Science.gov

Sample records for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  1. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

  2. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  3. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  4. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  5. Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).

    PubMed

    Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients. PMID:21928151

  6. Vital roles of nano silica in synthetic based mud for high temperature drilling operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Aslam Md; Hanafi, Nor Hazimastura

    2015-07-01

    At high temperature drilling, chemicals degradation occurs which reduce the effectiveness of the drilling fluid. There is a potential that by using nano sized particles which have thermal stability up to 2500°F to be used as a stabilizer to withstand the harsh condition. Therefore, this project aims to identify the performance of synthetic-based mud (SBM) with nano silica for high temperature drilling operation. A conventional SBM performance has been compared with additional percentages of nano silica. 20% and 40% of nano silica out of fluid loss weight has been added into the SBM and analyzed the rheological properties and other drilling fluid properties. The conventional SBM formulation has lost some amount of weighting material or solids in the mud and has been replaced by lighter and smaller size of nanoparticles. It has reduced the rheological properties of the mud but the gelation formed by nano silica material has given higher gel strength. Also, nano silica potentially plugs the porous media, resulted in lower filtration loss measurement and thinner mud cake ranged 20% to 50% respectively.

  7. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  8. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  9. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  10. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  12. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  13. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option.

  14. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

  15. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  16. API rapid bioassay procedures for drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of existing rapid toxicity test methods (duration of 2 hours or less) using the sea urchin sperm test and marine luminescent bacteria assay system for testing the toxicity of drilling fluids. The correlation between the results of these two test and the results of 96-hour static acute toxicity tests conducted with mysids was also evaluated, and it was determined that it may be possible to use rapid assays to conservatively predict compliance of drilling fluid with a mysid toxicity limitation.

  17. Method of determining drilling fluid invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-10

    A method of determining the invasion of drilling fluid into a core sample taken from a borehole. A first material is added to the drilling fluid to obtain a first fluid that has an effective atomic number that is different than the effective atomic number of the connate fluids in the rock formation surrounding the borehole. A preserved core sample is collected from the borehole for scanning by a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a cross section of the core sample. The preserved core sample is scanned with a CAT at first and second energies, and the determined attenuation coefficients for the plurality of points in the cross section at each energy are used to determine an atomic number image for the cross section of the core sample. The depth of invasion of the first fluid is then determined from the atomic number image, as an indication of the depth of invasion of the drilling fluid into the core sample.

  18. Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J. R.; Rand, P. B.; Nevins, M. J.; Clements, W. R.; Hilscher, L. W.; Remont, L. J.; Matula, G. W.; Balley, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, standard drilling muds have been used to drill most geothermal wells. However, the harsh thermal and chemical environment and the unique geothermal formations have led to such problems as excessive thickening of the fluid, formation damage, and lost circulation. This paper describes three recent development efforts aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. Each of the efforts is at a different stage of development. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase, NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is soon to be field tested, and the Mudtech high-temperature mud was field tested several months ago. Low density and the capability to suspend particles at low relative velocities are two factors which make foam an attractive drilling fluid. The stability of these foams and their material properties at high temperatures are presently unknown and this lack of information has precluded their use as a geothermal drilling fluid. The aqueous foam studies being conducted at Sandia are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperature and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260 and 310 C (500 and 590 F), and several of these candidates appear very promising. NL Baroid has developed a polymeric deflocculant for water-based muds which shows promise in retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 260 C (500 F) in laboratory testing. A high-temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed by Mudtech, Inc. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May 1980. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test.

  19. Drilling fluids in pipeline installation by horizontal directional drilling. A practical applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-31

    Drilling fluid plays a key role in the installation of a pipeline by horizontal directional drilling (HDD) and accounts for the majority of the associated environmental impact. An improper drilling fluid program can result in stuck pipe. Uncontrolled discharge of drilling fluid downhole can damage or undermine adjacent structures. The cost of drilling fluid involved with pipeline installation, particularly when disposal costs are considered, can be substantial. It is the objective of this manual to increase the level of sophistication involved with drilling fluids in pipeline installation and to present practical criteria to govern the use of drilling fluids in the HDD process. This will benefit drilling contractors and pipeline owners by reducing costs. Standardization of environmentally acceptable drilling fluid practices will also reduce permitting problems. This manual is meant for use by design engineers and drilling rig operators in designing, permitting, and installing drilled pipeline segments. It is not intended to be a detailed theoretical treatment of the subject of drilling fluids. Individuals interested in this are directed to the referenced texts and papers which support the manual.

  20. State-of-the-art in coalbed methane drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baltoiu, L.V.; Warren, B.K.; Natras, T.A.

    2008-09-15

    The production of methane from wet coalbeds is often associated with the production of significant amounts of water. While producing water is necessary to desorb the methane from the coal, the damage from the drilling fluids used is difficult to assess, because the gas production follows weeks to months after the well is drilled. Commonly asked questions include the following: What are the important parameters for drilling an organic reservoir rock that is both the source and the trap for the methane? Has the drilling fluid affected the gas production? Are the cleats plugged? Does the 'filtercake' have an impact on the flow of water and gas? Are stimulation techniques compatible with the drilling fluids used? This paper describes the development of a unique drilling fluid to drill coalbed methane wells with a special emphasis on horizontal applications. The fluid design incorporates products to match the delicate surface chemistry on the coal, a matting system to provide both borehole stability and minimize fluid losses to the cleats, and a breaker method of removing the matting system once drilling is completed. This paper also discusses how coal geology impacts drilling planning, drilling practices, the choice of drilling fluid, and completion/stimulation techniques for Upper Cretaceous Mannville-type coals drilled within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A focus on horizontal coalbed methane (CBM) wells is presented. Field results from three horizontal wells are discussed, two of which were drilled with the new drilling fluid system. The wells demonstrated exceptional stability in coal for lengths to 1000 m, controlled drilling rates and ease of running slotted liners. Methods for, and results of, placing the breaker in the horizontal wells are covered in depth.

  1. A new anti-slough drilling fluid study and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. Y.; Meng, Y. F.; Hou, X. T.; Xiao, C.; Li, G.; Niu, C. C.

    2016-08-01

    Currently the BIOCAT drilling fluid system adopted in oil field results in wellbore collapsing frequently, borehole enlargement rate over 100%. In order to settle these problems, the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System is developed by optimizing the inhibitors with high anti-collapsing inhibitive instead of BIOCAT inhibitor, adding impermeable agent SMT3, sealing materials such as graphite, calcium carbonate, etc. Laboratory experiments results show that the developed drilling fluid system has stronger inhibitive and anti-collapse capacity. The swelling increment decreases by over 10% and recovery rate increases by 60%-70%, also, it can efficiently prolong the borehole wall stable period by over 100%. 24 wells applications with the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System achieved good results, comparing to adjacent wells with BIOCAT drilling fluid system, wellbore collapsing decreasing significantly and borehole diameter enlargement of unstable hole section in wells decreased from 100% to 10%, well drilling time decreased by 15%, drilling cost decreased by 10%. It shows that the developed Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System KPAM-NH4PAN can provide strong and long-term inhibition, close to oil-based drilling fluid. so it is suggested that it be used in subsequent drilling operations to enhance the wellbore stability in an oilfield.

  2. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  3. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  4. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  5. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

  6. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates.

  7. Recent developments in geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.; Rand, P.B.; Nevins, M.J.; Clements, W.R.; Hilscher, L.W.; Remont, L.J.; Matula, G.W.; Bailey, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three recent development efforts are described, aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase; NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is being field tested; and the Mudtech high temperature mud was field tested several months ago. The aqueous foam studies are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperture and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260/sup 0/C and 310/sup 0/C and several of these candidates appear very promising. A polymeric deflocculant was developed for water-based muds which shows promise in laboratory tests of retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 500/sup 0/F. A high temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May of last year. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test. (MHR)

  8. Field application of lightweight, hollow-glass-sphere drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    A new class of underbalanced drilling fluids being developed under US Dept. of Energy (US DOE) sponsorship was recently successfully field tested. The fluid uses hollow glass spheres (HGS`s) to decrease the fluid density to less than that of the base mud while maintaining incompressibility. Concentrations of up to 20 vol% were used to decrease the fluid density to 0.8 lbm/gal less than normally used in the field. Potential benefits of using these fluids include higher penetration rates, decreased formation damage, and lost-circulation mitigation. When used in place of aerated fluid, they can eliminate compressor usage and allow the use of mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling tools. These and other recent advances in technology have spurred interest in underbalanced drilling to the highest level in 30 years. Industry-wide surveys indicate that more than 12% of wells drilled in the US in 1997 will intentionally use underbalanced techniques.

  9. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and...

  10. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  11. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  12. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  13. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor drilling... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you... monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be located in the drilling fluid-logging...

  14. Centrifugation applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Grichar, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solid bowl decanting centrifuges are an indispensible part of a well-designed, modern oilfield solids control system. They have application throughout the entire drilling process and during the post-drilling sludge pit cleanup operation. As drilling costs rise further, and as environmental regulations become stricter, the decanting centrifuge will become even more important and contribute more heavily to the overall cost effectiveness of the drilling process. The significance of this technology as applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup is emphasized in this paper.

  15. Drilling fluid containing a copolymer filtration control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, D.P.; Lucas, J.M.; Perricone, A.C.

    1981-10-06

    The invention relates to an aqueous drilling fluid composition, a filtration control agent for utilization in said aqueous drilling fluid, and a method of forming a filter cake on the wall of a well for the reduction of filtrate from said drilling fluid, by utilization of a copolymer of: (1) a (Meth) acrylamido alkyl sulfonic acid or alkali metal salt thereof; and (2) a (Meth) acrylamide or n-alkyl (Meth) acrylamide. The copolymer may be cross-linked with a quaternary ammonium salt cross-linking agent.

  16. Means and Method for Measurement of Drilling Fluid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikov, A.; Kondrashov, P.; Pavlova, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem on creation of a new design of the device for determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and the basic requirements which it must meet. The key quantitative parameters that define the developed device are provided. The algorithm of determining the coefficient of the yield point from the rheological Shvedov- Bingam model at a relative speed of rotation of glasses from the investigated drilling fluid of 300 and 600 rpm is presented.

  17. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP...

  18. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  19. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  20. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  1. Corrosion fatigue behavior of carbon steel in drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Chaoyang, F.; Jiashen, Z.

    1998-08-01

    Corrosion fatigue of carbon steel (CS) in drilling fluids was studied using a self-made rotary bending corrosion fatigue testing apparatus under simulated drilling conditions. Mechanisms of the effects of cyclic stress, chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}), and pH of drilling fluids on corrosion fatigue of CS as well as the inhibiting action of the imidazoline inhibitor and oxygen (O{sub 2}) scavenger sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) on corrosion fatigue were studied. Results showed Cl{sup {minus}} and S{sup 2{minus}} promoted corrosion fatigue crack initiation and growth. Fatigue life was lengthened after reducing subjected stress, increasing the pH of the drilling fluids, or adding the inhibitor and O{sub 2} scavenger.

  2. Valve latch device for drilling fluid telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larronde, M. L.; Hoos, R. G.

    1985-07-30

    A latch device for controlling a valve in a mud pulse telemetry system for imparting data pulses to drilling fluids circulating in a drill string is disclosed. A latch device and valve arrangement including an improved shear type, solenoid operated valve for modulating the pressure of the circulating drilling fluid is disclosed. A latching solenoid armature is connected to the valve gate through separate open and close solenoids having their armatures operatively connected to act as a single unit. The single unit armature is normally restrained from movement by the solenoid deactivated latch device. The latch device is arranged so that the vibrational and impact loads on the drill string serve to further maintain the modulating valve in a closed position.

  3. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arkadiy Belkin; Fred Growcock

    2004-07-31

    The rate and amplitude of pressure transmission of various drilling fluids--particularly aphron drilling fluids--are measured in a long conduit and in sand packs to determine how pressure transmissibility can affect fluid invasion.

  4. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  5. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your...

  6. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling...

  7. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor drilling... to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain... audible warning device; and (d) Gas-detecting equipment to monitor the drilling fluid returns....

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

  10. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  11. Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

    2004-12-01

    The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once

  12. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  13. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  14. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  15. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  16. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-04-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  17. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity...

  1. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-stem test tools from the hole, you must circulate or reverse-circulate the test fluids in the hole. If circulating out test fluids is not feasible, you may bullhead test fluids out of the drill-stem test...

  2. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-stem test tools from the hole, you must circulate or reverse-circulate the test fluids in the hole. If circulating out test fluids is not feasible, you may bullhead test fluids out of the drill-stem test...

  3. Drilling fluids with scavengers help control H[sub 2]S

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P. )

    1994-05-23

    Maintaining a high pH and using chemical sulfide scavengers in oil-based and water-based drilling muds can neutralize hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S). Safe, successful drilling of H[sub 2]S-bearing formations requires good drilling practices, extra attention to casing design, and proper drilling fluid formulation. The drilling fluid must be capable of controlling formation pressures, protecting workers, inhibiting corrosion, limiting drilling fluid contamination, maintaining well bore stability, and removing sulfide contamination rapidly. High-alkalinity drilling fluids with excess lime are recommended to provide buffering capacity for pH neutralization. Following the detection of soluble sulfides, the fluid should be immediately treated with the applicable scavenger. Sulfide scavengers must react with soluble sulfides to form an insoluble metal sulfide precipitate. Effective scavengers must have rapid and complete reactions with H[sup 2]S, HS[sup [minus

  4. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  5. Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).

    PubMed

    do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

    2010-08-01

    The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities.

  6. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling...); (g) You must install an operable drilling fluid-gas separator and degasser before you begin drilling... industry-accepted practices and include density, viscosity, and gel strength; hydrogenion...

  7. Production waters, recycled completion fluids may harm polymer drilling-mud systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, B. III

    1986-07-01

    Makeup water for drilling muds may contain elements which can adversely affect drilling-mud properties. This frequently occurs when mixing water from unidentified or unusual sources are used. This article examines some of the problems which may occur, and discusses precautions which may be taken to minimize the trouble and expense which could result from use the of ''bad'' makeup water. This work focuses primarily on production waters, and fluids used in completion procedures which are later used as mixing water for drilling muds. Problems associated with these waters include bacterial degradation of drilling-mud additive, and possible incompatibility between completion chemicals and some polymers used in drilling fluids.

  8. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safely contain under a shut-in BOP for each casing string. The pressures posted must consider the surface... fluids out of the drill-stem test string and tools with an appropriate kill weight fluid; (i)...

  9. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-in BOP for each casing string. The pressures posted must consider the surface pressure at which the... circulating out test fluids is not feasible, you may bullhead test fluids out of the drill-stem test...

  10. Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1983-07-01

    Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

  11. Soil microbial response to waste potassium silicate drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linjun; Naeth, M Anne; Jobson, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Potassium silicate drilling fluids (PSDF) are a waste product of the oil and gas industry with potential for use in land reclamation. Few studies have examined the influence of PSDF on abundance and composition of soil bacteria and fungi. Soils from three representative locations for PSDF application in Alberta, Canada, with clay loam, loam and sand textures were studied with applications of unused, used once and used twice PSDF. For all three soils, applying ≥40 m3/ha of used PSDF significantly affected the existing soil microbial flora. No microbiota was detected in unused PSDF without soil. Adding used PSDF to soil significantly increased total fungal and aerobic bacterial colony forming units in dilution plate counts, and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria numbers in serial growth experiments. Used PSDF altered bacterial and fungal colony forming unit ratios of all three soils. PMID:25766028

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  13. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... well control. This program must address drilling fluid safe practices, testing and monitoring equipment... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...

  14. Specific selection criteria and testing protocol optimize reservoir drill-in fluid design

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, J.P.; Jones, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Proper test and evaluation methodology for reservoir drill-in fluids is an important step in the construction design of a producing wellbore. Drill-in fluids are specifically designed to meet drilling and completion objectives, simplify reservoir cleanup and maximize production rates in open hole completions. New protocols developed by drilling fluid and completion laboratories have proven to be effective tools for evaluating fluid designs that optimize production. Drill-in fluid selection begins with an initial screening process taking into account qualifying issues such as environmental acceptability, reservoir temperature, physical limitations, and chemical compatibility between the fluid and the reservoir. The final fluid formulation should minimize formation damage, fluid leak-off rates, breakout pressures, and wellbore cleanup of drill-in and completion operations, thus maximizing the productivity of the well. Formation damage risks can be minimized if laboratory testing procedures parallel specific reservoir conditions. Case studies confirm that a methodology based on laboratory data that incorporates drilling fluid, completion, and workover operation protocols is effective in lowering completion costs and increasing production.

  15. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2003-10-01

    In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico

  16. SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS FROM GULF OF MEXICO DRILLING PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the amphipods, Leptocheirus plumulosus and Ampelisca abdita, in these bioassays presented no major difficulties in the execution of these test protocols. Sensitivity to the toxicants was exhibited by L. plumulosus and survival of control animals was good suggesting the sui...

  17. Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L.; Shanahan, J.F.

    1999-05-01

    Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

  18. Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

  19. Formation-damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and a comparison with polymer-base fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L.J.; Reid, P.I.; Williamson, L.D.; Enriquez, F.P. Jr.

    1999-09-01

    Horizontal wells are commonly completed without casing and the fluids used to drill said sections can have a significant effect on the production outcome. Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH)/bentonite-based fluids are compared to two commonly used reservoir drill-in fluids (DIFs) with respect to filter-cake characteristics and regain in permeability. The MMH fluids are found to produce filter cakes with unique features which result in efficient backflow without need for chemical treatment. Return permeability results which equal or exceed those for more commonly used DIFs raise questions over the conventional view that bentonite-containing DIFs are harmful to reservoirs.

  20. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  1. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tatiana Hoff; Fred Growcock

    2004-12-30

    Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.

  2. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... addition: (1) If natural means provide adequate ventilation, then a mechanical ventilation system is not... mechanical ventilation system may be hazardous, then you must maintain the drilling fluid-handling area at a...) Alarms that activate when the mechanical ventilation system fails. Other Drilling Requirements...

  3. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition: (1) If natural means provide adequate ventilation, then a mechanical ventilation system is not... mechanical ventilation system may be hazardous, then you must maintain the drilling fluid-handling area at a...) Alarms that activate when the mechanical ventilation system fails. Other Drilling Requirements...

  4. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling...

  5. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications. PMID:26492498

  6. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  7. Drilling fluids waste minimization and stabilization using polymer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to address environmental issues associated with generated waste through drilling. Polymers have been proven to be extremely effective in the waste reduction in drilling closed system without the use of solids control equipment with shale shakers optional and the stabilization of drilling discharges using additional polymer technology. The objective is to demonstrate that with the proper use of polymers, waste can be reduced and stabilized without an increase in volume and with a very cost effective method. The result is that the environment will be enhanced while reducing risks and costs.

  8. Hole-cleaning capabilities of an ester-based drilling fluid system

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.; Hemphill, T.

    1996-03-01

    Well 33/9-C02, located in the Statfjord field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, held the world record in extended-reach drilling from 1993--95. To successfully drill a well of this type, an efficient drilling fluid is required to suspend the weighting material and provide good carrying capacity. The ester-based mud system used in the 12{1/4}- and 8{1/2}-in. hole sections of this well exhibited excellent hole-cleaning capabilities. This paper describes the fluid`s performance in the field and in the laboratory where the fluid was tested under down-hole conditions. Fluid rheological behavior is described with the more accurate yield-power law. (YPL) (Herschel-Bulkley) model.

  9. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

    2004-11-30

    A method is developed to monitor the rate of loss of air from aphrons at elevated pressures. This technique is used to study the effects of pressure, fluid composition and rates of pressurization and depressurization on the kinetics of air loss from aphrons in APHRON ICS{trademark} drilling fluids.

  10. Drilling Fluids and Lost Circulation in Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G. Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320 C (608 F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success.

  11. Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment... specifications in Table 1 of this appendix. Drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio = 4-day LC50 of C16-C18... control equipment as determined by EPA Method 1644: “Method for Conducting a Sediment Toxicity Test...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment... specifications in Table 1 of this appendix. Drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio = 4-day LC50 of C16-C18... control equipment as determined by EPA Method 1644: “Method for Conducting a Sediment Toxicity Test...

  15. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. ); Wright, E.K. )

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  16. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  17. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

  18. Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2013-11-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

  19. Method for controlling lost circulation of drilling fluids with water absorbent polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.O.

    1987-01-13

    A method is described of reducing lost circulation of drilling fluids in a borehole penetrating an underground formation, comprising: injecting a discrete slug of a hydrocarbon fluid into a borehole, the hydrocarbon fluid having dispersed therein about 10 to about 100 pounds of a water absorbent polymer per barrel of hydrocarbon fluid which expands upon absorbing water; injecting into the borehole a discrete slug of a hydrocabon fluid after the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug; injecting into the borehole a slug of water after the hydrocarbon fluid slug; forcing the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug into a lost circulation zone; mixing the water slug with the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug to allow the water absorbent polymer to absorb water and expand in the formation closing off the lost circulation zone; and circulating undesired compounds out of the borehole.

  20. Conversion of spent sulfite liquor into chromium lignosulfonates and its evaluation as a drilling fluid additive

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.M.; Yen, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of Indian spent sulfite liquor and methods to isolate sodium lignosulfonates from it have been discussed earlier. It has been observed experimentally that spent sulfite liquor as such is not an effective oil-well drilling fluid additive. Although its sodium lignosulfonate derivatives exhibited some effectivity, they were not thermostable. An effort has been made to further improve the performance characteristics and chemical nature of the sodium lignosulfonate by chromium metal ion complexing, employing conductometric titration method. The resulting chromium lignosulfonates possess better chemical properties, thermal stability, and effectivity as oil-well drilling fluid additive. Synthesis of metal ion lignosulfonates would save a considerable amount of foreign exchange in India and lead to ''import substitution'' in oil exploration. Experimental details of chromium metal ion complexing of sodium lignosulfonate, its chemistry, and its industrial application as oil-well drilling fluid additive have been discussed.

  1. DOE helps the EPA expedite offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA

    2000-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) took the lead in promoting the use of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) as a pollution-preventing technology and asked the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise and clarify its offshore regulations. The EPA, in cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve SBM discharge regulations. Current regulations and permits do not adequately address SBM issues, a drilling fluid believed to be environmentally friendly. EPA has instead agreed to modify the offshore and coastal effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs).

  2. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  3. Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, David W.; Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed

    2006-05-02

    A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

  4. Effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on substrate specificity of marine bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Nnubia, C.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on the sizes of populations of specific heterotroph subgroups of marine bacteria were monitored in this study. The bacteria were isolated from drill cuttings recovered from Agbara--an offshore oilfield located some 100 nautical miles off the Atlantic coast of Nigeria. Numbers of cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria in the drill cuttings were monitored for 28 days in the presence of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids. The percentages of these bacterial subgroups within the total heterotrophic population enumerated on tryptic soy agar (10% with 3% NaCl) fluctuated between 3.0 and 17.0%, 0.0 and 27.0%, 4.0 and 25.0% and 3.0 and 18.0% for cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria respectively. These results indicate that oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids affect the ability of marine bacteria to metabolize these substrates in the environment.

  5. Fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges in shallow, nearshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The relationships between selected environmental parameters (sedimentology, trace metals, and hydrocarbons) and macroinfaunal assemblages were studied to determine the fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges from a multiple well site in a shallow nearshore environment. Results are presented.

  6. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M.; Moses, V.

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  7. Rheological investigations of water based drilling fluid system developed using synthesized nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajat; Mahto, Triveni K.; Mahto, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PA-g-XG/MWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The polyacrylamide was grafted on xanthan gum backbone in the presence of MWCNT. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). The morphological characteristics of the nanocomposite were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Also, its temperature resistance property was observed with Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of nanocomposite on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system was analyzed with a strain controlled rheometer and Fann viscometer. Flow curves were drawn for the developed water based drilling fluid system at elevated temperatures. The experimental data were fitted to Bingham, power-law, and Herschel Bulkley flow models. It was observed that the Herschel Bulkley flow model predict the flow behavior of the developed system more accurately. Further, nanocomposite exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning flow behavior in the developed drilling fluid system. Nanocomposite showed high temperature stability and had a significant effect on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system as compared to conventionally used partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) polymer.

  8. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain

  9. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Growcock

    2003-12-31

    During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or ''aphrons.'' The focus of the Project is to develop some understanding of the aphron structure and how aphrons and base fluid behave under downhole conditions. Four tasks were begun during this Quarter. All of these focus on the behavior of aphrons: (a) Aphron Visualization - to evaluate various methods of measuring bubble size distribution, especially Acoustic Bubble Spectroscopy (ABS), in aphron drilling fluids at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density - to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity - to determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility - to determine whether aphron networks (similar to foams) in fractures and pore networks reduce fracture propagation. The project team installed laboratory facilities and purchased most of the equipment required to carry out the tasks described above. Then work areas were combined to permit centralized data acquisition and communication with internal and external file servers, and electronic and hard copy filing systems were set up to be compatible with ISO 9001 guidelines. Initial feasibility tests for all four tasks were conducted, which led to some modification of the experimental designs so as to enable measurements with the required accuracy and precision. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization, Aphron Air Diffusivity and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has some fundamental

  10. Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  11. Visualization of fluid-loss polymers in drilling-mud filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, J.P. ); Gossen, F.A. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) and temperature (200 to 350{degrees} F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied. A correlation between API filtrate and polymer appearance was sought.

  12. Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C.

    1995-11-01

    Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of

  14. Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot-dry-rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico encountered problems of catastrophic lost circulation in cavernous areas of limestones in the Sandia Formation, severe corrosion due to temperatures of up to 320/sup 0/C, and torque problems caused by 35/sup 0/ hole angle and the abrasiveness of Precambrian crystalline rock. The use of polymeric flocculated bentonite fluid, clear water, fibrous material, dry drilling, oxygen scavengers, a biodegradable lubricant mixture of modified triglicerides and alcohol, and maintenance of a high pH, were some of the approaches taken toward solving these problems.

  15. Seabed surveys: The best means to assess the environment impact of drilling fluid discharges?

    SciTech Connect

    Limia, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    With the ban in 1984 of the use and discharge of diesel based drilling fluids in the North Sea and their substitution with Low Toxicity Mineral Oils, the Oil and Gas Drilling Industry took an important step forward towards the reduction of the environmental impact of drilling operations. This change to low toxicity OBM was based solely on the lower acute toxicity of these mineral oils to the shrimp Crangon crangon. Unfortunately this substitution did not render the expected results. Although the toxicity of the OBM was considerably lower than that of diesel, the same environmental impact was recorded years after the contaminated cuttings were discharged. It was observed that once the OBM cuttings were discharged, they create a pennanent situation of organic enrichment in the sediment. This is mainly because these oils are biodegraded slowly under aerobic conditions and not biodegradable under anaerobic conditions. These findings prompted the regulatory authorities and environmental agencies, in North Sea countries, to reconsider the information required before granting permits for use and discharge of invert emulsion drilling fluids to the sea. With the introduction in the UK of the revised Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme (OCNS), and more recently the Harmonized OCNF (HOCNF) for all North Sea countries, new additions to the required ecotoxicological information have been made: Toxicity to three species, Biodegradation and Bioaccumulation.

  16. Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V. )

    1992-03-01

    A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

  17. Method and apparatus for testing spotting fluids for releasing stuck drill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.C.

    1989-05-16

    An apparatus is described for determining the efficacy of a spotting fluid intended to release a drill pipe which has become stuck within a borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an open vessel containing a drilling mud filter cake, which cake has a top surface; (b) a cylinder having an outer surface with at least a portion of the outer surface adhering to the cake and the cylinder having the axis thereof oriented parallel to the surface of the cake; (c) a spotting fluid applied to the cake surrounding the cylinder; (d) a means for applying a force perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder to separate the cylinder from the cake; and (e) a means for concurrently measuring and recording the force required to separate the cylinder from the cake.

  18. Determining circulating fluid temperature in drilling, workover, and well-control operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, C.S.; Hasan, A.R.; Ameen, M.M.; Kouba, G.E.

    1996-06-01

    Estimation of fluid temperature in both flow conduits (drillpipe or tubing and the annulus) is required to ascertain the fluid density and viscosity and, in turn, to calculate the pressure drop or the maximum allowable pumping rate for a number of operations. These operations include drilling, workover, and well control. The fluid temperature estimation becomes critical for high-temperature or geothermal reservoirs where significant heat exchange occurs or when fluid properties are temperature sensitive, such as for a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, the authors present an analytical model for the flowing fluid temperature in the drillpipe/tubing and in the annulus as a function of well depth and circulation time. The model is based on an energy balance between the formation and the fluid in the drillpipe.tubing and annulus. Steady-state heat transfer is assumed in the wellbore while transient heat transfer takes place in the formation. solutions are obtained for two possible scenarios: (1) the fluid flows down the annulus and up the drillpipe/tubing, and (2) the fluid flows down the tubing and up the annulus. The analytic model developed is cast in a set of simple algebraic equations for rapid implementation. The authors also show that the maximum temperature occurs not at the well bottom, but at some distance higher from the bottom for flow up the annulus.

  19. Transport in shales and the design of improved water-based shale drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.; Roy, S.

    1996-09-01

    Transport of water and ions in shales and its impact on shale stability were studied to facilitate the improvement of water-based muds as shale drilling fluids. Transport parameters associated with flows driven by gradients in pressure and chemical potential were quantified in key laboratory and full-scale experiments. The experimental results show that the low-permeability matrices of intact, clay-rich shales can act as imperfect or leaky membranes that will sustain osmotic flow of water. Moreover, the ability of shales to act as osmotic membranes is shown to provide a powerful new means for stabilizing these rocks when exposed to water-based drilling fluids. Guidelines are presented for effective exploitation of shale membrane action and induced osmotic flows through optimized water-based drilling fluid formulation. In addition, special attention is given to induced electro-osmotic water flow in shales driven by electric potential gradients, which may provide an exciting, new, environmentally benign means for stabilizing shale formations.

  20. Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid Ping Yang 1,2, Min-hui Wu2, Xue-wen Zhu2, Tao Deng2, Xue-qing Sun2 1. Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China 2. Department of Geotechnical Engineering,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China Abstract The process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was tested by changing the polyanionic cellulose content in low-solids drilling fluid. The effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was analyzed. The test results showed that when time of filtration is same, the volume of filtrate loss decreases linearly with increasing polyanionic cellulose content. When polyanionic cellulose content is same, the rate of filtrate loss decreases nonlinearly with increasing time and the rate of filtrate loss will reach a stable value.The volume of filtrate loss in 7 to 8 minutes can reaches half of the total volume of filtrate loss. At the same time, the rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid decreases nonlinearly with increasing viscosity.When the apparent viscosity is between 3.5~4.15 MPa.s, decrease speed of rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid is quick. The results are helpful for characteristics evaluation of filtrate loss of drilling fluid and control of filtrate loss. Keyword Polyanionic Cellulose,Drilling Fluid,Process of Filtrate Loss Acknowledgments This investigation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (projects No. 41002093 and 41072205); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project No. B308), Tongji University; and the Program for Young Excellent Talents, Tongji University. The authors are extremely grateful for the financial support from these five organizations.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice.

  3. Non-polluting non-toxic drilling fluid compositions and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W. III

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes the process for the preparation of a non-polluting non-toxic plant or vegetable oil base drilling fluid composition comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a plant or vegetable base oil having a C-12 to C-24 carbon chain into a mixing container, (b) adding a minor amount of antioxidant to the base oil, (c) adding a minor amount of a synergist for the antioxidant, the synergist being selected from the group consisting of citric acid, ascorbic acid, phosphoric acid, monoesters of ascorbic acid and monoesters of fatty acids, to the base oil, (d) heating the base oil including the antioxidants to a temperature of about 93/sup 0/C. (200/sup 0/F.), (e) introducing a minor amount of an oleate ester emulsifier into the base oil with thorough mixing, (f) adding a minor amount of viscosifier consisting of amine-treated bentonite into the mixture with thorough mixing, (g) introducing a minor amount of an oleate ester wetting agent the mixture with thorough mixing, (h) shear mixing of the mixture for a period of not less than about 30 minutes to effect more thorough mixing to form a stable emulsion, and optionally (i) adding a finely-divided filler material into the mixture with thorough mixing to form a stable oil base drilling fluid composition having a low coefficient of friction less than about 0.15 for varied drilling purposes.

  4. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser drilling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingzhong; Ni, Chenyin; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Hongchao; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu; Lu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Laser processing as laser drilling, laser welding and laser cutting, etc. is rather important in modern manufacture, and the interaction of laser and matter is a complex phenomenon which should be detailed studied in order to increase the manufacture efficiency and quality. In this paper, a two-dimensional transient numerical model was developed to study the temperature field and molten pool size during pulsed laser keyhole drilling. The volume-of-fluid method was employed to track free surfaces, and melting and evaporation enthalpy, recoil pressure, surface tension, and energy loss due to evaporating materials were considered in this model. Besides, the enthalpy-porosity technique was also applied to account for the latent heat during melting and solidification. Temperature fields and melt pool size were numerically simulated via finite element method. Moreover, the effectiveness of the developed computational procedure had been confirmed by experiments.

  5. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  6. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  7. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity With Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bob O'Connor; Fred Growcock

    2004-12-01

    The Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer has been identified as a potential method for monitoring the size distribution of aphrons in situ, such as in an oil well drilling fluid flowline.1 Research was continued from Task 1.1 of this Project, Aphron Visualization,2 in which ABS was tested against laser light scattering (Coulter Counter) and optical (visual) imaging to determine the bubble size distribution (BSD) of the aphrons at ambient temperature and pressure. Task 2.1 continued this investigation by measuring the bubble size distribution via ABS and optical imaging at elevated pressures up to 2000 psig.

  8. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  9. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  10. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives.

  11. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  12. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-11-01

    Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

  13. Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, H. III

    1986-04-08

    A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

  14. Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

  15. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  16. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  17. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-01

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

  18. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-01

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sediments 3 Appendix 3 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... With Sediments This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to formulate synthetic-based drilling fluids and other...

  20. Effects of drilling fluid invasion on hydraulic characterization of low-permeability basalt horizons: A field evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spane, F. A.; Thorne, P. D.

    1985-12-01

    Low-permeability basalts at the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, are currently being investigated for suitability as repository horizons for the terminal storage of commercial, high-level radioactive wastes As part of on-going Basalt Waste isolation Project (BWIP) studies, a field evaluation was conducted to assess the effect that drilling fluid invasion may have on the hydraulic characterization of low-permeability basalts The test formation selected for the field evaluation was a 24 7-m section of basalt flow interior that had been previously core-drilled utilizing only fresh water. The test design of the field evaluation included an initial phase (phase I) of hydrologic testing followed by the injection of bentonite-base drilling fluid into the test section, removal of the drilling fluid from the borehole, and a final phase (phase II) of hydrologic testing Hydrologic tests conducted during each phase included overpressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests) and a multiple-step, constant head injection test Results of the field evaluation indicate that no discernible impact on hydraulic property estimates or test response could be attributed to drilling fluid invasion.

  1. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2005-04-01

    Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous

  2. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ∼0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

  3. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

    1993-08-01

    In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

  4. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  5. Investigation of mud density and weighting materials effect on drilling fluid filter cake properties and formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, K. A.; Lashin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Drilling fluid density/type is an important factor in drilling and production operations. Most of encountered problems during rotary drilling are related to drilling mud types and weights. This paper aims to investigate the effect of mud weight on filter cake properties and formation damage through two experimental approaches. In the first approach, seven water-based drilling fluid samples with same composition are prepared with different densities (9.0-12.0 lb/gal) and examined to select the optimum mud weight that has less damage. The second approach deals with investigating the possible effect of the different weighting materials (BaSO4 and CaCO3) on filter cake properties. High pressure/high temperature loss tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried out on the filter cake (two selected samples). Data analysis has revealed that mud weigh of 9.5 lb/gal has the less reduction in permeability of ceramic disk, among the seven used mud densities. Above 10.5 ppg the effect of the mud weight density on formation damage is stabilized at constant value. Fluids of CaCO3-based weighting material, has less reduction in the porosity (9.14%) and permeability (25%) of the filter disk properties than the BaSO4-based fluid. The produced filter cake porosity increases (from 0.735 to 0.859) with decreasing of fluid density in case of drilling samples of different densities. The filtration loss tests indicated that CaCO3 filter cake porosity (0.52) is less than that of the BaSO4 weighted material (0.814). The thickness of the filter cake of the BaSO4-based fluid is large and can cause some problems. The SEM analysis shows that some major elements do occur on the tested samples (Ca, Al, Si, and Ba), with dominance of Ca on the expense of Ba for the CaCO3 fluid sample and vice versa. The less effect of 9.5 lb/gal mud sample is reflected in the well-produced inter-particle pore structure and relatively crystal size. A general recommendation is given to

  6. Thermal and rheological properties improvement of drilling fluids using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazelabdolabadi, Babak; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Sedaghatzadeh, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    The application of functionalized/unfunctionalized (multi-walled) carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated in the context of formulating nano-based drilling fluids from water/oil-based fluid templates. CNT functionalization was attempted by applying hydrophilic functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes via acid treatment. Experimental data were collected for thermal conductivity, viscosity/yield point, and filtrate amount in all samples. The time evolution of thermal conductivity was studied, as well as the effects of temperature and CNTs volume fraction on the parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor CNTs dispersion quality. The thermal conductivity results unveil considerable enhancements, by as much as 23.2 % (1 % vol. functionalized CNT) in CNT-water-based case at ambient temperature, with extended improvement of 31.8 % at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. Corresponding results for the CNT-oil-based case exhibit an improvement in thermal conductivity by 40.3 % (unfunctionalized) and 43.1 % (functionalized) and 1 % volume fraction of CNT. The rheological results follow an analogous improvement trend. For the CNT-oil-based case, the filtration tests conducted at 138 °C and 500 (psi) show a 16.67 % reduction in filtrate amount (1 % vol. CNT). The time evolution of thermal conductivity was found to nearly equalize (at an amount of 9.7 %) after 100 h of sample preparation in both functionalized and unfunctionalized CNT-oil-based cases.

  7. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Growcock

    2004-03-31

    During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an

  8. Validation and Comparison of Two Sampling Methods to Assess Dermal Exposure to Drilling Fluids and Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Karen S.; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs’ trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods’ comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

  9. Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment.

  10. Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

  11. Soil and plant response to used potassium silicate drilling fluid application.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linjun; Anne Naeth, M

    2015-10-01

    Use of drilling waste generated from the oil and gas industry for land reclamation has potential to be a practical and economical means to improve soil fertility and to decrease landfills. A four month greenhouse experiment with common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on three different textured soils was conducted to determine soil and plant response to incorporated or sprayed potassium silicate drilling fluid (PSDF). Two PSDF types (used once, used twice) were applied at six rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120m(3)ha(-1)) as twelve PSDF amendments plus a control (non PSDF). Effects of PSDF amendment on plant properties were significant, and varied through physiological growth stages. Barley emergence and below ground biomass were greater with used once than used twice PSDF at the same application rate in clay loam soil. Used twice PSDF at highest rates significantly increased barley above ground biomass relative to the control in loam and sand soil. All PSDF treatments significantly increased available potassium relative to the control in all three soils. Soil electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio increased with PSDF addition, but not to levels detrimental to barley. Soil quality rated fair to poor with PSDF amendments in clay loam, and reduced plant performance at the highest rate, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions are compromised with PSDF utilization. PSDF application method did not significantly affect plant and soil responses. This initial greenhouse research demonstrates that PSDF has potential as a soil amendment for reclamation, with consideration of soil properties and plant species tolerances to determine PSDF types and rates to be used. PMID:26099463

  12. Soil and plant response to used potassium silicate drilling fluid application.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linjun; Anne Naeth, M

    2015-10-01

    Use of drilling waste generated from the oil and gas industry for land reclamation has potential to be a practical and economical means to improve soil fertility and to decrease landfills. A four month greenhouse experiment with common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on three different textured soils was conducted to determine soil and plant response to incorporated or sprayed potassium silicate drilling fluid (PSDF). Two PSDF types (used once, used twice) were applied at six rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120m(3)ha(-1)) as twelve PSDF amendments plus a control (non PSDF). Effects of PSDF amendment on plant properties were significant, and varied through physiological growth stages. Barley emergence and below ground biomass were greater with used once than used twice PSDF at the same application rate in clay loam soil. Used twice PSDF at highest rates significantly increased barley above ground biomass relative to the control in loam and sand soil. All PSDF treatments significantly increased available potassium relative to the control in all three soils. Soil electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio increased with PSDF addition, but not to levels detrimental to barley. Soil quality rated fair to poor with PSDF amendments in clay loam, and reduced plant performance at the highest rate, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions are compromised with PSDF utilization. PSDF application method did not significantly affect plant and soil responses. This initial greenhouse research demonstrates that PSDF has potential as a soil amendment for reclamation, with consideration of soil properties and plant species tolerances to determine PSDF types and rates to be used.

  13. Hydrological and chemical monitoring during Fluid Injection Test in Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kuo, T.; Tsao, C.; Giletycz, S.; Chen, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, T.; Ma, K.

    2007-12-01

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project drilled two research boreholes (Hole A and B; approximately 40 m of their distance) through the Chelungpu Fault in Da-Keng, which ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in 2004. A branched borehole was drilled from Hole B in 2005 (Hole C), and then both Hole A and Hole C were perforated at the depth of the fault zone. The depth of perforation is 1111 m in Hole A and 1137 m in Hole C. Between the two boreholes, Fluid Injection Test (FIT) was performed on from November 2006 to March 2007 to estimate permeability and to understand hydrological and chemical properties along Chelungpu fault. Water was injected four times from Hole C at constant pressure during this FIT (4 MPa on November 2006 and January 2007, 3 and 5 MPa on March 2007). The arrival of injected water was monitored by seismometers, manometers, a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and chemical sensors at Hole A. In this present, we will report the results of water quality, gas and water pressure monitoring at Hole A. During FIT, tap water was used for injected water, which was characterized by high Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP; 250 mV) and high Dissolved Oxygen (DO; 5.6 mg/L). Because both ORP and DO of the well water at Hole A kept low (ORP; -350 - -150, DO; <0.5 mg/L) before FIT, the arrival of injected water can be found by rise of these values. 1st FIT was performed for approximately 100 hours from 22:00 on 7th to 8:30 on 12th November. As a result, the values of ORP and DO increased on 10th November, which is 3 days after the start of 1st FIT. Then, the flow rate at Hole A suddenly increased 7 days after the first chemical reaction on 10th, that is, 10 days after the start of 1st FIT. This suggests that the permeability is 10-16 m2 assuming that the width of a permeable zone is 1 m by the preliminary estimation of the permeability based on the model of Kitagawa et al. (2002).

  14. Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Darien G.; Graves, Ramona M.; O'Brien, Erin A.

    1999-07-01

    The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone, limestone, dolomite, granite, shale, salt, concrete) and fluids (fresh water, salt water, oil, hydrocarbon gas, drilling fluids) must be penetrated by the laser. The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) technology is attractive because of the ability to tune the laser to different wavelengths. Laser energy absorbed by rocks is related to the wavelength of the laser source. The mechanisms of rock destruction (spalling, melting and vaporization) are therefore a function of the wavelength. The ability to transmit laser energy over long distances (up to 5000 m or 15,000 ft) is also a function of wavelength. Results of tests conducted at the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army's high power laser facilities are presented. The challenges ahead to advance a fundamental change in the methods currently used to drill and complete petroleum wells are discussed.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of the formation damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and comparison with polymer-base fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L.J.; Reid, D.P.; Williamson, D.

    1995-12-31

    Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluids are highly thixotropic and have shown exceptional abilities in the areas of hole cleaning, suspension, and maintenance of good hole gauge even through very poorly consolidated sandstones. When a drill-in fluid based on an MMH has been used in reservoir sections, the ease of cleanup and the production rates have both exceeded expectations. Results have been better than those achieved on offsets where more conventional fluids have been used. Laboratory results have also shown properly formulated MMH fluids to have a low potential for formation damage. The primary objectives of the laboratory project presented in this paper were to (1) investigate the mechanisms by which filter cakes develop against sandstone faces, (2) study the natures of the cakes produced with different types of drill-in fluids, and (3) investigate the implications for cake cleanup. In a group of unweighted fluids an MMH fluid was found to be unique in its ability to form a predominantly external cake. It was further shown that the strong interactions between the MMH crystals and the bentonite platelets, which interactions provide the characteristic high shear thinning and almost instantaneous gelling behavior of such fluids, also contribute to the avoidance of damaging internal cake formation. This study demonstrates by dynamic fluid-loss measurements, imaging of dried filter cakes using an SEM, and direct imaging of wet filter cakes using an environmental SEM that the fluid is able to form mineral bridges over pore throats in a wide range of reservoir rocks. The external cake formed by the MMH fluid is easily removed by wash fluids or simply by application of backpressure as occurs when a well is brought on to production.

  16. Evaluation of Formation Damage Caused by Drilling Fluids Specifically in Pressure-Reduced Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, C.; Rahman, S.S.

    1984-02-01

    The paper describes a method for evaluating formation damage caused by drilling fluid in reservoirs which may have pressure considerably less than hydrostatic pressure. The problem is of specific interest for enhanced oil recovery and/or underground gas storage projects. The method is flexible and practically oriented. It allows formation damage evaluation under the conditions of differential pressure of up to 100 bar (1400 psi) temperature of 140/sup 0/C (300 /sup 0/F), annular velocity of 2 m/s (.6 ft/s), 1 - 2,5 cm (0,4 - 1'') core diameter and length of 25 cm (10 ''). Formation damage is evaluated by 2 factors: damage ratio (DR) and sectional damage ratio (SDR). The residual permeability is expressed in terms of relative values using the initial permeability as reference. The depth of permeability impairment is determined by measuring the permeability of segmented cores of 5 cm (2 '') length (fig. 1). For this criterion the term sectional damage ratio is introduced. The method as described in this paper was applied to evaluate formation damage caused by a KC1-Chalk-Mud in two sandstones of 10 mD and 1000 mD range with pressure difference, temperature, annular velocity and time of contamination as the influencing variables.

  17. Utilization of biologically generated acid for drilling fluid damage removal and uniform acid placement across long formation intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Harris, R.E.; Penny, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A method of drilling damage removal is presented which uses biologically generated acid (BGA) as the stimulation fluid. The BGA solution is not reactive during the actual pumping stage which allows its displacement into the reservoir to be controlled by the relatively low permeability of the near wellbore damage. Catalytic generation of acid occurs at a controlled rate once the BGA has been injected into the formation and results in uniform damage removal around the near wellbore region. The ability of BGA to be generated under a variety of temperature and pressure conditions and the compatibility evaluation of BGA with a variety of commonly used oil and water based drilling muds is first presented to establish some of the operational guidelines for BGA use. Drilling damage removal studies utilizing the modified API linear conductivity flow cell and carbonate material with BGA is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this stimulation fluid. Dual core flow test data is then presented which shows BGA`s ability and HCL`s inability to remove drilling damage over long horizontal intervals in carbonate formations.

  18. The multiphase flow system used in exploiting depleted reservoirs: water-based Micro-bubble drilling fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-hui, Zheng; Xiao-qing, He; Li-xia, Fu; Xiang-chun, Wang

    2009-02-01

    Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are "surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer", "high viscosity fixing membrane", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) & surfactants" from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. "Surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer" and "high viscosity fixing membrane" bond closely to pack air forming "air-bag", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of LHP & surfactants" absorb outside "air-bag" to form "incompact zone". From another point of view, "air-bag" and "incompact zone" compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of "incompact zone" enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective agents to

  19. A combination of air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Niederhofer, J.D.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-02-01

    Structural geologic information available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior basin documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air/fluid drilling technique may be advantageous to coalbed-methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. The authors successfully used this technique recently on coalbed-methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, AL.

  20. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

  1. Effects of exposure of crocodiles to sublethal concentrations of Petroleum waste drilling fluid in the Niger Delta basin of Midwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekpubeni, F A; Ekundayo, E O

    2002-06-01

    Static bioassay were carried out using two aquatic crocodiles (the short nosed crocodile, Osteolemus tetraspis and the Nile crocodile, Crocodilus niloticus) as test organisms in soft natural dilution water, with Petroleum waste drilling fluid as the test material, at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Comparison of results for the control and different concentrations of the waste drilling fluid were made by means of the F-statistic method. Both crocodile species exhibited a high insensitivity to the undiluted waste drilling fluid and the different dilutions. Differences in concentration of waste drilling fluid did not influence the response of crocodiles to the potential toxicant. Percentage of deaths which was never greater than 0.2% in control tanks was not significantly different from that in test tanks where mortality values of organisms was typically 1.6% or less in most cases. There was a delay toxicant-induced mortality effect.

  2. THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, F.; Wu, N.; Jiang, G.; Zhang, L.

    2009-12-01

    Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove that this two factors may change the rock characteristics of wellbore, such as rock strength, pore pressure, resistivity, etc., and then affect the logging response and evaluation, wellbore stability and well safty. The invasion of filtrate can lower the angle of friction and weaken the cohesion of hydrates-bearing sediment,which is same to the effect of invading into conventional oil and gas formation on borehole mechnical properties. The difference is that temperature isn’t considered in the invasion process of conventional formations while in hydrates-bearing sediments, it is a factor that can not be ignored. Temperature changes can result in hydrates dissociating, which has a great effect on mechanical properties of borehole. With the application of numerical simulation method, we studied the changes of pore pressure and variation of water content in the gas hydrates-bearing sediment caused by drilling fluid invasion under pressure differential and gas hydrate dissociation under temperature differential and analyzed their influence on borehole stability.The result of simulation indicated that the temperature near borehole increased quickly and changed hardly any after 6 min later. About 1m away from the borehole, the temperature of formation wasn’t affected by the temperature change of borehole. At the place near borehole, as gas hydrate dissociated dramatically and drilling fluid invaded quickly, the pore pressure increased promptly. The degree of increase depends on the permeability and speed of temperature rise of formation around

  3. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down

  4. Temperature and volume estimation of under-seafloor fluid from the logging-while-drilling data beneath an active hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    In July of 2014, offshore drillings on Iheya-North Knoll, Okinawa Trough, was executed as part of Next-generation technology for ocean resources survey, which is a research program in Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). In this expedition, logging-while- drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) were inserted into 6 holes (C9011 - C9016) to investigate spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposit and geothermal fluid reservoir. Both of these tools included annular pressure-while-drilling (APWD). Annular pressure and temperature were monitored by the APWD to detect possible exceedingly-high-temperature geofluid. In addition, drilling fluid was continuously circulated at sufficient flow rate to protect LWD tools against high temperature (non-stop driller system). At C9012 and C9016, the LWD tool clearly detected pressure and temperature anomaly at 234 meter below the seafloor (mbsf) and 80 mbsf, respectively. Annular pressure and temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the injection of high-temperature fluid. During the drilling, however, drilling water was continuously circulated at high flow-rate (2600L/min) and the measured temperature is not exactly in-situ temperature. To investigate the detail of the heat source, such as in-situ temperature and quantity of heat, we performed numerical analyses of thermal fluid and energy-balance assuming injection of high-temperature fluid. We combined pressure loss theory of double cylinders and temperature equation to replicate the fluid flow and its temperature between borehole wall and drilling pipe during the thermofluid injection. As the result, we estimated the temperature and the volume of injected fluid to be 115oC~ and 17.3 m3, respectively (at C9012) from the calculation. This temperature is lower than that of a hydrothermall vent which had been found near the hole (300oC).

  5. Fluid-rock interactions in the Rhine Graben: A thermodynamic model of the hydrothermal alteration observed in deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komninou, A.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    1997-02-01

    Deep drilling at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, on the western flanks of the Rhine Graben, has penetrated Hercynian granite underlying Mesozoic sediments. Veins are present throughout the drilled granite, and there are flows of warm water localized in fractures within the granite. Detailed mineralogical study of core material from the research drillhole EPS 1 has been carried out in order to assess the alteration history of the Soultz granite, part of the crystalline basement of the Rhine Graben. The results of the study have been used, in conjunction with analyses of present-day fluids from deep drilling in the Rhine Graben reported in the literature, to model thermodynamically the alteration process, and in particular to evaluate if it is likely to be continuing today. Reaction-path calculations show that if deep basinal brines, such as are known from sediments of the central Rhine Graben, react with Hercynian granite, they will form different alteration assemblages depending on both the path that the fluid follows (e.g., descending through sediments or through granite) and the extent of preexisting alteration of the granite. The calculations suggest that fluid now sampled from granite in EPS-1 achieved its peak temperature, c. 200°C, while within Permo-Triassic sandstone. The modeling also indicates that present-day fluids from the Rhine Graben system are capable of producing the vein quartz and possibly also the baryte veins, seen in the EPS 1 core. Much of the alteration present in the granite in the vicinity of veins and fractures may have been produced by a flow regime similar to that prevailing today.

  6. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman r. Morrow

    2002-06-01

    This first semiannual report covers efforts to select the materials that will be used in this project. Discussions of crude oils, rocks, smooth mineral surfaces, and drilling mud additives are included in this report.

  7. Benthos response following petroleum exploration in the southern Caspian Sea: Relating effects of nonaqueous drilling fluid, water depth, and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Tait, R D; Maxon, C L; Parr, T D; Newton, F C

    2016-09-15

    The effects of linear alpha olefin (LAO) nonaqueous drilling fluid on benthic macrofauna were assessed over a six year period at a southern Caspian Sea petroleum exploration site. A wide-ranging, pre-drilling survey identified a relatively diverse shelf-depth macrofauna numerically dominated by amphipods, cumaceans, and gastropods that transitioned to a less diverse assemblage dominated by hypoxia-tolerant annelid worms and motile ostracods with increasing depth. After drilling, a similar transition in macrofauna assemblage was observed with increasing concentration of LAO proximate to the shelf-depth well site. Post-drilling results were consistent with a hypothesis of hypoxia from microbial degradation of LAO, supported by the presence of bacterial mats and lack of oxygen penetration in surface sediment. Chemical and biological recoveries at ≥200m distance from the well site were evident 33months after drilling ceased. Our findings show the importance of monitoring recovery over time and understanding macrofauna community structure prior to drilling.

  8. Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak

  9. Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

    2003-02-19

    Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

  10. Disemployment effects caused by regulation of drilling fluids and produced waters as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report reviews and compares several studies of the effects on employment of regulating wastes from oil and natural gas exploration and extraction under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste management scenarios on which most of the studies were based were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analyses show that as many as 500,000-700,000 jobs may be lost in the first year if RCRA Subtitle C rules are applied to drilling fluids and produced waters. As a results, unemployment in major oil-producing states could rise by as much as six percentage points. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  12. USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

  13. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  14. Real-Time Fluid and Gas Monitoring During Drilling of the SAFOD Main Hole in Parkfield, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.

    2005-12-01

    Little is known about the role and origin of fluids and gases associated with the San Andreas Fault zone (SAF). To gain information on fluids and gases at depth, we performed real-time mud gas monitoring during drilling of the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Pilot Hole (PH) and Main Hole (MH). Gas extracted from returning drill mud was piped into a nearby laboratory trailer and analyzed on-line. Permanent gases were detected using a portable mass spectrometer, hydrocarbons with a gas chromatograph, and the 222Rn-activity with a Lucas-Cell detector. When significant amounts of non-atmospheric gases were detected, off-line gas samples were collected from the gas line for further isotope studies. The SAFOD PH and MH were drilled in only a few meter distance, but in contrast to the straight PH, which penetrates through 768 m of sediments into granites down to 2168 m target depth (TD), the nearby MH is deviated towards the SAF and returns into sedimentary strata below 1930 m. The MH drilled sedimentary rocks down to 3987 m TD, approximately 45 m northeast of the surface trace of the SAF. From surface to 1930 m, the depth distribution of gas is similar for SAFOD PH and MH. Shear zones, identified by geophysical logging, are often characterized by elevated concentrations of CH4, CO2, H2, Rn, and He. The same gases were found in the MH below 1930 m, but their concentrations were, with the exception of He, significantly higher: CH4, CO2, and H2 sometimes reach several volume percent. Generally, the gas composition is partly controlled by the lithology. Variation in the methane concentration in several depth intervals reflects the changes in lithology from low gas abundance in clays and silts to more gas rich shales, which are the source rocks for hydrocarbons. Highly porous and permeable sandstone yield the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons (up to 15 vol% methane), and may be regarded as reservoir rocks. We interpret high radon activities in mud gas as

  15. Evaluation of geothermal drilling fluids using a commercial bentonite and a bentonite/saponite mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Ridpath, B.E.

    1987-02-01

    High temperature properties of two clay fluids, based on commercially available bentonite and a bentonite-saponite mixture, are evaluated at the temperature range 300-600/sup 0/F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Bentonite fluids exhibit an anomolous viscosity increase in the temperature range 250-400/sup 0/F. This anomolous viscosity is further enhanced by the salts and hydroxide of sodium leading to the gelation of the fluid. Salts and hydroxide of calcium at 1% concentrations are very detrimental to the viscosity, gel strength, and wall-building (filtration) properties of the fluids at all temperatures. Salts of potassium provide a good control over the high temperature gelation of the bentonite fluids but they result in high fluid losses. High and low molecular weight polymers (sodium polyacrylates), and lignite and lignosulfonates at neutral pH range are proved to be valuable mud additives for the high temperature behavior of the bentonite fluids. They maintain the pH of the fluid close to the neutral and thus inhibit the mineral reactions of the smectites in bentonites at high temperatures. These mineral reactions predominate in the alkaline conditions of the fluids in the presence of hydroxides of Na, Ca, and K. Consequently, a large portion of smectites dissolves and new silicate phases precipitate at and above 400/sup 0/F in these fluids. The fluids based on a (1:1) mixture of bentonite and saponite display a high initial viscosity (up to 250/sup 0/F) instead of the viscosity maxima between 150-400/sup 0/F of the bentonite fluids. Therefore, the addition of saponite to the bentonite fluid can provide a balanced viscosity at all the temperatures.

  16. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  17. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2002-12-01

    We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

  18. An integrated experimental approach for evaluating formation damage due to drilling and completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Longeron, D.; Argillier, J.F.; Audibert, A.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes an experimental approach to study the formation damage induced by drilling muds in oil bearing formations. This approach includes (i) static and dynamic invasion tests on long core samples performed either under CT Scanning or with specific equipment allowing pressure measurements along the core sample, and (ii) characterization of both external and internal mud cakes by means of Cryo-SEM examinations. A series of seven water-based mud invasion experiments has been conducted on high permeability clayey sandstones. The amount and the extent of formation damage have been quantified. The results show that global oil return permeabilities vary from 44% to 90% of initial permeability depending on oil viscosity and overbalance pressure. Hysteresis of saturations due to retention of invaded aqueous filtrate was always observed, up to 17 saturation units. This induced an adverse relative permeability effect which may significantly contribute to oil permeability impairment.

  19. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, David E.; Flemer, David A.; Bundrick, Charles M.

    1992-09-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. A series of 15·3 cm diameter cores of the seagrass-invertebrate community was collected from field sites for establishment and sampling of microcosms and in the sampling of field plots over time. Weekly exposures to drilling fluid were conducted in the laboratory microcosms at a mean total suspended matter concentration of 110·7 mg l -1 (± 17·7 SD), and in field plots by usage of acrylic exposure chambers at a mean concentration of 132·8 mg l -1 (±33·3 SD). Standing crop of T. testudinum was not affected by drilling fluid in the laboratory or field when measured after 6 and 12 week exposure periods. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

  20. Mathematical study of hydrocyclone dispersed phase separation in clearing viscoplastic drilling fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, O. V.; Evtyushkin, E. V.

    2011-03-01

    On the basis of rheodynamic equations, a numerical investigation of the flow structure of a viscoplastic fluid and dispersed phase separation in a hydrocyclone has been carried out. The proposed mathematical model will make it possible to calculate the separation indices and the velocity, pressure, and particle density fields in the apparatus.

  1. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

  2. Effects of oil and gas well-drilling fluids on the biomass and community structure of microbiota that colonize sands in running seawater.

    PubMed

    Smith, G A; Nickels, J S; Bobbie, R J; Richards, N L; White, D C

    1982-01-01

    Well-drilling fluid and a number of the known components (barite, clay, Aldacide, Surflo, and Dowicide, were tested for effects on the biomass and community structure of the microbiota that colonize marine sands exposed for eight weeks to running ambient seawater. Shading the microbiota from light depressed the microflora without a significant effect on the biomass, while well-drilling fluids layered on the surface or mixed with the sand significantly increased a component of the bacteria and the microfauna as reflected in changes in the fatty acid composition. There were some shading effects from the surface layering of well-drilling fluids as reflected in the fatty acids from the microflora when compared to the sands mixed with well-drilling fluids. Barite had essentially no effect on the biomass or community structure while clays increased nearly all of the biomass indicators for the bacteria as well as the microfauna; the clay overlay mirrors the effect of the drilling fluids. Aldacide shifted the bacterial composition, depressing the proportions of microbes containing the cyclopropane fatty acids and the anaerobic pathways of desaturation. Concentrations of 1 and 15 microgram/L increased the bacterial biomass as reflected in the total lipid (16:0) and extractable lipid phosphate coupled with a decrease in the total microeukaryotes. Surflo increased the biomass and shifted the bacterial community structure at concentrations between 4 and 800 microgram/L. The lowest level also stimulated the microfauna. Dowicide at 100 microgram/L increased the bacteria forming cis-vaccenic acid and the microfauna similar to low concentrations of Surflo.

  3. Benthos response following petroleum exploration in the southern Caspian Sea: Relating effects of nonaqueous drilling fluid, water depth, and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Tait, R D; Maxon, C L; Parr, T D; Newton, F C

    2016-09-15

    The effects of linear alpha olefin (LAO) nonaqueous drilling fluid on benthic macrofauna were assessed over a six year period at a southern Caspian Sea petroleum exploration site. A wide-ranging, pre-drilling survey identified a relatively diverse shelf-depth macrofauna numerically dominated by amphipods, cumaceans, and gastropods that transitioned to a less diverse assemblage dominated by hypoxia-tolerant annelid worms and motile ostracods with increasing depth. After drilling, a similar transition in macrofauna assemblage was observed with increasing concentration of LAO proximate to the shelf-depth well site. Post-drilling results were consistent with a hypothesis of hypoxia from microbial degradation of LAO, supported by the presence of bacterial mats and lack of oxygen penetration in surface sediment. Chemical and biological recoveries at ≥200m distance from the well site were evident 33months after drilling ceased. Our findings show the importance of monitoring recovery over time and understanding macrofauna community structure prior to drilling. PMID:27417570

  4. Effects of fluid-rock interactions on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from fault rock samples retrieved from international drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Yabe, Y.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and mechanical effects of fluids influence the fault mechanical behavior. We analyzed fresh fault rocks from several scientific drilling projects to study the effects of fluids on fault strength. For example, in drill core samples on a rupture plane of an Mw 2.2 earthquake in a deep gold mine in South Africa the main shock occurred on a preexisting plane of weakness that was formed by fluid-rock interaction (magnesiohornblende was intensively altered to chlinochlore). The plane acted as conduit for hydrothermal fluids at some time in the past. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault core samples from SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes and healing were initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. Newly formed phyllosilicates growing into open pore spaces likely reduced the fluid permeability. The mechanical influence of fluids is indicated by TEM observations, which document open pores that formed in-situ in the gouge material during or after deformation. Pores were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting elevated fluid pressure preventing pore collapse. Fluid-driven healing of fractures in samples from SAFOD and the DGLab Gulf of Corinth project is visible in cementation. Cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) reveals different generations of calcite veins. Differences in CL-colors suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different chemical composition from varying sources (formation and meteoric water).

  5. Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B.

    1987-07-01

    In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

  6. Correlation between filter cake structure and filtration properties of model drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Rosenberg, E.; Argillier, J.F.; Durrieu, J.; Montes, J.

    1995-11-01

    This study was undertaken in order to correlate the filtration behavior of water based muds with the structural properties of the cake. The structure of the cake is analyzed by cryo scanning electron microscopy that enables the visualization of a section of the frozen cake. Static and dynamic filtration experiments were performed both through rock slices and paper filters. On rock slices it is possible to visualize the structure of the internal cakes that invade the pores of the rock and in particular to show a selective filtration of the polymer when using a formulation containing bentonite and a fluid loss reducer. When compared to static filtration, dynamic filtration of a clay suspension gives higher filtrate volumes but leads to a cake texture characterized by a more regular network and smaller pore size. The augmentation of the filtrate volumes with shear rates is the result of both a decrease of the cake thickness and a diminution of connections between the clay sheets induced by shear rates. When polymer is added the structure of the pore walls seems less affected by shear rates, probably because of the high degree of dispersion already reached in the suspension by addition of the polymer and the ability of polymer to establish connections between particles.

  7. Corresponding relation between the result of real-time fluid analysis and estimated energy value of aftershock during drilling in WFSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Luo, L.; Lao, C.; Zeng, Y.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The real-time fluid analysis has been applied in some important drilling engineering. Recently the fluid analysis has just been completed in WFSD-1, WFSD- 2 and WFSD-4 holes, the accumulated analytical period of which is about 1200 days and the completed drilling depth is probable 8000 meters. We could see from the real-time analysis results in May 19, 2009, that the multi components of drilling mud gas change significantly, especially the abnormal changes of methane, oxygen and helium. And the high abnormal value of methane reaches 8.37% (v/v), which has exceeded the explosion concentration value of methane. Due to a few actual reasons, such as no mud circulation, the period of real-time fluid analysis would shorter than that of drilling process. The actual period of fluid analysis in WFSD-2 hole is from October 14, 2009 to April 5, 2012, so the statistical analysis of the aftershock information and the magnitude effort were both considered during this period. According to the relationship between magnitude and seismic energy of earthquake, the monthly earthquake energy values were estimated. Estimation approach is based on the formula proposed by the seismologist Richter in 1953, in which the energy value of aftershock between Ms. 3.0 and Ms. 4.0 is defined as 1, that of aftershocks between Ms. 4.0 and Ms. 5.0 is multiplied by 31.6, and that of between Ms. 5.0 and Ms. 6.0 is multiplied by 1000. Then the monthly curve of estimated energy values is showed in Fig. (Monthly curve of estimated energy value of aftershock more than 3.0 during drilling WFSD-2. X-axis represents the month, Y-axis represents the estimated energy value). We could find that some special corresponding periods through the comparison of fluid change and the energy estimated values of aftershocks from the Fig. and the poster (Fall Meeting AGU 2013, San Francisco, T23E-2645), which had showed the ratio curves of the minimum and mean value, the maximum and mean value over time. We can see that the

  8. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  9. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified

  10. Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Sanford, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  11. Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I

  12. Fluid inclusions associated with exsolution quartz needles in omphacite of UHP eclogites from the main hole of Chinese continental scientific drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Shen, K.; Liou, J.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Abundant primary fluid inclusions are recognized in omphacite of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD), located at the southern Sulu orogenic belt. The eclogites consist of garnet, omphacite, coesite and rutile. Mineral and fluid inclusions are distributed alternatively and parallel to each other. The solid inclusions occur as needles with a length of 10~100 m and a width of 1~10 m whereas the fluid inclusions occur as tubes with the size varying from less then 3~5 m to greater then 50 m. The mineral inclusions were identified as quartz. Most fluid inclusions contain a gas bubble, a liquid phase and one to several solids. The liquid and gas phases are determined as H2O. The solid phases include halite, quartz and calcite, as well as opaque and unknown minerals. Some small thin-tubed fluid inclusions contain little or no solid and even without gas bubble; they contain dominantly water. The inclusion fluid was estimated to contain components in the system of NaCl-CaCl2-CO2-H2O-SiO2 with possibly trace Fe and Mg. We suggest that these fluid inclusions were conventional primary ones, and trapped during omphacite crystallization; upon decompression they acted as nucleation site for the crystallographically controlled precipitation of quartz from the omphacite matrix. Therefore the omphacite is considered to be one of the major fluid carriers during subduction of continental crust to mantle depths.

  13. Hydrothermal fluid-mineral interactions within volcanic sediment layer revealed by shallow drilling in active seafloor hydrothermal fields in the mid-Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Omori, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Furuzawa, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    TAIGA11 Expedition of R/V Hakurei-maru No.2 was conducted in June, 2011 to study subseafloor environment below active hydrothermal fields using a shallow drilling system (called as Benthic Multi-coring System, BMS). Three active hydrothermal fields at Iheya North Knoll (27 47'N, 126 54'E), at Izena Hole Jade site (27 16'N, 127 05'E) and at Izena Hole Hakurei site (27 15'N, 127 04'E) were selected as exploration targets, to focus on a hydrothermal fluid circulation system that develops in sediment consists of volcaniclastic and hemipelagic materials. In this presentation, we will report mineralogy of hydrothermal precipitates and altered clay minerals together with geochemistry of pore fluids, to discuss hydrothermal interactions beneath an active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North Knoll hydrothermal field, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 453 cmbsf at the station 200 meters apart from the central mound area. The obtained core consisted almost entirely of grayish white altered mud that was identified as kaolinite by XRD. Pore fluid from the corresponding depth showed enrichment in major cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and Cl, which may be explained as a result of involvement of water into the kaolinite. Since kaolinite is considered as stable in rather acidic environment, its abundant occurrence beneath the seafloor would be attributed to a unique hydrothermal interaction. A possible scenario is intrusion of the vapor-rich hydrothermal component that has experienced phase separation. In the Jade hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 529 cmbsf at the marginal part of a hydrothermal field. The obtained core comprised grayish white hydrothermal altered mud below 370 cmbsf. Occurrence of native sulphur is also identified. Unfortunately, pore fluid could not be extracted from the intense alteration layer. In the Hakurei hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 610 cmbsf near one of

  14. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-07-22

    A partially amidated terpolymer is described which consists of: (a) maleic anhydride; (b) styrene; and (c) acrylic or methacrylic acid; Wherein the molecular ratio of the components (a), (b) and (c) is from about 30:10:60 to about 50:40:10; and wherein from about 1-42 percent of carboxylic functionality has been converted to amide functionality by treatment with ammonia, ammonium hydroxide or primary or secondary lower alkyl amines having from about 1-5 carbon atoms in each alkyl group; the weight average molecular weight of the partially amidated terpolymer being from about 500-10,000.

  15. A FEM-DEM technique for studying the motion of particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Application to the transport of drill cuttings in wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Deshpande, Kedar M.; Latorre, Salvador; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    We present a procedure for coupling the finite element method (FEM) and the discrete element method (DEM) for analysis of the motion of particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Particles are assumed to be spherical and immersed in the fluid mesh. A new method for computing the drag force on the particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is presented. A drag force correction for non-spherical particles is proposed. The FEM-DEM coupling procedure is explained for Eulerian and Lagrangian flows, and the basic expressions of the discretized solution algorithm are given. The usefulness of the FEM-DEM technique is demonstrated in its application to the transport of drill cuttings in wellbores.

  16. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

  17. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions.

  18. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  19. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation as derived from fluid induced microseismicity at the German Continental Deep Drilling site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.

    2015-06-01

    Hydraulically induced microseismicity is used to study high-frequency attenuation properties (6-72 Hz) in an enhanced geothermal system. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation are separated by jointly inverting seismogram envelopes for structural parameters, source and site effects. Modelling of synthetic envelopes is based on radiative transfer theory. To speed up inversion, an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for a 3-D isotropic scattering medium is implemented. In order to compensate for the actual anisotropic scattering, a smoothing algorithm is applied to introduce envelope broadening and peak delay. The approach is tested with seismic data from four fluid-induced earthquakes (Mw ≤ 1) recorded by a temporary seismic network at the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) site at epicentral distances of less than 20 km. Full S-wave envelopes are inverted in 12 overlapping frequency bands with centre frequencies between 1.5 and 72 Hz. With data sampling at 200 Hz and high-frequency S-wave sources, attenuation estimates are obtained for the rarely probed frequency range between 30 and 70 Hz. From the inversion, we infer average values of the transport scattering coefficient g*, and the intrinsic absorption parameter b, as well as corresponding quality factors Qs and Qi. By comparison with attenuation estimates from regions with different tectonic activities, we see that both Qs and Qi for the investigated geothermal region fit best to moderate scattering and intrinsic regimes as obtained in tectonically active regions. A comparison with a regional attenuation model for southern Germany proves that attenuation estimates are scale-dependent. To compare intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the KTB region the transport mean free path (TMFP) and the absorption length (la) are calculated. For both, we find a clear frequency dependence proportional to f -0.8 (TMFP) and f -0.3 (la). TMFP decreases from 340 km at 6 Hz to 60 km at 72 Hz, whereas

  20. A review of exposure conditions and possible health effects associated with aerosol and vapour from low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Eide, I

    1990-04-01

    This paper reviews investigations on possible health effects after inhalation of aerosol and vapour from the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids which have replaced the diesel-based fluids. The main advantage of the low-aromatic base oils with respect to health hazard is their lower volatility. However, some aliphatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons are distributed more efficiently to the brain than are the corresponding aromatic ones. Reducing the content of aromatic hydrocarbons becomes particularly important when the upper end of the boiling point range is sufficiently high for the base oil to contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). As a result of enclosure and local extract ventilation it has been possible to reduce time-weighted average concentrations of aerosol and vapour to below 100 mg m-3. Effects on the central nervous system have only been observed at higher concentrations of the actual hydrocarbons, and male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy is not considered predictive of a normal human response. Insufficient information is available on possible long-term effects of exposure to the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids, especially regarding carcinogenicity and changes in the lungs. PMID:2205144

  1. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  2. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  3. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  4. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  5. Biochemical measures of coral metabolic activity, nutritional status, and microbial infection with exposure to oil- and gas-well drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Nickels, J.S.; Gehron, M.J.; Parker, J.H.; Martz, R.F.

    1987-03-01

    The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil- and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral fragments of 30 to 60 sq cm surface area were broken off, rinsed in seawater, and extracted in a one-phase chloroform-methanol seawater extract and returned to the laboratory, the lipids were analyzed for their phospholipid content, alkyl fatty acid composition, and neutral lipid triglyceride glycerol. The aqueous phase was analyzed for free amino acid composition. Biochemical evidence of stress was reflected in the cessation of growth as measured in depressed diacyl phospholipid. Detailed analysis of the acyl fatty acid composition by capillary gas chromatography showed changes in polyenoic fatty acids, suggesting possible changes in the metabolism of the fatty acids induced by the exposure to the drilling fluids.

  6. Trade-offs in traditional criteria vs environmental acceptability in product development: an example of the drilling fluids industry's response to environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Collins, C.; Havis, D.

    1980-01-01

    The coevolution of increased energy needs and a heightened environmental awareness within the past decade has been fraught with direct conflicts. Often, these conflicts were necessary to solidify boad policy acts or challenge nebulous or unclear regulations. The drilling fluids industry, a vital part of petroleum exploration and production, has recognized the need for avoiding future conflicts and for insuring the conservation of our environment. This recognition is best witnessed by the production of new products or the alteration of established products to eliminate or minimize environmental impact. As an example, biocides used by the industry to preserve drilling fluids and control microbiological problems have been under close scrutinization by the Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Geological Service, and the National Marine Fisheries Service. The need to develop new products in this area or substitute the active ingredients of established products is evident. Data are presented on 19 active ingredients under consideration by IMCO Services. Of the 19, three failed performance tests. An additional seven were dismissed because of environmental concerns even though all passed performace testing. Of the nine remaining, four were selected because of their optimal combination of performance and environmental acceptability. The final choice appeared acceptable in both categories and was economically competitive. By careful consideration of applicable regulations, it is intended that future conflicts over use and disposal of this product will be minimzed.

  7. Measuring while drilling apparatus mud pressure signal valve

    SciTech Connect

    Peppers, J.M.; Shaikh, F.A.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes a measurement while drilling system for borehole drilling having a downhole instrument connectable in a drill string of a rotary drilling rig including apparatus to sense geological and geophysical parameters and a valve apparatus to pulse modulate drilling fluid flowing in the drill string. A surface apparatus is connected to a drilling fluid flow conductor for extracting intelligence carrying information from the modulated drilling fluid. An improved valve apparatus is described comprising: (a) a drilling fluid flow pulse modulating pressure pulse valve member longitudinally, movably mounted in a body member and movable from a retracted position substantially removed from the drilling fluid flow and an extended position disposed at least partially within the drilling fluid flow thereby temporarily restricting drilling fluid flow within the drill string; and (b) the pulse valve member is a tubular member having a lower end portion displaceable from the body member into the drilling fluid and an upper end portion with opposed fluid pressure force areas thereon being in fluid communication with the drilling fluid flow such that forces due to the drilling fluid acting on the pressure pulse valve member are balanced in a longitudinal direction.

  8. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  9. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  10. Longhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

  11. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  12. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  13. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  14. Dynamic and static filtrate-loss techniques for monitoring filter-cake quality improves drilling-fluid performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, B.G.; Clark, D.E.; Wise, W.V.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.

  15. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  16. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2016-07-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  17. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  18. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  19. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  20. Thickness optimization of drilling fluid filter cakes for cement slurry filtrate control and long-term zonal isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.E.; Osisanya, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the long-term isolation characteristics of two typical filter-cake systems in a gas or water environment are investigated. The test models were designed to measure the sealing capability of a premium cement and filter-cake system used to prevent hydraulic communication at a permeable-nonpermeable boundary. The test models represented the area of a sandstone/shale layer in an actual well. In a real well, sandstone is a water- or gas-bearing formation, and sealing the annulus at the shale formation would prevent hydraulic communication to an upper productive zone. To simulate these conditions, the test models remained in a gas or water environment at either 80 or 150 F for periods of 3, 4, 30, and 90 days before the hydraulic isolation measurements were conducted. Models without filter cake, consisting of 100% cement, were tested for zonal isolation with the filter-cake models to provide reference points. These results show how critical filter-cake removal is to the long-term sealing of the cemented annulus. Results indicate that complete removal of the filter cake provides the greatest resistance to fluid communication in most of the cases studied.

  1. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  2. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  4. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  5. NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

  6. NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

  7. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  8. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  9. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  10. Production drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

  11. Estimation of scattering and intrinsic seismic attenuation parameters with radiative transfer theory: Application to fluid-induced seismicity at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneity and seismic absorption properties of a geothermal reservoir may be estimated by inverting seismogram envelopes of fluid-induced micro-earthquakes occurring during hydraulic stimulation and/or production. Synthetic coda envelopes are computed using radiative transfer theory (RTT). RTT describes the propagation of wave energy in scattering random media and has the important advantage of being adapted from a physical model of the scattering process that produces the seismic coda. The heterogeneous medium is characterized by the total scattering coefficient g0 and intrinsic absorption coefficient b. In addition, information about effective source energy W and site response factors R can also be obtained by means of seismogram envelopes inversion. Nevertheless, the present study focuses on the properties of the propagation medium. It aims to separate the effects of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in order to characterize the small-scale heterogeneities that are the fractured geothermal reservoir. The inversion uses grid search over the model space for scattering coefficient, and least-square inversion for the remaining parameters. The merit of this integrated approach is to be independent of external information and applicable to smaller events, likely to occur during hydraulic fracturing. To speed up inversion we use an analytic approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. Currently, we restrict ourselves to isotropic scattering of S-waves in a half-space with an isotropic source. In the framework of adapting seismological techniques to the field of geothermal reservoir characterization (part of the German research program "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling"), the method is applied to a passive seismic data set obtained during the hydraulic fracturing treatment at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole in 2000. During the long-term stimulation experiment (August to November 2000), seismicity was recorded downhole with a borehole sonde at 4

  12. Active seismic monitoring of changes of the reflection response of a crystalline shear zone due to fluid injection in the crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilecke, T.; Kurt, B.; Stefan, B.

    2005-12-01

    In theory and in the laboratory variations of the hydraulic pressure can be detected with seismic methods: A lowering of the hydraulic pressure leads to the closure of micro-cracks within the rock (increase of the differential or effective pressure). Subsequently, the seismic velocities increase. An increase of the hydraulic pressure leads to reverse seismic effects. Consequently, seismic impedance contrasts and associated reflection amplitudes vary in the case of a propagating fluid pressure front in a rock matrix with inhomogeneous permeability - as is the case at shear zones. The largest amplitude changes can be expected with vertical ray inclination on the impedance contrast. Generally, the expected effects are small however (Kaselow, 2004). The practical utilization of active seismics for the detection of pressure changes at large scale in hard rock is currently being studied at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). The injection of water (200 l/min) in a depth of about 4000 m into the so-called SE2 shear zone in the KTB pilot hole was monitored with active seismics between May 2004 and April 2005. The core of the experiment layout is a fixed 5-arm geophone array consisting of 24 3-component geophones, buried at about 70 cm depth. The source signal is a vertical vibrator sweep of 30 s length with the spectrum 30-120 Hz. The signal is sent into the ground 32 times during each cycle, detected with the array and recorded separately for each geophone channel, without prior correlation with the source signal. This allows maximum post-processing with seismic processing and analysis tools and especially permits the use of array properties to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Critical parameters of the experiment are the repeatability of the source signal as well as the stability of the receiver properties. Another pivot is the hydraulic pressure and its distribution built up within the rock matrix. Estimations based on model calculations show that a change of

  13. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part II - drilling case history

    SciTech Connect

    Greener, J.M.; Trimble, G.E.; Singer, G.M.; Barnes, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Opon Gas Field development drilling case history in the Middle Magdalena Basin of north-central Colombia, South America. World class levels of drilling fluid and cementing densities in excess of 22.0 ppg were required to control the extreme pressures encountered. A continuous improvement process is detailed in regard to casing, drilling fluid, cement and related drilling mechanics programs in a severely pressured and environmentally sensitive operation.

  14. Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

  15. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  16. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  17. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  18. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

  19. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  20. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOEpatents

    Maurer, William C.; Medley, Jr., George H.; McDonald, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  1. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  2. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Aaron, Dick; Macpherson, John

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  3. Methods and apparatus for driving a means in a drill string while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mcevers, W.R.; Richter, A.P.

    1980-04-01

    (A method and at least one mechanism for carrying out the method is disclosed. A method of (1) generating time modulated torque pulses by engaging and disengaging a mud turbine driven rotating torque generator in the bottom of a wellbore, and (2) monitoring the top of the drill string for the torque pulses therein may be practiced by a mud driven turbine inertial wheel for being momentarily and precisely braked or decelerated relative to a drill collar on the lower end of a drill string in a wellbore while drilling for generating the time modulated torque pulses in the drill string for being monitored at the surface. Mechanical, electrical, and fluid operated brakes and a mud turbine driven motor are disclosed for providing power to a motor at the bottom of the drill string or for being intermittently braked rapidly for generating the torque pulses.) Methods and apparatuses for driving a means, as a power generator in a drill string while drilling, in a well are disclosed. One method comprises (1) circulating drilling mud internally of the drill string, (2) rotating a turbine in the drill string with the circulating drilling mud, (3) driving the power generator in the drill string with the mud driven turbine, and (4) powering a modulated torque pulse generator control system with the power generator for generating modulated torque pulses in the drill string. A transmission system for driving a modulated pulse generator means while drilling comprises (1) mud driven turbine means including a cylindrically shaped turbine having inwardly extending vanes for receiving and having drilling mud circulating therethrough, and (2) the mud driven cylindrical turbine means being responsive to the circulating drilling mud for powering the modulated pulse generator means while drilling.

  4. 43 CFR 3262.10 - What operational requirements must I meet when drilling a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... drilling fluid types and weights; (2) Designing and implementing a system to control fluid temperatures;...

  5. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  6. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  7. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2005-07-05

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  8. EPA speeds regs for offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA; DOE

    1999-09-13

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in unusual cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve synthetic-based mud (SBM) discharge regulations for offshore operations.

  9. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  10. An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and ``how things work,'' including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations.

  11. Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-11-29

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

  12. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  13. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  14. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  15. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  16. Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1998-01-01

    We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other

  17. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  18. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  19. Simulation of two phase flow of liquid - solid in the annular space in drilling operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kootiani, Reza Cheraghi; Samsuri, Ariffin Bin

    2014-10-01

    Drilling cutting transfer is an important factor in oil and gas wells drilling. So that success drilling operation is directly dependent on the quality of clean the wellbore drilling operation. In this paper, modeled upward flow of liquid - solid in the annular concentric and non-concentric in the well drilling by Euler two - fluid model and then analysis using numerical method. Numerical simulation of liquid - solid flow evaluated initially with a Newtonian fluid (water) and then a non-Newtonian fluid (CMC solution 0.4%). After that, investigated the effect of parameters such as flow rate, rotating drill pipe and out of centered on drilling operations. The results show that drilling cutting transfer is improve due to the rotation of drill pipe particularly in drilling operations.

  20. Worldwide drilling: Drilling improves in eastern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This paper provides forecast drilling information for oil and gas producing countries excluding the US. It provides a forecast on the number of wells expected to be drilled and contrasts that to actual figures of wells drilled during 1995. Major countries have narratives to explain the causes of any significant changes, including geopolitical and economic issues.

  1. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  2. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

  3. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

  4. Fracturing improvements enhance infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.J.; Gillstrom, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The production history of a one thousand well field extension drilled in the early 1980`s showed that additional wells could not be drilled at current oil prices and oil recovery. Step out drilling and production history showed that an additional one hundred infill and development wells could be drilled if the recovery could be increased. Multiple production logs indicated the upper half of the zone was not open at the well bore. Thus, if the upper zone could be more effectively completed, the well recovery had the potential to be increased to a level where future development would be feasible. The low reservoir pressure and high permeability contrast requirements demanded that a much higher viscosity fluid system needed to be used that also had the ability to clean up easily. The nitrogen foam frac yielded these desired characteristics. Five infill wells were drilled in 1991 and 1993 utilizing a nitrogen foam frac system. Production from the wells has shown a projected ultimate recovery from the wells of approximately twice the original wells.

  5. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  6. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  7. New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, N.P.

    1998-04-01

    There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

  8. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  9. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  10. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  11. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments.

  12. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  13. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  14. Geothermal drilling research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1996-04-10

    Sandia conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy. The program currently consists of eight program areas: lost circulation technology; advanced synthetic-diamond drill bit technology, high-temperature logging technology; acoustic technology; slimhole drilling technology; drilling systems studies; Geothermal Drilling Organization projects; and geothermal heat pump technology. This paper provides justification and describes the projects underway in each program area.

  15. Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1.

  16. Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1. PMID:14641903

  17. Test drilling in basalts, Lalamilo area, South Kohala District, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, Warren E.

    1980-01-01

    Test drilling has determined that a downhole-percussion airhammer can be used effectively to drill basalts in Hawaii. When used in conjunction with a foam-type drilling fluid, the hammer-bit penetration rate was rapid. Continuous drill cuttings from the materials penetrated were obtained throughout the borehole except from extremely fractured or weathered basalt zones where circulation was lost or limited. Cementing of these zones as soon as encountered reduced problems of stuck tools, washouts, and loss of drill-cuttings. Supplies and logistics on the Hawaiian Islands, always a major concern, require that all anticipated drilling supplies, spare rig and tool parts, drilling muds and additives, foam, and miscellaneous hardware be on hand before starting to drill. If not, the resulting rig downtime is costly in both time and money. (USGS)

  18. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  19. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical

  20. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  1. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities.

  2. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  3. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  4. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  5. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  6. Well drilling fluids and process for drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, A.H.; Lawson, H.F.

    1988-04-26

    A composition is described comprised of: (a) a aqueous base, (b) a clayey material suspended in the aqueous base, (c) a water-soluble sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 10,000, (d) a water-soluble methacrylate copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 30,000 consisting of polymerized units of an alkali metal salt of acrylic acid and an alkali metal salt of methacrylic acid, the combined total weight of the polymers of (c) and (d) present in the composition being in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.0 pounds per barrel of composition and the weight ratio of the polymer of (c) to the polymer of (d) being in the range of about 90:10 to about 5:95.

  7. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

  8. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  9. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths  (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activites enabled the U.S Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. This program, orginally conceived by Wilfred A. Elders, professor of geology at the University of California at Riverside, was coordinated under an inter-agency accord among the Geological Survey, the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. 

  10. Drill bit and method of renewing drill bit cutting face

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a drill bit having a lower formation engaging face which includes sockets formed therein, a stud assembly mounted in each socket. The method is described of removing the stud assemblies from the bit face comprises: placing a seal means about each stud assembly so that a stud assembly can sealingly reciprocate within a socket with a piston-like action; forming a reduced diameter passageway which extends rearwardly from communication with each socket to the exterior of the bit; flowing fluid into the passageway, thereby exerting fluid pressure against the rear end of the stud assembly; applying sufficient pressure to the fluid within the passageway to produce a pressure differential across the stud assembly to force the stud assembly to move outwardly in a direction away from the socket, thereby releasing the stud assembly from the socket.

  11. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  12. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  13. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  14. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  15. Effects of various drilling parameters on bone during implantology: An in vitro experimental study.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Faruk; Aksakal, Bunyamin

    2013-01-01

    Due to temperature increase during bone drilling, bone necrosis is likely to occur. To minimize bone tissue damage during drilling, a detailed in vitro experimental study by using fresh calf cortical bones has been performed with various combined drilling parameters, such as: drilling environment, drill diameter, drill speed, drill force, feed-rate and drill coating. Bone temperatures at the drilling sites were recorded with high accuracy using multi-thermocouples mounted around the tibial diaphyseal cortex. It was shown that temperatures increased with increased drill speeds. It also decreased with a higher feed-rate and drill force. It was also observed that TiBN coated drills caused higher temperatures in the bone than the uncoated drills and the temperatures increased with larger drill diameters. Although the influence of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) on rising temperatures during drilling was higher for the TiBN coated drills, it was observed that these drills caused more damage to the bone structure. In order to minimize or avoid bone defects and necrosis, orthopaedic surgeons should consider the optimum drilling parameters.

  16. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  17. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  18. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  19. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  20. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  1. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2012-09-04

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  2. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  3. Introduction to drilling research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to research projects in the area of drilling technology. A technical panel, composed of representatives of geothermal operators, drilling contractors, and service companies, met in Albuquerque, and heard presentations on various drilling related projects which are ongoing or planned. These projects are fairly small scale, partially funded by DOE, administered through Sandia National Laboratory, and generally cooperative in nature between industry and the laboratory. The author briefly discusses the seven highest rated projects, both by the researchers and the conferees. They are: hard rock bits, slimhole drilling, memory logging tools, lost circulation, the Geothermal Drilling Organization, the Long Valley Exploratory Well, and acoustic telemetry.

  4. Systems, apparatus and methods for measuring while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Scherbatskoy, S.A.

    1982-09-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for continuously logging while drilling a well bore with a rotary drilling rig comprising a drill string, a jet type drill bit, and mud pump means for circulating fluid under pressure. The apparatus generally includes means for sensing one or more downhole parameters near the drill bit, means for generating a sequence of electrical pulses representative of said parameter, and means for generating negative mud pressure pulses in the drilling fluid (''drilling mud'') within the drill string in response to said electrical pulses. Receiving means at the earth's surface detect the negative mud pressure pulses and utilize the sequence of these pulses to produce signals representative of said parameter. The receiving means employ means to substantially eliminate the effects of the pressure pulsations generated by the mud pump and to extract the negative mud pressure pulses the sequence of which represent the downhole parameter. The means for generating the negative mud pressure pulses involves utilization of the existing energy on the high pressure side of the drill bit through a bypass to the low pressure side of the drill bit controlled by a valve mechanism and arrangement. The design of the valve mechanism and arrangement is such that the valve can be powered for actuation as necessary over a requisite time period by self-contained downhole power source, and is not subject to unacceptable wear.

  5. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

    1995-09-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

  6. Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1976-08-31

    Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

  7. Research about Automatic Adjustment Solution of the Advance Force at the Perffusion Drills Using Fluid Elements / Badanie Systemu Automatycznej Regulacji SIŁY Posuwu W Wiertnicach Udarowych Z Wykorzystaniem ELEMENTÓW PŁYNOWYCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the actual solution used by Secoma Company and part of research regarding a personal solution concerning the implementation of the digital devices in the pressing strength's control of a pneumatic rotating drill, which is included in the structure of the drilling installation. The monostable fluidic element, which was proposed to be used, is a special device, with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. The fluidic command proposed solution presents superior advantages given the existing variants and the automation solutions with electronic components. This is due to the higher security in hostile work environments (moist environment, with high methane gas contents, with fire danger, with high temperature) of their high feasibility and maintenance. For the practical achievement of the automated regulation with fluidic elements, of the type tested in the experimental plan, it is necessary to choose a monostabile fluidic amplifier for the prototype device, which respects several clear conditions regarding wall attachment angle and geometrical parameters. W pracy przedstawiono rozwiązanie stosowane przez firmę Secoma oraz omówiono część badań dotyczących rozwiązań w dziedzinie implementacji urządzeń cyfrowych do regulacji siły naporu w obrotowych wiertnicach pneumatycznych będących częścią urządzenia wiertniczego. Zaproponowano użycie mono-stabilnego elementu płynowego, będącego specjalnym urządzeniem zawierającym płyn nieściśliwy jako strugę zasilająca i płyn ściśliwy jako strugę sterującą. Rozwiązanie z wykorzystaniem elementu płynowego daje dodatkowe korzyści w odniesieniu do obecnie stosowanych rozwiązań zawierających komponenty elektryczne, przyczyniając się do poprawy bezpieczeństwa pracy w środowisku niebezpiecznym (w warunkach wysokiej wilgotności, wysokich stężeń metanu, zagrożenia pożarowego, wysokich temperatur), ponadto są one łatwe w użyciu i

  8. Drill bit with suction jet means

    SciTech Connect

    Castel, Y.; Cholet, H.

    1980-12-16

    This drill bit comprises a plurality of rollers provided with cutting teeth or inserts. At least one upwardly directed eduction jet is created and the bit comprises at least one nozzle located between two adjacent rollers and creating at least two fluid jets respectively directed towards these two adjacent rollers.

  9. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  10. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2007-05-22

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  11. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2012-08-14

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  12. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2008-05-27

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  13. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

    2014-03-04

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  14. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

    2015-02-03

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  15. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2011-08-16

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  17. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  18. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  19. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  20. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  1. Slim-hole drilling for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    Drilling production-size holes for geothermal exploration puts a large expense at the beginning of the project, and thus requires a long period of debt service before those costs can be recaptured from power sales. If a reservoir can be adequately defined and proved by drilling smaller, cheaper slim-holes, production well drilling can be delayed until the power plant is under construction, saving years of interest payments. In the broadest terms, this project`s objective is to demonstrate that a geothermal resevoir can be identified and evaluated with data collected in slim holes. We have assembled a coordinated working group, including personnel from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of Utah Research Institute, US Geological Survey, independent consultants, and geothermal operators, to focus on the development of this project. This group is involved to a greater or lesser extent in all decisions affecting the direction of the research. Specific tasks being pursued include: Correlation of fluid flow and injection tests between slim-holes and production size wells. Transfer of slim-hole exploration drilling and reservoir assessment to industry so that slim-hole drilling becomes an accepted method for geothermal exploration.Development and validation of a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator which can be used for reservoir evaluation from slim-hole flow data. Collection of applicable data from commercial wells in existing geothermal fields. Drilling of at least one new slim-hole and use it to evaluate a geothermal reservoir.

  2. Slim-hole drilling for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Drilling production-size holes for geothermal exploration puts a large expense at the beginning of the project, and thus requires a long period of debt service before those costs can be recaptured from power sales. If a reservoir can be adequately defined and proved by drilling smaller, cheaper slim-holes, production well drilling can be delayed until the power plant is under construction, saving years of interest payments. In the broadest terms, this project's objective is to demonstrate that a geothermal reservoir can be identified and evaluated with data collected in slim holes. A coordinated working group, including personnel from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of Utah Research Institute, US Geological Survey, independent consultants, and geothermal operators, has been assembled to focus on the development of this project. This group is involved to a greater or lesser extent in all decisions affecting the direction of the research. Specific tasks being pursued include: (1) Correlation of fluid flow and injection tests between slim-holes and production size wells. (2) Transfer of slim-hole exploration drilling and reservoir assessment to industry so that slim-hole drilling becomes an accepted method for geothermal exploration. (3) Development and validation of a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator which can be used for reservoir evaluation from slim-hole flow data. (4) Collection of applicable data from commercial wells in existing geothermal fields. (5) Drilling of at least one new slim-hole and use it to evaluate a geothermal reservoir.

  3. Slim-hole drilling for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Drilling production-size holes for geothermal exploration puts a large expense at the beginning of the project, and thus requires a long period of debt service before those costs can be recaptured from power sales. If a reservoir can be adequately defined and proved by drilling smaller, cheaper slim-holes, production well drilling can be delayed until the power plant is under construction, saving years of interest payments. In the broadest terms, this project's objective is to demonstrate that a geothermal resevoir can be identified and evaluated with data collected in slim holes. We have assembled a coordinated working group, including personnel from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of Utah Research Institute, US Geological Survey, independent consultants, and geothermal operators, to focus on the development of this project. This group is involved to a greater or lesser extent in all decisions affecting the direction of the research. Specific tasks being pursued include: Correlation of fluid flow and injection tests between slim-holes and production size wells. Transfer of slim-hole exploration drilling and reservoir assessment to industry so that slim-hole drilling becomes an accepted method for geothermal exploration.Development and validation of a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator which can be used for reservoir evaluation from slim-hole flow data. Collection of applicable data from commercial wells in existing geothermal fields. Drilling of at least one new slim-hole and use it to evaluate a geothermal reservoir.

  4. Low-pressure reservoir drilled with air/N[sub 2] in a closed system

    SciTech Connect

    Teichrob, R.R. )

    1994-03-21

    Ignition tests on simulated produced fluids helped determine the ideal air/nitrogen mixture for an underbalanced drilling operation that used a closed surface system to process return fluids. The low-pressure, heavy-oil target reservoir required underbalanced drilling to minimize formation damage. Underbalanced or near-balanced drilling can improve production from pressure-depleted reservoirs by reducing the chance of formation damage from drilling fluid losses. Underbalanced drilling technology currently available includes the use of gas injection through parasite strings or through drilling tubulars. No one (to the author's knowledge) has combined concentric-string commingled gas injection with through-drilling-tubular commingled gas injection. The paper describes lab work, test results, surface returns, downhole design, operations, and field results.

  5. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  6. Technologies for measurement while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

  7. 8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

  9. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  10. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  11. Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores with supercritical steam, nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ken Oglesby

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores at various depths and with various hole sizes, tubing, fluids and rates showed theoretical feasibility. WELLFLO SIMULATIONS REPORT STEP 4: DRILLING 10,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 5: DRILLING 20,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 6: DRILLING 30,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE Mehmet Karaaslan, MSI

  12. Improve your solids control. [Management of solids during oil and gas well drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.S. ); Love, W.W. )

    1993-10-01

    With today's emphasis on the environmental impact of drilling operations, minimization of drilling fluid and drill cuttings waste is critical. This can be achieved using proper solids removal equipment -- such as high performance shale shakers, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges -- and proper pre-well planning. The method described here is founded in decision matrix theory and focuses on several key variables. These include well parameters, the drilling program, logistics, environmental issues, rig selection, expert advice and cost.

  13. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  14. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  15. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  16. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  17. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  18. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  19. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  20. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  1. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  2. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  3. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  4. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  5. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  6. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  7. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  8. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  9. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  10. Formate brines for drilling and completion: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Low solids drilling fluids based on formate brines (sodium, potassium and caesium salts of formic acid) were originally designed to minimise frictional pressure losses in slim hole drilling applications. In addition, their unique capability of stabilising polymers to high temperatures made them more temperature resistant than any other polymer based drilling fluids. Subsequent work has shown that these brines, because of their high densities and low corrosivity, are also ideal completion and packer fluids. Formate brines have excellent HSE profiles and they are compatible with reservoir fluids, good shale stabilisers, gas hydrate inhibitors, and scale dissolvers. Also, a technique has been found for cost effective clean-up and recycling of formate based drilling fluids. The commercialisation and introduction of these fluids into the field (especially caesium formate) has taken a long time, due to high prices and few manufacturers. This situation is now changing, as the number of manufacturers is increasing, and buy-back arrangements have been made available. Also, a number of successful drilling and completion trials have been carried out.

  11. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  12. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  13. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  14. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  15. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  16. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  17. The propagation of sound waves in drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S. ); Knudsen, S.D. )

    1995-04-01

    Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to communicate this information. However, data rates are only a few binary bits per second with this method. This drastically limits the quantity of data available to the operator. As an alternative method, elastic waves generated within the steel drill string can be used as a carrier signal to transmit data. The drill string is commonly assembled from 10-m segments of threaded pipe and forms a periodic structure. The elastic wavelengths of interest are shorter than this periodic length. Consequently, these waves undergo significant dispersion. This paper presents new data for the propagation of elastic waves in a 2-km drill string. The influence of aperiodicity in the drill string, rotation of the drill string, and noise levels are studied in detail. The data verify a method for reducing the attenuation of a carrier signal by a factor of 2.

  18. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  19. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  20. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  1. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  2. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  3. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  4. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  5. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  6. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  7. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  8. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  9. Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B.; Brown, N.; Hamilton, T.

    1998-03-09

    Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

  10. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  11. Horizontal air drilling increases gas recovery in depleted zone

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, J.P.

    1997-06-30

    Increased gas recoveries in depleted gas zones can be achieved through horizontal air drilling. In December 1995, OXY USA Inc. drilled the Pirkle 2, the first air-drilled horizontal well in the Carthage field of Texas. Targeting the Cretaceous Frost ``A`` zone of the lower Pettit limestone at 6,000 ft true vertical depth, the well established production in a 1,400 ft lateral section with a bottom hole pressure (BHP) of 185 psi. The initial BHP for the zone was 3,280 psi in 1942. As of April 27, 1997, the Pirkle 2 had produced 530 MMcf of gas at a rate of 1.1 MMcfd. Total cumulative gas production for the lower Pettit limestone in the Carthage field was 3.83 tcf as of January 1997. The paper discusses reservoir properties, abandonment pressure, minimizing well bore damage, drilling fluid selection, special equipment and modifications, compressors, BOPs, steering tools, drilling, completion, and production.

  12. Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

    The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

  13. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  14. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Methods for In-Situ Real-Time Characterization of Drilling Mud

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-06-01

    A real time multi-functional ultrasonic sensor system is proposed to provide automated drilling fluid monitoring that can improve the capability and development of slimhole and microhole drilling. This type of reliable, accurate, and affordable drilling fluid monitoring will reduce the overall costs in exploration and production. It will also allow more effective drilling process automation while providing rig personnel a safer and more efficient work environment. Accurate and timely measurements of drilling fluid properties such as flow rate, density, viscosity, and solid loading are key components for characterizing rate of drill penetration, providing early warning of lost circulation, and for use in real-time well control. Continuous drilling fluid monitoring enhances drilling economics by reducing the risk of costly drilling downtime, increasing production performance, and improving well control. Investigations conducted to characterize physical properties of drilling mud indicate that ultrasound can be used to provide real-time, in-situ process monitoring and control. Three types of ultrasonic measurements were evaluated which include analysis of in wall, through wall and direct contact signals. In wall measurements provide acoustic impedance (the slurry density and speed of sound product). Through wall and direct contact measurements provide speed of sound and attenuation. This information is combined to determine physical properties such as slurry density, solids concentration and can be used to detect particle size changes and the presence of low levels of gas. The measurements showed that for the frequency range investigated in-wall measurements were obtained over the slurry density range from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3 (10 to 17 pounds solids per gallon of drilling fluid). Other measurements were obtained at densities in the 1500 to 1800 kg/m3 range. These promising measurement results show that ultrasound can be used for real-time in-situ characterization of

  15. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  16. Sources of mercury and cadium in offshore drilling discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Candler, J.E.; Leuterman, A.J.J.; Wong, S.Y.L.; Stephens, M.P. )

    1992-12-01

    In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations that would set limits of 1.5 mg/kg mercury and 2.5 mg/kg cadmium for drilling-waste discharges. This paper reports that to determine potential sources of cadmium and mercury in drilling-waste discharges, samples of barite (barium sulfite), formation cores, and commercially available pipe-dope samples were analyzed for total and extractable levels of cadmium and mercury. From this analysis, most of the cadmium and mercury in drilling-fluid discharges are not available.

  17. Use of bicenter PDC bit reduces drilling cost

    SciTech Connect

    Casto, R.G.; Senese, M.

    1995-11-13

    The use of bicenter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit technology, dual-power-head down-hole motors, and oil-based drilling fluids helped save significant costs on a recent well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Not only has underreaming been eliminated, but the overall rate of penetration has been significantly increased. Directional control problems experienced during one phase of the well may limit use of the technique in difficult directional wells. This article discusses both the successes and the failures of this technique during the drilling of two phases of the same Gulf of Mexico well.

  18. Effects of contamination by geothermal drilling mud on laboratory determinations of sandstone pore properties: an evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Iglesias, E.; Izquierdo, G.; Guevara, M.; Oliver, R.; Santoyo, S.

    1982-01-01

    Research to evaluate formation damage related to drilling fluids used in Mexican geothermal fields was initiated. The initial work has been done on Berea sandstone for two reasons: (1) to save valuable reservoir drill cores while developing and turning experimental techniques, and (2) for comparison with results from other investigations, since Berea sandstone has been extensively studied and used in permeability impairment research. The magnitudes of permeability reductions associated with high-temperature rock/geothermal drilling fluid interactions, the possibility of restoring the unperturbed permeability to reservoir drill cores for its measurement in the laboratory were emphasized.

  19. A new approach to hydrologic testing during drilling of a deep borehole and its application to the Swedish scientific deep drilling COSC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Rosberg, J. E.; Juhlin, C.; Niemi, A. P.; Doughty, C.; Dobson, P. F.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic tests are performed is when drilling encounters a large-transmissivity zone as evidenced by a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid. The present paper proposes a new approach, that of conducting Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their in-situ hydraulic conductivities. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The proposed method has been applied to the drilling of a 2500-m borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, which was initiated on April 28 and completed on August 26, 2014, with 99% core recovery. This borehole, named COSC-1, was drilled as part of the Swedish Scientific Deep Drilling COSC project, where COSC stands for Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The project is a multidisciplinary project with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Scientific investigations which include a range of topics from studies of ancient orogeny to the present-day hydrological cycle are conducted under six working groups: (1) tectonics, (2) geophysics, (3) geothermics, (4) hydrology, (5) microbiology and (6) drilling management and technology. In this talk, the new approach to hydrologic testing during the drilling period will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulically active zones or fractures in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values ranging over one order of magnitude.

  20. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  1. Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

    2000-08-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

  2. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  3. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  4. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  5. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  6. Barriers to slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.

    1994-03-01

    Over the years, interest in slimhole drilling has ebbed and flowed on about a 10-year cycle. But recent interest in slimhole has been different. There has been a more concerted effort to develop techniques embodying an engineered approach emphasizing state-of-the-art technology. Material strengths are being pushed to the limit to reduce size without loss of strength, integrity and reliability. As a result of this effort, slimhole wells have been drilled in a number of diverse areas, from frontier locations to mature provinces. In most applications, savings have been undeniable, ranging from 40% in remote areas to 10--15% in more mature provinces. Yet, despite the savings, and reduction in environmental impact, adoption of the technique has not met expectations. This article examines the issue by looking at barriers to slimhole drilling and suggesting possible solutions.

  7. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  8. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  9. Critique of Drilling Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, Jerry

    1992-03-24

    For a number of years the Department of Energy has been funding research to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Generally that research has been effective and helped to make geothermal energy economically attractive to developers. With the increased competition for the electrical market, geothermal energy needs every advantage it can acquire to allow it to continue as a viable force in the marketplace. In drilling related research, there is essentially continuous dialogue between industry and the national laboratories. Therefore, the projects presented in the Program Review are focused on subjects that were previously recommended or approved by industry.

  10. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  11. Drill Bits: Education and Outreach for Scientific Drilling Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prose, D. V.; Lamacchia, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Drill Bits is a series of short, three- to five-minute videos that explore the research and capture the challenging nature of large scientific drilling projects occurring around the world. The drilling projects, conducted under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), address fundamental earth science topics, including those of significant societal relevance such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and global climate change. The videos are filmed on location and aimed at nonscientific audiences. The purpose of the Drill Bits series is to provide scientific drilling organizations, scientists, and educators with a versatile tool to help educate the public, students, the media, and public officials about scientific drilling. The videos are designed to be viewed in multiple formats: on DVD; videotape; and science-related web sites, where they can be streamed or downloaded as video podcasts. Several Drill Bits videos will be screened, and their uses for outreach and education will be discussed.

  12. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  13. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  15. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  16. Proposed Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  17. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  18. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  19. CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

  20. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  1. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  3. Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits Diamond-cutter drill bits cut through tough rock quicker, reducing the cost of drilling for energy resources The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contributed markedly to the geothermal, oil, and gas industries through the development of the advanced polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit. Introduced in the 1970s by General Electric Company (GE), the PDC bit uses thin, diamond layers bonded to t

  4. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    about 30 days. Several other Sandia instruments being developed for geothermal drilling are also being evaluated during this operation, Successful performance of these instruments on this important drilling job will reinforce our efforts to commercialize this technology for the geothermal and oil and gas drilling industries. Sandia's Rolling Float Meter was developed through the Lost Circulation Technology Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. It monitors drilling fluid returns to rapidly detect loss of circulation during geothermal drilling. Lost circulation is particularly prevalent in geothermal wells, and can add as much as 10% to the total cost of drilling the well. Consequently, rapid detection and treatment of lost circulation is necessary for cost- effective geothermal drilling. Sandia has been evaluating and demonstrating the capabilities of the RFM to the geothermal industry for several years. In addition to lost circulation, the RFM is also useful for accurately detecting well kicks. Contacts have been made with mud logging companies that are involved with both geothermal and oil and gas drilling operations.

  5. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  6. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  7. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  8. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  9. Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos

    DOE Data Explorer

    ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into

  10. The rock melting approach to drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

    1993-09-01

    During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

  11. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  12. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  13. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  18. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  19. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  4. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Establishment of the Coast Range ophiolite microbial observatory (CROMO): drilling objectives and preliminary outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T.; McCollom, T.; Schrenk, M.; Carnevale, D.; Kubo, M.; Twing, K.

    2013-11-01

    This project aimed to establish a subsurface microbial observatory in ultramafic rocks, by drilling into an actively serpentinizing peridotite body, characterizing cored rocks, and outfitting the boreholes for a program of long-term observation and experimentation to resolve the serpentinite-hosted subsurface biosphere. We completed drilling in August 2011, drilling two boreholes with core recovery and possibility for down-hole experimentation, and six smaller-diameter monitoring wells arrayed around the two primary holes, in the Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) locality in the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA. Every effort was made during drilling to keep the cores and wells as free of drilling-induced contamination as possible: clean, purified water was used as drilling fluid, fluorescent microbead tracers were suspended in that water for quantification of drilling fluid penetration into the cores, and high resolution next generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the microbial populations in the drill fluids and core materials. In December 2011, we completed installation of well pumps (slow flow bladder pumps) in the monitoring wells, and have deployed a set of in situ incubation experiments in the two uncased boreholes. Preliminary findings illustrate natural variability in actively serpentinizing strata, and confirm distinct groundwater flow regimes and microbial ecosystems in (a) shallow, surface-impacted soil water horizons and (b) deeper, ultramafic bedrock-sourced formation fluids.

  6. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  7. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  8. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  9. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  10. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  11. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  12. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  13. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  14. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids... prevention when applied to metal feedstock during normal grinding and machining operations. (iii) High... feedstock during grinding and machining operations involving unusually high temperatures or...

  15. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for which... when applied to metal feedstock during normal grinding and machining operations. (iii) High performance... during grinding and machining operations involving unusually high temperatures or corrosion potential....

  16. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids... prevention when applied to metal feedstock during normal grinding and machining operations. (iii) High... feedstock during grinding and machining operations involving unusually high temperatures or...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids... prevention when applied to metal feedstock during normal grinding and machining operations. (iii) High... feedstock during grinding and machining operations involving unusually high temperatures or...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for which... when applied to metal feedstock during normal grinding and machining operations. (iii) High performance... during grinding and machining operations involving unusually high temperatures or corrosion potential....

  19. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  20. An evaluation of flowmeters for the detection of kicks and lost circulation during drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D. ); Wright, K.E. )

    1991-01-01

    An independent evaluation of current industry standard and state-of-the-art drilling fluid inflow and outflow meters was conducted during the drilling of a geothermal exploratory well. Four different types of fluid inflow meters and three different types of fluid outflow meters were tested and evaluated during actual drilling operations. The tested drilling fluid inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flow meters, and a Doppler ultrasonic flow meter. On the return flow line, a standard paddle meter, an acoustic level meter, and a prototype rolling float meter were evaluated to measure drilling fluid outflow rates. The prototype outflow meter utilizes a rolling float which rides on the surface of the flow thereby measuring the fluid height in the pipe. Both the prototype meter and the conventional paddle meter were also extensively tested under a variety of drilling conditions in a full-scale laboratory test facility. The meters were evaluated and compared on the basis of reliability and accuracy, and the results are presented in the paper.

  1. Method for detecting drilling events from measuremt while drilling sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, M.; Lesage, M., Falconer, I.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a method for determining subsurface conditions encountered by a drill bit while drilling a borehole. It comprises: during the drilling process, determining rate of penetration and generation a signal indicative thereof; during the drilling process, determining downhole torque and generating a signal indicative thereof; in response to signals indicative of rate of penetration and downhole torque, generating an indication of the occurrence of a subsurface condition selected from the group comprising high formation porosity, a damaged bit bearing and the development of an undergauge bit.

  2. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  3. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  4. Acoustic telemetry study to improve drilling data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Scientists at Sandia Natl. Laboratories hope to master a technique to improve measurement-while-drilling information rates 100-fold. These researchers are advancing acoustic telemetry--the transmission of data by means of sound waves along drillpipe from deep within a well--at a new surface-simulation facility in Albuquerque, NM, after years of unsuccessful, short-term studies by many private companies. The existing data-transmission system, called mud pulse, constricts drilling fluid with a downhole valve to send a series of pulses similar to a Morse code to provide information about the bit location. But mud pulse delivers data at low rates--about one data bit per second. Acoustic telemetry could dramatically improve those rates. The basic idea of acoustic telemetry is to produce a sound wave at the bottom of a well and allow the wave to run up the drillpipe to the surface. The hardware, or transducer, emitting the wave must produce sounds with wavelengths that can negotiate the long drill string. The wavelengths also must be compatible with power supplies available deep in the well. At the surface, data can be extracted form the sound waves to complete the transmission.

  5. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  6. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  7. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  8. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  9. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  10. MWD aids vital drilling decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, J.E.; Rao, M.V.

    1988-03-14

    Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) sensors can supply much of the critical downhole information needed in a systems approach to improving drilling efficiency. The author looks at some areas where MWD information has helped to improve drilling efficiency. To date, most use of MWD has been for directional survey, pressure prediction, and formation evaluation. As MWD systems become more reliable and cost effective, their applications will expand.

  11. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth.

  12. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  13. Sound velocity of drilling mud saturated with reservoir gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carcione, J.M.; Poletto, F.

    2000-04-01

    Knowledge of the in-situ sound velocity of drilling mud can be used in mud-pulse acoustic telemetry for evaluating the presence and amount of gas invasion in the drilling mud. The authors propose a model for calculating the in-situ density and sound velocity of water-based and oil-based drilling muds containing formation gas. Drilling muds are modeled as a suspension of clay particles and high-gravity solids in water or oil, with the acoustic properties of these fluids depending on pressure and temperature. Since mud at different depths experiences different pressures and temperatures, downhold mud weights can be significantly different from those measured at the surface. Taking this fact into consideration, the authors assume constant clay composition and obtained the fraction of high-gravity solids to balance the formation pressure corresponding to a given drilling plan. This gives the in-situ density of the drilling mud, which together with the bulk moduli of the single constituents allow one to compute the second velocity using Reuss's model. In the case of oil-based muds, they take into account the gas solubility in oil. When gas goes into solution, the mud is compassed of solid particles, live oil and, eventually, free gas. A phenomenological model based on a continuous spectrum of relaxation mechanisms is used to describe attenuation due to mud viscosity. The calculations for water-based and oil-based muds showed that the sound velocity is strongly dependent on gas saturation, fluid composition, and drilling depth.

  14. Drill stem steels for use in geothermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1980-01-01

    Steels which are used in drill stem for conventional drilling have been selected primarily to satisfy certain static strength requirements and cost considerations. As the environments in which drilling is performed become more severe (e.g., in geothermal fluids) additional considerations must be given to the design of alloys which are resistant to general corrosion, stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue. General design considerations for steel alloys which should provide an enhanced resistance to geothermal drilling operations are presented. These considerations include discussion of the chemistry and metallurgical substructure, and how their variation affects the mechanical and corrosion properties of steel used for drill stem applications. A duplex ferritic-martensitic steel has an advantageous combination of compositional and microstructural features which should lead to improved chemical resistance (particularly to hydrogen sulfide) as well as provide a good combination of strength and toughness properties. This duplex steel is based on the iron-2.0 weight percent silicon-0.1 weight percent carbon system, and offers the potential of enhanced performance in geothermal drilling as well as low alloy cost.

  15. The Foinaven field: Facing the new frontier drilling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.; Jenkins, M.; Cameron, C.; Reed, H.

    1996-02-01

    The opening up of the West of Shetland province presents a new range of challenges and opportunities from those encountered in nearby North Sea oil fields. Drilling and operational problems have to be faced in an even harsher and more remote environment -- the nearest landfall is the Shetland Islands, 100 miles to the east, but seas are from the Atlantic with a significantly larger and longer swell. The results can be seen in the progress that has been made in the 21 months of well construction activities, from exploration drilling to the laying of subsea hardware production systems. Nineteen exploration wells have been drilled; three Foinaven development wells have been completed with Christmas trees on and tested; nine further conductors have been set on the Foinaven drill sites, with intermediate casings run and installed in three of those; and two appraisal wells have been successfully completed with extended well tests. But in this period of intense activity several lessons can be learned for the oil industry worldwide. This paper reviews the engineering problems and materials selection associated with this development. It includes information on bit selection, hole stability, drilling challenges, drilling fluids, tool reliability, coring equipment, horizontal methods, and well testing and completion.

  16. Drilling the ``perfect'' well

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    In northeastern British Columbia, near Fort St. John, Calahoo Petroleum is chasing the elusive finger channels of a vast alluvial fan formed by runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The Cadomin formation is a thin, shallow, tight Cretaceous sandstore lying about 1,150m below the surface and loaded with gas at virgin pressure. Reserves are estimated at 3 Bcf per section. The formation is extremely fragile, and subject to damage if drilled improperly. Pores are lined with a thin layer of kaolinite, which when invaded will flocculate and clog pore throats, reducing permeability is estimated at 1 to 2 md, and wells that strike a channel can produce up to 3 MMcf/d of gas. Miss the sweet spot in the channel, and the best one can hope for is 0.5 md and 0.5 MMcf/d of gas. Finding the channels is a real challenge. There are only a few 2D spec seismic lines criss-crossing the play, few offset wells to correlate and a blanket of shallow coal seams above the Cadomin that tunes the seismic image and makes interpretation difficult. The combination of limited formation data and drilling challenges presents a complex set of problems. The paper discusses these challenges and what Calahoo is doing to meet them using a multidisciplinary team approach.

  17. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  18. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  19. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's rules... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... from China. For further information concerning the conduct of this proceeding and rules of...

  20. High-velocity frictional strength across the Tohoku-Oki megathrust determined from surface drilling torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, K.; Inoue, T.; Ishiwata, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional strength at seismic slip rates is a key to evaluate fault weakening and rupture propagation during earthquakes. The Japan Trench First Drilling Project (JFAST) drilled through the shallow plate-boundary thrust, where huge displacements of ~50 m occurred during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To determine the downhole frictional strength at drilled site (Site C0019), we analyzed surface drilling data. The equivalent slip rate estimated from the rotation rate and inner and outer radiuses of the drill bit ranges from 0.8 to 1.3 m/s. The measured torque includes the frictional torque between the drilling string and borehole wall, the viscous torque between the drilling string and seawater/drilling fluid, and the drilling torque between the drill bit and sediments. We subtracted the former two from the measured torque using the torque data during bottom-up rotating operations at several depths. Then, the shear stress was calculated from the drilling torque taking the configuration of the drill bit into consideration. The normal stress was estimated from the weight on bit data and the projected area of the drill bit. Assuming negligible cohesion, the frictional strength was obtained by dividing shear stress by normal stress. The results show a clear contrast in high-velocity frictional strength across the plate-boundary thrust: the friction coefficient of frontal prism sediments (hemipelagic mudstones) in hanging wall is 0.1-0.2, while that in subducting sediments (hemipelagic to pelagic mudstones and chert) in footwall increases to 0.2-0.4. The friction coefficient of smectite-rich pelagic clay in the plate-boundary thrust is ~0.1, which is consistent with that obtained from high-velocity (1.3 m/s) friction experiments and temperature measurements. We conclude that surface drilling torque provides useful data to obtain a continuous downhole frictional strength.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

    2001-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids

  2. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling requirements. 250.1605 Section 250... Operations § 250.1605 Drilling requirements. (a) Lessees of OCS sulphur leases shall conduct drilling... this part, as appropriate. (b) Fitness of drilling unit. (1) Drilling units shall be capable...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  14. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  18. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  20. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  1. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  2. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  3. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  4. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  5. Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

  6. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  7. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  8. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  9. Advances in core drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  10. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  11. Proceedings of the drilling technology symposium 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, P.D.; Kastor, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on drilling technology. Topics covered include: Improvement in rock bit performance; Coring the horizontal hole; Drill pipe failures; and Slim drill horizontal workover system.

  12. Jack-up rig for marine drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S. R.

    1981-05-26

    This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

  13. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  14. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  15. Corrosion inhibition by control of gas composition during mist drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Snyder, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Chemical compositional specifications have been generated for inert gases which reduce drill string corrosion when used in conjunction with mist drilling processes. These specifications are based on the assumption that the corrosion rate is dependent on the dissolved gaseous species concentrations. Data taken both from the literature and from a mist drilling field test with nitrogen in Valle Grande, NM, relate corrosion rates to fluid compositions. These solution compositions are then associated with gas phase compositions using equilibrium data available from the literature and material balances. Two sources of gas were considered: cryogenically purified nitrogen from air and exhaust gas from a diesel engine, which contain (in addition to N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/) CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and CO. A maximum concentration of 50 ppM O/sub 2/ in the gas phase is recommended to alleviate pitting corrosion.

  16. Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

    1997-10-01

    Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

  17. A review of the current options for the treatment and safe disposal of drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Ball, Andrew S; Stewart, Richard J; Schliephake, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Drilling for the exploration and extraction of oil requires the use of drilling fluids which are continuously pumped down and returned carrying the rock phase that is extracted from the well. The potential environmental impacts of contaminated fluids from drilling operations have attracted increasing community awareness and scrutiny. This review article highlights current advances in the treatment of drill cuttings and compares the technologies in terms of cost, time and space requirements. Traditionally, a range of non-biological methods have been employed for the disposal of drill cuttings including burial pits, landfills and re-injection, chemical stabilization and solidification and thermal treatments such as incineration and thermal desorption. More recently, bioremediation has been successfully applied as a treatment process for cuttings. This review provides a current comparison of bioremediation technologies and non-biological technologies for the treatment of contaminated drill cuttings providing information on a number of factors that need to be taken into account when choosing the best technology for drilling waste management including the environmental risks associated with disposal of drilling wastes.

  18. A review of the current options for the treatment and safe disposal of drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Ball, Andrew S; Stewart, Richard J; Schliephake, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Drilling for the exploration and extraction of oil requires the use of drilling fluids which are continuously pumped down and returned carrying the rock phase that is extracted from the well. The potential environmental impacts of contaminated fluids from drilling operations have attracted increasing community awareness and scrutiny. This review article highlights current advances in the treatment of drill cuttings and compares the technologies in terms of cost, time and space requirements. Traditionally, a range of non-biological methods have been employed for the disposal of drill cuttings including burial pits, landfills and re-injection, chemical stabilization and solidification and thermal treatments such as incineration and thermal desorption. More recently, bioremediation has been successfully applied as a treatment process for cuttings. This review provides a current comparison of bioremediation technologies and non-biological technologies for the treatment of contaminated drill cuttings providing information on a number of factors that need to be taken into account when choosing the best technology for drilling waste management including the environmental risks associated with disposal of drilling wastes. PMID:22071177

  19. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  20. MWD tools improve drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    Downhole measurement while drilling technology is changing the way many wells are drilled. The capability to understand what is occurring at the drill bit as it actually happens is improving drilling performance, safety, and ultimately cost effectiveness. MWD evolved because of the need to acquire real-time data at the well site. The technology was not developed by vendors as simply an ''add-on'' tool - something an operator didn't realize he needed. MWD, with state-of-the-art, rugged, electronic downhole tools, is the closest thing the petroleum industry has to aerospace engineering. The constraints placed on MWD tools are greater than any other downhole tool-including wireline electric logs - because they are in the hole for long durations, operating under severe hole conditions. MWD tools were first used to monitor directional drilling operations on a real-time basis, More recently vendors have developed formation capabilities for MWD. Tools capable of measuring other drilling parameters such as weight on bit and downhole torque and pressure are also available. MWD technology continues to advance rapidly as the second and third generation of tools and equipment are introduced. Improvements are coming in many areas, but the biggest change will be in the development of new surface equipment to analyze retrieved data. For several years, MWD has been providing a reliable and accurate stream of real-time data from downhole. New software packages for surface equipment will allow the data to be analyzed in new ways to improve drilling efficiencies.