Hsby.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the demonstration of a short-wave infrared detector nearly lattice matched to InP substrate using quaternary InGaAsBi as the absorption layer. The bismuth content of about 3.2% has red-shifted the 50% cut-off wavelength from about 1.6 μm to 2.1 μm at room temperature, indicating a bandgap reduction of about 180 meV due to bismuth incorporation. The detector shows an encouraging dark current density of 2.4 × 10-4 A/cm2 at bias voltage of -10 mV at 300 K. This work shows the promising potential of InP-based lattice-matched InGaAsBi detectors for short-wave infrared detection.

  18. In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-04-29

    The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

  19. Reducing the interface trap density in Al2O3/InP stacks by low-temperature thermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Kai; Cao, Mingmin; Sun, Bing; Li, Haiou; Liu, Honggang

    2015-09-01

    By applying low-temperature processes below 300 °C, high-performance Al/Al2O3/InP metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors with low interface trap density and small capacitance frequency dispersion at the accumulation regime are demonstrated. A minimum interface trap density of 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 near the midgap is obtained. The impacts of thermal treatment on interface traps, thermal stability, and interfacial bonding configurations are studied and discussed. It is found that interface trap density could be significantly reduced by removing phosphorus and its oxides at low temperature (250-300 °C), while further increasing the thermal treatment temperature is harmful to interface quality.

  20. Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuqing; Pello, Josselin; Mejia, Alonso Millan; Shen, Longfei; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; Smit, Meint; van der Tol, Jos

    2014-03-15

    In this Letter, we present a method to prepare a mixed electron-beam resist composed of a positive resist (ZEP520A) and C60 fullerene. The addition of C60 to the ZEP resist changes the material properties under electron beam exposure significantly. An improvement in the thermal resistance of the mixed material has been demonstrated by fabricating multimode interference couplers and coupling regions of microring resonators. The fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector structures has shown improvement in terms of pattern definition accuracy with respect to the same structures fabricated with normal ZEP resist. Straight InP membrane waveguides with different lengths have been fabricated using this mixed resist. A decrease of the propagation loss from 6.6 to 3.3  dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  1. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  2. Long-lived BLOCH oscillations with bosonic sr atoms and application to gravity measurement at the micrometer scale.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Poli, N; Sorrentino, F; Tino, G M

    2006-08-11

    We report on the observation of Bloch oscillations on the unprecedented time scale of several seconds. The experiment is carried out with ultracold bosonic 88Sr atoms loaded into a vertical optical standing wave. The negligible atom-atom elastic cross section and zero angular momentum in the ground state makes 88Sr an almost ideal Bose gas, insensitive to typical mechanisms of decoherence due to thermalization and external stray fields. The small size of the system enables precision measurements of forces at micrometer scale. This is a challenge in physics for studies of surfaces, Casimir effects, and searches for deviations from Newtonian gravity predicted by theories beyond the standard model.

  3. Aluminum Foils of the Stardust Interstellar Collector: The Challenge of Recognizing Micrometer-sized Impact Craters made by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Westphal, A. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary Examination (PE) of the Stardust cometary collector revealed material embedded in aerogel and on aluminium (Al) foil. Large numbers of sub-micrometer impact craters gave size, structural and compositional information. With experience of finding and analyzing the picogram to nanogram mass remains of cometary particles, are we now ready for PE of the Interstellar (IS) collector? Possible interstellar particle (ISP) tracks in the aerogel are being identified by the stardust@home team. We are now assessing challenges facing PE of Al foils from the interstellar collector.

  4. Exploration of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy with micrometer resolution: forward and a new backscattering modality on natural samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lifen; Zhao, Jiyong; Toellner, Thomas S.; Divan, Ralu; Xu, Shenglan; Cai, Zhonghou; Boesenberg, Joseph S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Alp, Esen E.

    2012-01-01

    New aspects of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy are presented. A 5 µm spatial resolution is achieved, and sub-micrometer resolution is envisioned. Two distinct and unique methods, synchrotron Mössbauer imaging and nuclear resonant incoherent X-ray imaging, are used to resolve spatial distribution of species that are chemically and magnetically distinct from one another. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed on enriched 57Fe phantoms, and on samples with natural isotopic abundance, such as meteorites. PMID:22898962

  5. Exploration of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy with micrometer resolution: forward and a new backscattering modality on natural samples.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifen; Zhao, Jiyong; Toellner, Thomas S; Divan, Ralu; Xu, Shenglan; Cai, Zhonghou; Boesenberg, Joseph S; Friedrich, Jon M; Cramer, Stephen P; Alp, Esen E

    2012-09-01

    New aspects of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy are presented. A 5 µm spatial resolution is achieved, and sub-micrometer resolution is envisioned. Two distinct and unique methods, synchrotron Mössbauer imaging and nuclear resonant incoherent X-ray imaging, are used to resolve spatial distribution of species that are chemically and magnetically distinct from one another. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed on enriched (57)Fe phantoms, and on samples with natural isotopic abundance, such as meteorites. PMID:22898962

  6. Validation of radiographic simulation codes including x-ray phase effects for millimeter-size objects with micrometer structures.

    PubMed

    Martz, Harry E; Kozioziemski, Bernard J; Lehman, Sean K; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Schneberk, Daniel J; Barty, Anton

    2007-01-01

    The mix between x-ray phase and attenuation information needs to be understood for accurate object recovery from radiography and tomography data. We are researching and experimentally validating algorithms that simulate x-ray phase contrast to determine the required physics necessary for quantitative object recovery. The results of a study are described to determine if a multislice (beam-propagation) method is required for simulating x-ray radiographs. We conclude that the multislice method is not required for accurate simulation of greater than or equal to 8 keV x-ray radiographs of millimeter-size objects with micrometer structures.

  7. Pressure dependence of the configurational bistability and deep electronic levels of the MFe center in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, G. A.; Barnes, C. E.

    2006-04-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the structural bistability and electronic properties of the processing-induced MFe center in Fe-doped n -type InP was investigated. Earlier work has shown that, when occupied by electrons, the center can be reversibly placed in either of two configurations, termed A and B , by the proper choice of electric biasing conditions and temperature. Pressure strongly modifies the energetics and kinetics of the various electronic transitions and of the transformations associated with the center. The activation volumes (ΔV*) for these processes were determined. In the absence of barriers to electron capture, or for small barriers, ΔV* can be interpreted as the breathing mode relaxation associated with electron emission or capture. At pressures ⩾8kbar , the center exists only in the A configuration regardless of bias conditions, because at these pressures the energetics and kinetics of the various processes have changed so much as to always favor the A configuration. It is also shown that, whereas the A⇄B transformations are charge state controlled at 1bar , this is not the case at high pressure where the transformations can be brought about without electron emission or hole capture. Earlier tentative atomic models for the center are discussed, and it is shown that some features of one of the models including the signs of the breathing mode relaxations associated with the various electron emissions are consistent with the experimental results, but issues remain. The results are also found to be generally consistent with first-principles calculations on defects in InP, but it is emphasized that whereas these calculations are for simple defects, the defects associated with the MFe center are more complex.

  8. Damage characterisation of InP after reactive ion etching using the low-frequency noise measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, P.; Kräutle, H.; Szentpáli, B.; Kincses, Zs; Hartnagel, H. L.

    1997-04-01

    Reactive ion etching (RIE) is a basic tool in the processing of InP optoelectronic and photonic integrated circuits (OEICs and PICs). However, due to the bombardment of the high energy ions of the plasma, heavy damage of the semiconductor surface occurs. Additionally, when using a CH 4 + Ar + H 2 plasma significant proton implantation also takes place. Investigating n-type InP etched by specific RIE processes, we show, that the low-frequency noise (LFN) generated in an appropriately designed planar resistor pattern is affected in a characteristic manner depending on the process-parameters. Further, a decrease of the pattern resistance and also significant surface leakage currents were observed, due to a strong enhancement of the surface electron concentration. In n-type material the {1}/{f} noise component is enhanced as the damaged portion of the current path increases. Additionally, generation-recombination (g-r) components are also present in the spectrum indicating that specific deep levels appear in the damaged region. Using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) as a post-process step, the {1}/{f} noise component decreases and the sample resistance increases. At the same time the surface leakage currents disappear. These observations are due to the fact, that an out diffusion of the implanted H + takes place and it is likely that process-induced modifications of the surface layer will tend to recover. To avoid proton implantation, etching only by Ar plasma was investigated. Damage and an enhanced surface conduction were observed. Applying a short HF-dip, a slight increase of the g-r noise intensity was detected.

  9. Optical investigation of InAs quantum dashes grown on InP(0 0 1) vicinal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besahraoui, F.; Bouslama, M.; Saidi, F.; Bouzaiene, L.; Hadj Alouane, M. H.; Maaref, H.; Chauvin, N.; Gendry, M.; Lounis, Z.; Ghaffour, M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate with photoluminescence (PL) measurements the optoelectronic properties of self-organized InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on nominal InP(0 0 1) substrate. InAs/InP(0 0 1) QDs are grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) method with optimized conditions in Stranski-Krastanov regime. A lateral coupling behavior was shown by photoluminescence spectroscopy. This phenomena is considered as a degradation source of the optoelectronic properties of InAs/InP(0 0 1) QDs used in lasers applications. In order to overcome this disadvantage behavior, we have studied the optical properties of InAs quantum islands (QIs) grown on vicinal InP(0 0 1) with 2° off miscut angle toward the [1 1 0] direction. From Polarized Photoluminescence (PPL) measurements, we have deduced that InAs quantum nanostructures have quantum dashes (QDas) form elongated in [1-10] direction. From excitation density PL measurements, we have evidenced that the different observed PL peaks are attributed to the emission of InAs QDas of different size. The lateral coupling behavior is completely eliminated in the case of this sample. The temperature-dependent PL measurements show a good thermal stability and an emission wavelength at room temperature around 1.55 μm of the vicinal sample. All these properties prove that this sample possess favorable characteristics for microlasers based devices functioning at room temperature and for optical telecommunication with long range weapon. The broad emission range observed at 300 K of the vicinal sample gives the possibility to use it as an active zone in solar cells and in infrared photodectectors of high optical gain and excellent sensitivity on a wide energy range.

  10. Inter-dot strain field effect on the optoelectronic properties of realistic InP lateral quantum-dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Barettin, Daniele Auf der Maur, Matthias; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2015-03-07

    We report on numerical simulations of InP surface lateral quantum-dot molecules on In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52 }P buffer, using a model strictly derived by experimental results by extrapolation of the molecules shape from atomic force microscopy images. Our study has been inspired by the comparison of a photoluminescence spectrum of a high-density InP surface quantum dot sample with a numerical ensemble average given by a weighted sum of simulated single quantum-dot spectra. A lack of experimental optical response from the smaller dots of the sample is found to be due to strong inter-dot strain fields, which influence the optoelectronic properties of lateral quantum-dot molecules. Continuum electromechanical, k{sup →}·p{sup →} bandstructure, and optical calculations are presented for two different molecules, the first composed of two dots of nearly identical dimensions (homonuclear), the second of two dots with rather different sizes (heteronuclear). We show that in the homonuclear molecule the hydrostatic strain raises a potential barrier for the electrons in the connection zone between the dots, while conversely the holes do not experience any barrier, which considerably increases the coupling. Results for the heteronuclear molecule show instead that its dots do not appear as two separate and distinguishable structures, but as a single large dot, and no optical emission is observed in the range of higher energies where the smaller dot is supposed to emit. We believe that in samples of such a high density the smaller dots result as practically incorporated into bigger molecular structures, an effect strongly enforced by the inter-dot strain fields, and consequently it is not possible to experimentally obtain a separate optical emission from the smaller dots.

  11. Adding GaAs Monolayers to InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers on (001) InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Chacon, Rebecca; Uhl, David; Yang, Rui

    2005-01-01

    In a modification of the basic configuration of InAs quantum-dot semiconductor lasers on (001)lnP substrate, a thin layer (typically 1 to 2 monolayer thick) of GaAs is incorporated into the active region. This modification enhances laser performance: In particular, whereas it has been necessary to cool the unmodified devices to temperatures of about 80 K in order to obtain lasing at long wavelengths, the modified devices can lase at wavelengths of about 1.7 microns or more near room temperature. InAs quantum dots self-assemble, as a consequence of the lattice mismatch, during epitaxial deposition of InAs on ln0.53Ga0.47As/lnP. In the unmodified devices, the quantum dots as thus formed are typically nonuniform in size. Strainenergy relaxation in very large quantum dots can lead to poor laser performance, especially at wavelengths near 2 microns, for which large quantum dots are needed. In the modified devices, the thin layers of GaAs added to the active regions constitute potential-energy barriers that electrons can only penetrate by quantum tunneling and thus reduce the hot carrier effects. Also, the insertion of thin GaAs layer is shown to reduce the degree of nonuniformity of sizes of the quantum dots. In the fabrication of a batch of modified InAs quantum-dot lasers, the thin additional layer of GaAs is deposited as an interfacial layer in an InGaAs quantum well on (001) InP substrate. The device as described thus far is sandwiched between InGaAsPy waveguide layers, then further sandwiched between InP cladding layers, then further sandwiched between heavily Zn-doped (p-type) InGaAs contact layer.

  12. High and low energy proton radiation damage in p/n InP MOCVD solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Weinberg, Irving; Scheiman, Dave; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    InP p(+)nn(+) MOCVD solar cells were irradiated with 0.2 MeV and 10 MeV protons to a fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. The degradation of power output, IV behavior, carrier concentration and defect concentration were observed at intermediate points throughout the irradiations. The 0.2 MeV proton irradiated solar cells suffered much greater and more rapid degradation in power output than those irradiated with 10 meV protons. The efficiency losses were accompanied by larger increases in the recombination currents in the 0.2 MeV proton irradiated solar cells. The low energy proton irradiations also had a larger impact on the series resistance of the solar cells. Despite the radiation induced damage, the carrier concentration in the base of the solar cells showed no reduction after 10 MeV or 0.2 MeV proton irradiations and even increased during irradiation with 0.2 MeV protons. In a DLTS study of the irradiated samples, the minority carrier defects H4 and H5 at E(v) + 0.33 and E(v) + 0.52 eV and the majority carrier defects E7 and E10 at E(c)- 0.39 and E(c)-0.74 eV, were observed. The defect introduction rates for the 0.2 MeV proton irradiations were about 20 times higher than for the 10 MeV proton irradiations. The defect E10, observed here after irradiation, has been shown to act as a donor in irradiated n-type InP and may be responsible for obscuring carrier removal. The results of this study are consistent with the much greater damage produced by low energy protons whose limited range causes them to stop in the active region of the solar cell.

  13. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or

  14. The Use of Auger Spectroscopy for the in situ Elemental Characterization of Sub-micrometer Presolar Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Floss, Christine; Bose, Maitrayee P.; Lea, Alan S.

    2009-10-01

    Presolar grains are small samples of stardust which can be found at low abundances in some of the most unaltered types of extraterrestrial materials. These grains condensed in the environments of massive stars before the formation of the solar system and survived incorporation into solar system materials without completely losing their isotopic, elemental and mineralogical makeup. Laboratory analyses of these presolar grains give insights into stellar nucleosynthesis and provide clues about the physical and chemical conditions during their formation as well as about interstellar exposure history and parent body processes. Since most presolar grains are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and represent only a few ppm of their host materials (e.g., meteorites or interplanetary dust particles), locating and studying these particles can be analytically challenging. Recently, we began using scanning Auger spectroscopy for the in situ elemental characterization of presolar grains and found that this technique, especially when paired with spatially matched NanoSIMS isotopic studies, can provide important insights that would be difficult to obtain with other analytical approaches. Here we discuss details of applying Auger spectroscopy to sub-micrometer sized geological samples and address practical issues such as sample preparation, measurement settings, data processing, and elemental quantification.

  15. Comparison of Measurement Techniques for Gate Shortening in Sub-Micrometer Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pradeep; Bari, Mohammad; Rao, Krishnaraj

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, various methods of evaluating the electrical channel length change (or gate shortening) as a result of applied gate voltage in sub-micrometer metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated and the method best suited for such short channel length devices is reported. Studies were performed on n-channel transistors (n-MOSFETs) fabricated using X-ray and optical lithography and having channel lengths in the range of 0.4 to 4 μm and 1.5 to 10 μm respectively. The effective channel lengths were extracted from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The measurements were made for different low and high sets of gate voltages. In comparing various methods it was found that the method due to Terada and Muta, and Chern et al. gave accurate results consistently for short channel MOSFETs, whereas the Whitfield method gave accurate results only for larger channel length MOSFETs. The accuracy of the Whitfield method is sensitive to applied gate voltage during I-V measurements. The Peng and Afromowitz method is unsuitable for finding the effective channel length of sub-micrometer MOSFETs especially if the MOSFETs have high values of external resistance.

  16. Comparison of measurement techniques for gate shortening in sub-micrometer metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pradeep; Bari, Mohammad; Rao, Krishnaraj

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, various methods of evaluating the electrical channel length change (or gate shortening) as a result of applied gate voltage in sub-micrometer metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated and the method best suited for such short channel length devices is reported. Studies were performed on n-channel transistors (n-MOSEFTs) fabricated using X-ray and optical lithography and having channel lengths in the range of 0.4 to 4 micron and 1.5 to 10 micron respectively. The effective channel lengths were extracted from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The measurements were made for different low and high sets of gate voltages. In comparing various methods it was found that the method due to Terada and Muta, and Chern et al. gave accurate results consistently for short channel MOSEFTs, whereas the Whitfield method gave accurate results only for larger channel length MOSEFTs. The accuracy of the Whitfield method is sensitive to applied gate voltage during I-V measurements. The Peng and Afromowitz method is unsuitable for finding the effective channel length of sub-micrometer MSFETs especially if the MSFETs have high values of external resistance.

  17. In situ ion-beam-induced luminescence analysis for evaluating a micrometer-scale radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Shunsuke; Kada, Wataru; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Sakai, Makoto; Miura, Kenta; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Micrometer-scale responses of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters to focused ionized particle radiation were evaluated by combining ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and proton beam writing (PBW) using a 3 MeV focused proton microbeam. RPL phosphate glass dosimeters doped with ionic Ag or Cu activators at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.1% were fabricated, and their scintillation intensities were evaluated by IBIL spectroscopy under a PBW micropatterning condition. Compared with the Ag-doped dosimeter, the Cu-doped dosimeter was more tolerant of the radiation, while the peak intensity of its luminescence was lower, under the precise dose control of the proton microprobe. Proton-irradiated areas were successfully recorded using these dosimeters and their RPL centers were visualized under 375 nm ultraviolet light. The reproduction of the irradiated region by post-RPL imaging suggests that precise estimation of irradiation dose using microdosimeters can be accomplished by optimizing RPL glass dosimeters for various proton microprobe applications in organic material analysis and in micrometer-scale material modifications.

  18. Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single droplet basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardon-Dryer, K.; Huang, Y.-W.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the Collection Efficiency (CE) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Water droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with a radius of ~20 μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL) particles of variable size and concentrations. Two RH conditions, ~15 and ~88%, hereafter termed "Low" and "High", respectively, were varied with different particles size and concentrations. After passing through the chamber, the droplets and aerosol particles were sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument to determine chemical compositions on a single particle basis. Coagulated droplets had mass spectra that contain signatures from both an aerosol particle and a droplet residual. CE values range from 5.7 × 10-3 to 4.6 × 10-2 for the Low RH and from 6.4 × 10-3 to 2.2 × 10-2 for the High RH cases. CE values were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of the aerosol concentrations. CE values in this work were found to be in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. To our knowledge, this is the first coagulation experiment performed on a single droplet basis.

  19. Ab initio calculations of polarization, piezoelectric constants, and elastic constants of InAs and InP in the wurtzite phase

    SciTech Connect

    Hajlaoui, C. Pedesseau, L.; Raouafi, F.; Ben Cheikh Larbi, F.; Even, J.; Jancu, J.-M.

    2015-08-15

    We report first-principle density functional calculations of the spontaneous polarization, piezoelectric stress constants, and elastic constants for the III–V wurtzite structure semiconductors InAs and InP. Using the density functional theory implemented in the VASP code, we obtain polarization values–0.011 and–0.013 C/m{sup 2}, and piezoelectric constants e{sub 33} (e{sub 31}) equal to 0.091 (–0.026) and 0.012 (–0.081) C/m{sup 2} for structurally relaxed InP and InAs respectively. These values are consistently smaller than those of nitrides. Therefore, we predict a smaller built-in electric field in such structures.

  20. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of GaAs (001) and InP (001) Cleaning Procedures Prior to Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contour, J. P.; Massies, J.; Saletes, A.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of chemical etching by H2S04/H202/H20 (5/1/1) mixtures and of mechanopolishing by bromine-methanol diluted solution on GaAs (001) and InP (001) substrates for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The final rinse in running deionized water does not produce any passivating oxide layer on the substrate surface. Oxidation observed on GaAs and InP after these cleaning procedures occurs during substrate handling in air. The H2S04/H202/H20 mixture produces arsenic rich surface layers having an atomic ratio As/Ga of 1.15, whereas the bromine-methanol mechanopolishing leads to an arsenic or phosphorus depleted surface with atomic ratios As/Ga=0.7 and P/In=0.65.

  1. Photoluminescence and photocurrent from InP nanowires with InAsP quantum dots grown on Si by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Kuyanov, P; LaPierre, R R

    2015-08-01

    InP nanowires with InAsP quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si (111) substrates. The structure of the InAsP QDs were studied using transmission electron microscopy, allowing the development of a model where QD growth occurs by group V desorption from the surrounding substrate surface. Micro-photoluminescence was performed at 10 K showing emission at 1.47-1.49 eV from the InP wurtzite structure, and various emission peaks between 0.93 and 1.33 eV attributed to the QDs. The emission was tuned by the QD composition. The effectiveness of an AlInP passivation shell was demonstrated via an improvement in the photoluminescence intensity. Spectrally-resolved photocurrent measurements at room temperature demonstrated infrared response due to absorption within the QDs. The absorption red-shifted with increasing As composition of the QD.

  2. Wavelength extension beyond 1.5 µm in symmetric InAs quantum dots grown on InP(111)A using droplet epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Neul; Mano, Takaaki; Wu, Yu-Nien; Ou, Ya-Wen; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Kuroda, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    By using a C 3v symmetric (111) surface as a growth substrate, we can achieve high structural symmetry in self-assembled quantum dots, which are suitable for use as quantum-entangled-photon emitters. Here, we report on the wavelength controllability of InAs dots on InP(111)A, which we realized by tuning the ternary alloy composition of In(Al,Ga)As barriers that were lattice-matched to InP. We changed the peak emission wavelength systematically from 1.3 to 1.7 µm by barrier band gap tuning. The observed spectral shift agreed with the result of numerical simulations that assumed a measured shape distribution independent of the barrier choice.

  3. Growth of InP on GaAs (001) by hydrogen-assisted low-temperature solid-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Postigo, P. A.; Suarez, F.; Sanz-Hervas, A.; Sangrador, J.; Fonstad, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Direct heteroepitaxial growth of InP layers on GaAs (001) wafers has been performed by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy assisted by monoatomic hydrogen (H*). The epitaxial growth has been carried out using a two-step method: for the initial stage of growth the temperature was as low as 200 deg. C and different doses of H* were used; after this, the growth proceeded without H* while the temperature was increased slowly with time. The incorporation of H* drastically increased the critical layer thickness observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction; it also caused a slight increase in the luminescence at room temperature, while it also drastically changed the low-temperature luminescence related to the presence of stoichiometric defects. The samples were processed by rapid thermal annealing. The annealing improved the crystalline quality of the InP layers measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, but did not affect their luminescent behavior significantly.

  4. Investigation of surface oxide films on InP mesa sidewalls and flat surfaces reactive ion etched using CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.T.; Kim, D.K.; Ahn, J.H.; Oh, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Oxide films were observed on InP mesa sidewalls and horizontal surfaces after CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} reactive ion etch process. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray microanalysis in the transmission electron microscopy suggested that the films are In-Si-P or In-P oxides containing more In than P, depending on the RIE instrument utilized. It was suggested that excess In in the film is due to the preferential evaporation of P, and Si is due to the mask erosion during the RIE process. Oxidation of the elements was observed to occur during the subsequent oxygen plasma ashing process. The films presented a serious barrier during the subsequent fabrication processes, such as regrowth and chemical cleaning, while could be effectively removed by cleaning in a diluted HF solution.

  5. InP-quantum dots in Al0.20Ga0.80InP with different barrier configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Wolfgang-Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Reischle, Matthias; Beirne, Gareth J.; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Systematic ensemble photoluminescence studies have been performed on type-I InP-quantum dots in Al0.20Ga0.80InP barriers, emitting at approximately 1.85 eV at 5 K. The influence of different barrier configurations as well as the incorporation of additional tunnel barriers on the optical properties has been investigated. The confinement energy between the dot barrier and the surrounding barrier layers, which is the sum of the band discontinuities for the valence and the conduction bands, was chosen to be approximately 190 meV by using Al0.50Ga0.50InP. In combination with 2 nm thick AlInP tunnel barriers, the internal quantum efficiency of these barrier configurations can be increased by up to a factor of 20 at elevated temperatures with respect to quantum dots without such layers.

  6. FFT-impedance spectroscopy analysis of the growth of magnetic metal nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerngross, M.-D.; Carstensen, J.; Föll, H.; Adelung, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of the electrochemical growth process of magnetic nanowires in ultra-high-aspect ratio InP membranes via in situ fast Fourier transform impedance spectroscopy in a typical frequency range from 75 Hz to 18.5 kHz. The measured impedance data from the Ni, Co, and FeCo can be very well fitted using the same electric equivalent circuit consisting of a series resistance in serial connection to an RC-element and a Maxwell element. The impedance data clearly indicate the similarities in the growth behavior of Ni, Co and FeCo nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes—the beneficial impact of boric acid on the metal deposition in ultra-high aspect ratio membranes and the diffusion limitation of boric acid, as well as differences such as passivation or side reactions.

  7. Prediction of phonon thermal transport in thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires by molecular dynamics simulations: influence of the interatomic potential.

    PubMed

    Carrete, J; Longo, R C; Gallego, L J

    2011-05-01

    A number of different potentials are currently being used in molecular dynamics simulations of semiconductor nanostructures. Confusion can arise if an inappropriate potential is used. To illustrate this point, we performed direct molecular dynamics simulations to predict the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity λ of thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires. In each case, simulations performed using the classical Harrison potential afforded values of λ about an order of magnitude smaller than those obtained using more elaborate potentials (an Abell-Tersoff, as parameterized by Hammerschmidt et al for GaAs and InAs, and a potential of Vashishta type for InP). These results will be a warning to those wishing to use computer simulations to orient the development of quasi-one-dimensional systems as heat sinks or thermoelectric devices. PMID:21427474

  8. The mechanism of the growth of InP by MOCVD: A flow-tube investigation of the pyrolysis of the indium precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, J.; O'Brien, S.

    1984-09-01

    A flow-tube method has been used to investigate the pyrolysis of indium trimethyl and indium trimethyl-phosphorus triethyl adduct, as part of an investigation of the MOCVD process for epitaxial deposition of InP and related semiconductors. At partial pressures close to those used in MOCVD the rate of pyrolysis of indium trimethyl was found to be dependent on the nature of the reactor surface, being faster on glass than on (100) InP. At higher pressures this difference was not observed. The pyrolysis of the adduct proceeds via gas-phase dissociation to the two constituents followed by decomposition of indium trimethyl. The implications for MOCVD are discussed.

  9. Thermally stable, low resistance contact systems for use with shallow junction p(+) nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Fatemi, N. S.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Two contact systems for use on shallow junction InP solar cells are described. The feature shared by these two contact systems is the absence of the metallurgical intermixing that normally takes place between the semiconductor and the contact metallization during the sintering process. The n(+)pp(+) cell contact system, consisting of a combination of Au and Ge, not only exhibits very low resistance in the as-fabricated state, but also yields post-sinter resistivity values of 1(exp -7) ohms-sq cm, with effectively no metal-InP interdiffusion. The n(+)pp(+)cell contact system, consisting of a combination of Ag and Zn, permits low resistance ohmic contact to be made directly to a shallow junction p/n InP device without harming the device itself during the contacting process.

  10. Chemical dry etching of GaAs and InP by Cl2 using a new ultrahigh-vacuum dry-etching molecular-beam-epitaxy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhata, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Okamoto, A.; Ohata, K.

    1989-01-01

    Damage and contamination-free chemical dry etching of (100)GaAs and (100)InP by Cl2 was demonstrated using a new ultrahigh-vacuum dry-etching molecular-beam-epitaxy (BME) system. This system consists of a combined etching chamber, an MBE chamber, and a sample preparation chamber, all at ultrahigh vacuum. A mirrorlike surface was obtained after etching at substrate temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 C for GaAs, and from 200 to 400 C for InP. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations were accomplished for GaAs, with a mirrorlike surface after etching, and (2 x 4) surface reconstruction was observed. Results show that a smooth surface was formed at an atomic level.

  11. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  12. N/P InP homojunction solar cells with an In0.53Ga0.47As contacting layer grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C. C.; Choi, K. Y.

    1989-01-01

    N/P InP homojunction solar cells with an In sub 0.53 Ga sub 0.47 As contacting layer were fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Electron-Beam-Induced-Current (EBIC) measurements were performed on several selected samples. It was found that the background doping level in the base region sometimes results in a deep junction, which greatly affects the cell performance.

  13. Carriers mobility of InAs- and InP- rich InAs-InP solid solutions irradiated by fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Khutsishvili, Elza; Khomasuridze, David; Gabrichidze, Leonti; Kvirkvelia, Bella; Kekelidze, David; Guguchia, Zurab; Aliyev, Vugar; Kekelidze, Nodar

    2013-12-04

    We have studied the low temperature charge carriers mobility in bulk single crystals of InAs- and InP- rich InAs-InP solid solutions irradiated with maximum integral flux 2⋅10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} of fast neutrons. Influence of minor component small addition in InAs-InP solid solutions has been revealed. There are also presented data of radiation defects thermal stability.

  14. Retrieval of atomic oxygen and temperature in the thermosphere. Part 1: Feasibility of an experiment based on the spectrally resolved 147 micrometer limb emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachor, A. S.; Sharma, R. D.; Yap, B. K.; Riehl, J. P.

    1989-04-01

    The importance of atomic oxygen and translational temperature in mesospheric/thermospheric processes is the motivation to study the feasibility of recovering vertical profiles of the temperature and O-atom density from limb scan data obtained near 147 micrometer and/or 63 micrometer wavelength, corresponding to the oxygen atom ground electronic state (OI) transitions. The limb radiance data must be spectrally resolved to recover both temperature and atomic oxygen density if only one of the OI lines is used, which is the approach investigated in this report. We show how the two vertical profiles can be recovered by applying an onion-peeling method to synthetic data. The temperature and O-atom density in each peeled layer are obtained simultaneously by nonlinear least-squares spectrum fitting. Spectral data in the 147 micrometer line was found to yield reasonably accurate and stable profiles from 300 km down to an altitude between 130 and 90 km, depending on the noise level and spectral resolution, and gave better results than the stronger 63 micrometer data below 140 km. We estimate that the S/N and spectral resolution required for successful retrievals could be provided by a confocal Fabry-Perot system operating near 147 micrometer although retrievals down to 90 km from data obtained at orbital altitude would require cooled foreoptics roughly a meter in diameter.

  15. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  16. Investigation of InP etching mechanisms in a Cl{sub 2}/H{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma by optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gatilova, L.; Bouchoule, S.; Guilet, S.; Chabert, P.

    2009-03-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) has been used in order to investigate the InP etching mechanisms in a Cl{sub 2}-H{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma. The authors have previously shown that anisotropic etching of InP could be achieved for a H{sub 2} percentage in the 35%-45% range where the InP etch rate also presents a local maximum [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006)], and that anisotropic etching was due to an enhanced passivation of the etched sidewalls by a silicon oxide layer [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008)]. In this work, it is shown that this etching behavior is related to a maximum in the H atom concentration in the plasma. The possible enhancement of the sidewall passivation process in the presence of H is investigated by comparing OES measurements and etching results obtained for Cl{sub 2}-H{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}-Ar gas mixtures.

  17. Electrochemical growth of Co nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes: FFT-impedance spectroscopy of the growth process and magnetic properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical growth of Co nanowires in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes has been investigated by fast Fourier transform-impedance spectroscopy (FFT-IS) in the frequency range from 75 Hz to 18.5 kHz. The impedance data could be fitted very well using an electric circuit equivalent model with a series resistance connected in series to a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) element and a Maxwell element. Based on the impedance data, the Co deposition in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes can be divided into two different Co deposition processes. The corresponding share of each process on the overall Co deposition can be determined directly from the transfer resistances of the two processes. The impedance data clearly show the beneficial impact of boric acid on the Co deposition and also indicate a diffusion limitation of boric acid in ultra-high aspect ratio InP membranes. The grown Co nanowires are polycrystalline with a very small grain size. They show a narrow hysteresis loop with a preferential orientation of the easy magnetization direction along the long nanowire axis due to the arising shape anisotropy of the Co nanowires. PMID:25050088

  18. Development of InP solid state detector and liquid scintillator containing metal complex for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2012-07-01

    A large volume solid state detector using a semi-insulating Indium Phosphide (InP) wafer have been developed for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos. Basic performance such as the charge collection efficiency and the energy resolution were measured by 60% and 20%, respectively. In order to detect two gammas (115keV and 497keV) from neutrino capture, we have designed hybrid detector which consist InP detector and liquid xenon scintillator for IPNOS experiment. New InP detector with thin electrode (Cr 50Å- Au 50Å). For another possibility, an organic liquid scintillator containing indium complex and zirconium complex were studied for a measurement of low energy solar neutrinos and neutrinosless double beta decay, respectively. Benzonitrile was chosen as a solvent because of good solubility for the quinolinolato complexes (2 wt%) and of good light yield for the scintillation induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The photo-luminescence emission spectra of InQ3 and ZrQ4 in benzonitrile was measured and liquid scintillator cocktail using InQ3 and ZrQ4 (50mg) in benzonitrile solutions (20 mL) with secondary scintillators with PPO (100mg) and POPOP (10mg) was made. The energy spectra of incident gammas were measured, and they are first results of the gamma-ray energy spectra using luminescent of metal complexes.

  19. Optical and structural properties of InP quantum dots embedded in (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.-M.; Roßbach, R.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Bommer, M.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2009-01-01

    Within this work we present optical and structural properties of InP quantum dots embedded in (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P barriers. Atomic force microscopy measurements show a mainly bimodal height distribution with aspect ratios (ratio of width to height) of about 10:1 and quantum dot heights of around 2 nm for the smaller quantum dot class (type A) and around 4 nm for the larger quantum dot class (type B). From ensemble-photoluminescence measurements we estimated thermal activation energies of up to 270 meV for the type-A quantum dots, resulting in a 300 times higher luminescence intensity at 200 K in comparison to our InP quantum dots in Ga0.51In0.49P at the same emission wavelength. Photon statistic measurements clearly display that InP quantum dots in (Al0.20Ga0.80)0.51In0.49P emit single photons up to 80 K, making them promising candidates for high-temperature single-photon emitters.

  20. Plasma Deposited SiO2 for Planar Self-Aligned Gate Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Semi-Insulating InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabory, Charles N.; Young, Paul G.; Smith, Edwyn D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors were fabricated on InP substrates using a planar self-aligned gate process. A 700-1000 A gate insulator of Si02 doped with phosphorus was deposited by a direct plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 mTorr, 275 C, 5 W, and power density of 8.5 MW/sq cm. High frequency capacitance-voltage measurements were taken on MIS capacitors which have been subjected to a 700 C anneal and an interface state density of lxl0(exp 11)/eV/cq cm was found. Current-voltage measurements of the capacitors show a breakdown voltage of 107 V/cm and a insulator resistivity of 10(exp 14) omega cm. Transistors were fabricated on semi-insulating InP using a standard planar self-aligned gate process in which the gate insulator was subjected to an ion implantation activation anneal of 700 C. MIS field effect transistors gave a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 23 mS/mm for a gate length of 3 microns. The drain current drift saturated at 87.5% of the initial current, while reaching to within 1% of the saturated value after only 1x10(exp 3). This is the first reported viable planar InP self-aligned gate transistor process reported to date.