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Sample records for synuclein induced alterations

  1. Dopamine and paraquat enhance α-synuclein-induced alterations in membrane conductance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that α-synuclein overexpression increases the membrane conductance of dopaminergic-like cells. Although α-synuclein is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and diffuse Lewy body disease the mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this study we sought to determine whether multiple factors act together with α-synuclein to engender cell vulnerability through an augmentation of membrane conductance. Here we employed a cell model that mimics dopaminergic neurons coupled with α-synuclein overexpression and oxidative stressors. We demonstrate an enhancement of α-synuclein-induced toxicity in the presence of combined treatment with dopamine and paraquat, two molecules known to incite oxidative stress. In addition we show that combined dopamine and paraquat treatment increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant response protein. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that combined treatment of dopaminergic cells with paraquat and dopamine enhances α-synuclein-induced leak channel properties resulting in increased membrane conductance. Importantly, these increases are most robust when both paraquat and dopamine are present suggesting the need for multiple oxidative insults to augment α-synuclein-induced disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:21735318

  2. Nitrated Alpha Synuclein Induced Alterations in Microglial Immunity is Regulated by CD4+ T Cell Subsets1

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Stone, David K.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2009-01-01

    Microglial inflammatory neuroregulatory activities affect the tempo of nigrostriatal degeneration during Parkinson's disease (PD). Such activities are induced, in part, by misfolded, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-α-syn) within Lewy bodies released from dying or dead dopaminergic neurons. Such pathobiologic events initiate innate and adaptive immune responses affecting neurodegeneration. We posit that the neurobiological activities of activated microglia are affected by cell-protein and cell-cell contacts, in that microglial interactions with N-α-syn and CD4+ T cells substantively alter the microglial proteome. This leads to alterations in cell homeostatic functions and disease. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress N-α-syn microglial induced reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor kappa B activation by modulating redox-active enzymes, cell migration, phagocytosis, and bioenergetic protein expression and cell function. In contrast, CD4+CD25− effector T cells exacerbate microglial inflammation and induce “putative” neurotoxic responses. These data support the importance of adaptive immunity in the regulation of PD-associated microglial inflammation. PMID:19299711

  3. Unique copper-induced oligomers mediate alpha-synuclein toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Josephine A; Wang, Xiaoyan; Brown, David R

    2009-08-01

    Parkinson's disease and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to either genetic mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene or show evidence of aggregates of the alpha-synuclein protein, sometimes in the form of Lewy bodies. There currently is no clear evidence of a distinct neurotoxic species of alpha-synuclein to explain the death of neurons in these diseases. We undertook to assess the toxicity of alpha-synuclein via exogenous application in cell culture. Initially, we showed that only aggregated alpha-synuclein is neurotoxic and requires the presence copper but not iron. Other members of the synuclein family showed no toxicity in any form and inherited point mutations did not alter the effective toxic concentration of alpha-synuclein. Through protein fractionation techniques, we were able to isolate an oligomeric species responsible for the toxicity of alpha-synuclein. This oligomeric species has a unique stellate appearance under EM and again, requires association with copper to induce cell death. The results allow us to suggest that the toxic species of alpha-synuclein in vivo could possibly be these stellate oligomers and not fibrils. Our data provide a link between the recently noted association of copper and alpha-synuclein and a potential role for the combination in causing neurodegeneration.

  4. α-Synuclein induces alterations in adult neurogenesis in Parkinson disease models via p53-mediated repression of Notch1.

    PubMed

    Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Crews, Leslie; Pathel, Pruthul; Morvinski-Friedmann, Dinorah; Kosberg, Kori; Roberts, Scott; Patrick, Christina; Winner, Beate; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer

    2012-09-14

    Parkinson disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons mainly in the substantia nigra. Accumulation of α-synuclein and cell loss has been also reported in many other brain regions including the hippocampus, where it might impair adult neurogenesis, contributing to nonmotor symptoms. However, the molecular mechanisms of these alterations are still unknown. In this report we show that α-synuclein-accumulating adult rat hippocampus neural progenitors present aberrant neuronal differentiation, with reduction of Notch1 expression and downstream signaling targets. We characterized a Notch1 proximal promoter that contains p53 canonical response elements. In vivo binding of p53 represses the transcription of Notch1 in neurons. Moreover, we demonstrated that α-synuclein directly binds to the DNA at Notch1 promoter vicinity and also interacts with p53 protein, facilitating or increasing Notch1 signaling repression, which interferes with maturation and survival of neural progenitors cells. This study provides a molecular basis for α-synuclein-mediated disruption of adult neurogenesis in Parkinson disease.

  5. Increased lipolysis and altered lipid homeostasis protect y-synuclein null mutant mice from diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synucleins are a family of homologous proteins principally known for their involvement in neurodegeneration. In neurons a-synuclein promotes assembly of SNARE complexes required for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane during neurotransmitter release. Y-synuclein is highly expressed ...

  6. Dopamine-Induced Conformational Changes in Alpha-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Outeiro, Tiago F.; Klucken, Jochen; Bercury, Kathryn; Tetzlaff, Julie; Putcha, Preeti; Oliveira, Luis M. A.; Quintas, Alexandre; McLean, Pamela J.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein molecules play a major role in neuronal dysfunction and loss in Parkinson's disease [1]. However, α-synuclein oligomerization and aggregation have mostly been detected indirectly in cells using detergent extraction methods [2], [3], [4]. A number of in vitro studies showed that dopamine can modulate the aggregation of α-synuclein by inhibiting the formation of or by disaggregating amyloid fibrils [5], [6], [7]. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that α-synuclein adopts a variety of conformations in primary neuronal cultures using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Importantly, we found that dopamine, but not dopamine agonists, induced conformational changes in α-synuclein which could be prevented by blocking dopamine transport into the cell. Dopamine also induced conformational changes in α-synuclein expressed in neuronal cell lines, and these changes were also associated with alterations in oligomeric/aggregated species. Conclusion/Significance Our results show, for the first time, a direct effect of dopamine on the conformation of α-synuclein in neurons, which may help explain the increased vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19730729

  7. α-Synuclein Alters Toll-Like Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Dawn; Twomey, Margaret; Bloom, Benjamin; Mittereder, Andrew; Ton, Vy; Neitzke, Katherine; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Mhyre, Timothy R.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites, and neuroinflammation. While the exact etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease remains elusive, a growing body of evidence suggests that misfolded α-synuclein promotes inflammation and oxidative stress resulting in neurodegeneration. α-Synuclein has been directly linked to microglial activation in vitro and increased numbers of activated microglia have been reported in an α-synuclein overexpressing mouse model prior to neuronal loss. However, the mechanism by which α-synuclein incites microglial activation has not been fully described. Microglial activation is governed in part, by pattern recognition receptors that detect foreign material and additionally recognize changes in homeostatic cellular conditions. Upon proinflammatory pathway initiation, activated microglia contribute to oxidative stress through release of cytokines, nitric oxide, and other reactive oxygen species, which may adversely impact adjacent neurons. Here we show that microglia are directly activated by α-synuclein in a classical activation pathway that includes alterations in the expression of toll-like receptors. These data suggest that α-synuclein can act as a danger-associated molecular pattern. PMID:21747756

  8. Allelic difference in Mhc2ta confers altered microglial activation and susceptibility to α-synuclein-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Ferrer, Itzia; Jewett, Michael; Tontanahal, Ashmita; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Swanberg, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and pathological intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). In the vast majority of PD patients, the disease has a complex etiology, defined by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Common genetic variants in the human leukocyte-antigen (HLA) region have been associated to PD risk and the carriage of these can double the risk to develop PD. Among these common genetic variants are the ones that modulate the expression of MHCII genes. MHCII molecules encoded in the HLA-region are responsible for antigen presentation to the adaptive immune system and have a key role in inflammatory processes. In addition to cis‑variants affecting MHCII expression, a transactivator encoded by the Mhc2ta gene is the major regulator of MHCII expression. We have previously identified variations in the promoter region of Mhc2ta, encoded in the VRA4 region, to regulate MHCII expression in rats. The expression of MHCII is known to be required in the response to α-syn. However, how the expression of MHCII affects the activation of microglial or the impact of physiological, differential Mhc2ta expression on degeneration of dopaminergic neurons has not previously been addressed. Here we addressed the implications of common genetic allelic variants of the major regulator of MHCII expression on α-syn-induced microglia activation and the severity of the dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We used a viral vector technology to overexpress α-syn in two rat strains; Dark agouti (DA) wild type and DA.VRA4-congenic rats. The congenic strain carries PVG alleles in the VRA4 locus and therefore displays lower Mhc2ta expression levels compared to DA rats. We analyzed the impact of this physiological differential Mhc2ta expression on gliosis, inflammation, degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system

  9. β-synuclein aggregates and induces neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Taschenberger, Grit; Toloe, Johan; Tereshchenko, Julia; Akerboom, Jasper; Wales, Pauline; Benz, Roland; Becker, Stefan; Outeiro, Tiago F; Looger, Loren L; Bähr, Mathias; Zweckstetter, Markus; Kügler, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    Whereas the contribution of α-synuclein to neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease is well accepted, the putative impact of its close homologue, β-synuclein, is enigmatic. β-Synuclein is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, as is α-synuclein, but the physiological functions of both proteins remain unknown. Recent findings have supported the view that β-synuclein can act as an ameliorating regulator of α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity, having neuroprotective rather than neurodegenerative capabilities, and being nonaggregating due to the absence of most of the aggregation-promoting NAC domain. However, a mutation of β-synuclein linked to dementia with Lewy bodies rendered the protein neurotoxic in transgenic mice, and fibrillation of β-synuclein has been demonstrated in vitro. Neurotoxicity and aggregation properties of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein were comparatively elucidated in the rat nigro-striatal projection and in cultured neurons. Supporting the hypothesis that β-synuclein can act as a neurodegeneration-inducing factor, we demonstrated that wild-type β-synuclein is neurotoxic for cultured primary neurons. Furthermore, β-synuclein formed proteinase K-resistant aggregates in dopaminergic neurons in vivo, leading to pronounced and progressive neurodegeneration in rats. Expression of β-synuclein caused mitochondrial fragmentation, but this fragmentation did not render mitochondria nonfunctional in terms of ion handling and respiration even at late stages of neurodegeneration. A comparison of the neurodegenerative effects induced by α-, β-, and γ-synuclein revealed that β-synuclein was eventually as neurotoxic as α-synuclein for nigral dopaminergic neurons, whereas γ-synuclein proved to be nontoxic and had very low aggregation propensity. Our results suggest that the role of β-synuclein as a putative modulator of neuropathology in aggregopathies like Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies needs to be revisited. © 2013

  10. A pathologic cascade leading to synaptic dysfunction in α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tabarean, Iustin; Tang, Yong; Cartier, Anna; Masliah, Eliezer; Roy, Subhojit

    2010-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are typified by intra-neuronal α-synuclein deposits, synaptic dysfunction and dementia. While even modest α-synuclein elevations can be pathologic, the precise cascade of events induced by excessive α-synuclein and eventually culminating in synaptotoxicity is unclear. Towards this, we developed a quantitative model-system to evaluate evolving α-synuclein-induced pathologic events with high spatial and temporal resolution, using cultured neurons from brains of transgenic mice over-expressing fluorescent-human-α-synuclein. Transgenic α-synuclein was pathologically altered over time and over-expressing neurons showed striking neurotransmitter release deficits and enlarged synaptic vesicles; a phenotype reminiscent of previous animal-models lacking critical presynaptic proteins. Indeed several endogenous presynaptic proteins involved in exo- and endo-cytosis were undetectable in a subset of transgenic boutons (‘vacant synapses’) with diminished levels in the remainder; suggesting that such diminutions were triggering the overall synaptic pathology. Similar synaptic protein alterations were also retrospectively seen in human pathologic brains, highlighting potential relevance to human disease. Collectively the data suggest a previously unknown cascade of events where pathologic α-synuclein leads to a loss of a number of critical presynaptic proteins, thereby inducing functional synaptic deficits. PMID:20554859

  11. A pathologic cascade leading to synaptic dysfunction in alpha-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Scott, David A; Tabarean, Iustin; Tang, Yong; Cartier, Anna; Masliah, Eliezer; Roy, Subhojit

    2010-06-16

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are typified by intraneuronal alpha-synuclein deposits, synaptic dysfunction, and dementia. While even modest alpha-synuclein elevations can be pathologic, the precise cascade of events induced by excessive alpha-synuclein and eventually culminating in synaptotoxicity is unclear. To elucidate this, we developed a quantitative model system to evaluate evolving alpha-synuclein-induced pathologic events with high spatial and temporal resolution, using cultured neurons from brains of transgenic mice overexpressing fluorescent-human-alpha-synuclein. Transgenic alpha-synuclein was pathologically altered over time and overexpressing neurons showed striking neurotransmitter release deficits and enlarged synaptic vesicles; a phenotype reminiscent of previous animal models lacking critical presynaptic proteins. Indeed, several endogenous presynaptic proteins involved in exocytosis and endocytosis were undetectable in a subset of transgenic boutons ("vacant synapses") with diminished levels in the remainder, suggesting that such diminutions were triggering the overall synaptic pathology. Similar synaptic protein alterations were also retrospectively seen in human pathologic brains, highlighting potential relevance to human disease. Collectively the data suggest a previously unknown cascade of events where pathologic alpha-synuclein leads to a loss of a number of critical presynaptic proteins, thereby inducing functional synaptic deficits.

  12. Iron Deposition Leads to Neuronal α-Synuclein Pathology by Inducing Autophagy Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenbin; Jin, Lirong; Wang, Zigao; Wang, Lingyan; Fei, Guoqiang; Ye, Fanlong; Pan, Xiaoli; Wang, Changpeng; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that iron deposition in the substantia nigra plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Using primary dopaminergic neurons and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in vitro, we observed that iron loading increased α-synuclein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in these cells but did not affect the intracellular α-synuclein mRNA levels. Furthermore, iron loading significantly downregulated Beclin-1 levels and decreased the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 isoforms (LC3 II/LC3 I). However, a significant change in the levels of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) was not observed in either neurons or SH-SY5Y cells after iron treatment. After treatment with rapamycin, the iron loading-induced increase in the α-synuclein level was significantly reversed and ROS generation was alleviated in both cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the inhibition of autophagy is critical for the pathological alterations in α-synuclein induced by iron loading. Moreover, treatment with vitamin E did not affect the increase in the α-synuclein levels but significantly eliminated the iron-induced ROS production. Together, our study shows that autophagy dysfunction contributes to iron-induced α-synuclein pathology. PMID:28138322

  13. Iron Deposition Leads to Neuronal α-Synuclein Pathology by Inducing Autophagy Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenbin; Jin, Lirong; Wang, Zigao; Wang, Lingyan; Fei, Guoqiang; Ye, Fanlong; Pan, Xiaoli; Wang, Changpeng; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that iron deposition in the substantia nigra plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Using primary dopaminergic neurons and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in vitro, we observed that iron loading increased α-synuclein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in these cells but did not affect the intracellular α-synuclein mRNA levels. Furthermore, iron loading significantly downregulated Beclin-1 levels and decreased the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 isoforms (LC3 II/LC3 I). However, a significant change in the levels of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) was not observed in either neurons or SH-SY5Y cells after iron treatment. After treatment with rapamycin, the iron loading-induced increase in the α-synuclein level was significantly reversed and ROS generation was alleviated in both cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the inhibition of autophagy is critical for the pathological alterations in α-synuclein induced by iron loading. Moreover, treatment with vitamin E did not affect the increase in the α-synuclein levels but significantly eliminated the iron-induced ROS production. Together, our study shows that autophagy dysfunction contributes to iron-induced α-synuclein pathology.

  14. Dopamine induces soluble α-synuclein oligomers and nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mor, Danielle E; Tsika, Elpida; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Gould, Neal S; Kim, Hanna; Daniels, Malcolm J; Doshi, Shachee; Gupta, Preetika; Grossman, Jennifer L; Tan, Victor X; Kalb, Robert G; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Wolfe, John H; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2017-09-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of Lewy body inclusions containing aggregated α-synuclein. Efforts to explain dopamine neuron vulnerability are hindered by the lack of dopaminergic cell death in α-synuclein transgenic mice. To address this, we manipulated both dopamine levels and α-synuclein expression. Nigrally targeted expression of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase with enhanced catalytic activity increased dopamine levels without damaging neurons in non-transgenic mice. In contrast, raising dopamine levels in mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein induced progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and reduced locomotion. Dopamine elevation in A53T mice increased levels of potentially toxic α-synuclein oligomers, resulting in conformationally and functionally modified species. Moreover, in genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans models, expression of α-synuclein mutated at the site of interaction with dopamine prevented dopamine-induced toxicity. These data suggest that a unique mechanism links two cardinal features of PD: dopaminergic cell death and α-synuclein aggregation.

  15. Alpha-synuclein-induced oxidative stress correlates with altered superoxide dismutase and glutathione synthesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Perfeito, Rita; Ribeiro, Márcio; Rego, A Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a major component of Lewy bodies found in sporadic and inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the gene encoding α-syn and duplications and triplications of wild-type (WT) α-syn have been associated with PD. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we defined the occurrence of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing WT α-syn in a doxycycline (Dox) regulated manner, before and after exposure to iron (500 µM), and determined the changes in proteins involved in the intracellular antioxidant defense system. Data evidenced an increase in caspase-3 activation and diminished reducing capacity of -Dox cells, associated with decreased activity of mitochondria complex I and reduced mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) levels in these cells. Furthermore, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels were higher under basal conditions in cells overexpressing α-syn (-Dox) and this increase was apparently correlated with diminished levels and activities of SOD1 and SOD2 in -Dox cells. Moreover, both reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were diminished in -Dox cells under basal conditions, concomitantly with decreased activity of GCL and reduced protein levels of GCLc. The effects caused by iron (500 µM) were mostly independent of α-syn expression and triggered different antioxidant responses to possibly counterbalance higher levels of free radicals. Overall, data suggest that overexpression of α-syn modifies the antioxidant capacity of SH-SY5Y cells due to altered activity and protein levels of SOD1 and SOD2, and decreased glutathione pool.

  16. α-Synuclein Oligomers Induced by Docosahexaenoic Acid Affect Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Fecchio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Giorgia; Relini, Annalisa; Greggio, Elisa; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Bubacco, Luigi; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of Parkinson disease is the aggregation of α-synuclein and its intracellular deposition in fibrillar form. Increasing evidence suggests that the pathogenicity of α-synuclein is correlated with the activity of oligomers formed in the early stages of its aggregation process. Oligomers toxicity seems to be associated with both their ability to bind and affect the integrity of lipid membranes. Previously, we demonstrated that α-synuclein forms oligomeric species in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid and that these species are toxic to cells. Here we studied how interaction of these oligomers with membranes results in cell toxicity, using cellular membrane-mimetic and cell model systems. We found that α-synuclein oligomers are able to interact with large and small unilamellar negatively charged vesicles acquiring an increased amount of α-helical structure, which induces small molecules release. We explored the possibility that oligomers effects on membranes could be due to pore formation, to a detergent-like effect or to fibril growth on the membrane. Our biophysical and cellular findings are consistent with a model where α-synuclein oligomers are embedded into the lipid bilayer causing transient alteration of membrane permeability. PMID:24312431

  17. Binding Interactions of Agents That Alter α-Synuclein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sivanesam, K.; Byrne, A.; Bisaglia, M.; Bubacco, L.

    2015-01-01

    Further examination of peptides with well-folded antiparallel β strands as inhibitors of amyloid formation from α-synuclein has resulted in more potent inhibitors. Several of these had multiple Tyr residues and represent a new lead for inhibitor design by small peptides that do not divert α-synuclein to non-amyloid aggregate formation. The most potent inhibitor obtained in this study is a backbone cyclized version of a previously studied β hairpin, designated as WW2, with a cross-strand Trp/Trp cluster. The cyclization was accomplished by adding a d-Pro-l-Pro turn locus across strand termini. At a 2:1 peptide to α-synuclein ratio, cyclo-WW2 displays complete inhibition of β-structure formation. Trp-bearing antiparallel β-sheets held together by a disulphide bond are also potent inhibitors. 15N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein provided new mechanistic details. The time course of 15N HSQC spectral changes observed during β-oligomer formation has revealed which segments of the structure become part of the rigid core of an oligomer at early stages of amyloidogenesis and that the C-terminus remains fully flexible throughout the process. All of the effective peptide inhibitors display binding-associated titration shifts in 15N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein in the C-terminal Q109-E137 segment. Cyclo-WW2, the most potent inhibitor, also displays titration shifts in the G41-T54 span of α-synuclein, an additional binding site. The earliest aggregation event appears to be centered about H50 which is also a binding site for our most potent inhibitor. PMID:25705374

  18. Binding Interactions of Agents That Alter α-Synuclein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sivanesam, K; Byrne, A; Bisaglia, M; Bubacco, L; Andersen, N

    Further examination of peptides with well-folded antiparallel β strands as inhibitors of amyloid formation from α-synuclein has resulted in more potent inhibitors. Several of these had multiple Tyr residues and represent a new lead for inhibitor design by small peptides that do not divert α-synuclein to non-amyloid aggregate formation. The most potent inhibitor obtained in this study is a backbone cyclized version of a previously studied β hairpin, designated as WW2, with a cross-strand Trp/Trp cluster. The cyclization was accomplished by adding a d-Pro-l-Pro turn locus across strand termini. At a 2:1 peptide to α-synuclein ratio, cyclo-WW2 displays complete inhibition of β-structure formation. Trp-bearing antiparallel β-sheets held together by a disulphide bond are also potent inhibitors. (15)N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein provided new mechanistic details. The time course of (15)N HSQC spectral changes observed during β-oligomer formation has revealed which segments of the structure become part of the rigid core of an oligomer at early stages of amyloidogenesis and that the C-terminus remains fully flexible throughout the process. All of the effective peptide inhibitors display binding-associated titration shifts in (15)N HSQC spectra of α-synuclein in the C-terminal Q109-E137 segment. Cyclo-WW2, the most potent inhibitor, also displays titration shifts in the G41-T54 span of α-synuclein, an additional binding site. The earliest aggregation event appears to be centered about H50 which is also a binding site for our most potent inhibitor.

  19. The molecular mechanism of rotenone-induced α-synuclein aggregation: emphasizing the role of the calcium/GSK3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu-He; Yan, Wen-Fen; Sun, Jian-Dong; Huang, Ju-Yang; Mu, Zheng; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2015-03-04

    Environmental toxin exposure is associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and environmental factors can influence the onset of the majority of sporadic PD cases via genetically mediated pathways. Rotenone, a widespread pesticide, induces Parkinsonism and the formation of Lewy bodies in animals; however, the molecular mechanism that underlies α-synuclein aggregation remains unclear. Here, we assessed the aggregation of α-synuclein in PC12 cells with or without cross-linking following rotenone exposure via a variety of methods, including western blotting, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. We demonstrated that rotenone increased the intracellular calcium levels and induced the aggregation and phosphorylation of α-synuclein in a calcium-dependent manner. Aggregated α-synuclein is typically degraded by autophagy, and rotenone impaired this process. The attenuation of autophagy and α-synuclein alterations were reversed by scavenging calcium. Calcium regulates the activity of AKT-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)β. We demonstrated that rotenone attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β, and the elimination of calcium reversed these phenomena. As a GSK3β inhibitor, lithium promoted autophagy and decreased the aggregation and phosphorylation of α-synuclein. GSK3β activation through overexpression depressed autophagy and increased the total protein level and phosphorylation of α-synuclein. These results suggest that rotenone-induced α-synuclein aggregation is mediated by the calcium/GSK3β signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ca2+ is a key factor in α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Negoda, Alexander; Cremades, Nunilo; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Gandhi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aggregation of α-synuclein leads to the formation of oligomeric intermediates that can interact with membranes to form pores. However, it is unknown how this leads to cell toxicity in Parkinson's disease. We investigated the species-specific effects of α-synuclein on Ca2+ signalling in primary neurons and astrocytes using live neuronal imaging and electrophysiology on artificial membranes. We demonstrate that α-synuclein induces an increase in basal intracellular Ca2+ in its unfolded monomeric state as well as in its oligomeric state. Electrophysiology of artificial membranes demonstrated that α-synuclein monomers induce irregular ionic currents, whereas α-synuclein oligomers induce rare discrete channel formation events. Despite the ability of monomeric α-synuclein to affect Ca2+ signalling, it is only the oligomeric form of α-synuclein that induces cell death. Oligomer-induced cell death was abolished by the exclusion of extracellular Ca2+, which prevented the α-synuclein-induced Ca2+ dysregulation. The findings of this study confirm that α-synuclein interacts with membranes to affect Ca2+ signalling in a structure-specific manner and the oligomeric β-sheet-rich α-synuclein species ultimately leads to Ca2+ dysregulation and Ca2+-dependent cell death. PMID:26989132

  1. Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Caudal, D; Alvarsson, A; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and by the presence of aggregates containing α-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Viral vector-induced overexpression of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons represents a model of PD which recapitulates disease progression better than commonly used neurotoxin models. Previous studies using this model have reported motor and cognitive impairments, whereas depression, mood and anxiety phenotypes are less described. To investigate these psychiatric phenotypes, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human α-synuclein or GFP into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Behavior was assessed at two timepoints: 3 and 8 weeks post-injection. We report that nigral α-synuclein overexpression led to a pronounced nigral dopaminergic cell loss accompanied by a smaller cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, and to a decreased striatal density of dopaminergic fibers. The AAV-α-synuclein group exhibited modest, but significant motor impairments 8 weeks after vector administration. The AAV-α-synuclein group displayed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test after 3 weeks, and reduced sucrose preference at week 8. At both timepoints, overexpression of α-synuclein was linked to a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of corticosterone. The depressive-like phenotype was also correlated with decreased nigral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spinophilin levels, and with decreased striatal levels of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. This study demonstrates that AAV-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons is not only useful to model motor impairments of PD, but also depression. This study also provides evidence that depression in experimental Parkinsonism is correlated to dysregulation of the HPA axis and to

  2. Heat shock protein 70 reduces α-synuclein-induced predegenerative neuronal dystrophy in the α-synuclein viral gene transfer rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Teresa C; Hyland, Rhona; O'Toole, Daniel; Paucard, Alexia; Kirik, Deniz; O'Doherty, Aideen; Gorman, Adrienne M; Dowd, Eilís

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that the nigrostriatal degeneration associated with Parkinson's disease initiates at the level of the axonal terminals in the putamen, and this nigrostriatal terminal dystrophy is either caused or exacerbated by the presence of α-synuclein immunopositive neuronal inclusions. Therefore, strategies aimed at reducing α-synuclein-induced early neuronal dystrophy may slow or halt the progression to overt nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Thus, this study sought to determine if adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated overexpression of two molecular chaperone heat shock proteins, namely Hsp27 or Hsp70, in the AAV-α-synuclein viral gene transfer rat model of Parkinson's disease could prevent α-synuclein-induced early neuronal pathology. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intranigrally coinjected with pathogenic (AAV-α-synuclein) and putative therapeutic (AAV-Hsp27 or AAV-Hsp70) viral vectors and were sacrificed 18 weeks postviral injection. Intranigral injection of AAV-α-synuclein resulted in significant α-synuclein accumulation in the substantia nigra and striatal terminals which led to significant dystrophy of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons without overt nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Coinjection of AAV-Hsp70, but not AAV-Hsp27, significantly reduced AAV-α-synuclein-induced neuronal dystrophy. These data confirm that overexpression of Hsp70 holds significant potential as a disease-modulating therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease, with protective effects against early-onset α-synuclein-induced pathology demonstrated in the AAV-α-synuclein model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Melatonin inhibits maneb-induced aggregation of alpha-synuclein in rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Masami

    2007-03-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, is involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, in oncostasis, and in inducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, melatonin is a scavenger of a number of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the antioxidant nature of melatonin was shown to prevent cultured neural cells from apoptosis induced by endocrine-disrupting chemical, maneb. The neurotoxicity of the fungicide, maneb (1 microg/mL), on the PC12 cells was elicited through apoptotic cell death, concomitant with aggregation of alpha-synuclein, a feature of Parkinson's disease. Activation of caspase-3/7 was associated with this process. A fluorescence rationing technique using a mitochondrial dye revealed that maneb altered the mitochondrial membrane potential of the neural cells. However, melatonin (1 nm) largely prevented the neural cells from the neural toxicant by inhibition of both caspase-3/7 activation and disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, aggregation of alpha-synuclein by maneb was also inhibited by melatonin. Thus, melatonin prevents maneb-induced neurodegeneration at a nighttime physiological blood concentration, most likely by inhibiting the aggregation of alpha-synuclein as well as preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in PC 12 cells.

  4. Divalent Metal Ions Enhance DOPAL-induced Oligomerization of Alpha-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patricia; Gross, Daniel; Cooney, Adele; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) features profound striatal dopamine depletion and Lewy bodies containing abundant precipitated alpha-synuclein. Mechanisms linking alpha-synucleinopathy with the death of dopamine neurons remain incompletely understood. One such link may be 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). All of the intra-neuronal metabolism of dopamine passes through DOPAL, which is toxic. DOPAL also potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein and alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic in PD. Another implicated factor in PD pathogenesis is metal ions, and alpha-synuclein contains binding sites for these ions. In this study we tested whether divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in cell-free system and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Incubation with divalent metal ions augmented DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein (Cu2+>Fe2+>Mn2+), whereas monovalent Cu1+ and trivalent Fe3+ were without effect. Other dopamine metabolites, dopamine itself, and metal ions alone or in combination with dopamine, also had no effect. Antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid and divalent cation chelation with EDTA attenuated the augmentation by Cu2+ of DOPAL-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Incubation of PC12 cells with L-DOPA markedly increased intracellular DOPAL content and promoted alpha-synuclein dimerization. Co-incubation with Cu2+ amplified (p=0.01), while monoamine oxidase inhibition prevented, L-DOPA-related dimerization of alpha-synuclein (p=0.01). We conclude that divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein. Drugs that interfere with this interaction might constitute a novel approach for future treatment or prevention approaches. PMID:24670480

  5. Divalent metal ions enhance DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patricia; Gross, Daniel; Cooney, Adele; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2014-05-21

    Parkinson disease (PD) features profound striatal dopamine depletion and Lewy bodies containing abundant precipitated alpha-synuclein. Mechanisms linking alpha-synucleinopathy with the death of dopamine neurons remain incompletely understood. One such link may be 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). All of the intra-neuronal metabolism of dopamine passes through DOPAL, which is toxic. DOPAL also potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein and alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic in PD. Another implicated factor in PD pathogenesis is metal ions, and alpha-synuclein contains binding sites for these ions. In this study we tested whether divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in cell-free system and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Incubation with divalent metal ions augmented DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein (Cu(2+)>Fe(2+)>Mn(2+)), whereas monovalent Cu(1+) and trivalent Fe(3+) were without effect. Other dopamine metabolites, dopamine itself, and metal ions alone or in combination with dopamine, also had no effect. Antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid and divalent cation chelation with EDTA attenuated the augmentation by Cu(2+) of DOPAL-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Incubation of PC12 cells with L-DOPA markedly increased intracellular DOPAL content and promoted alpha-synuclein dimerization. Co-incubation with Cu(2+) amplified (p=0.01), while monoamine oxidase inhibition prevented, L-DOPA-related dimerization of alpha-synuclein (p=0.01). We conclude that divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein. Drugs that interfere with this interaction might constitute a novel approach for future treatment or prevention approaches.

  6. Seeding induced by alpha-synuclein oligomers provides evidence for spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Karin M; Krebs, Simon K; Wolff, Michael; Birk, Gerald; Hengerer, Bastian

    2009-10-01

    Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) immunopositive intracellular deposits, are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interestingly, Lewybody-like structures have been identified in fetal tissue grafts about one decade after transplantation into the striatum of PD patients. One possible explanation for the accelerated deposition of alpha-syn in the graft is that the aggregation of alpha-syn from the host tissue to the graft is spread by a prion disease-like mechanism. We discuss here an in vitro model which might recapitulate some aspects of disease propagation in PD. We found here that in vitro-generated alpha-syn oligomers induce transmembrane seeding of alpha-syn aggregation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was observed in primary neuronal cultures as well as in neuronal cell lines. The seeding oligomers were characterized by a distinctive lithium dodecyl sulfate-stable oligomer pattern and could be generated in a dynamic process out of pore-forming oligomers. We propose that alpha-syn oligomers form as a dynamic mixture of oligomer types with different properties and that alpha-syn oligomers can be converted into different types depending on the brain milieu conditions. Our data indicate that extracellular alpha-syn oligomers can induce intracellular alpha-syn aggregation, therefore we hypothesize that a similar mechanism might lead to alpha-syn pathology propagation.

  7. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

  8. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M.; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M.; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A.; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of WT or A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells and yeast in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. PMID:25497688

  9. Oxidative stress induces nuclear translocation of C-terminus of {alpha}-synuclein in dopaminergic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Shengli; Zhou Ming; Yu Shun; Cai Yanning; Zhang Alex; Ueda, Kenji; Chan Piu . E-mail: pbchan@bjsap.org

    2006-03-31

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the neuronal degeneration and can promote the aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein. However, the role of {alpha}-synuclein under physiological and pathological conditions remains poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the possible interaction between the {alpha}-synuclein and oxidative stress. In a dopaminergic cell line MES23.5, we have found that the 200 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment induced the translocation of {alpha}-synuclein from cytoplasm to nuclei at 30 min post-treatment. The immunoactivity of {alpha}-synuclein became highly intensive in the nuclei after 2 h treatment. The protein translocated to nucleus was a 10 kDa fragment of C-terminus region of {alpha}-synuclein, while full-length {alpha}-synuclein remained in cytoplasm. Thioflavine-S staining suggested that the C-terminal fragment in the nuclei has no {beta}-sheet structures. Our present results indicated that 200 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment induces the intranuclear accumulation of the C-terminal fragment of {alpha}-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons, whose role remains to be investigated.

  10. Bcl-2 homologue Debcl enhances α-synuclein-induced phenotypes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts 1–2% of the population over 50 years of age. The common hallmark for both sporadic and familial forms of PD is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mammals have at least twenty proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, in contrast, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the proapoptotic mitochondrial localized Debcl and the antiapoptotic Buffy. The expression of the human transgene α-synuclein, a gene that is strongly associated with inherited forms of PD, in dopaminergic neurons (DA) of Drosophila, results in loss of neurons and locomotor dysfunction to model PD in flies. The altered expression of Debcl in the DA neurons and neuron-rich eye and along with the expression of α-synuclein offers an opportunity to highlight the role of Debcl in mitochondrial-dependent neuronal degeneration and death. Results The directed overexpression of Debcl using the Ddc-Gal4 transgene in the DA of Drosophila resulted in flies with severely decreased survival and a premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. The inhibition of Debcl resulted in enhanced survival and improved climbing ability whereas the overexpression of Debcl in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD resulted in more severe phenotypes. In addition, the co-expression of Debcl along with Buffy partially counteracts the Debcl-induced phenotypes, to improve the lifespan and the associated loss of locomotor ability observed. In complementary experiments, the overexpression of Debcl along with the expression of α-synuclein in the eye, enhanced the eye ablation that results from the overexpression of Debcl. The co-expression of Buffy along with Debcl overexpression results in the rescue of the moderate developmental eye defects. The co-expression of Buffy along with inhibition of Debcl partially restores the eye to a roughened eye phenotype. Discussion The overexpression of Debcl

  11. S-nitrosylation of UCHL1 induces its structural instability and promotes α-synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Roshan; Jangir, Deepak K.; Verma, Garima; Shekhar, Shashi; Hanpude, Pranita; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumari, Raniki; Singh, Nirpendra; Sarovar Bhavesh, Neel; Ranjan Jana, Nihar; Kanti Maiti, Tushar

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase-1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme, which plays a key role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is one of the most important proteins, which constitute Lewy body in PD patient. However, how this well folded highly soluble protein presents in this proteinaceous aggregate is still unclear. We report here that UCHL1 undergoes S-nitrosylation in vitro and rotenone induced PD mouse model. The preferential nitrosylation in the Cys 90, Cys 152 and Cys 220 has been observed which alters the catalytic activity and structural stability. We show here that nitrosylation induces structural instability and produces amorphous aggregate, which provides a nucleation to the native α-synuclein for faster aggregation. Our findings provide a new link between UCHL1-nitrosylation and PD pathology. PMID:28300150

  12. Number and Brightness analysis of alpha-synuclein oligomerization and the associated mitochondrial morphology alterations in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotegher, N.; Gratton, E.; Bubacco, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha-synuclein oligomerization is associated to Parkinson's disease etiopathogenesis. The study of alpha-synuclein oligomerization properties in live cell and the definition of their effects on cellular viability are among fields expected to provide the knowledge required to unravel the mechanism(s) of toxicity that lead to the disease. Methods We used Number and Brightness method, which is a method based on fluorescence fluctuation analysis, to monitor alpha-synuclein tagged with EGFP aggregation in living SH-SY5Y cells. The presence of alpha-synuclein oligomers detected with this method was associated with intracellular structure conditions, evaluated by fluorescence confocal imaging. Results Cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein-EGFP present a heterogeneous ensemble of oligomers constituted by less than 10 monomers, when the protein approaches a threshold concentration value of about 90 nM in the cell cytoplasm. We show that the oligomeric species are partially sequestered by lysosomes and that the mitochondria morphology is altered in cells presenting oligomers, suggesting that these mitochondria may be dysfunctional. Conclusions We showed that alpha-synuclein overexpression in SH-SY5Y causes the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomeric species, whose presence is associated with mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagic-lysosomal pathway activation in live cells. General significance The unique capability provided by the Number and Brightness analysis to study alpha-synuclein oligomers distribution and properties, and the study their association to intracellular components in single live cells is important to forward our understanding of the molecular mechanisms Parkinson’s disease and it may be of general significance when applied to the study of other aggregating proteins in cellular models. PMID:24561157

  13. Alpha-Synuclein Produces Early Behavioral Alterations via Striatal Cholinergic Synaptic Dysfunction by Interacting With GluN2D N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Bagetta, Vincenza; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Decressac, Mickael; Giampà, Carmela; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Xia, Jing; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Mellone, Manuela; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar; Ardah, Mustafa Taleb; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Björklund, Anders; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by massive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, dramatic motor and cognitive alterations, and presence of nigral Lewy bodies, whose main constituent is α-synuclein (α-syn). However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral and motor effects induced by early selective overexpression of nigral α-syn are still a matter of debate. We performed behavioral, molecular, and immunohistochemical analyses in two transgenic models of PD, mice transgenic for truncated human α-synuclein 1-120 and rats injected with the adeno-associated viral vector carrying wild-type human α-synuclein. We also investigated striatal synaptic plasticity by electrophysiological recordings from spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons. We found that overexpression of truncated or wild-type human α-syn causes partial reduction of striatal dopamine levels and selectively blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in striatal cholinergic interneurons, producing early memory and motor alterations. These effects were dependent on α-syn modulation of the GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cholinergic interneurons. Acute in vitro application of human α-syn oligomers mimicked the synaptic effects observed ex vivo in PD models. We suggest that striatal cholinergic dysfunction, induced by a direct interaction between α-syn and GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, represents a precocious biological marker of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphorylation induces distinct alpha-synuclein strain formation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Meng-Rong; Hu, Zhi-Wen; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Li, Yan-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases associated with alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated the existence of different structural characteristics or ‘strains’ of α-Syn, supporting the concept that synucleinopathies share several common features with prion diseases and possibly explaining how a single protein results in different clinical phenotypes within synucleinopathies. In earlier studies, the different strains were generated through the regulation of solution conditions, temperature, or repetitive seeded fibrillization in vitro. Here, we synthesize homogeneous α-Syn phosphorylated at serine 129 (pS129 α-Syn), which is highly associated with the pathological changes, and demonstrate that phosphorylation at Ser129 induces α-Syn to form a distinct strain with different structures, propagation properties, and higher cytotoxicity compared with the wild-type α-Syn. The results are the first demonstration that post-translational modification of α-Syn can induce different strain formation, offering a new mechanism for strain formation. PMID:27853185

  15. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Fajardo, Ignacio; Ruiz-Pérez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Nascent histamine alters cyclin expression pattern. • Nascent histamine increases expression of α-synuclein. • Nascent histamine activates caspase-3. - Abstract: Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein–protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases.

  16. Network Analysis Implicates Alpha-Synuclein (Snca) in the Regulation of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Gina; Mesner, Larry D.; Foley, Patricia L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal period in women is associated with decreased circulating estrogen levels, which accelerate bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. Here, we gained novel insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a model of human menopause, using co-expression network analysis. Specifically, we generated a co-expression network consisting of 53 gene modules using expression profiles from intact and OVX mice from a panel of inbred strains. The expression of four modules was altered by OVX, including module 23 whose expression was decreased by OVX across all strains. Module 23 was enriched for genes involved in the response to oxidative stress, a process known to be involved in OVX-induced bone loss. Additionally, module 23 homologs were co-expressed in human bone marrow. Alpha synuclein (Snca) was one of the most highly connected “hub” genes in module 23. We characterized mice deficient in Snca and observed a 40% reduction in OVX-induced bone loss. Furthermore, protection was associated with the altered expression of specific network modules, including module 23. In summary, the results of this study suggest that Snca regulates bone network homeostasis and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. PMID:27378017

  17. Changes in secondary structure of α-synuclein during oligomerization induced by reactive aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yixiao; Lendel, Christofer; Österlund, Lars; Kasrayan, Alex; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Nikolajeff, Fredrik; Karlsson, Mikael; Bergström, Joakim

    2015-08-14

    The oxidative stress-related reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) have been shown to promote formation of α-synuclein oligomers in vitro. However, the changes in secondary structure of α-synuclein and the kinetics of the oligomerization process are not known and were the focus of this study. Size exclusion chromatography showed that after 1 h of incubation, HNE induced the formation of an oligomeric α-synuclein peak with a molecular weight of about ∼2000 kDa, which coincided with a decreasing ∼50 kDa monomeric peak. With prolonged incubation (up to 24 h) the oligomeric peak became the dominating molecular species. In contrast, in the presence of ONE, a ∼2000 oligomeric peak was exclusively observed after 15 min of incubation and this peak remained constant with prolonged incubation. Western blot analysis of HNE-induced α-synuclein oligomers showed the presence of monomers (15 kDa), SDS-resistant low molecular (30-160 kDa) and high molecular weight oligomers (≥260 kDa), indicating that the oligomers consisted of both covalent and non-covalent protein. In contrast, ONE-induced α-synuclein oligomers only migrated as covalent cross-linked high molecular-weight material (≥300 kDa). Both circular dichroism (CD) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the formation of HNE- and ONE-induced oligomers coincided with a spectral change from random coil to β-sheet. However, ONE-induced α-synuclein oligomers exhibited a slightly higher degree of β-sheet. Taken together, our results indicate that both HNE and ONE induce a change from random coil to β-sheet structure that coincides with the formation of α-synuclein oligomers; albeit through different kinetic pathways depending on the degree of cross-linking.

  18. α-Synuclein potentiates interleukin-1β-induced CXCL10 expression in human A172 astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tousi, Neda Saffarian; Buck, Daniel J; Curtis, J Thomas; Davis, Randall L

    2012-01-24

    Neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attributed in part to glial-mediated events. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and abnormal accumulation of the neuronal protein, α-synuclein in the brain are also characteristic of PD. While increasing evidence suggests that astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration associated with PD, there remains much to learn about these astroglial-mediated events. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and α-synuclein on astroglial expression of interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (CXCL10), a proinflammatory and neurotoxic chemokine. IL-1β-induced CXCL10 protein expression was potentiated by co-exposure to α-synuclein. α-Synuclein did not significantly affect IL-1β-induced CXCL10 mRNA expression, but did mediate increased CXCL10 mRNA stability, which may explain, in part, the increased levels of secreted CXCL10 protein. Future investigations are warranted to more fully define the mechanism by which α-synuclein enhances IL-1β-induced astroglial CXCL10 expression. These findings highlight the importance of α-synuclein in modulating inflammatory events in astroglia. These events may be particularly relevant to the pathology of CNS disorders involving α-synuclein accumulation, including PD and HIV-1 associated dementia.

  19. Non-motor parkinsonian pathology in aging A53T α-synuclein mice is associated with progressive synucleinopathy and altered enzymatic function.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kaitlin F; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Villanueva, Ernesto; Lou, Haiyan; Alerte, Tshianda N M; Peet, Eloise; Drolet, Robert E; Perez, Ruth G

    2014-02-01

    Aging, the main risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with increased α-synuclein levels in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Excess α-synuclein spurs Lewy-like pathology and dysregulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A dephosphorylates many neuroproteins, including the catecholamine rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons induces PD movement problems, but before those abnormalities occur, behaviors such as olfactory loss, anxiety, and constipation often manifest. Identifying mouse models with early PD behavioral changes could provide a model in which to test emerging therapeutic compounds. To this end, we evaluated mice expressing A53T mutant human (A53T) α-synuclein for behavior and α-synuclein pathology in olfactory bulb, adrenal gland, and gut. Aging A53T mice exhibited olfactory loss and anxiety that paralleled olfactory and adrenal α-synuclein aggregation. PP2A activity was also diminished in olfactory and adrenal tissues harboring insoluble α-synuclein. Low adrenal PP2A activity co-occurred with TH hyperactivity, making this the first study to link adrenal synucleinopathy to anxiety and catecholamine dysregulation. Aggregated A53T α-synuclein recombinant protein also had impaired stimulatory effects on soluble recombinant PP2A. Collectively, the data identify an excellent model in which to screen compounds for their ability to block the spread of α-synuclein pathology associated with pre-motor stages of PD.

  20. Non-motor parkinsonian pathology in aging A53T α-Synuclein mice is associated with progressive synucleinopathy and altered enzymatic function

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Kaitlin F; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Villanueva, Ernesto; Lou, Haiyan; Alerte, Tshianda N M; Peet, Eloise; Drolet, Robert E; Perez, Ruth G

    2014-01-01

    Aging, the main risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with increased α–synuclein levels in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Excess α-synuclein spurs Lewy-like pathology and dysregulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A dephosphorylates many neuroproteins, including the catecholamine rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons induces PD movement problems, but before those abnormalities occur, behaviors such as olfactory loss, anxiety, and constipation often manifest. Identifying mouse models with early PD behavioral changes could provide a model in which to test emerging therapeutic compounds. To this end, we evaluated mice expressing A53T mutant human (A53T) α–synuclein for behavior and α–synuclein pathology in olfactory bulb, adrenal gland, and gut. Aging A53T mice exhibited olfactory loss and anxiety that paralleled olfactory and adrenal α-synuclein aggregation. PP2A activity was also diminished in olfactory and adrenal tissues harboring insoluble α-synuclein. Low adrenal PP2A activity co-occurred with TH hyperactivity, making this the first study to link adrenal synucleinopathy to anxiety and catecholamine dysregulation. Aggregated A53T α–synuclein recombinant protein also had impaired stimulatory effects on soluble recombinant PP2A. Collectively, the data identify an excellent model in which to screen compounds for their ability to block the spread of α-synuclein pathology associated with pre-motor stages of PD. PMID:24117685

  1. Compact conformations of α-synuclein induced by alcohols and copper.

    PubMed

    Natalello, Antonino; Benetti, Federico; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Legname, Giuseppe; Grandori, Rita

    2011-02-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein aggregates into amyloid fibrils, a process known to be implicated in several neurodegenerative states. Partially folded forms of the protein are thought to trigger the aggregation process. Here, α-synuclein conformers are characterized by analysis of the charge-state distributions observed in electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry under negative-ion mode. It is found that, even at neutral pH, a small fraction of the molecular population is in a compact conformation. Several distinct partially folded forms are then identified under conditions that promote α-synuclein aggregation, such as solutions of simple and fluorinated alcohols. Specific intermediates accumulate at increasing concentrations of ethanol, hexafluoro-2-propanol, and trifluoroethanol. Finally, extensive folding induced by Cu(2+) binding is revealed by titrations in the presence of Cu(2+)-glycine. The data confirm the existence of a single, high-affinity binding site for Cu(2+). Because accumulation of this partially folded form correlates with enhancement of fibrillation kinetics, it is likely to represent an amyloidogenic intermediate in α-synuclein conformational transitions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The NACP/synuclein gene: Chromosomal assignment and screening for alterations in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, D.; Martin, C.; Charbonnier, F.

    1995-03-20

    The major component of the vascular and plaque amyloid deposits in Alzheimer disease is the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}). A second intrinsic component of amyloid, the NAC (non-A{beta} component of amyloid) peptide, has recently been identified, and its precursor protein was named NACP. A computer homology search allowed us to establish that the human NACP gene was homologous to the rat synuclein gene. We mapped the NACP/synuclein gene to chromosome 4 and cloned three alternatively spliced transcripts in lymphocytes derived from a normal subject. We analyzed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing the entire coding region of the NACP/synuclein gene in a group of patients with familial early onset Alzheimer disease. No mutation was found in 26 unrelated patients. Further studies are required to investigate the implication of the NACP/synuclein gene in Alzheimer disease. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. α-Synuclein and Its A30P Mutant Affect Actin Cytoskeletal Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vítor L.; Bellani, Serena; Giannandrea, Maila; Yousuf, Malikmohamed; Valtorta, Flavia; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    The function of α-synuclein, a soluble protein abundant in the brain and concentrated at presynaptic terminals, is still undefined. Yet, α-synuclein overexpression and the expression of its A30P mutant are associated with familial Parkinson's disease. Working in cell-free conditions, in two cell lines as well as in primary neurons we demonstrate that α-synuclein and its A30P mutant have different effects on actin polymerization. Wild-type α-synuclein binds actin, slows down its polymerization and accelerates its depolymerization, probably by monomer sequestration; A30P mutant α-synuclein increases the rate of actin polymerization and disrupts the cytoskeleton during reassembly of actin filaments. Consequently, in cells expressing mutant α-synuclein, cytoskeleton-dependent processes, such as cell migration, are inhibited, while exo- and endocytic traffic is altered. In hippocampal neurons from mice carrying a deletion of the α-synuclein gene, electroporation of wild-type α-synuclein increases actin instability during remodeling, with growth of lamellipodia-like structures and apparent cell enlargement, whereas A30P α-synuclein induces discrete actin-rich foci during cytoskeleton reassembly. In conclusion, α-synuclein appears to play a major role in actin cytoskeletal dynamics and various aspects of microfilament function. Actin cytoskeletal disruption induced by the A30P mutant might alter various cellular processes and thereby play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. PMID:19553474

  4. Direct Correlation Between Ligand-Induced α-Synuclein Oligomers and Amyloid-like Fibril Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nors Perdersen, Martin; Foderà, Vito; Horvath, Istvan; van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas; Nørgaard Toft, Katrine; Weise, Christoph; Almqvist, Fredrik; Wolf-Watz, Magnus; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of proteins into amyloid deposits is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The suggestion that intermediate oligomeric species may be cytotoxic has led to intensified investigations of pre-fibrillar oligomers, which are complicated by their transient nature and low population. Here we investigate alpha-synuclein oligomers, enriched by a 2-pyridone molecule (FN075), and the conversion of oligomers into fibrils. As probed by leakage assays, the FN075 induced oligomers potently disrupt vesicles in vitro, suggesting a potential link to disease related degenerative activity. Fibrils formed in the presence and absence of FN075 are indistinguishable on microscopic and macroscopic levels. Using small angle X-ray scattering, we reveal that FN075 induced oligomers are similar, but not identical, to oligomers previously observed during alpha-synuclein fibrillation. Since the levels of FN075 induced oligomers correlate with the amounts of fibrils among different FN075:protein ratios, the oligomers appear to be on-pathway and modeling supports an ‘oligomer stacking model’ for alpha-synuclein fibril elongation. PMID:26020724

  5. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Sabina; Peters, Owen; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Doig, Natalie; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Threlfell, Sarah; Kooner, Gurdeep; Deacon, Robert M.; Bannerman, David M.; Bolam, J. Paul; Chandra, Sreeganga S.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    The synucleins (α, β and γ) are highly homologous proteins thought to play a role in regulating neurotransmission and are found abundantly in presynaptic terminals. To overcome functional overlap between synuclein proteins and to understand their role in presynaptic signalling from mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we produced mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. The effect on the mesostriatal system was assessed in adult (4-14 month old) animals using a combination of behavioural, biochemical, histological and electrochemical techniques. Adult triple synuclein null (TKO) mice displayed no overt phenotype, and no change in the number of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. TKO mice were hyperactive in novel environments and exhibited elevated evoked release of dopamine in the striatum detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Elevated dopamine release was specific to the dorsal not ventral striatum and was accompanied by a decrease of dopamine tissue content. We confirmed a normal synaptic ultrastructure and a normal abundance of SNARE protein complexes in the dorsal striatum. Treatment of TKO animals with drugs affecting dopamine metabolism revealed normal rate of synthesis, enhanced turnover and reduced presynaptic striatal dopamine stores. Our data uniquely reveal the importance of the synuclein proteins in regulating neurotransmitter release from specific populations of midbrain dopamine neurons through mechanisms which differ from those reported in other neurons. The finding that the complete loss of synucleins leads to changes in dopamine handling by presynaptic terminals specifically in those regions preferentially vulnerable in Parkinson’s disease (PD) may ultimately inform on the selectivity of the disease process. PMID:21593311

  6. Soluble, Prefibrillar α-Synuclein Oligomers Promote Complex I-dependent, Ca2+-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Luth, Eric S.; Stavrovskaya, Irina G.; Bartels, Tim; Kristal, Bruce S.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein (αSyn) aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction both contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Although recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial association of αSyn may disrupt mitochondrial function, it is unclear what aggregation state of αSyn is most damaging to mitochondria and what conditions promote or inhibit the effect of toxic αSyn species. Because the neuronal populations most vulnerable in PD are characterized by large cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations that burden mitochondria, we examined mitochondrial Ca2+ stress in an in vitro system comprising isolated mitochondria and purified recombinant human αSyn in various aggregation states. Using fluorimetry to simultaneously measure four mitochondrial parameters, we observed that soluble, prefibrillar αSyn oligomers, but not monomeric or fibrillar αSyn, decreased the retention time of exogenously added Ca2+, promoted Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, and accelerated cytochrome c release. Inhibition of the permeability transition pore rescued these αSyn-induced changes in mitochondrial parameters. Interestingly, the mitotoxic effects of αSyn were specifically dependent upon both electron flow through complex I and mitochondrial uptake of exogenous Ca2+. Our results suggest that soluble prefibrillar αSyn oligomers recapitulate several mitochondrial phenotypes previously observed in animal and cell models of PD: complex I dysfunction, altered membrane potential, disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis, and enhanced cytochrome c release. These data reveal how the association of oligomeric αSyn with mitochondria can be detrimental to the function of cells with high Ca2+-handling requirements. PMID:24942732

  7. α-Synuclein Over-Expression Induces Increased Iron Accumulation and Redistribution in Iron-Exposed Neurons.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Richard; Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; Perrin, Laura; Dučić, Tanja; Carboni, Eleonora; Bohic, Sylvain; Cloetens, Peter; Lingor, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common α-synucleinopathy, and increased levels of iron are found in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients, but the potential interlink between both molecular changes has not been fully understood. Metal to protein binding assays have shown that α-synuclein can bind iron in vitro; therefore, we hypothesized that iron content and iron distribution could be modified in cellulo, in cells over-expressing α-synuclein. Owing to particle-induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence chemical nano-imaging, we were able to quantify and describe the iron distribution at the subcellular level. We show that, in neurons exposed to excess iron, the mere over-expression of human α-synuclein results in increased levels of intracellular iron and in iron redistribution from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region within α-synuclein-rich inclusions. Reproducible results were obtained in two distinct recombinant expression systems, in primary rat midbrain neurons and in a rat neuroblastic cell line (PC12), both infected with viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein. Our results link two characteristic molecular features found in Parkinson's disease, the accumulation of α-synuclein and the increased levels of iron in the substantia nigra.

  8. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells.

    PubMed

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Fajardo, Ignacio; Ruiz-Pérez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2014-09-05

    Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein-protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The H50Q Mutation Induces a 10-fold Decrease in the Solubility of α-Synuclein*

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, Riccardo; Proukakis, Christos; Waudby, Christopher A.; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Mangione, P. Patrizia; Paton, Jack F. S.; Mullin, Stephen; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Verona, Guglielmo; Vendruscolo, Michele; Stoppini, Monica; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Camilloni, Carlo; Christodoulou, John; Schapira, Anthony H. V.; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of α-synuclein from its intrinsically disordered monomeric state into the fibrillar cross-β aggregates characteristically present in Lewy bodies is largely unknown. The investigation of α-synuclein variants causative of familial forms of Parkinson disease can provide unique insights into the conditions that promote or inhibit aggregate formation. It has been shown recently that a newly identified pathogenic mutation of α-synuclein, H50Q, aggregates faster than the wild-type. We investigate here its aggregation propensity by using a sequence-based prediction algorithm, NMR chemical shift analysis of secondary structure populations in the monomeric state, and determination of thermodynamic stability of the fibrils. Our data show that the H50Q mutation induces only a small increment in polyproline II structure around the site of the mutation and a slight increase in the overall aggregation propensity. We also find, however, that the H50Q mutation strongly stabilizes α-synuclein fibrils by 5.0 ± 1.0 kJ mol−1, thus increasing the supersaturation of monomeric α-synuclein within the cell, and strongly favors its aggregation process. We further show that wild-type α-synuclein can decelerate the aggregation kinetics of the H50Q variant in a dose-dependent manner when coaggregating with it. These last findings suggest that the precise balance of α-synuclein synthesized from the wild-type and mutant alleles may influence the natural history and heterogeneous clinical phenotype of Parkinson disease. PMID:25505181

  10. Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Pharmacological Inhibition Abates α-Synuclein Gene-induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Daher, João P L; Abdelmotilib, Hisham A; Hu, Xianzhen; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A; Moehle, Mark S; Fraser, Kyle B; Needle, Elie; Chen, Yi; Steyn, Stefanus J; Galatsis, Paul; Hirst, Warren D; West, Andrew B

    2015-08-07

    Therapeutic approaches to slow or block the progression of Parkinson disease (PD) do not exist. Genetic and biochemical studies implicate α-synuclein and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in late-onset PD. LRRK2 kinase activity has been linked to neurodegenerative pathways. However, the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors is not clear because significant toxicities have been associated with one class of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors have not been tested previously for efficacy in models of α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration. To better understand the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibition in PD, we evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor, PF-06447475, in preventing α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Both wild-type rats as well as transgenic G2019S-LRRK2 rats were injected intracranially with adeno-associated viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein in the substantia nigra. Rats were treated with PF-06447475 or a control compound for 4 weeks post-viral transduction. We found that rats expressing G2019S-LRRK2 have exacerbated dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inflammation in response to the overexpression of α-synuclein. Both neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation associated with G2019S-LRRK2 expression were mitigated by LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Furthermore, PF-06447475 provided neuroprotection in wild-type rats. We could not detect adverse pathological indications in the lung, kidney, or liver of rats treated with PF-06447475. These results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 is well tolerated for a 4-week period of time in rats and can counteract dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by acute α-synuclein overexpression.

  11. Thioredoxin-interacting protein induced α-synuclein accumulation via inhibition of autophagic flux: Implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Cun-Jin; Feng, Yu; Liu, Teng-Teng; Liu, Xu; Bao, Jun-Jie; Shi, Ai-Ming; Hu, Duan-Min; Liu, Tong; Yu, Yun-Li

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is associated with activation of oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin (Trx). However, some evidences point out that TXNIP acts as a scaffolding protein in signaling complex independent of cellular redox regulation. The autophagy-lysosomal pathway plays important roles in the clearance of misfolded proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Lysosomal dysfunction has been involved in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Although researchers have reported that TXNIP inhibited autophagic flux, the specific mechanism is rarely studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of TXNIP on autophagic flux and α-synuclein accumulation by Western blot in HEK293 cells transfected with TXNIP plasmid. Further, we explored the influence of TXNIP on DA neuron survival in substantia nigra by IHC. We found that TXNIP induced LC3-II expression, but failed to degrade p62, a substrate of autophagy. Also, TXNIP aggravated α-synuclein accumulation. We also found that TXNIP inhibited the expression of ATP13A2, a lysosomal membrane protein. Moreover, we found that overexpression of ATP13A2 attenuated the impairment of autophagic flux and α-synuclein accumulation induced by TXNIP. Furthermore, overexpression of TXNIP in substantia nigra resulted in loss of DA neuron. Our data suggested that TXNIP blocked autophagic flux and induced α-synuclein accumulation through inhibition of ATP13A2, indicating TXNIP was a disease-causing protein in PD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. α-Synuclein controls mitochondrial calcium homeostasis by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interactions.

    PubMed

    Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Negro, Alessandro; Brini, Marisa

    2012-05-25

    α-Synuclein has a central role in Parkinson disease, but its physiological function and the mechanism leading to neuronal degeneration remain unknown. Because recent studies have highlighted a role for α-synuclein in regulating mitochondrial morphology and autophagic clearance, we investigated the effect of α-synuclein in HeLa cells on mitochondrial signaling properties focusing on Ca(2+) homeostasis, which controls essential bioenergetic functions. By using organelle-targeted Ca(2+)-sensitive aequorin probes, we demonstrated that α-synuclein positively affects Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria, augmenting the mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients elicited by agonists that induce endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. This effect is not dependent on the intrinsic Ca(2+) uptake capacity of mitochondria, as measured in permeabilized cells, but correlates with an increase in the number of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interactions. This action specifically requires the presence of the C-terminal α-synuclein domain. Conversely, α-synuclein siRNA silencing markedly reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, causing profound alterations in organelle morphology. The enhanced accumulation of α-synuclein into the cells causes the redistribution of α-synuclein to localized foci and, similarly to the silencing of α-synuclein, reduces the ability of mitochondria to accumulate Ca(2+). The absence of efficient Ca(2+) transfer from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria results in augmented autophagy that, in the long range, could compromise cellular bioenergetics. Overall, these findings demonstrate a key role for α-synuclein in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis in physiological conditions. Elevated α-synuclein expression and/or eventually alteration of the aggregation properties cause the redistribution of the protein within the cell and the loss of modulation on mitochondrial function.

  13. α-Synuclein is involved in manganese-induced ER stress via PERK signal pathway in organotypic brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Fei; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Deng, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Shu; Yang, Tian-Yao; Xu, Zhao-Fa

    2014-02-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce neuronal damage involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced ER stress is unclear. Increasing evidence suggested that the overexpression of alpha-synuclein played a critical role in Mn-induced neurotoxicity. To explore whether the occurrence of ER stress was associated with alpha-synuclein overexpression, we made the rat brain slices model of silencing alpha-synuclein using short-interference RNA. After non-silencing alpha-synuclein slices were treated with Mn (0-400 μM) for 24 h, there was a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic rates of cells and levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium. Moreover, there was a dose-dependent increase in the protein expression of 78, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/94), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase-12. Moreover, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) phosphorylation, PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a, and ATF4 expression also increased. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) activation and X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) mRNA splicing increased. Activating transcription factor 6 p90 levels did not change. However, after silencing alpha-synuclein slices were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there was a significant decrease in the expression of GRP78/94, CHOP, and caspase-12 compared with 400 μM Mn-treated non-silencing alpha-synuclein slices. Furthermore, PERK phosphorylation, PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a, and ATF4 mRNA expression also decreased. However, IRE1 phosphorylation and Xbp1 mRNA splicing did not change. The findings revealed that Mn induced ER stress via activation of PERK and IRE1 signaling pathways and subsequent apoptosis in cultured slices. Moreover, alpha-synuclein protein was associated with Mn-induced activation of PERK signaling pathway.

  14. Dieldrin induces ubiquitin-proteasome dysfunction in alpha-synuclein overexpressing dopaminergic neuronal cells and enhances susceptibility to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faneng; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is one of the environmental chemicals potentially linked to PD. Because recent evidence indicates that abnormal accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction can contribute to the degenerative processes of PD, in the present study we examined whether the environmental pesticide dieldrin impairs proteasomal function and subsequently promotes apoptotic cell death in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein. Overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein significantly reduced the proteasomal activity. Dieldrin exposure dose-dependently (0-70 microM) decreased proteasomal activity, and 30 microM dieldrin inhibited activity by more than 60% in alpha-synuclein cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of dieldrin-treated alpha-synuclein cells revealed that alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates colocalized with ubiquitin protein. Further characterization of the aggregates with the autophagosomal marker mondansyl cadaverine and the lysosomal marker and dot-blot analysis revealed that these protein oligomeric aggregates were distinct from autophagosomes and lysosomes. The dieldrin-induced proteasomal dysfunction in alpha-synuclein cells was also confirmed by significant accumulation of ubiquitin protein conjugates in the detergent-insoluble fraction. We found that proteasomal inhibition preceded cell death after dieldrin treatment and that alpha-synuclein cells were more sensitive than vector cells to the toxicity. Furthermore, measurement of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation confirmed the enhanced sensitivity of alpha-synuclein cells to dieldrin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that increased expression of alpha-synuclein predisposes dopaminergic cells to proteasomal dysfunction, which can be further exacerbated by environmental exposure to certain

  15. Advanced glycation end products induce in vitro cross-linking of alpha-synuclein and accelerate the process of intracellular inclusion body formation.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shamim; Nicholson, Louise F B

    2008-07-01

    Cross-linking of alpha-synuclein and Lewy body formation have been implicated in the dopaminergic neuronal cell death observed in Parkinson's disease (PD); the mechanisms responsible, however, are not clear. Reactive oxygen species and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been found in the intracellular, alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies in the brains of both PD as well as incidental Lewy body disease patients, suggesting a role for AGEs in alpha-synuclein cross-linking and Lewy body formation. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether AGEs can induce cross-linking of alpha-synuclein peptides, 2) the progressive and time-dependent intracellular accumulation of AGEs and inclusion body formation, and 3) the effects of extracellular or exogenous AGEs on intracellular inclusion formation. We first investigated the time-dependent cross-linking of recombinant human alpha-synuclein in the presence of AGEs in vitro, then used a cell culture model based on chronic rotenone treatment of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) over a period of 1-4 weeks, in the presence of different doses of AGEs. Cells (grown on coverslips) and cell lysates, collected at the end of every week, were analyzed for the presence of intracellular reactive oxygen species, AGEs, alpha-synuclein proteins, and intracellular alpha-synuclein- and AGE-positive inclusion bodies by using immunocytochemical, biochemical, and Western blot techniques. Our results show that AGEs promote in vitro cross-linking of alpha-synuclein, that intracellular accumulation of AGEs precedes alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion body formation, and that extracellular AGEs accelerate the process of intracellular alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion body formation.

  16. TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by α-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype α-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in α-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in α-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in α-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in α-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

  17. α-Synuclein expression is induced by depolarization and cyclic AMP in enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Paillusson, Sébastien; Tasselli, Maddalena; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Mahé, Maxime Michaël; Chevalier, Julien; Biraud, Mandy; Cario-Toumaniantz, Chystelle; Neunlist, Michel; Derkinderen, Pascal

    2010-11-01

    Accumulated evidence emphasizes the importance of α-synuclein expression levels in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. PD is a multicentric disorder that affects the enteric nervous system (ENS), whose involvement may herald the degenerative process in the CNS. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of α-synuclein in the ENS. The regulation of α-synuclein expression was assessed by qPCR and western blot analysis in rat primary culture of ENS treated with KCl and forskolin. A pharmacological approach was used to decipher the signaling pathways involved. Intraperitoneal injections of Bay K-8644 and forskolin were performed in mice, whose proximal colons were further analyzed for α-synuclein expression. Depolarization and forskolin increased α-synuclein mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures of ENS, although L-type calcium channel and protein kinase A, respectively. Both stimuli increased α-synuclein expression through a Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. An increase in α-synuclein expression was also observed in vivo in the ENS of mice injected with Bay K-8644 or forskolin. In conclusion, we have identified stimuli leading to α-synuclein over-expression in the ENS, which could be critical in the initiation of the pathological process in PD.

  18. Possible Alterations in β-Synuclein, the Non-Amyloidogenic Homologue of α-Synuclein, during Progression of Sporadic α-Synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Masayo; Sekigawa, Akio; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    α-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive decline of motor and non-motor dysfunctions. α-Synuclein (αS) has been shown to play a causative role in neurodegeneration, but the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, there are no radical therapies that can halt or reverse the disease’s progression. β-Synuclein (βS), the non-amyloidogenic homologue of αS, ameliorates the neurodegeneration phenotype of αS in transgenic (tg) mouse models, as well as in cell free and cell culture systems, which suggests that βS might be a negative regulator of neurodegeneration caused by αS, and that “loss of function” of βS might be involved in progression of α-synucleinopathies. Alternatively, it is possible that “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS occurs during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies, since tg mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H βS develop progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes, such as axonal pathology and dementia. In this short review, we emphasize the aspects of “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies. PMID:23109872

  19. Altered machinery of protein synthesis is region- and stage-dependent and is associated with α-synuclein oligomers in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Hernández-Ortega, Karina; Koneti, Anusha; Gil, Laura; Delgado-Morales, Raul; Castaño, Ester; Carmona, Margarita; Ferrer, Isidre

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal α-synuclein in selected regions of the brain following a gradient of severity with disease progression. Whether this is accompanied by globally altered protein synthesis is poorly documented. The present study was carried out in PD stages 1-6 of Braak and middle-aged (MA) individuals without alterations in brain in the substantia nigra, frontal cortex area 8, angular gyrus, precuneus and putamen. Reduced mRNA expression of nucleolar proteins nucleolin (NCL), nucleophosmin (NPM1), nucleoplasmin 3 (NPM3) and upstream binding transcription factor (UBF), decreased NPM1 but not NPM3 nucleolar protein immunostaining in remaining neurons; diminished 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA; reduced expression of several mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein (RP) subunits; and altered protein levels of initiation factor eIF3 and elongation factor eEF2 of protein synthesis was found in the substantia nigra in PD along with disease progression. Although many of these changes can be related to neuron loss in the substantia nigra, selective alteration of certain factors indicates variable degree of vulnerability of mRNAs, rRNAs and proteins in degenerating sustantia nigra. NPM1 mRNA and 18S rRNA was increased in the frontal cortex area 8 at stage 5-6; modifications were less marked and region-dependent in the angular gyrus and precuneus. Several RPs were abnormally regulated in the frontal cortex area 8 and precuneus, but only one RP in the angular gyrus, in PD. Altered levels of eIF3 and eIF1, and decrease eEF1A and eEF2 protein levels were observed in the frontal cortex in PD. No modifications were found in the putamen at any time of the study except transient modifications in 28S rRNA and only one RP mRNA at stages 5-6. These observations further indicate marked region-dependent and stage-dependent alterations in the cerebral cortex in PD. Altered solubility and α-synuclein oligomer formation, assessed in total homogenate

  20. Accelerated proteasomal activity induced by Pb2+, Ga3+, or Cu2+ exposure does not induce degradation of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Grunberg-Etkovitz, Nurit; Lev, Nirit; Ickowicz, Debby; Avital, Almog; Offen, Daniel; Malik, Zvi

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of environmental heavy metals in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested by epidemiologic studies; however, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. PD is characterized by the aggregation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. We previously showed that Pb2+ accelerates proteasomal activity. Therefore, we examined the effect of Pb2+, Ga3+, and Cu2+ on alpha-synuclein in human SH-SY5Y cells. The heavy metals induced an increase in heme-oxygenase-1 levels without significant cell death or ROS generation. The metals inhibited ALA-dehydratase, which is the inhibitory subunit of the proteasome, thereby accelerating proteasomal activity and decreasing protein levels of CDK-1 and PBGD. However, alpha-synuclein protein levels increased after exposure to metals, similar to the effect obtained with the proteasome inhibitor, hemin, suggesting that alpha-synuclein is inaccessible to proteasomal degradation. Indeed, electron microscopy revealed the formation of aggresomes in Pb2+- or hemin-treated cells. Thus, although heavy metals enhance proteasomal activity, alpha-synuclein is protected from degradation, and its protein levels and aggregation are increased.

  1. DT-diaphorase Protects Against Autophagy Induced by Aminochrome-Dependent Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia S; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2017-05-06

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) oligomers have been reported to inhibit autophagy. Aminochrome-induced SNCA oligomers are neurotoxic, but the flavoenzyme DT-diaphorase prevents both their formation and their neurotoxicity. However, the possible protective role of DT-diaphorase against autophagy impairment by aminochrome-induced SNCA oligomers remains unclear. To test this idea, we used the cell line RCSN-3NQ7SNCA, with constitutive expression of a siRNA against DT-diaphorase and overexpression SNCA, and RCSN-3 as control cells. A significant increase in LC3-II expression was observed in RCSN-3 cells treated with 20 μM aminochrome and 10 μM rapamycin followed by a decrease in cell death compared to RCSN-3 cells incubated with 20 μM aminochrome alone. The incubation of RCSN-3NQ7SNCA cells with 20 μM aminochrome and 10 μM rapamycin does not change the expression of LC3-II in comparison with RCSN-3NQ7SNCA cells incubated with 20 μM aminochrome alone. The incubation of both cell lines preincubated with 100 nM bafilomycin and 20 μM aminochrome increases the level of LC3-II. Under the same conditions, cell death increases in both cell lines in comparison with cells incubated with 20 μM aminochrome. These results support the protective role of DT-diaphorase against SNCA oligomers-induced autophagy inhibition.

  2. Amyloidogenic α-synuclein seeds do not invariably induce rapid, widespread pathology in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sacino, Amanda N.; Brooks, Mieu; Thomas, Michael A.; McKinney, Alex B.; McGarvey, Nicholas H.; Rutherford, Nicola L.; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Robertson, Janice; Golde, Todd E.; Giasson, Benoit I.

    2014-01-01

    To further evaluate the parameters whereby intracerebral administration of recombinant α-synuclein (αS) induces pathological phenotypes in mice, we conducted a series of studies where αS fibrils were injected into the brains of M83 (A53T) and M47 (E46K) αS transgenic (Tg) mice, and non-transgenic (nTg) mice. Using multiple markers to assess αS inclusion formation, we find that injected fibrillar human αS induced widespread cerebral αS inclusion formation in the M83 Tg mice, but in both nTg and M47 Tg mice, induced αS inclusion pathology is largely restricted to the site of injection. Furthermore, mouse αS fibrils injected into nTg mice brains also resulted in inclusion pathology restricted to the site of injection with no evidence for spread. We find no compelling evidence for extensive spread of αS pathology within white matter tracts, and we attribute previous reports of white matter tract spreading to cross-reactivity of the αS pSer129/81A antibody with phosphorylated neurofilament subunit L (NFL). These studies suggest that with the exception of the M83 mice which appear to be uniquely susceptible to induction of inclusion pathology by exogenous forms of αS there are significant barriers in mice to widespread induction of αS pathology following intracerebral administration of amyloidogenic αS. PMID:24659240

  3. rAAV2/7 vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mouse substantia nigra induces protein aggregation and progressive dose-dependent neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpha-synuclein is a key protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is the main component of the Lewy bodies, a cardinal neuropathological feature in the disease. In addition, whole locus multiplications and point mutations in the gene coding for alpha-synuclein lead to autosomal dominant monogenic PD. Over the past decade, research on PD has impelled the development of new animal models based on alpha-synuclein. In this context, transgenic mouse lines have failed to reproduce several hallmarks of PD, especially the strong and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration over time that occurs in the patients. In contrast, viral vector-based models in rats and non-human primates display prominent, although highly variable, nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the few studies available on viral vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mice report a weak neurodegenerative process and no clear Lewy body-like pathology. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive comparative study of alpha-synuclein overexpression by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 2/7 (rAAV2/7) at different doses in adult mouse substantia nigra. Results We noted a significant and dose-dependent alpha-synucleinopathy over time upon nigral viral vector-mediated alpha-synuclein overexpression. We obtained a strong, progressive and dose-dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, reaching a maximum of 82% after 8 weeks. This effect correlated with a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum. Moreover, behavioural analysis revealed significant motor impairments from 12 weeks after injection on. In addition, we detected the presence of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates in the remaining surviving neurons. When comparing wild-type to mutant A53T alpha-synuclein at the same vector dose, both induced a similar degree of cell death. These data were supported by a biochemical

  4. rAAV2/7 vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mouse substantia nigra induces protein aggregation and progressive dose-dependent neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-Salvá, Marusela; Van der Perren, Anke; Casadei, Nicolas; Stroobants, Stijn; Nuber, Silke; D'Hooge, Rudi; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2013-11-25

    Alpha-synuclein is a key protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is the main component of the Lewy bodies, a cardinal neuropathological feature in the disease. In addition, whole locus multiplications and point mutations in the gene coding for alpha-synuclein lead to autosomal dominant monogenic PD. Over the past decade, research on PD has impelled the development of new animal models based on alpha-synuclein. In this context, transgenic mouse lines have failed to reproduce several hallmarks of PD, especially the strong and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration over time that occurs in the patients. In contrast, viral vector-based models in rats and non-human primates display prominent, although highly variable, nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the few studies available on viral vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mice report a weak neurodegenerative process and no clear Lewy body-like pathology. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive comparative study of alpha-synuclein overexpression by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 2/7 (rAAV2/7) at different doses in adult mouse substantia nigra. We noted a significant and dose-dependent alpha-synucleinopathy over time upon nigral viral vector-mediated alpha-synuclein overexpression. We obtained a strong, progressive and dose-dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, reaching a maximum of 82% after 8 weeks. This effect correlated with a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum. Moreover, behavioural analysis revealed significant motor impairments from 12 weeks after injection on. In addition, we detected the presence of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates in the remaining surviving neurons. When comparing wild-type to mutant A53T alpha-synuclein at the same vector dose, both induced a similar degree of cell death. These data were supported by a biochemical analysis that showed

  5. Nutrient deprivation induces α-synuclein aggregation through endoplasmic reticulum stress response and SREBP2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peizhou; Gan, Ming; Lin, Wen-Lang; Yen, Shu-Hui C.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of filamentous α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons, regarded as Lewy bodies (LBs), are a hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Although the exact mechanism(s) underlying LBs formation remains unknown, autophagy and ER stress response have emerged as two important pathways affecting α-syn aggregation. In present study we tested whether cells with the tetracycline-off inducible overexpression of α-syn and accumulating α-syn aggregates can benefit from autophagy activation elicited by nutrient deprivation (ND), since this approach was reported to effectively clear cellular polyglutamine aggregates. We found that nutrient deprivation of non-induced cells did not affect cell viability, but significantly activated autophagy reflected by increasing the level of autophagy marker LC3-II and autophagic flux and decrease of endogenous α-syn. Cells with induced α-syn expression alone displayed autophagy activation in an α-syn dose-dependent manner to reach a level comparable to that found in non-induced, nutrient deprived counterparts. Nutrient deprivation also activated autophagy further in α-syn induced cells, but the extent was decreased with increase of α-syn dose, indicating α-syn overexpression reduces the responsiveness of cells to nutrient deprivation. Moreover, the nutrient deprivation enhanced α-syn aggregations concomitant with significant increase of apoptosis as well as ER stress response, SREBP2 activation and cholesterolgenesis. Importantly, α-syn aggregate accumulation and other effects caused by nutrient deprivation were counteracted by knockdown of SREBP2, treatment with cholesterol lowering agent—lovastatin, or by GRP78 overexpression, which also caused decrease of SREBP2 activity. Similar results were obtained from studies of primary neurons with α-syn overexpression under nutrient deprivation. Together our findings suggested that down-regulation of SREBP2 activity might be a means to prevent α-syn aggregation in PD via

  6. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-12-04

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains.

  7. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein*

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P.; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. PMID:26442590

  8. Selective lowering of synapsins induced by oligomeric α-synuclein exacerbates memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Larson, Megan E; Greimel, Susan J; Amar, Fatou; LaCroix, Michael; Boyle, Gabriel; Sherman, Mathew A; Schley, Hallie; Miel, Camille; Schneider, Julie A; Kayed, Rakez; Benfenati, Fabio; Lee, Michael K; Bennett, David A; Lesné, Sylvain E

    2017-06-06

    Mounting evidence indicates that soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, or α-synuclein (αSyn) might be the major deleterious species for neuronal function in these diseases. Here, we found an abnormal accumulation of oligomeric αSyn species in AD brains by custom ELISA, size-exclusion chromatography, and nondenaturing/denaturing immunoblotting techniques. Importantly, the abundance of αSyn oligomers in human brain tissue correlated with cognitive impairment and reductions in synapsin expression. By overexpressing WT human αSyn in an AD mouse model, we artificially enhanced αSyn oligomerization. These bigenic mice displayed exacerbated Aβ-induced cognitive deficits and a selective decrease in synapsins. Following isolation of various soluble αSyn assemblies from transgenic mice, we found that in vitro delivery of exogenous oligomeric αSyn but not monomeric αSyn was causing a lowering in synapsin-I/II protein abundance. For a particular αSyn oligomer, these changes were either dependent or independent on endogenous αSyn expression. Finally, at a molecular level, the expression of synapsin genes SYN1 and SYN2 was down-regulated in vivo and in vitro by αSyn oligomers, which decreased two transcription factors, cAMP response element binding and Nurr1, controlling synapsin gene promoter activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that endogenous αSyn oligomers can impair memory by selectively lowering synapsin expression.

  9. Manganese exposure induces α-synuclein aggregation in the frontal cortex of non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Verina, Tatyana; Schneider, Jay S; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2013-03-13

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain is a defining pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders classified as synucleinopathies. They include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Occupational and environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with a neurological syndrome consisting of psychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. In this study, we examined α-syn immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of Cynomolgus macaques as part of a multidisciplinary assessment of the neurological effects produced by exposure to moderate levels of Mn. We found increased α-syn-positive cells in the gray matter of Mn-exposed animals, typically observed in pyramidal and medium-sized neurons in deep cortical layers. Some of these neurons displayed loss of Nissl staining with α-syn-positive spherical aggregates. In the white matter we also observed α-syn-positive glial cells and in some cases α-syn-positive neurites. These findings suggest that Mn exposure promotes α-syn aggregation in neuronal and glial cells that may ultimately lead to degeneration in the frontal cortex gray and white matter. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mn-induced neuronal and glial cell α-syn accumulation and aggregation in the frontal cortex of non-human primates.

  10. Small heat shock proteins protect against {alpha}-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Klucken, Jochen; Strathearn, Katherine E.; Liu Fang; Nguyen, Paul; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Bradley T.; McLean, Pamela J. . E-mail: touteiro@partners.org

    2006-12-22

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). {alpha}-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and {alpha}B-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are {approx}2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by {approx}80% in a culture model while {alpha}B-crystallin reduces toxicity by {approx}20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model.

  11. Rifampicin pre-treatment inhibits the toxicity of rotenone-induced PC12 cells by enhancing sumoylation modification of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Lin, D; Jing, X; Chen, Y; Liang, Y; Lei, M; Peng, S; Zhou, T; Zheng, D; Zeng, Z; Wu, X; Yang, L; Xiao, S; Liu, J; Tao, E

    2017-03-25

    Our previous research revealed that rifampicin could protect PC12 (pheochromocytoma 12) cells from rotenone-induced cytotoxicity by reversing the aggregation of α-synuclein. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicated that the misfolded α-synuclein with SUMOylation, an important protein posttranslational modification, was easier to solubilize and was less toxic. Here, we investigated whether rifampicin could stabilize α-synuclein and prevent rotenone-induced PC12 cells from undergoing apoptosis by enhancing SUMOylation of α-synuclein. The expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3, the two main proteins responsible for the SUMOylation modification in PC12 cells, were detected by western blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to compare qualitatively the SUMOylation modification of α-synuclein. The cell viability and apoptosis rate were measured by a CCK-8 assay kit and flow cytometry, respectively. We targeted Ubc9 as a key enzyme in the SUMOylation modification pathway and knocked down the UBC9 gene using a short interfering RNA. Treatment with 150 μmol/L rifampicin, increased the expressions of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 in cells by 1.5 times compared with the control group; meanwhile, the cell viability of rotenone-induced cells increased from 20 to 80% (P < 0.05). In addition, the increased SUMOylation activity in the cells stimulated by rifampicin was observed 18 h earlier compared with cells treated by rotenone alone. SUMOylation of α-synuclein was more significant in rifampicin-treated cells and Ubc9 upregulated cells. However, the same phenomenon and the protective effect of rifampicin were reversed after UBC9 knockout. In conclusion, rifampicin might reduce the cytotoxicity of rotenone-induced PC12 cells by promoting SUMOylation of α-synuclein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intramuscular injection of α-synuclein induces CNS α-synuclein pathology and a rapid-onset motor phenotype in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sacino, Amanda N.; Brooks, Mieu; Thomas, Michael A.; McKinney, Alex B.; Lee, Sooyeon; Regenhardt, Robert W.; McGarvey, Nicholas H.; Ayers, Jacob I.; Notterpek, Lucia; Borchelt, David R.; Golde, Todd E.; Giasson, Benoit I.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that α-synuclein (αS) misfolding may begin in peripheral nerves and spread to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to Parkinson disease and related disorders. Although recent data suggest that αS pathology can spread within the mouse brain, there is no direct evidence for spread of disease from a peripheral site. In the present study, we show that hind limb intramuscular (IM) injection of αS can induce pathology in the CNS in the human Ala53Thr (M83) and wild-type (M20) αS transgenic (Tg) mouse models. Within 2–3 mo after IM injection in αS homozygous M83 Tg mice and 3–4 mo for hemizygous M83 Tg mice, these animals developed a rapid, synchronized, and predictable induction of widespread CNS αS inclusion pathology, accompanied by astrogliosis, microgliosis, and debilitating motor impairments. In M20 Tg mice, starting at 4 mo after IM injection, we observed αS inclusion pathology in the spinal cord, but motor function remained intact. Transection of the sciatic nerve in the M83 Tg mice significantly delayed the appearance of CNS pathology and motor symptoms, demonstrating the involvement of retrograde transport in inducing αS CNS inclusion pathology. Outside of scrapie-mediated prion disease, to our knowledge, this findiing is the first evidence that an entire neurodegenerative proteinopathy associated with a robust, lethal motor phenotype can be initiated by peripheral inoculation with a pathogenic protein. Furthermore, this facile, synchronized rapid-onset model of α-synucleinopathy will be highly valuable in testing disease-modifying therapies and dissecting the mechanism(s) that drive αS-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25002524

  13. Intramuscular injection of α-synuclein induces CNS α-synuclein pathology and a rapid-onset motor phenotype in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sacino, Amanda N; Brooks, Mieu; Thomas, Michael A; McKinney, Alex B; Lee, Sooyeon; Regenhardt, Robert W; McGarvey, Nicholas H; Ayers, Jacob I; Notterpek, Lucia; Borchelt, David R; Golde, Todd E; Giasson, Benoit I

    2014-07-22

    It has been hypothesized that α-synuclein (αS) misfolding may begin in peripheral nerves and spread to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to Parkinson disease and related disorders. Although recent data suggest that αS pathology can spread within the mouse brain, there is no direct evidence for spread of disease from a peripheral site. In the present study, we show that hind limb intramuscular (IM) injection of αS can induce pathology in the CNS in the human Ala53Thr (M83) and wild-type (M20) αS transgenic (Tg) mouse models. Within 2-3 mo after IM injection in αS homozygous M83 Tg mice and 3-4 mo for hemizygous M83 Tg mice, these animals developed a rapid, synchronized, and predictable induction of widespread CNS αS inclusion pathology, accompanied by astrogliosis, microgliosis, and debilitating motor impairments. In M20 Tg mice, starting at 4 mo after IM injection, we observed αS inclusion pathology in the spinal cord, but motor function remained intact. Transection of the sciatic nerve in the M83 Tg mice significantly delayed the appearance of CNS pathology and motor symptoms, demonstrating the involvement of retrograde transport in inducing αS CNS inclusion pathology. Outside of scrapie-mediated prion disease, to our knowledge, this findiing is the first evidence that an entire neurodegenerative proteinopathy associated with a robust, lethal motor phenotype can be initiated by peripheral inoculation with a pathogenic protein. Furthermore, this facile, synchronized rapid-onset model of α-synucleinopathy will be highly valuable in testing disease-modifying therapies and dissecting the mechanism(s) that drive αS-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. Elevated tonic extracellular dopamine concentration and altered dopamine modulation of synaptic activity precede dopamine loss in the striatum of mice overexpressing human α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hoa A; Wu, Nanping; Cely, Ingrid; Kelly, Rachel L; Hean, Sindalana; Richter, Franziska; Magen, Iddo; Cepeda, Carlos; Ackerson, Larry C; Walwyn, Wendy; Masliah, Eliezer; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise; Levine, Michael S; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-07-01

    Overexpression or mutation of α-synuclein (α-Syn), a protein associated with presynaptic vesicles, causes familial forms of Parkinson's disease in humans and is also associated with sporadic forms of the disease. We used in vivo microdialysis, tissue content analysis, behavioral assessment, and whole-cell patch clamp recordings from striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSSNs) in slices to examine dopamine transmission and dopaminergic modulation of corticostriatal synaptic function in mice overexpressing human wild-type α-Syn under the Thy1 promoter (α-Syn mice). Tonic striatal extracellular dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine levels were elevated in α-Syn mice at 6 months of age, prior to any reduction in total striatal tissue content, and were accompanied by an increase in open-field activity. Dopamine clearance and amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux were unchanged. The frequency of MSSN spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) was lower in α-Syn mice. Amphetamine reduced sEPSC frequency in wild types (WTs) but produced no effect in α-Syn mice. Furthermore, whereas quinpirole reduced and sulpiride increased sEPSC frequency in WT mice, they produced the opposite effects in α-Syn mice. These observations indicate that overexpression of α-Syn alters dopamine efflux and D2 receptor modulation of corticostriatal glutamate release at a young age. At 14 months of age, the α-Syn mice presented with significantly lower striatal tissue dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase content relative to WT littermates, accompanied by an L-DOPA-reversible sensory motor deficit. Together, these data further validate this transgenic mouse line as a slowly progressing model of Parkinson's disease and provide evidence for early dopamine synaptic dysfunction prior to loss of striatal dopamine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers show self- and cross-propagation properties.

    PubMed

    Planchard, Matthew S; Exley, Sarah E; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-10-01

    Amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein (αS) protein are the predominant species present within the intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among various aggregates, the low-molecular weight ones broadly ranging between 2 and 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for the impairment of neuronal function. Recent research has indicated that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is one of the key physiological agents promoting and augmenting αS aggregation, which is thought to be a significant event in PD pathologenesis. Specifically, DA is known to induce the formation of soluble oligomers of αS, which in turn are responsible for inducing several important cellular changes leading to cellular toxicity. In this report, we present the generation, isolation, and biophysical characterization of five different dopamine-derived αS oligomers (DSOs) ranging between 3 and 15 mers, corroborating previously published reports. More importantly, we establish that these DSOs are also capable of replication by self-propagation, which leads to the replication of DSOs upon interaction with αS monomers, a process similar to that observed in mammilian prions. In addition, DSOs are also able to cross-propagate amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, while self-propagation of DSOs occur with no net gain in protein structure, cross-propagation proceeds with an overall gain in β-sheet conformation. These results implicate the involvement of DSOs in the progression of PD, and, in part, provide a molecular basis for the observed co-existence of AD-like pathology among PD patients.

  16. microRNA-155 Regulates Alpha-Synuclein-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Models of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Thome, Aaron D; Harms, Ashley S; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A; Standaert, David G

    2016-02-24

    Increasing evidence points to inflammation as a chief mediator of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and widespread aggregates of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn). Recently, microRNAs, small, noncoding RNAs involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, have been recognized as important regulators of the inflammatory environment. Using an array approach, we found significant upregulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in an in vivo model of PD produced by adeno-associated-virus-mediated expression of α-syn. Using a mouse with a complete deletion of miR-155, we found that loss of miR-155 reduced proinflammatory responses to α-syn and blocked α-syn-induced neurodegeneration. In primary microglia from miR-155(-/-) mice, we observed a markedly reduced inflammatory response to α-syn fibrils, with attenuation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and proinflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Treatment of these microglia with a synthetic mimic of miR-155 restored the inflammatory response to α-syn fibrils. Our results suggest that miR-155 has a central role in the inflammatory response to α-syn in the brain and in α-syn-related neurodegeneration. These effects are at least in part due to a direct role of miR-155 on the microglial response to α-syn. These data implicate miR-155 as a potential therapeutic target for regulating the inflammatory response in PD.

  17. Dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers show self- and cross-propagation properties

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, Matthew S; Exley, Sarah E; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein (αS) protein are the predominant species present within the intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Among various aggregates, the low-molecular weight ones broadly ranging between 2 and 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for the impairment of neuronal function. Recent research has indicated that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is one of the key physiological agents promoting and augmenting αS aggregation, which is thought to be a significant event in PD pathologenesis. Specifically, DA is known to induce the formation of soluble oligomers of αS, which in turn are responsible for inducing several important cellular changes leading to cellular toxicity. In this report, we present the generation, isolation, and biophysical characterization of five different dopamine-derived αS oligomers (DSOs) ranging between 3 and 15 mers, corroborating previously published reports. More importantly, we establish that these DSOs are also capable of replication by self-propagation, which leads to the replication of DSOs upon interaction with αS monomers, a process similar to that observed in mammilian prions. In addition, DSOs are also able to cross-propagate amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, while self-propagation of DSOs occur with no net gain in protein structure, cross-propagation proceeds with an overall gain in β-sheet conformation. These results implicate the involvement of DSOs in the progression of PD, and, in part, provide a molecular basis for the observed co-existence of AD-like pathology among PD patients. PMID:25044276

  18. ATP depletion is the major cause of MPP+ induced dopamine neuronal death and worm lethality in alpha-synuclein transgenic C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Min; Pu, Pu; Le, Wei-Dong

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxin MPP+ to C. elegans and identify the mechanisms that cause the toxicity. Human alpha-synuclein transgenic C. elegans was used as the animal model, the toxic effect of MPP+ to dopamine (DA) neurons and the lifespan of worms was tested. The worms were feed with OP50 to determine whether ATP increase can rescue the worm from toxicity. ATP level and aberrant protein accumulation were analyzed in the MPP+ treated worms with or without OP50 addition. We found that MPP+ induced DA cell death and worm lethality, which could be prevented by OP50 treatment. OP50 exerted the protective effect by up-regulating ATP level, even though it also induced accumulation of alpha-synuclein. Despite the undefined role of protein aggregation to the cell death, our results showed that the toxicity of MPP+ was mainly caused by the ATP depletion in the alpha-synuclein transgenic C. elegans. MPP+ could induce DA neuronal death and worm lethality in alpha-synuclein transgenic C. elegans; Compared with the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, the major cause of MPP+ toxicity appeared due to ATP depletion.

  19. Emotional memory impairments induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Alvarsson, A; Caudal, D; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta, but neuronal loss is also found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to areas involved in cognitive and emotional processes, including hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and has thus been proposed to play a role in emotional memory impairments in PD. Since the formation of α-synuclein inclusions throughout the central nervous system is a pathological hallmark of PD, we studied the progressive effects of α-synuclein overexpression in the VTA on motor functions, emotional behaviour and emotional memory. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding either human α-synuclein or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected stereotactically into the VTA, and behaviour was monitored 3 and 8 weeks following AAV injection. At week 8, there was a 22% reduction of TH+ neurons in the VTA. We demonstrate that α-synuclein overexpression in dopaminergic neurons of the VTA induced mild motor deficits that appeared 3 weeks following AAV-α-synuclein injection and were aggravated at week 8. No depressive- or anxiety-like behaviours were found. To address emotional memory, we used the passive avoidance test, a one-trial associative learning paradigm based on contextual conditioning which requires minimal training. Interestingly, emotional memory impairments were found in α-synuclein overexpressing animals at week 8. These findings indicate that α-synuclein overexpression induces progressive memory impairments likely caused by a loss of function of mesolimbic dopaminergic projections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain-Permeable Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Hsp90 Prevent α-Synuclein Oligomer Formation and Rescue α-Synuclein-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Preeti; Danzer, Karin M.; Kranich, Lisa R.; Scott, Anisa; Silinski, Melanie; Mabbett, Sarah; Hicks, Carol D.; Veal, James M.; Steed, Paul M.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (αsyn) is a hallmark of sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Lewy bodies contain αsyn and several heat shock proteins (Hsp), a family of molecular chaperones up-regulated by the cell under stress. We have previously shown that direct expression of Hsp70 and pharmacological up-regulation of Hsp70 by geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, are protective against αsyn-induced toxicity and prevent aggregation in culture. Here, we use a novel protein complementation assay to screen a series of small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors for their ability to prevent αsyn oligomerization and rescue toxicity. By use of this assay, we found that several compounds prevented αsyn oligomerization as measured by decreased luciferase activity, led to a reduction in high-molecular-mass oligomeric αsyn, and protected against αsyn cytotoxicity. A lead compound, SNX-0723 (2-fluoro-6-[(3S)-tetrahydrofuran-3-ylamino]-4-(3,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-1-yl)benzamide) was determined to have an EC50 for inhibition of αsyn oligomerization of approximately 48 nM and was able to rescue αsyn-induced toxicity. In vivo assessment of SNX-0723 showed significant brain concentrations along with induction of brain Hsp70. With a low EC50, brain permeability, and oral availability, these novel inhibitors represent an exciting new therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:19934398

  1. β-Synuclein suppresses both the initiation and amplification steps of α-synuclein aggregation via competitive binding to surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, James W. P.; Buell, Alexander K.; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Meisl, Georg; Carozza, Jacqueline; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Galvagnion, Céline

    2016-11-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease through the processes involved in the formation of amyloid fibrils. α and β-synuclein are homologous proteins found at comparable levels in presynaptic terminals but β-synuclein has a greatly reduced propensity to aggregate and indeed has been found to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation. In this paper, we describe how sequence differences between α- and β-synuclein affect individual microscopic processes in amyloid formation. In particular, we show that β-synuclein strongly suppresses both lipid-induced aggregation and secondary nucleation of α-synuclein by competing for binding sites at the surfaces of lipid vesicles and fibrils, respectively. These results suggest that β-synuclein can act as a natural inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation by reducing both the initiation of its self-assembly and the proliferation of its aggregates.

  2. β-Synuclein suppresses both the initiation and amplification steps of α-synuclein aggregation via competitive binding to surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James W. P.; Buell, Alexander K.; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Meisl, Georg; Carozza, Jacqueline; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Galvagnion, Céline

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease through the processes involved in the formation of amyloid fibrils. α and β-synuclein are homologous proteins found at comparable levels in presynaptic terminals but β-synuclein has a greatly reduced propensity to aggregate and indeed has been found to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation. In this paper, we describe how sequence differences between α- and β-synuclein affect individual microscopic processes in amyloid formation. In particular, we show that β-synuclein strongly suppresses both lipid-induced aggregation and secondary nucleation of α-synuclein by competing for binding sites at the surfaces of lipid vesicles and fibrils, respectively. These results suggest that β-synuclein can act as a natural inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation by reducing both the initiation of its self-assembly and the proliferation of its aggregates. PMID:27808107

  3. HSP27 but not HSP70 has a potent protective effect against alpha-synuclein-induced cell death in mammalian neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Zourlidou, Alexandra; Payne Smith, Martin D; Latchman, David S

    2004-03-01

    alpha-Synuclein is a neuronally expressed protein which is mutated in familial Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that disease-associated mutants of alpha-synuclein cause enhanced neuronal cell death in response to a variety of stimuli, whereas wild-type alpha-synuclein has a protective effect against some stimuli, whilst enhancing the death response to others. We demonstrate, for the first time, that over-expression of the heat shock protein HSP27 has a potent protective anti-apoptotic effect against the damaging effects of wild-type and particularly of mutant alpha-synuclein. In contrast, HSP70 has some protective effect against the damaging effect of the wild-type protein, but has no effect against the mutant proteins, whilst HSP56 has no protective effect in this system. Our results indicate that disease-associated mutants of alpha-synuclein enhance its death-inducing properties and lead to increased apoptosis, which can be mitigated by either the use of specific caspase inhibitors or HSP27 over-expression. This potent protective effect of HSP27 against the mutant and wild-type proteins may be of potential therapeutic importance.

  4. Chronic treatment with novel small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors rescues striatal dopamine levels but not α-synuclein-induced neuronal cell loss.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Nikolaus R; Dimant, Hemi; Kibuuka, Laura; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Desjardins, Cody A; Danzer, Karin M; Danzer, Michael; Fan, Zhanyun; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Hirst, Warren; McLean, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin potently induce Hsp70 and reduce cytotoxicity due to α-synuclein expression, although their use has been limited due to toxicity, brain permeability, and drug design. We recently described the effects of a novel class of potent, small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors in cells overexpressing α-synuclein. Screening yielded several candidate compounds that significantly reduced α-synuclein oligomer formation and cytotoxicity associated with Hsp70 induction. In this study we examined whether chronic treatment with candidate Hsp90 inhibitors could protect against α-synuclein toxicity in a rat model of parkinsonism. Rats were injected unilaterally in the substantia nigra with AAV8 expressing human α-synuclein and then treated with drug for approximately 8 weeks by oral gavage. Chronic treatment with SNX-0723 or the more potent, SNX-9114 failed to reduce dopaminergic toxicity in the substantia nigra compared to vehicle. However, SNX-9114 significantly increased striatal dopamine content suggesting a positive neuromodulatory effect on striatal terminals. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but higher dose SNX-0723 (6-10 mg/kg) resulted in systemic toxicity, weight loss, and early death. Although still limited by potential toxicity, Hsp90 inhibitors tested herein demonstrate oral efficacy and possible beneficial effects on dopamine production in a vertebrate model of parkinsonism that warrant further study.

  5. Chronic Treatment with Novel Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitors Rescues Striatal Dopamine Levels but Not α-Synuclein-Induced Neuronal Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kibuuka, Laura; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Desjardins, Cody A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Danzer, Michael; Fan, Zhanyun; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Hirst, Warren; McLean, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin potently induce Hsp70 and reduce cytotoxicity due to α-synuclein expression, although their use has been limited due to toxicity, brain permeability, and drug design. We recently described the effects of a novel class of potent, small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors in cells overexpressing α-synuclein. Screening yielded several candidate compounds that significantly reduced α-synuclein oligomer formation and cytotoxicity associated with Hsp70 induction. In this study we examined whether chronic treatment with candidate Hsp90 inhibitors could protect against α-synuclein toxicity in a rat model of parkinsonism. Rats were injected unilaterally in the substantia nigra with AAV8 expressing human α-synuclein and then treated with drug for approximately 8 weeks by oral gavage. Chronic treatment with SNX-0723 or the more potent, SNX-9114 failed to reduce dopaminergic toxicity in the substantia nigra compared to vehicle. However, SNX-9114 significantly increased striatal dopamine content suggesting a positive neuromodulatory effect on striatal terminals. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but higher dose SNX-0723 (6–10 mg/kg) resulted in systemic toxicity, weight loss, and early death. Although still limited by potential toxicity, Hsp90 inhibitors tested herein demonstrate oral efficacy and possible beneficial effects on dopamine production in a vertebrate model of parkinsonism that warrant further study. PMID:24465863

  6. Lewy Bodies Contain Altered α-Synuclein in Brains of Many Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Patients with Mutations in Presenilin and Amyloid Precursor Protein Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lippa, Carol F.; Fujiwara, Hideo; Mann, David M.A.; Giasson, Benoit; Baba, Minami; Schmidt, Marie L.; Nee, Linda E.; O’Connell, Brendan; Pollen, Dan A.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Nochlin, David; Bird, Thomas D.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Trojanowski, John Q.

    1998-01-01

    Missense mutations in the α-synuclein gene cause familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), and α-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) in sporadic PD, dementia with LBs (DLB), and the LB variant of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether α-synuclein is a component of LBs in familial AD (FAD) patients with known mutations in presenilin (n = 65) or amyloid precursor protein (n = 9) genes, studies were conducted with antibodies to α-, β-, and γ-synuclein. LBs were detected with α- but not β- or γ-synuclein antibodies in 22% of FAD brains, and α-synuclein-positive LBs were most numerous in amygdala where some LBs co-localized with tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles. As 12 (63%) of 19 FAD amygdala samples contained α-synuclein-positive LBs, these inclusions may be more common in FAD brains than previously reported. Furthermore, α-synuclein antibodies decorated LB filaments by immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blots revealed that the solubility of α-synuclein was reduced compared with control brains. The presence of α-synuclein-positive LBs was not associated with any specific FAD mutation. These studies suggest that insoluble α-synuclein aggregates into filaments that form LBs in many FAD patients, and we speculate that these inclusions may compromise the function and/or viability of affected neurons in the FAD brain. PMID:9811326

  7. Dissecting the Mechanisms of Tissue Transglutaminase-induced Cross-linking of α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Adrien W.; Chiappe, Diego; Pignat, Vérène; Grimminger, Valerie; Hang, Ivan; Moniatte, Marc; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, exactly how tTG modulates the structural and functional properties of α-synuclein (α-syn) and contributes to the pathogenesis of PD remains unknown. Using site-directed mutagenesis combined with detailed biophysical and mass spectrometry analyses, we sought to identify the exact residues involved in tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of wild-type α-syn and α-syn mutants associated with PD. To better understand the structural consequences of each cross-linking reaction, we determined the effect of tTG-catalyzed cross-linking on the oligomerization, fibrillization, and membrane binding of α-syn in vitro. Our findings show that tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of monomeric α-syn involves multiple cross-links (specifically 2-3). We subjected tTG-catalyzed cross-linked monomeric α-syn composed of either wild-type or Gln → Asn mutants to sequential proteolysis by multiple enzymes and peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified the glutamine and lysine residues involved in tTG-catalyzed intramolecular cross-linking of α-syn. These studies demonstrate for the first time that Gln79 and Gln109 serve as the primary tTG reactive sites. Mutating both residues to asparagine abolishes tTG-catalyzed cross-linking of α-syn and tTG-induced inhibition of α-syn fibrillization in vitro. To further elucidate the sequence and structural basis underlying these effects, we identified the lysine residues that form isopeptide bonds with Gln79 and Gln109. This study provides mechanistic insight into the sequence and structural basis of the inhibitory effects of tTG on α-syn fibrillogenesis in vivo, and it sheds light on the potential role of tTG cross-linking on modulating the physiological and pathogenic properties of α-syn. PMID:19164286

  8. γ-Synuclein: seeding of α-synuclein aggregation and transmission between cells.

    PubMed

    Surgucheva, Irina; Sharov, Victor S; Surguchov, Andrei

    2012-06-12

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with a wide range of diseases. The synuclein family comprises three small naturally unfolded proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. α-Synuclein is a soluble protein that forms toxic inclusions associated with Parkinson's disease and several other synucleinopathies. However, the triggers inducing its conversion into noxious species are elusive. Here we show that another member of the family, γ-synuclein, can be easily oxidized and form annular oligomers that accumulate in cells in the form of deposits. Importantly, oxidized γ-synuclein can initiate α-synuclein aggregation. Two amino acid residues in γ-synuclein, methionine and tyrosine located in neighboring positions (Met(38) and Tyr(39)), are most easily oxidized. Their oxidation plays a key role in the ability of γ-synuclein to aggregate and seed the aggregation of α-synuclein. γ-Synuclein secreted from neuronal cells into conditioned medium in the form of exosomes can be transmitted to glial cells and cause the aggregation of intracellular proteins. Our data suggest that post-translationally modified γ-synuclein possesses prion-like properties and may induce a cascade of events leading to synucleinopathies.

  9. Alpha-Synuclein Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Parkinson's Disease SNCA Triplication iPSC-Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Heman-Ackah, Sabrina M; Manzano, Raquel; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Scheper, Wiep; Flynn, Rowan; Haerty, Wilfried; Cowley, Sally A; Bassett, Andrew R; Wood, Matthew J A

    2017-09-01

    The recent generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) resulting from triplication of the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene locus allows unprecedented opportunities to explore its contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of PD. We used the double-nicking CRISPR/Cas9 system to conduct site-specific mutagenesis of SNCA in these cells, generating an isogenic iPSC line with normalized SNCA gene dosage. Comparative gene expression analysis of neuronal derivatives from these iPSCs revealed an ER stress phenotype, marked by induction of the IRE1α/XBP1 axis of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and culminating in terminal UPR activation. Neuropathological analysis of post-mortem brain tissue demonstrated that pIRE1α is expressed in PD brains within neurons containing elevated levels of α-synuclein or Lewy bodies. Having used this pair of isogenic iPSCs to define this phenotype, these cells can be further applied in UPR-targeted drug discovery towards the development of disease-modifying therapeutics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The effects of pdr1, djr1.1 and pink1 loss in manganese-induced toxicity and the role of α-synuclein in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bornhorst, Julia; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Meyer, Sören; Lohren, Hanna; Brinkhaus, Sigrid Groβe; Knight, Adam L.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Karst, Uwe; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Bowman, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by selective dopaminergic (DAergic) cell loss that results in overt motor and cognitive deficits. Current treatment options exist to combat PD symptomatology, but are unable to directly target its pathogenesis due to a lack of knowledge concerning its etiology. Several genes have been linked to PD, including three genes associated with an early-onset familial form: parkin, pink1 and dj1. All three genes are implicated in regulating oxidative stress pathways. Another hallmark of PD pathophysiology is Lewy body deposition, associated with the gain-of-function genetic risk factor α-synuclein. The function of α-synuclein is poorly understood, as it shows both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in PD. Using the genetically tractable invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system, the neurotoxic or neuroprotective role of α-synuclein upon acute Mn exposure in the background of mutated pdr1, pink1 or djr1.1 was examined. The pdr1 and djr1.1 mutants showed enhanced Mn accumulation and oxidative stress that was rescued by α-synuclein. Moreover, DAergic neurodegeneration, while unchanged with Mn exposure, returned to wild-type (WT) levels for pdr1, but not djr1.1 mutants expressing α-synuclein. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel, neuroprotective role for WT human α-synuclein in attenuating Mn-induced toxicity in the background of PD-associated genes, and further supports the role of extracellular dopamine in exacerbating Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:24452053

  11. Alpha-Synuclein to the Rescue: Immune Cell Recruitment by Alpha-Synuclein during Gastrointestinal Infection.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Viviane; Brundin, Patrik

    2017-09-02

    Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the central and peripheral nervous systems is strongly linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and other related synucleinopathies. In rare inherited forms of PD, point mutations or gene multiplications mediate the formation of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates. However, in most PD cases it is presumed that the combined effects of ageing and environmental factors drive the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates. Despite advances regarding alpha-synuclein pathobiology, the normal functions of this protein and factors that regulate its expression are not well understood. We discuss a recent study reporting that viral infection induces alpha-synuclein expression in neurons of the gastrointestinal tract. Alpha-synuclein levels increased during norovirus infection in the duodenum of children. In an in vitro paradigm, monomeric and oligomeric alpha-synuclein acted as chemoattractants for neutrophils and monocytes, and promoted the maturation of dendritic cells. This suggests that alpha-synuclein facilitates immune responses to infection. We explore the possibility that intestinal infections, and associated inflammation, place individuals at increased risk of PD by increasing alpha-synuclein levels and promoting the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that propagate in a prion-like fashion via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. alpha-synuclein and LRRK2: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Tong, Youren; Shen, Jie

    2009-12-24

    In this issue of Neuron, Lin et al. report that LRRK2 modulates age-related neurodegeneration caused by overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the forebrain of transgenic mice. Overexpression of LRRK2 accelerates the progression of alpha-synuclein-mediated neuropathological changes, whereas deletion of LRRK2 alleviates these alterations. The results reveal an interesting interaction between alpha-synuclein and LRRK2, two gene products linked to dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease.

  13. Impairment of PDGF-induced chemotaxis by extracellular α-synuclein through selective inhibition of Rac1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Taro; Hirai, Chihoko; Badawy, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed; Zhang, Lifang; Kajimoto, Taketoshi; Nakamura, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by α-synuclein (α-Syn)-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions, known as Lewy bodies. Although it is known that extracellular α-Syn is detected in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, its physiological significance remains unclear. Here, we show that extracellular α-Syn suppresses platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced chemotaxis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The inhibitory effect was stronger in the mutant α-Syn(A53T), found in hereditary PD, and the degree of inhibition was time-dependent, presumably because of the oligomerization of α-Syn. PDGF-induced activation of Akt or Erk was not influenced by α-Syn(A53T). Further studies revealed that α-Syn(A53T) inhibited PDGF-induced Rac1 activation, whereas Cdc42 activation remained unaffected, resulting in unbalanced actin filament remodeling. These results shed light on the understanding of pathological as well as physiological functions of extracellular α-Syn in neuronal cells. PMID:27886249

  14. MHCII Is Required for α-Synuclein-Induced Activation of Microglia, CD4 T Cell Proliferation, and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Ashley S.; Cao, Shuwen; Rowse, Amber L.; Thome, Aaron D.; Li, Xinru; Mangieri, Leandra R.; Cron, Randy Q.; Shacka, John J.; Raman, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain is a core feature of Parkinson disease (PD) and leads to microglial activation, production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, T-cell infiltration, and neurodegeneration. Here, we have used both an in vivo mouse model induced by viral overexpression of α-syn as well as in vitro systems to study the role of the MHCII complex in α-syn-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. We find that in vivo, expression of full-length human α-syn causes striking induction of MHCII expression by microglia, while knock-out of MHCII prevents α-syn-induced microglial activation, antigen presentation, IgG deposition, and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, treatment of microglia with aggregated α-syn leads to activation of antigen processing and presentation of antigen sufficient to drive CD4 T-cell proliferation and to trigger cytokine release. These results indicate a central role for microglial MHCII in the activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses to α-syn in PD and suggest that the MHCII signaling complex may be a target of neuroprotective therapies for the disease. PMID:23739956

  15. Phosphorylation of α-Synuclein at Y125 and S129 alters its metal binding properties: implications for understanding the role of α-Synuclein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Prudent, Michel; Fauvet, Bruno; Lashuel, Hilal A; Girault, Hubert H

    2011-11-16

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a 140-amino acid protein that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. However, the molecular determinants that are responsible for triggering and/or propagating α-syn aggregation and toxicity remain poorly understood. Several studies have suggested that there are direct interactions between different metals and α-syn, but the role of metal ions and α-syn in the pathogenesis of PD is not firmly established. Interestingly, the majority of disease-associated post-translational modifications (PTMs) (e.g., truncation, phosphorylation, and nitration) of α-syn occur at residues within the C-terminal region (Y125, S129, Y133, and Y136) and in very close proximity to the putative metal binding sites. Therefore, we hypothesized that phosphorylation within this domain could influence the α-syn-metal interactions. In this paper, we sought to map the interactions between the di- and trivalent cations, Cu(II), Pb(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III), and the C-terminal region of α-syn encompassing residues 107-140 and to determine how phosphorylation at S129 or Y125 alters the specificity and binding affinity of metals using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We demonstrate that D115-M116 and P128-S129 act as additional Cu(II) binding sites and show for the first time that the residues P128-S129 and D119 are also involved in Pb(II) and Fe(II) coordination, although D119 is not essential for binding to Fe(II) and Pb(II). Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at either Y125 or S129 increases the binding affinity of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Fe(II), but not Fe(III). Additionally, we also show that phosphorylations at these residues lead to a shift in the binding sites of metal ions from the N-terminus to the C-teminus. Together, our findings provide critical insight into and expand our understanding of the molecular and structural bases underlying the

  16. α-Synuclein-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated preparation and intact cells: implications in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bir, Aritri; Sen, Oishimaya; Anand, Shruti; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Cappai, Roberto; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-12-01

    This study has shown that purified recombinant human α-synuclein (20 μM) causes membrane depolarization and loss of phosphorylation capacity of isolated purified rat brain mitochondria by activating permeability transition pore complex. In intact SHSY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line) cells, lactacystin (5 μM), a proteasomal inhibitor, causes an accumulation of α-synuclein with concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. The effects of lactacystin on intact SHSY5Y cells are, however, prevented by knocking down α-synuclein expression by specific siRNA. Furthermore, in wild-type (non-transfected) SHSY5Y cells, the effects of lactacystin on mitochondrial function and cell viability are also prevented by cyclosporin A (1 μM) which blocks the activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Likewise, in wild-type SHSY5Y cells, typical mitochondrial poison like antimycin A (50 nM) produces loss of cell viability comparable to that of lactacystin (5 μM). These data, in combination with those from isolated brain mitochondria, strongly suggest that intracellularly accumulated α-synuclein can interact with mitochondria in intact SHSY5Y cells causing dysfunction of the organelle which drives the cell death under our experimental conditions. The results have clear implications in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease. α-Synuclein is shown to cause mitochondrial impairment through interaction with permeability transition pore complex in isolated preparations. Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein in SHSY5Y cells following proteasomal inhibition leads to mitochondrial impairment and cell death which could be prevented by knocking down α-synuclein gene. The results link mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein accumulation, two key pathogenic mechanisms of Parkinson's disease, in a common damage pathway.

  17. Alpha-synuclein functions in the nucleus to protect against hydroxyurea-induced replication stress in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianpeng; Lee, Yong Joo; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Zhang, Zhaojie; Wang, Shaoxiao; Witt, Stephan N.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides for DNA replication. HU is used to treat HIV, sickle-cell anemia and some cancers. We found that, compared with vector control cells, low levels of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) protect S. cerevisiae cells from the growth inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation induced by HU. Analysis of this effect using different α-syn mutants revealed that the α-syn protein functions in the nucleus and not the cytoplasm to modulate S-phase checkpoint responses: α-syn up-regulates histone acetylation and RNR levels, maintains helicase minichromosome maintenance protein complexes (Mcm2–7) on chromatin and inhibits HU-induced ROS accumulation. Strikingly, when residues 2–10 or 96–140 are deleted, this protective function of α-syn in the nucleus is abolished. Understanding the mechanism by which α-syn protects against HU could expand our knowledge of the normal function of this neuronal protein. PMID:21642386

  18. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Cremades, Nunilo; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Serene; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Banushi, Blerida; Little, Daniel; Devine, Michael J.; Gissen, Paul; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant free radical production and neuronal toxicity. Results: We first demonstrate excessive free radical production in a human induced pluripotent stem-derived α-S triplication model at basal levels and on application of picomolar doses of β-sheet-rich α-S oligomers. We probed the effects of different structural species of α-S in wild-type rat neuronal cultures and show that both oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-S are capable of generating free radical production, but that only the oligomeric form results in reduction of endogenous glutathione and subsequent neuronal toxicity. We dissected the mechanism of oligomer-induced free radical production and found that it was interestingly independent of several known cellular enzymatic sources. Innovation: The oligomer-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was entirely dependent on the presence of free metal ions as addition of metal chelators was able to block oligomer-induced ROS production and prevent oligomer-induced neuronal death. Conclusion: Our findings further support the causative role of soluble amyloid oligomers in triggering neurodegeneration and shed light into the mechanisms by which these species cause neuronal damage, which, we show here, can be amenable to modulation through the use of metal chelation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. PMID:26564470

  19. Exogenous α-Synuclein Fibrils Induce Lewy Body Pathology Leading to Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuron Death

    PubMed Central

    Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A.; Luk, Kelvin C.; Patel, Tapan P.; Tanik, Selcuk A.; Riddle, Dawn M.; Stieber, Anna; Meany, David F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Inclusions comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn), i.e. Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), define synucleinopathies including Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Here, we demonstrate that pre-formed fibrils generated from full length and truncated recombinant α-syn enter primary neurons, likely by adsorptive-mediated endocytosis and promote recruitment of soluble endogenous α-syn into insoluble PD-like LBs and LNs. Remarkably, endogenous α-syn was sufficient for formation of these aggregates, and overexpression of wild type or mutant α-syn was not required. LN-like pathology first developed in axons and propagated to form LB-like inclusions in perikarya. Accumulation of pathologic α-syn led to selective decreases in synaptic proteins, progressive impairments in neuronal excitability and connectivity, and eventually, neuron death. Thus, our data contribute important insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of PD-like α-syn inclusions, their impact on neuronal functions, and provide a model for discovering therapeutics targeting pathologic α-syn- mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21982369

  20. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Allen Reish, Heather E; Standaert, David G

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  1. Role of α-synuclein in inducing innate and adaptive immunity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Allen Reish, Heather E.; Standaert, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Gene duplications, triplications and point mutations in SNCA1, the gene encoding α-syn, cause autosomal dominant forms of PD. Aggregated and post-translationally modified forms of α-syn are present in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in both sporadic and familial PD, and recent work has emphasized the prion-like ability of aggregated α-syn to produce spreading pathology. Accumulation of abnormal forms of α-syn is a trigger for PD, but recent evidence suggests that much of the downstream neurodegeneration may result from inflammatory responses. Components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems are activated in PD, and influencing interactions between innate and adaptive immune components has been shown to modify the pathological process in animal models of PD. Understanding the relationship between α-syn and subsequent inflammation may reveal novel targets for neuroprotective interventions. In this review, we examine the role of α-syn and modified forms of this protein in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25588354

  2. Hypoxia-Inducible lncRNA-AK058003 Promotes Gastric Cancer Metastasis by Targeting γ-Synuclein12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafang; Liu, Xiangqiang; Zhang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Zhou, Yongan; Jin, Haifeng; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jiaming; Guo, Hao; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Helong; Liu, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia has been implicated as a crucial microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis. We previously reported that hypoxia could promote gastric cancer (GC) metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of carcinogenesis that act on multiple pathways. However, whether lncRNAs are involved in hypoxia-induced GC metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the differentially expressed lncRNAs resulting from hypoxia-induced GC and normoxia conditions using microarrays and validated our results through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found an lncRNA, AK058003, that is upregulated by hypoxia. AK058003 is frequently upregulated in GC samples and promotes GC migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, AK058003 can mediate the metastasis of hypoxia-induced GC cells. Next, we identified γ-synuclein (SNCG), which is a metastasis-related gene regulated by AK058003. In addition, we found that the expression of SNCG is positively correlated with that of AK058003 in the clinical GC samples used in our study. Furthermore, we found that the SNCG gene CpG island methylation was significantly increased in GC cells depleted of AK058003. Intriguingly, SNCG expression is also increased by hypoxia, and SNCG upregulation by AK058003 mediates hypoxia-induced GC cell metastasis. These results advance our understanding of the role of lncRNA-AK058003 as a regulator of hypoxia signaling, and this newly identified hypoxia/lncRNA-AK058003/SNCG pathway may help in the development of new therapeutics. PMID:25499222

  3. Prefoldin prevents aggregation of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mariko; Tashiro, Erika; Kitamura, Akira; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Kinjo, Masataka; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2013-10-25

    Protein aggregation is observed in various neurodegeneration diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein, a causative gene product of familial PD, is a major component of large aggregates (inclusion bodies) in PD. Prefoldin, a molecular chaperone comprised of six subunits, PFD1~6, prevents misfolding of newly synthesized nascent polypeptides and also prevents aggregation of protein such as a pathogenic form of Huntingtin, a causative gene product of Huntington disease. In this study, we first found that aggregation of TagRFP-tagged wild-type α-synuclein and its pathogenic mutants, but not that of GFP-tagged α-synuclein, occurred in transfected Neuro-2a cells. The fluorescence of GFP is weakened under the condition of pH 4.5-5.0, and TagRFP is a stable red fluorescence protein under an acidic condition. Aggregated TagRFP-wild-type α-synuclein and its pathogenic mutants in Neuro-2a cells were ubiquitinated and were colocalized with the prefoldin complex in the lysosome under this condition. Furthermore, knockdown of PFD2 and PFD5 disrupted prefoldin formation in α-synuclein-expressing cells, resulting in accumulation of aggregates of wild-type and pathogenic α-synuclein and in induction of cell death. The levels of aggregation and cell death in pathogenic α-synuclein-transfected cells tended to be higher than those in wild-type α-synuclein-transfected cells. These results suggest that prefoldin works as a protective factor in aggregated α-synuclein-induced cell death.

  4. α-Synuclein Senses Lipid Packing Defects and Induces Lateral Expansion of Lipids Leading to Membrane Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Ouberai, Myriam M.; Wang, Juan; Swann, Marcus J.; Galvagnion, Celine; Guilliams, Tim; Dobson, Christopher M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the involvement of lipid membranes in both the functional and pathological properties of α-synuclein (α-Syn). Despite many investigations to characterize the binding of α-Syn to membranes, there is still a lack of understanding of the binding mode linking the properties of lipid membranes to α-Syn insertion into these dynamic structures. Using a combination of an optical biosensing technique and in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the binding strength of α-Syn is related to the specificity of the lipid environment (the lipid chemistry and steric properties within a bilayer structure) and to the ability of the membranes to accommodate and remodel upon the interaction of α-Syn with lipid membranes. We show that this interaction results in the insertion of α-Syn into the region of the headgroups, inducing a lateral expansion of lipid molecules that can progress to further bilayer remodeling, such as membrane thinning and expansion of lipids out of the membrane plane. We provide new insights into the affinity of α-Syn for lipid packing defects found in vesicles of high curvature and in planar membranes with cone-shaped lipids and suggest a comprehensive model of the interaction between α-Syn and lipid bilayers. The ability of α-Syn to sense lipid packing defects and to remodel membrane structure supports its proposed role in vesicle trafficking. PMID:23740253

  5. The novel mechanism of rotenone-induced α-synuclein phosphorylation via reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Jia; Chen, Min; Du, Tingting; Duan, Chunli; Gao, Ge; Yang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Rotenone has been shown to induce many parkinsonian features and has been widely used in chemical models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its use is closely associated with α-synuclein (α-syn) phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms whereby rotenone regulates α-syn phosphorylation remain unknown. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been shown to play an important role in α-syn dephosphorylation. We therefore investigated if rotenone caused α-syn phosphorylation by down-regulation of PP2A activity in mice. Rotenone increased the phosphorylation of α-syn at Ser129, consistent with the inhibition of PP2A activity by increased phosphorylation of tyrosine 307 at the catalytic subunit of PP2A (pTyr307 PP2Ac). We further explored the interactions among rotenone, PP2A, and α-syn in SK-N-SH cells and primary rat cortical neurons. Rotenone inhibited PP2A activity via phosphorylation of PP2Ac at Tyr307. The reduction in PP2A activity and rotenone cytotoxicity were reversed by treatment with the PP2A agonist, C2 ceramide, and the Src kinase inhibitor, SKI606. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that rotenone induced an increase in calmodulin-Src complex in SK-N-SH cells, thus activating Src kinase, which in turn phosphorylated PP2A at Tyr307 and inhibited its activity. C2 ceramide and SKI606 significantly reversed the rotenone-induced phosphorylation and aggregation of α-syn by increasing PP2A activity. These results demonstrate that rotenone-reduced PP2A activity via Src kinase is involved in the phosphorylation of α-syn. These findings clarify the novel mechanisms whereby rotenone can induce PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of α-synuclein on amyloid β-induced toxicity: relevance to Lewy body variant of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Resende, Rosa; Marques, Sueli C F; Ferreiro, Elisabete; Simões, Isaura; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pereira, Cláudia M F

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the presence of extracellular senile plaques composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. More than 50 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients also exhibit abundant accumulation of α-synuclein (α-Syn)-positive Lewy bodies. This Lewy body variant of AD (LBV-AD) is associated with accelerated cognitive dysfunction and progresses more rapidly than pure AD. In addition, it has been suggested that Aβ and α-Syn can directly interact. In this study we investigated the effect of α-Syn on Aβ-induced toxicity in cortical neurons. In order to mimic the intracellular accumulation of α-Syn observed in the brain of LBV-AD patients, we used valproic acid (VPA) to increase its endogenous expression levels. The release of α-Syn from damaged presynaptic terminals that occurs during the course of the disease was simulated by challenging cells with recombinant α-Syn. Our results showed that either VPA-induced α-Syn upregulation or addition of recombinant α-Syn protect primary cortical neurons from soluble Aβ1-42 decreasing the caspase-3-mediated cell death. It was also found that neuroprotection against Aβ-induced toxicity mediated by α-Syn overexpression involves the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Furthermore, recombinant α-Syn was shown to directly interact with Aβ1-42 and to decrease the levels of Aβ1-42 oligomers, which might explain its neuroprotective effect. In conclusion, we demonstrate that either endogenous or exogenous α-Syn can be neuroprotective against Aβ-induced cell death, suggesting a cell defence mechanism during the initial stages of the mixed pathology.

  7. Strong interactions with polyethylenimine-coated human serum albumin nanoparticles (PEI-HSA NPs) alter α-synuclein conformation and aggregation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian; Pedersen, Jannik Nedergaard; Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Christiansen, Gunna; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Dong, Mingdong; Morshedi, Dina; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) and the small intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein (αSN), whose aggregation is central in the development of Parkinson's disease, is of great relevance in biomedical applications of NPs as drug carriers. Here we showed using a combination of different techniques that αSN interacts strongly with positively charged polyethylenimine-coated human serum albumin (PEI-HSA) NPs, leading to a significant alteration in the αSN secondary structure. In contrast, the weak interactions of αSN with HSA NPs allowed αSN to remain unfolded. These different levels of interactions had different effects on αSN aggregation. While the weakly interacting HSA NPs did not alter the aggregation kinetic parameters of αSN, the rate of primary nucleation increased in the presence of PEI-HSA NPs. The aggregation rate changed in a PEI-HSA NP-concentration dependent and size independent manner and led to fibrils which were covered with small aggregates. Furthermore, PEI-HSA NPs reduced the level of membrane-perturbing oligomers and reduced oligomer toxicity in cell assays, highlighting a potential role for NPs in reducing αSN pathogenicity in vivo. Collectively, our results highlight the fact that a simple modification of NPs can strongly modulate interactions with target proteins, which may have important and positive implications in NP safety.The interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) and the small intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein (αSN), whose aggregation is central in the development of Parkinson's disease, is of great relevance in biomedical applications of NPs as drug carriers. Here we showed using a combination of different techniques that αSN interacts strongly with positively charged polyethylenimine-coated human serum albumin (PEI-HSA) NPs, leading to a significant alteration in the αSN secondary structure. In contrast, the weak interactions of αSN with HSA NPs allowed αSN to remain unfolded. These different

  8. Alpha-synuclein nitration and autophagy response are induced in peripheral blood cells from patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Prigione, Alessandro; Piazza, Fabrizio; Brighina, Laura; Begni, Barbara; Galbussera, Alessio; Difrancesco, Jacopo C; Andreoni, Simona; Piolti, Roberto; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2010-06-14

    Several lines of evidence implicate a central role for alpha-synuclein (aSN) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Besides rare genetic mutations, post-translational mechanisms, such as oxidative stress-related nitration, may alter the protein properties in terms of propensity to aggregate or be degraded. Our group previously described increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within easily accessible peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in PD patients compared to healthy elderly subjects. In the present work, we demonstrated a significant induction of nitrotyrosine (NT)-modifications of aSN within PBMCs derived from individuals with idiopathic PD compared to controls, while aSN protein appeared similarly expressed in the two populations. The amount of NT-modified aSN within PBMCs was positively correlated with intracellular ROS concentration and inversely related to daily dosage of levodopa, making its measurement potentially relevant for disease-intervention studies. Neither aSN expression nor its NT-modifications showed any correlation to specific REP1 genotypes, polymorphic variants within aSN gene promoter whose association to PD susceptibility may occur through the modulation of aSN protein expression. Moreover, although NT-modified aSN has been linked to enhanced propensity to aggregate, we failed to detect an increased presence of insoluble aSN aggregates in PBMCs from PD subjects relative to controls, despite a lack of changes in the ubiquitin-proteasome expression or activity. Nonetheless, a significant activation of the autophagy response was identified within PBMCs from PD individuals, which could represent a protective mechanism against abnormal protein accumulation and may explain the lack of aSN aggregation. We discuss the relevance of these findings with respect to PD pathogenesis and biomarker development.

  9. Oxidative stress-induced posttranslational modifications of alpha-synuclein: specific modification of alpha-synuclein by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal increases dopaminergic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Helling, Stefan; Bussmann, Julia C; Berlinghof, Marvin; Schäffer, Tilman E; Marcus, Katrin; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen; Becker, Cord-Michael

    2013-05-01

    Aggregation and neurotoxicity of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSyn) are crucial mechanisms for progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of αSyn caused by oxidative stress, including modification by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE-αSyn), nitration (n-αSyn), and oxidation (o-αSyn), have been implicated to promote oligomerization of αSyn. However, it is yet unclear if these PTMs lead to different types of oligomeric intermediates. Moreover, little is known about which PTM-derived αSyn species exerts toxicity to dopaminergic cells. In this study, we directly compared aggregation characteristics of HNE-αSyn, n-αSyn, and o-αSyn. Generally, all of them promoted αSyn oligomerization. Particularly, HNE-αSyn and n-αSyn were more prone to forming oligomers than unmodified αSyn. Moreover, these PTMs prevented the formation of amyloid-like fibrils, although HNE-αSyn and o-αSyn were able to generate protofibrillar structures. The cellular effects associated with distinct PTMs were studied by exposing modified αSyn to dopaminergic Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) neurons. The cellular toxicity of HNE-αSyn was significantly higher than other PTM species. Furthermore, we tested the toxicity of HNE-αSyn in dopaminergic LUHMES cells and other cell types with low tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, and additionally analyzed the loss of TH-immunoreactive cells in HNE-αSyn-treated LUHMES cells. We observed a selective toxicity of HNE-αSyn to neurons with higher TH expression. Further mechanistic studies showed that HNE-modification apparently increased the interaction of extracellular αSyn with neurons. Moreover, exposure of differentiated LUHMES cells to HNE-αSyn triggered the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, preceding neuronal cell death. Antioxidant treatment effectively protected cells from the damage triggered by HNE-αSyn. Our findings suggest a specific

  10. α-Synuclein is a Novel Microtubule Dynamase

    PubMed Central

    Cartelli, Daniele; Aliverti, Alessandro; Barbiroli, Alberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Ragg, Enzio M.; Casagrande, Francesca V.M.; Cantele, Francesca; Beltramone, Silvia; Marangon, Jacopo; De Gregorio, Carmelita; Pandini, Vittorio; Emanuele, Marco; Chieregatti, Evelina; Pieraccini, Stefano; Holmqvist, Staffan; Bubacco, Luigi; Roybon, Laurent; Pezzoli, Gianni; Grandori, Rita; Arnal, Isabelle; Cappelletti, Graziella

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein associated to Parkinson’s disease, which is unstructured when free in the cytoplasm and adopts α helical conformation when bound to vesicles. After decades of intense studies, α-Synuclein physiology is still difficult to clear up due to its interaction with multiple partners and its involvement in a pletora of neuronal functions. Here, we looked at the remarkably neglected interplay between α-Synuclein and microtubules, which potentially impacts on synaptic functionality. In order to identify the mechanisms underlying these actions, we investigated the interaction between purified α-Synuclein and tubulin. We demonstrated that α-Synuclein binds to microtubules and tubulin α2β2 tetramer; the latter interaction inducing the formation of helical segment(s) in the α-Synuclein polypeptide. This structural change seems to enable α-Synuclein to promote microtubule nucleation and to enhance microtubule growth rate and catastrophe frequency, both in vitro and in cell. We also showed that Parkinson’s disease-linked α-Synuclein variants do not undergo tubulin-induced folding and cause tubulin aggregation rather than polymerization. Our data enable us to propose α-Synuclein as a novel, foldable, microtubule-dynamase, which influences microtubule organisation through its binding to tubulin and its regulating effects on microtubule nucleation and dynamics. PMID:27628239

  11. α-Synuclein is a Novel Microtubule Dynamase.

    PubMed

    Cartelli, Daniele; Aliverti, Alessandro; Barbiroli, Alberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Ragg, Enzio M; Casagrande, Francesca V M; Cantele, Francesca; Beltramone, Silvia; Marangon, Jacopo; De Gregorio, Carmelita; Pandini, Vittorio; Emanuele, Marco; Chieregatti, Evelina; Pieraccini, Stefano; Holmqvist, Staffan; Bubacco, Luigi; Roybon, Laurent; Pezzoli, Gianni; Grandori, Rita; Arnal, Isabelle; Cappelletti, Graziella

    2016-09-15

    α-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein associated to Parkinson's disease, which is unstructured when free in the cytoplasm and adopts α helical conformation when bound to vesicles. After decades of intense studies, α-Synuclein physiology is still difficult to clear up due to its interaction with multiple partners and its involvement in a pletora of neuronal functions. Here, we looked at the remarkably neglected interplay between α-Synuclein and microtubules, which potentially impacts on synaptic functionality. In order to identify the mechanisms underlying these actions, we investigated the interaction between purified α-Synuclein and tubulin. We demonstrated that α-Synuclein binds to microtubules and tubulin α2β2 tetramer; the latter interaction inducing the formation of helical segment(s) in the α-Synuclein polypeptide. This structural change seems to enable α-Synuclein to promote microtubule nucleation and to enhance microtubule growth rate and catastrophe frequency, both in vitro and in cell. We also showed that Parkinson's disease-linked α-Synuclein variants do not undergo tubulin-induced folding and cause tubulin aggregation rather than polymerization. Our data enable us to propose α-Synuclein as a novel, foldable, microtubule-dynamase, which influences microtubule organisation through its binding to tubulin and its regulating effects on microtubule nucleation and dynamics.

  12. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT Pathway Protects Against α-Synuclein-Induced Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongwei; Buckley, Jessica A; Li, Xinru; Liu, Yudong; Fox, Thomas H; Meares, Gordon P; Yu, Hao; Yan, Zhaoqi; Harms, Ashley S; Li, Yufeng; Standaert, David G; Benveniste, Etty N

    2016-05-04

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is an age-related, chronic neurodegenerative disorder. At present, there are no disease-modifying therapies to prevent PD progression. Activated microglia and neuroinflammation are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of PD. Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-SYN) in the brain is a core feature of PD and leads to microglial activation, inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and ultimately to neurodegeneration. Given the importance of the JAK/STAT pathway in activating microglia and inducing cytokine/chemokine expression, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the JAK/STAT pathway using the JAK1/2 inhibitor, AZD1480. In vitro, α-SYN exposure activated the JAK/STAT pathway in microglia and macrophages, and treatment with AZD1480 inhibited α-SYN-induced major histocompatibility complex Class II and inflammatory gene expression in microglia and macrophages by reducing STAT1 and STAT3 activation. For in vivo studies, we used a rat model of PD induced by viral overexpression of α-SYN. AZD1480 treatment inhibited α-SYN-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing microglial activation, macrophage and CD4(+) T-cell infiltration and production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Numerous genes involved in cell-cell signaling, nervous system development and function, inflammatory diseases/processes, and neurological diseases are enhanced in the substantia nigra of rats with α-SYN overexpression, and inhibited upon treatment with AZD1480. Importantly, inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway prevented the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in vivo These results indicate that inhibiting the JAK/STAT pathway can prevent neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration by suppressing activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to α-SYN. Furthermore, this suggests the feasibility of targeting the JAK/STAT pathway as a neuroprotective therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. α-SYN plays a central role in the pathophysiology

  13. Time-resolved FRET detection of subtle temperature-induced conformational biases in ensembles of α-synuclein molecules.

    PubMed

    Grupi, Asaf; Haas, Elisha

    2011-08-05

    The α-synuclein (αS) molecule, a polypeptide of 140 residues, is an intrinsically disordered protein that is involved in the onset of Parkinson's disease. We applied time-resolved excitation energy transfer measurements in search of specific deviations from the disordered state in segments of the αS backbone that might be involved in the initiation of aggregation. Since at higher temperatures, the αS molecule undergoes accelerated aggregation, we studied the temperature dependence of the distributions of intramolecular segmental end-to-end distances and their fast fluctuations in eight labeled chain segments of the αS molecule. Over the temperature range of 5-40 °C, no temperature-induced unfolding or folding was detected at the N-terminal domain (residues 1-66) of the αS molecule. The intramolecular diffusion coefficient of the segments' ends relative to each other increased monotonously with temperature. A common very high upper limiting value of ∼25 A²/ns was reached at 40 °C, another indication of a fully disordered state. Three exceptions were two segments with reduced values of the diffusion coefficients (the shortest segment where the excluded volume effect is dominant and the segment labeled in the NAC domain) and a nonlinear cooperative transition in the N-terminal segment. These specific subtle deviations from the common pattern of temperature dependence reflect specific structural constraints that could be critical in controlling the stability of the soluble monomer, or for its aggregation. Such very weak effects might be dominant in determination of the fate of ensembles of disordered polypeptides either to folding or to misfolding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Similarities in lindane induced alterations in protein expression profiling in different brain regions with neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mudawal, Anubha; Singh, Anshuman; Yadav, Sanjay; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Mishra, Juhi; Khanna, Vinay K; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that lindane, an organochlorine pesticide induces oxidative stress in rat brain that may lead to neurodegeneration. However, as the proteins involved in lindane induced neurodegeneration are yet to be identified, the present study aims to identify the proteins that may regulate lindane induced neurotoxicity. The data showed that repeated exposure of lindane (2.5 mg/kg) for 21 days to adult rats significantly increased the reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in different brain regions. Proteomic study revealed that lindane induces major dysregulation in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Alterations in the expression of molecular chaperones in brain regions and an increase in the expression of α-synuclein in substantia-nigra and corpus-striatum and amyloid precursor protein in hippocampus and frontal-cortex suggests the accumulation of proteins in these brain regions. Western blotting also revealed alterations in the dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in hippocampus and substantia-nigra isolated from lindane treated rats. Neurobehavioural data indicating alterations in learning and working memory, conditioned avoidance response and motor function, supports the proteomic data. The data suggest that repeated exposure of lindane to adult rats induces alterations, which are similar to that seen in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Prion-like spreading of pathological α-synuclein in brain

    PubMed Central

    Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Nonaka, Takashi; Hosokawa, Masato; Oikawa, Takayuki; Arai, Tetsuaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mann, David M. A.

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein is the major component of filamentous inclusions that constitute the defining characteristic of neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying α-synuclein accumulation and spread are unclear. Here we show that intracerebral injections of sarkosyl-insoluble α-synuclein from brains of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies induced hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein pathology in wild-type mice. Furthermore, injection of fibrils of recombinant human and mouse α-synuclein efficiently induced similar α-synuclein pathologies in wild-type mice. C57BL/6J mice injected with α-synuclein fibrils developed abundant Lewy body/Lewy neurite-like pathology, whereas mice injected with soluble α-synuclein did not. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that endogenous mouse α-synuclein started to accumulate 3 months after inoculation, while injected human α-synuclein fibrils disappeared in about a week. These results indicate that α-synuclein fibrils have prion-like properties and inoculation into wild-type brain induces α-synuclein pathology in vivo. This is a new mouse model of sporadic α-synucleinopathy and should be useful for elucidating progression mechanisms and evaluating disease-modifying therapy. PMID:23466394

  16. Prion-like spreading of pathological α-synuclein in brain.

    PubMed

    Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Nonaka, Takashi; Hosokawa, Masato; Oikawa, Takayuki; Arai, Tetsuaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mann, David M A; Hasegawa, Masato

    2013-04-01

    α-Synuclein is the major component of filamentous inclusions that constitute the defining characteristic of neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying α-synuclein accumulation and spread are unclear. Here we show that intracerebral injections of sarkosyl-insoluble α-synuclein from brains of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies induced hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein pathology in wild-type mice. Furthermore, injection of fibrils of recombinant human and mouse α-synuclein efficiently induced similar α-synuclein pathologies in wild-type mice. C57BL/6J mice injected with α-synuclein fibrils developed abundant Lewy body/Lewy neurite-like pathology, whereas mice injected with soluble α-synuclein did not. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that endogenous mouse α-synuclein started to accumulate 3 months after inoculation, while injected human α-synuclein fibrils disappeared in about a week. These results indicate that α-synuclein fibrils have prion-like properties and inoculation into wild-type brain induces α-synuclein pathology in vivo. This is a new mouse model of sporadic α-synucleinopathy and should be useful for elucidating progression mechanisms and evaluating disease-modifying therapy.

  17. Neuroprotection of inositol hexaphosphate and changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation in 6-OHDA induced parkinson's disease cell model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Hou, Lin; Li, Xianghong; Ju, Chuanxia; Zhang, Jinyu; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Cun; Lv, Yuqiang; Wang, Yuehua

    2016-02-15

    Animal and cell experiments showed that inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) was protective on neurons in parkinson's disease (PD) model, but the underlying mechanism of this action was not extensively elucidated. To address this question, we established 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y as PD cell model and testified the neuroprotection of IP6. Through hoechst nuclear stain method and flow cytometric analysis, apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA was blocked by IP6 pretreatment. Significant protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in 6-OHDA induced cells pretreated with IP6. To further investigate the mechanism of anti-apoptotic effect of IP6, expression of mediators in mitochondrion dependent apoptotic pathway was detected. Results indicated that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c releasing, upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and caspases activation were reversed by IP6. In addition, using flow cytometric method and western blot approach, our data showed that IP6 attenuated the rise of calcium and α-synuclein aggregation in cytosol. Collectively, IP6 exerted its neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells in PD cell model and the mechanism may be associated with changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. α-Synuclein Fibrils Exhibit Gain of Toxic Function, Promoting Tau Aggregation and Inhibiting Microtubule Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Takayuki; Nonaka, Takashi; Terada, Makoto; Tamaoka, Akira; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. It has been suggested that α-synuclein fibrils or intermediate protofibrils in the process of fibril formation may have a toxic effect on neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated the ability of soluble monomeric α-synuclein to promote microtubule assembly and the effects of conformational changes of α-synuclein on Tau-promoted microtubule assembly. In marked contrast to previous findings, monomeric α-synuclein had no effect on microtubule polymerization. However, both α-synuclein fibrils and protofibrils inhibited Tau-promoted microtubule assembly. The inhibitory effect of α-synuclein fibrils was greater than that of the protofibrils. Dot blot overlay assay and spin-down techniques revealed that α-synuclein fibrils bind to Tau and inhibit microtubule assembly by depleting the Tau available for microtubule polymerization. Using various deletion mutants of α-synuclein and Tau, the acidic C-terminal region of α-synuclein and the basic central region of Tau were identified as regions involved in the binding. Furthermore, introduction of α-synuclein fibrils into cultured cells overexpressing Tau protein induced Tau aggregation. These results raise the possibility that α-synuclein fibrils interact with Tau, inhibit its function to stabilize microtubules, and also promote Tau aggregation, leading to dysfunction of neuronal cells. PMID:27226637

  19. Elevated α-synuclein caused by SNCA gene triplication impairs neuronal differentiation and maturation in Parkinson's patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, L M A; Falomir-Lockhart, L J; Botelho, M G; Lin, K-H; Wales, P; Koch, J C; Gerhardt, E; Taschenberger, H; Outeiro, T F; Lingor, P; Schüle, B; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the impact of α-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived from healthy individuals and lines generated from the patient iPS-derived neuroprogenitor lines infected with a lentivirus incorporating a small hairpin RNA to knock down the SNCA mRNA. The SNCA triplication lines exhibited a reduced capacity to differentiate into dopaminergic or GABAergic neurons and decreased neurite outgrowth and lower neuronal activity compared with control cultures. This delayed maturation phenotype was confirmed by gene expression profiling, which revealed a significant reduction in mRNA for genes implicated in neuronal differentiation such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 (GABABR2), nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK-2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The differentiated patient cells also demonstrated increased autophagic flux when stressed with chloroquine. We conclude that a two-fold overexpression of α-synuclein caused by a triplication of the SNCA gene is sufficient to impair the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells, a finding with implications for adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease progression, particularly in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction. PMID:26610207

  20. Elevated α-synuclein caused by SNCA gene triplication impairs neuronal differentiation and maturation in Parkinson's patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L M A; Falomir-Lockhart, L J; Botelho, M G; Lin, K-H; Wales, P; Koch, J C; Gerhardt, E; Taschenberger, H; Outeiro, T F; Lingor, P; Schüle, B; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    2015-11-26

    We have assessed the impact of α-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived from healthy individuals and lines generated from the patient iPS-derived neuroprogenitor lines infected with a lentivirus incorporating a small hairpin RNA to knock down the SNCA mRNA. The SNCA triplication lines exhibited a reduced capacity to differentiate into dopaminergic or GABAergic neurons and decreased neurite outgrowth and lower neuronal activity compared with control cultures. This delayed maturation phenotype was confirmed by gene expression profiling, which revealed a significant reduction in mRNA for genes implicated in neuronal differentiation such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 (GABABR2), nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK-2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The differentiated patient cells also demonstrated increased autophagic flux when stressed with chloroquine. We conclude that a two-fold overexpression of α-synuclein caused by a triplication of the SNCA gene is sufficient to impair the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells, a finding with implications for adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease progression, particularly in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  1. Neuroinvasion of α-Synuclein Prionoids after Intraperitoneal and Intraglossal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Breid, Sara; Bernis, Maria E.; Babila, Julius T.; Garza, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Synuclein is a soluble, cellular protein that in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, forms pathological deposits of protein aggregates. Because misfolded α-synuclein has some characteristics that resemble those of prions, we investigated its potential to induce disease after intraperitoneal or intraglossal challenge injection into bigenic Tg(M83+/−:Gfap-luc+/−) mice, which express the A53T mutant of human α-synuclein and firefly luciferase. After a single intraperitoneal injection with α-synuclein fibrils, four of five mice developed paralysis and α-synuclein pathology in the central nervous system, with a median incubation time of 229 ± 17 days. Diseased mice accumulated aggregates of Sarkosyl-insoluble and phosphorylated α-synuclein in the brain and spinal cord, which colocalized with ubiquitin and p62 and were accompanied by gliosis. In contrast, only one of five mice developed α-synuclein pathology in the central nervous system after intraglossal injection with α-synuclein fibrils, after 285 days. These findings are novel and important because they show that, similar to prions, α-synuclein prionoids can neuroinvade the central nervous system after intraperitoneal or intraglossal injection and can cause neuropathology and disease. IMPORTANCE Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the pathological presence of aggregated α-synuclein in cells of the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that α-synuclein aggregates made of recombinant protein or derived from brains of patients can spread in the central nervous system in a spatiotemporal manner when inoculated into the brains of animals and can induce pathology and neurologic disease, suggesting that misfolded α-synuclein can behave similarly to prions. Here we show that α-synuclein inoculation into the peritoneal cavity or the tongue in mice overexpressing α-synuclein causes

  2. Biophysical Characterization of α-Synuclein and Rotenone Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Blanca A.; Einarsdóttir, Ólöf; Fink, Anthony L.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that pesticides interact with α-synuclein and accelerate the rate of fibrillation. These results are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the direct interaction of α-synuclein with pesticides is one of many suspected factors leading to α-synuclein fibrillation and ultimately to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, the biophysical properties and fibrillation kinetics of α-synuclein in the presence of rotenone were investigated and, more specifically, the effects of rotenone on the early-stage misfolded forms of α-synuclein were considered. The thioflavine T (ThT) fluorescence assay studies provide evidence that early-phase misfolded α-synuclein forms are affected by rotenone and that the fibrillation process is accelerated. Further characterization by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) shows that rotenone increases the amount of ordered secondary structure in this intrinsically disordered protein. Morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide visualization of the differences in the aggregated α-synuclein species developing during the early kinetics of the fibrillation process in the absence and presence of rotenone. We believe that these data provide useful information for a better understanding of the molecular basis of rotenone-induced misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein. PMID:24970188

  3. Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Solt, Anna C; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Nuse, Bryan; Herritt, Lou; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Stone, Ida; García, Raquel; Brooks, Diane M; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Reed, William

    2008-02-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. We measured mRNA cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in target brain regions from low (n = 12) or highly exposed residents (n = 35) aged 25.1 +/- 1.5 years. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, substantia nigrae and vagus nerves; disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in highly exposed subjects. Amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) immunoreactivity was observed in 58.8% of apolipoprotein E (APOE) 3/3 < 25 y, and 100% of the APOE 4 subjects, whereas alpha-synuclein was seen in 23.5% of < 25 y subjects. Particulate material (PM) was seen in olfactory bulb neurons, and PM < 100 nm were observed in intraluminal erythrocytes from lung, frontal, and trigeminal ganglia capillaries. Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment.

  4. α-Synuclein binds the KATP channel at insulin-secretory granules and inhibits insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xuehui; Lou, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Li, Lehong; Swanson, Alexandra L.; Sun, Ming; Beers-Stolz, Donna; Watkins, Simon; Perez, Ruth G.

    2011-01-01

    α-Synuclein has been studied in numerous cell types often associated with secretory processes. In pancreatic β-cells, α-synuclein might therefore play a similar role by interacting with organelles involved in insulin secretion. We tested for α-synuclein localizing to insulin-secretory granules and characterized its role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent sulfonylureas were used to test for α-synuclein localization to insulin granules in β-cells, immunoprecipitation with Western blot analysis for interaction between α-synuclein and KATP channels, and ELISA assays for the effect of altering α-synuclein expression up or down on insulin secretion in INS1 cells or mouse islets, respectively. Differences in cellular phenotype between α-synuclein knockout and wild-type β-cells were found by using confocal microscopy to image the fluorescent insulin biosensor Ins-C-emGFP and by using transmission electron microscopy. The results show that anti-α-synuclein antibodies labeled secretory organelles within β-cells. Anti-α-synuclein antibodies colocalized with KATP channel, anti-insulin, and anti-C-peptide antibodies. α-Synuclein coimmunoprecipitated in complexes with KATP channels. Expression of α-synuclein downregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose with little effect following 16.7 mM glucose stimulation. α-Synuclein knockout islets upregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 and 8.4 mM but not 16.7 mM glucose, consistent with the depleted insulin granule density at the β-cell surface membranes observed in these islets. These findings demonstrate that α-synuclein interacts with KATP channels and insulin-secretory granules and functionally acts as a brake on secretion that glucose stimulation can override. α-Synuclein might play similar roles in diabetes as it does in other degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:20858756

  5. Differences in the binding of copper(I) to α- and β-synuclein.

    PubMed

    De Ricco, Riccardo; Valensin, Daniela; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Casella, Luigi; Gaggelli, Elena; Valensin, Gianni; Bubacco, Luigi; Mangani, Stefano

    2015-01-05

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal α-synuclein (αS) deposits in the brain. Alterations in homeostasis and metal-induced oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the progression of αS amyloid assembly and pathogenesis of PD. Contrary to αS, β-synuclein (βS) is not involved in the PD etiology. However, it has been suggested that the βS/αS ratio is altered in PD, indicating that a correct balance of these two proteins is implicated in the inhibition of αS aggregation. αS and βS share similar abilities to coordinate Cu(II). In this study, we investigated and compared the interaction of Cu(I) with the N-terminal portion of βS and αS by means of NMR, circular dichroism, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Our data show the importance of M10K mutation, which induces different Cu(I) chemical environments. Coordination modes 3S1O and 2S2O were identified for βS and αS, respectively. These new insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of copper and synuclein proteins are a basis to understand the molecular mechanism by which βS might inhibit αS aggregation.

  6. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R.; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H.; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H.; Winner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K mice displayed synaptic and dendritic loss, reduced levels of synapsin 1 and synaptic vesicles, and behavioural deficits. Similar alterations, but to a lesser extent, were seen in the α-synuclein wild-type mice. Moreover, although the oligomer-prone α-synuclein mice displayed neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, the α-synuclein wild-type only displayed neuronal loss in the hippocampus. These results support the hypothesis that accumulating oligomeric α-synuclein may mediate early synaptic pathology in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies by disrupting synaptic vesicles. This oligomer-prone model might be useful for evaluating therapies directed at oligomer reduction. PMID:24662516

  7. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H; Winner, Beate; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K mice displayed synaptic and dendritic loss, reduced levels of synapsin 1 and synaptic vesicles, and behavioural deficits. Similar alterations, but to a lesser extent, were seen in the α-synuclein wild-type mice. Moreover, although the oligomer-prone α-synuclein mice displayed neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, the α-synuclein wild-type only displayed neuronal loss in the hippocampus. These results support the hypothesis that accumulating oligomeric α-synuclein may mediate early synaptic pathology in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies by disrupting synaptic vesicles. This oligomer-prone model might be useful for evaluating therapies directed at oligomer reduction.

  8. Targeted overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in oligodendroglia induces lesions linked to MSA-like progressive autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Stemberger, Sylvia; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K; Stefanova, Nadia

    2010-08-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease of undetermined cause manifesting with progressive autonomic failure (AF), cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonism due to neuronal loss in multiple brain areas associated with (oligodendro)glial cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein (alpha SYN) inclusions (GCIs). Using proteolipid protein (PLP)-alpha-synuclein (alpha SYN) transgenic mice we have previously reported parkinsonian motor deficits triggered by MSA-like alpha SYN inclusions. We now extend these observations by demonstrating degeneration of brain areas that are closely linked to progressive AF and other non-motor symptoms in MSA, in (PLP)-alpha SYN transgenic mice as compared to age-matched non-transgenic controls. We show delayed loss of cholinergic neurons in nucleus ambiguus at 12 months of age as well as early neuronal loss in laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and Onuf's nucleus at 2 months of age associated with alpha SYN oligodendroglial overexpression. We also report that neuronal loss triggered by MSA-like alpha SYN inclusions is absent up to 12 months of age in the thoracic intermediolateral cell column suggesting a differential dynamic modulation of alpha SYN toxicity within the murine autonomic nervous system. Although the spatial and temporal evolution of central autonomic pathology in MSA is unknown our findings corroborate the utility of the (PLP)-alpha SYN transgenic mouse model as a testbed for the study of oligodendroglial alpha SYN mediated neurodegeneration replicating both motor and non-motor aspects of MSA.

  9. A53T Human α-Synuclein Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Pervasive Mitochondria Macroautophagy Defects Preceding Dopamine Neuron Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiguo; Turkson, Susie

    2015-01-01

    In vitro evidence suggests that the inefficient removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tissue-specific gene amplification strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse line with human α-synuclein A53T overexpression specifically in dopamine (DA) neurons. Transgenic mice showed profound early-onset mitochondria abnormalities, characterized by macroautophagy marker-positive cytoplasmic inclusions containing mainly mitochondrial remnants, which preceded the degeneration of DA neurons. Genetic deletion of either parkin or PINK1 in these transgenic mice significantly worsened mitochondrial pathologies, including drastically enlarged inclusions and loss of total mitochondria contents. These data suggest that mitochondria are the main targets of α-synuclein and their defective autophagic clearance plays a significant role during pathogenesis. Moreover, endogenous PINK1 or parkin is indispensable for the proper autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria. Our data for the first time establish an essential link between mitochondria macroautophagy impairments and DA neuron degeneration in an in vivo model based on known PD genetics. The model, its well-defined pathologies, and the demonstration of a main pathogenesis pathway in the present study have set the stage and direction of emphasis for future studies. PMID:25609609

  10. Prion-like propagation of human brain-derived alpha-synuclein in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Maria E; Babila, Julius T; Breid, Sara; Wüsten, Katharina Annick; Wüllner, Ullrich; Tamgüney, Gültekin

    2015-11-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein containing aggregates. Recent increasing evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease and MSA pathology spread throughout the nervous system in a spatiotemporal fashion, possibly by prion-like propagation of alpha-synuclein positive aggregates between synaptically connected areas. Concurrently, intracerebral injection of pathological alpha-synuclein into transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein, or human alpha-synuclein with the familial A53T mutation, or into wild-type mice causes spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology in the CNS. Considering that wild-type mice naturally also express a threonine at codon 53 of alpha-synuclein, it has remained unclear whether human wild-type alpha-synuclein alone, in the absence of endogenously expressed mouse alpha-synuclein, would support a similar propagation of alpha-synuclein pathology in vivo. Here we show that brain extracts from two patients with MSA and two patients with probable incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD) but not phosphate-buffered saline induce prion-like spreading of pathological alpha-synuclein after intrastriatal injection into mice expressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein. Mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months post injection and analyzed neuropathologically and biochemically. Mice injected with brain extracts from patients with MSA or probable iLBD both accumulated intraneuronal inclusion bodies, which stained positive for phosphorylated alpha-synuclein and appeared predominantly within the injected brain hemisphere after 6 months. After 9 months these intraneuronal inclusion bodies had spread to the contralateral hemisphere and more rostral and caudal areas. Biochemical analysis showed that brains of mice injected with brain extracts from patients with MSA and probable iLBD contained hyperphosphorylated alpha-synuclein

  11. Structural and Dynamical Insights into the Membrane-Bound α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Samrat

    2013-01-01

    Membrane-induced disorder-to-helix transition of α-synuclein, a presynaptic protein, has been implicated in a number of important neuronal functions as well as in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. In order to obtain structural insights of membrane-bound α-synuclein at the residue-specific resolution, we took advantage of the fact that the protein is devoid of tryptophan and incorporated single tryptophan at various residue positions along the sequence. These tryptophans were used as site-specific markers to characterize the structural and dynamical aspects of α-synuclein on the negatively charged small unilamellar lipid vesicles. An array of site-specific fluorescence readouts, such as the spectral-shift, quenching efficiency and anisotropy, allowed us to discern various features of the conformational rearrangements occurring at different locations of α-synuclein on the lipid membrane. In order to define the spatial localization of various regions of the protein near the membrane surface, we utilized a unique and sensitive indicator, namely, red-edge excitation shift (REES), which originates when a fluorophore is located in a highly ordered micro-environment. The extent of REES observed at different residue positions allowed us to directly identify the residues that are localized at the membrane-water interface comprising a thin (∼ 15 Å) layer of motionally restrained water molecules and enabled us to construct a dynamic hydration map of the protein. The combination of site-specific fluorescence readouts allowed us to unravel the intriguing molecular details of α-synuclein on the lipid membrane in a direct model-free fashion. Additionally, the combination of methodologies described here are capable of distinguishing subtle but important structural alterations of α-synuclein bound to different negatively charged lipids with varied head-group chemistry. We believe that the structural modulations of α-synuclein on the membrane could potentially be

  12. Direct detection of alpha synuclein oligomers in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rat models of Parkinson’s disease are widely used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying disease etiology or to investigate therapeutic approaches. Models were developed using toxins such as MPTP or 6-OHDA to specifically target dopaminergic neurons resulting in acute neuronal loss in the substantia nigra or by using viral vectors to induce the specific and gradual expression of alpha synuclein in the substantia nigra. The detection of alpha- synuclein oligomers, the presumed toxic species, in these models and others has been possible using only indirect biochemical approaches to date. Here we coinjected AAVs encoding alpha-synuclein fused to the N- or C-terminal half of VenusYFP in rat substantia nigra pars compacta and describe for the first time a novel viral vector rodent model with the unique ability to directly detect and track alpha synuclein oligomers ex vivo and in vivo. Results Viral coinjection resulted in widespread VenusYFP signal within the nigrostriatal pathway, including cell bodies in the substantia nigra and synaptic accumulation in striatal terminals, suggestive of in vivo alpha-synuclein oligomers formation. Transduced rats showed alpha-synuclein induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra, the appearance of dystrophic neurites, and gliosis in the striatum. Moreover, we have applied in vivo imaging techniques in the living mouse to directly image alpha-synuclein oligomers in the cortex. Conclusion We have developed a unique animal model that provides a tool for the Parkinson’s disease research community with which to directly detect alpha- synuclein oligomers in vivo and screen therapeutic approaches targeting alpha-synuclein oligomers. PMID:24252244

  13. α-Synuclein-induced synapse damage in cultured neurons is mediated by cholesterol-sensitive activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Williams, Alun

    2015-03-09

    The accumulation of aggregated forms of the α-synuclein (αSN) is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. The loss of synapses is an important event in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Here we show that aggregated recombinant human αSN, but not βSN, triggered synapse damage in cultured neurons as measured by the loss of synaptic proteins. Pre-treatment with the selective cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitors AACOCF3 and MAFP protected neurons against αSN-induced synapse damage. Synapse damage was associated with the αSN-induced activation of synaptic cPLA2 and the production of prostaglandin E2. The activation of cPLA2 is the first step in the generation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and PAF receptor antagonists (ginkgolide B or Hexa-PAF) also protect neurons against αSN-induced synapse damage. αSN-induced synapse damage was also reduced in neurons pre-treated with the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor (squalestatin). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that αSN triggered synapse damage via hyperactivation of cPLA2. They also indicate that αSN-induced activation of cPLA2 is influenced by the cholesterol content of membranes. Inhibitors of this pathway that can cross the blood brain barrier may protect against the synapse damage seen during PD.

  14. Deubiquitinase Usp8 regulates α-synuclein clearance and modifies its toxicity in Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulou, Zoi; Lang, Johannes; Perrett, Rebecca M; Elschami, Myriam; Hurry, Madeleine E D; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Mazaraki, Dimitra; Szabo, Aron; Kessler, Benedikt M; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis; Ansorge, Olaf; Fulga, Tudor A; Tofaris, George K

    2016-08-09

    In Parkinson's disease, misfolded α-synuclein accumulates, often in a ubiquitinated form, in neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies. An important outstanding question is whether ubiquitination in Lewy bodies is directly relevant to α-synuclein trafficking or turnover and Parkinson's pathogenesis. By comparative analysis in human postmortem brains, we found that ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Lewy bodies is largely due to K63-linked ubiquitin chains and markedly reduced in the substantia nigra compared with the neocortex. The ubiquitin staining in cells with Lewy bodies inversely correlated with the content and pathological localization of the deubiquitinase Usp8. Usp8 interacted and partly colocalized with α-synuclein in endosomal membranes and, both in cells and after purification, it deubiquitinated K63-linked chains on α-synuclein. Knockdown of Usp8 in the Drosophila eye reduced α-synuclein levels and α-synuclein-induced eye toxicity. Accordingly, in human cells, Usp8 knockdown increased the lysosomal degradation of α-synuclein. In the dopaminergic neurons of the Drosophila model, unlike knockdown of other deubiquitinases, Usp8 protected from α-synuclein-induced locomotor deficits and cell loss. These findings strongly suggest that removal of K63-linked ubiquitin chains on α-synuclein by Usp8 is a critical mechanism that reduces its lysosomal degradation in dopaminergic neurons and may contribute to α-synuclein accumulation in Lewy body disease.

  15. Extracellular alpha-synuclein induces calpain-dependent overactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Grzegorz A; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Adamczyk, Agata

    2013-09-17

    Extracellular alpha-synuclein (ASN) could be involved in the pathomechanism of Parkinson's disease (PD) via disturbances of calcium homeostasis, activation of nitric oxide synthase and oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this study we analyzed the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in the molecular mechanism(s) of ASN toxicity. We found that exposure of PC12 cells to ASN increases Cdk5 activity via calpain-dependent p25 formation and by enhancement of Cdk5 phosphorylation at Tyr15. Cdk5 and calpain inhibitors prevented ASN-evoked cell death. Our findings, indicating the participation of Cdk5 in ASN toxicity, provide new insight into how extracellular ASN may trigger dopaminergic cell dysfunction in PD.

  16. Preconditioning of Microglia by α-Synuclein Strongly Affects the Response Induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Lachaud, Christian C.; Guilliams, Tim; Fernandez-Montesinos, Rafael; Benitez-Rondan, Alicia; Robledo, Gema; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Delgado, Mario; Dobson, Christopher M.; Pozo, David

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become accepted that α-synuclein (αSyn) has a key role in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which accompanies the development of Parkinson’s disease and other related disorders, such as Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological actions, especially in the sporadic forms of the diseases, are not completely understood. Intriguingly, several epidemiological and animal model studies have revealed a link between certain microbial infections and the onset or progression of sporadic forms of these neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, we have characterized the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation on primary murine microglial cultures and analysed the impact of priming cells with extracellular wild-type (Wt) αSyn on the subsequent TLR stimulation of cells with a set of TLR ligands. By assaying key interleukins and chemokines we report that specific stimuli, in particular Pam3Csk4 (Pam3) and single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA), can differentially affect the TLR2/1- and TLR7-mediated responses of microglia when pre-conditioned with αSyn by augmenting IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2 or IP-10/CXCL10 secretion levels. Furthermore, we report a skewing of αSyn-primed microglia stimulated with ssRNA (TLR7) or Pam3 (TLR2/1) towards intermediate but at the same time differential, M1/M2 phenotypes. Finally, we show that the levels and intracellular location of activated caspase-3 protein change significantly in αSyn-primed microglia after stimulation with these particular TLR agonists. Overall, we report a remarkable impact of non-aggregated αSyn pre-sensitization of microglia on TLR-mediated immunity, a phenomenon that could contribute to triggering the onset of sporadic α-synuclein-related neuropathologies. PMID:24236103

  17. Microglial PHOX and Mac-1 are essential to the enhanced dopaminergic neurodegeneration elicited by A30P and A53T mutant alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Dallas, Shannon; Zhang, Dan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Pang, Hao; Wilson, Belinda; Miller, David S; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Wanqin; McGeer, Patrick L; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Zhang, Jing

    2007-08-15

    alpha-Synuclein, a gene whose mutations, duplication, and triplication has been linked to autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (fPD), appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD (sPD) as well. Enhancement of neurodegeneration induced by mutant alpha-synuclein has been attributed to date largely to faster formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates in neurons. Recently, we reported that microglial activation enhances wild type (WT) alpha-synuclein-elicited dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In the present study, using a primary mesencephalic culture system, we tested whether mutated alpha-synuclein could activate microglia more powerfully than WT alpha-synuclein, thereby contributing to the accelerated neurodegeneration observed in fPD. The results showed that alpha-synuclein with the A30P or A53T mutations caused greater microglial activation than WT alpha-synuclein. Furthermore, the extent of microglial activation paralleled the degree of dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by WT and mutant alpha-synuclein. Mutant alpha-synuclein also induced greater production of reactive oxygen species than WT alpha-synuclein by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and PHOX activation was linked to direct activation of macrophage antigen-1 (Mac-1) receptor, rather than alpha-synuclein internalization via scavenger receptors. These results have, for the first time, demonstrated that microglia are also critical in enhanced neurotoxicity induced by mutant alpha-synuclein. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Nigrostriatal α-synucleinopathy induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein: A new primate model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Deniz; Annett, Lucy E.; Burger, Corinna; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Mandel, Ronald J.; Björklund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    We used a high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to express WT or mutant human α-synuclein in the substantia nigra of adult marmosets. The α-synuclein protein was expressed in 90–95% of all nigral dopamine neurons and distributed by anterograde transport throughout their axonal and dendritic projections. The transduced neurons developed severe neuronal pathology, including α-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and granular deposits; swollen, dystrophic, and fragmented neuritis; and shrunken and pyknotic, densely α-synuclein-positive perikarya. By 16 wk posttransduction, 30–60% of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons were lost, and the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive innervation of the caudate nucleus and putamen was reduced to a similar extent. The rAAV-α-synuclein-treated monkeys developed a type of motor impairment, i.e., head position bias, compatible with this magnitude of nigrostriatal damage. rAAV vector-mediated α-synuclein gene transfer provides a transgenic primate model of nigrostriatal α-synucleinopathy that is of particular interest because it develops slowly over time, like human Parkinson's disease (PD), and expresses neuropathological features (α-synuclein-positive inclusions and dystrophic neurites, in particular) that are similar to those seen in idiopathic PD. This model offers new opportunities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms and exploration of new therapeutic targets of particular relevance to human PD. PMID:12601150

  19. Serotonergic Hallucinogen-Induced Visual Perceptual Alterations.

    PubMed

    Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-11-30

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference"). Subjects may perceive light flashes or geometrical figures containing recurrent patterns ("Elementary imagery and hallucinations") influenced by auditory stimuli ("Audiovisual synesthesia"), or they may envision images of people, animals, or landscapes ("Complex imagery and hallucinations") without any physical stimuli supporting their percepts. This wide assortment of visual phenomena suggests that one single neuropsychopharmacological mechanism is unlikely to explain such vast phenomenological diversity. Starting with mechanisms that act at the cellular level, the key role of 5-HT2A receptor activation and the subsequent increased cortical excitation will be considered. Next, it will be shown that area specific anatomical and dynamical features link increased excitation to the specific visual contents of hallucinations. The decrease of alpha oscillations by hallucinogens will then be introduced as a systemic mechanism for amplifying internal-driven excitation that overwhelms stimulus-induced excitations. Finally, the hallucinogen-induced parallel decrease of the N170 visual evoked potential and increased medial P1 potential will be discussed as key mechanisms for inducing a dysbalance between global integration and early visual gain that may explain several hallucinogen-induced visual experiences, including visual hallucinations, illusions

  20. Triptolide Promotes the Clearance of α-Synuclein by Enhancing Autophagy in Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanzheng; Gong, Xiaoli; Wang, Le; Liu, Mengru; Liu, Yang; Fu, Xia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-03-09

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an aging-associated neurodegenerative disease with a characteristic feature of α-synuclein accumulation. Point mutations (A53T, A30P) that increase the aggregation propensity of α-synuclein result in familial early onset PD. The abnormal metabolism of α-synuclein results in aberrant level changes of α-synuclein in PD. In pathological conditions, α-synuclein is degraded mainly by the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Triptolide (T10) is a monomeric compound isolated from a traditional Chinese herb. Our group demonstrated for the first time that T10 possesses potent neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo PD models. In the present study, we reported T10 as a potent autophagy inducer in neuronal cells, which helped to promote the clearance of various forms of α-synuclein in neuronal cells. We transfected neuronal cells with A53T mutant (A53T) or wild-type (WT) α-synuclein plasmids and found T10 attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by pathogenic A53T α-synuclein overexpression. We observed that T10 significantly reduced both A53T and WT α-synuclein level in neuronal cell line, as well as in primary cultured cortical neurons. Excluding the changes of syntheses, secretion, and aggregation of α-synuclein, we further added autophagy inhibitor or proteasome inhibitor with T10, and we noticed that T10 promoted the clearance of α-synuclein mainly by the autophagic pathway. Lastly, we observed increased autophagy marker LC3-II expression and autophagosomes by GFP-LC3-II accumulation and ultrastructural characterization. However, the lysosome activity and cell viability were not modulated by T10. Our study revealed that T10 could induce autophagy and promote the clearance of both WT and A53T α-synuclein in neurons. These results provide evidence of T10 as a promising mean to treat PD and other neurodegenerative diseases by reducing pathogenic proteins in neurons.

  1. Striatal changes underlie MPEP-mediated suppression of the acquisition and expression of pramipexole-induced place preference in an alpha-synuclein rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loiodice, Simon; McGhan, Portia; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Fleurance, Renaud; Dardou, David; Hafidi, Aziz; Nogueira da Costa, Andre; Durif, Franck

    2017-10-01

    Impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease patients have been described as behavioural or substance addictions including pathological gambling or compulsive medication use of dopamine replacement therapy. A substantial gap remains in the understanding of these disorders. We previously demonstrated that the rewarding effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was enhanced after repeated exposure to L-dopa and alpha-synuclein mediated dopaminergic nigral loss with specific transcriptional signatures suggesting a key involvement of the glutamatergic pathway. Here, we further investigate the therapeutic potential of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonism in Parkinson's disease/dopamine replacement therapy related bias of reward-mediated associative learning. We identified protein changes underlying the striatal remodelling associated with the pramipexole-induced conditioned place preference. Acquisition and expression of the pramipexole-induced conditioned place preference were abolished by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl (pyridine) (conditioned place preference scores obtained with pramipexole conditioning were reduced by 12.5% and 125.8% when 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl (pyridine) was co-administrated with pramipexole or after the pramipexole conditioning, respectively). Up-regulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 was found in the dorsomedial-striatum and nucleus accumbens core. Activation of these two brain sub-regions was also highlighted through FosB immunohistochemistry. Convergent molecular and pharmacological data further suggests metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 as a promising therapeutic target for the management of Parkinson's disease/dopamine replacement therapy related reward bias.

  2. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  3. Peculiarities of copper binding to alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Atta; Burns, Colin S; Fink, Anthony L; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals have been implicated as the causative agents for the pathogenesis of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the toxic effects of metals ranging from metal-induced oxidation of protein to metal-induced changes in the protein conformation. Aggregation of a-synuclein is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and various metals, including copper, constitute a prominent group of alpha-synuclein aggregation enhancers. In this study, we have systematically characterized the a-synuclein-Cu21 binding sites and analyzed the possible role of metal binding in a-synuclein fibrillation using a set of biophysical techniques, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), circular dichroism (CD), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Our analyses indicated that a-synuclein possesses at least two binding sites for Cu21. We have been able to locate one of the binding sites in the N-terminal region. Furthermore, based on the EPR studies of model peptides and Beta-synuclein, we concluded that the suspected His residue did not appear to participate in strong Cu21 binding.

  4. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers: a small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Chi L L; Kirby, Nigel; Wood, Kathleen; Ryan, Timothy; Roberts, Blaine; Sokolova, Anna; Barnham, Kevin J; Masters, Colin L; Knott, Robert B; Cappai, Roberto; Curtain, Cyril C; Rekas, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) forms the amyloid-containing Lewy bodies found in the brain in Parkinson's disease. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) reacts with α-syn to form SDS-resistant soluble, non-amyloid, and melanin-containing oligomers. Their toxicity is debated, as is the nature of their structure and their relation to amyloid-forming conformers of α-syn. The small-angle X-ray scattering technique in combination with modeling by the ensemble optimization method showed that the un-reacted native protein populated three broad classes of conformer, while reaction with DA gave a restricted ensemble range suggesting that the rigid melanin molecule played an important part in their structure. We found that 6 M guanidine hydrochloride did not dissociate α-syn DA-reacted dimers and trimers, suggesting covalent linkages. The pathological significance of covalent association is that if they are non-toxic, the oligomers would act as a sink for toxic excess DA and α-syn; if toxic, their stability could enhance their toxicity. We argue it is essential, therefore, to resolve the question of whether they are toxic or not.

  5. α-Synuclein-induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models.

    PubMed

    Mazzulli, Joseph R; Zunke, Friederike; Isacson, Ole; Studer, Lorenz; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-02-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn). A major barrier in treatment discovery for PD is the lack of identifiable therapeutic pathways capable of reducing aggregates in human neuronal model systems. Mutations in key components of protein trafficking and cellular degradation machinery represent important risk factors for PD; however, their precise role in disease progression and interaction with α-syn remains unclear. Here, we find that α-syn accumulation reduced lysosomal degradation capacity in human midbrain dopamine models of synucleinopathies through disrupting hydrolase trafficking. Accumulation of α-syn at the cell body resulted in aberrant association with cis-Golgi-tethering factor GM130 and disrupted the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi localization of rab1a, a key mediator of vesicular transport. Overexpression of rab1a restored Golgi structure, improved hydrolase trafficking and activity, and reduced pathological α-syn in patient neurons. Our work suggests that enhancement of lysosomal hydrolase trafficking may prove beneficial in synucleinopathies and indicates that human midbrain disease models may be useful for identifying critical therapeutic pathways in PD and related disorders.

  6. Epigenetic upregulation of alpha-synuclein in the rats exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenda; Li, Ji; Zhang, Zhuang; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Zhejian

    2014-12-15

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) increases the risk of occurrence of Parkinson׳s disease (PD) in the individuals. Increased expression of synaptic protein α-synuclein (encoded by gene Snca) is remarkably associated with the neuronal loss and motor dysfunction in the patients with PD. The present study aimed to explore the epigenetic mechanism underlying the altered expression of α-synuclein in substantia nigra in the rats previously exposed to METH. Exposure to METH induced significant behavioral impairments in the rotarod test and open field test, as well as the upregulation of cytokine synthesis in the substantia nigra. Significantly increased expression of α-synuclein was also observed in the substantia nigra in the rats exposed to METH. Further chromatin immunoprecipitation and bisulfite sequencing studies revealed a significantly decreased cytosine methylation in the Snca promoter region in the rats exposed to METH. It was found that the occupancy of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and DNA methyltransferase 1 in Snca promoter region was also significantly decreased in the substantia nigra in the modeled rats. These results advanced our understanding on the mechanism of the increased incidence of PD in the individuals with history use of METH, and shed novel lights on the development of therapeutic approaches for the patients conflicted with this neurological disorder.

  7. alpha-Synuclein misfolding: single molecule AFM force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junping; Malkova, Sarka; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2008-12-26

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are the very first and critical steps in development of various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, induced by misfolding of alpha-synuclein. Thus, elucidating properties of proteins in misfolded states and understanding the mechanisms of their assembly into the disease prone aggregates are critical for the development of rational approaches to prevent protein misfolding-mediated pathologies. To accomplish this goal and as a first step to elucidate the mechanism of alpha-synuclein misfolding, we applied single-molecule force spectroscopy capable of detecting protein misfolding. We immobilized alpha-synuclein molecules at their C-termini at the atomic force microscope tips and substrate surfaces, and measured the interaction between the proteins by probing the microscope tip at various locations on the surface. Using this approach, we detected alpha-synuclein misfolded states by enhanced interprotein interaction. We used a dynamics force spectroscopy approach to measure such an important characteristic of dimers of misfolded alpha-synuclein as their lifetimes. We found that the dimer lifetimes are in the range of seconds and these values are much higher than the characteristics for the dynamics of the protein in monomeric state. These data show that compared to highly dynamic monomeric forms, alpha-synuclein dimers are much more stable and thus can serve as stable nuclei for the formation of multimeric and aggregated forms of alpha-synuclein. Importantly, two different lifetimes were observed for the dimers, suggesting that aggregation can follow different pathways that may lead to different aggregated morphologies of alpha-synuclein.

  8. Differential interaction between iron and mutant alpha-synuclein causes distinctive Parkinsonian phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhou-Jing; Wu, Ka-Chun; Yung, Wing-Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Ke, Ya

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-synuclein aggregation is the central hallmark of both sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with different PD-causing genetic defects of alpha-synuclein usually show distinctive clinical features that are atypical to sporadic PD. Iron accumulation is invariably found in PD. Recent studies showed that mutant and wild-type alpha-synuclein may have differential interaction with iron and mutant alpha-synuclein toxicity could be preferentially exacerbated by iron. We hence hypothesized that iron overload could selectively influence mutant alpha-synuclein toxicity and disease phenotypes. To test the hypothesis, we investigated if Drosophila melanogaster over-expressing A53T, A30P, and wild-type (WT) alpha-synuclein have different responses to iron treatment. We showed that iron treatment induced similar reduction of survival rate in all flies but induced a more severe motor decline in A53T and A30P mutant alpha-synuclein expressing flies, suggesting interaction between mutant alpha-synuclein and iron. Although no significant difference in total head iron content was found among these flies, we demonstrated that iron treatment induced selective DA neuron loss in motor-related PPM3 cluster only in the flies that express A53T and A30P mutant alpha-synuclein. We provided the first in vivo evidence that iron overload could induce distinctive neuropathology and disease phenotypes in mutant but not WT alpha-synuclein expressing flies, providing insights to the cause of clinical features selectively exhibited by mutant alpha-synuclein carriers.

  9. Wild type and P301L mutant Tau promote neuro-inflammation and α-Synuclein accumulation in lentiviral gene delivery models.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Preeti J; Dumanis, Sonya B; Herman, Alexander M; Rebeck, G William; Moussa, Charbel E-H

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegeneration involves multiple pathogenic proteins, including Tau, Aβ, TDP-43 and α-Synuclein, but there is little information how these pathogenic proteins interact. We cloned human wild type 4 repeat Tau (Tau(wt)) and mutant Tau(P301L) into a lentivirus and performed stereotaxic injection into the rat motor cortex to examine Tau modification, neuro-inflammation and changes of other proteins associated with neurodegeneration. Tau(P301L) was associated with more phosphorylation of Tau, including Thr 181 and Ser 262 residues and resulted in more aggregation. Both forms of Tau expression increased glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity, polo-like kinase-2 (PLK2) levels and decreased protein phosphatase activity, but had no effects on casein kinase-1 (CK1). No changes were observed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining with either Tau(wt) or Tau(P301L), but both caused microglial changes and higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Tau(wt) and Tau(P301L) increased the levels of endogenous α-Synuclein, but not β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) or Tar-DNA binding protein (TDP-43). The levels of phosphorylated Ser-129 α-Synuclein (p-Ser129) were also increased with Tau(wt) and Tau(P301L) expressing animals. These data suggest that Tau(wt) and Tau(P301L) alter kinase activities, but they differentially induce inflammation, Tau modification and α-Synuclein phosphorylation. This change of α-Synuclein in Tau gene transfer models suggests that Tau pathology may lead to α-Synuclein modification in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. α-Synuclein Fibrils Exhibit Gain of Toxic Function, Promoting Tau Aggregation and Inhibiting Microtubule Assembly.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Takayuki; Nonaka, Takashi; Terada, Makoto; Tamaoka, Akira; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-07-15

    α-Synuclein is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. It has been suggested that α-synuclein fibrils or intermediate protofibrils in the process of fibril formation may have a toxic effect on neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated the ability of soluble monomeric α-synuclein to promote microtubule assembly and the effects of conformational changes of α-synuclein on Tau-promoted microtubule assembly. In marked contrast to previous findings, monomeric α-synuclein had no effect on microtubule polymerization. However, both α-synuclein fibrils and protofibrils inhibited Tau-promoted microtubule assembly. The inhibitory effect of α-synuclein fibrils was greater than that of the protofibrils. Dot blot overlay assay and spin-down techniques revealed that α-synuclein fibrils bind to Tau and inhibit microtubule assembly by depleting the Tau available for microtubule polymerization. Using various deletion mutants of α-synuclein and Tau, the acidic C-terminal region of α-synuclein and the basic central region of Tau were identified as regions involved in the binding. Furthermore, introduction of α-synuclein fibrils into cultured cells overexpressing Tau protein induced Tau aggregation. These results raise the possibility that α-synuclein fibrils interact with Tau, inhibit its function to stabilize microtubules, and also promote Tau aggregation, leading to dysfunction of neuronal cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. shRNA targeting α-synuclein prevents neurodegeneration in a Parkinson’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Zharikov, Alevtina D.; Cannon, Jason R.; Tapias, Victor; Bai, Qing; Horowitz, Max P.; Shah, Vipul; El Ayadi, Amina; Hastings, Teresa G.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Burton, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple convergent lines of evidence implicate both α-synuclein (encoded by SCNA) and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Occupational exposure to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone increases PD risk; rotenone-exposed rats show systemic mitochondrial defects but develop specific neuropathology, including α-synuclein aggregation and degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Here, we inhibited expression of endogenous α-synuclein in the adult rat substantia nigra by adeno-associated virus–mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the endogenous rat Snca transcript. Knockdown of α-synuclein by ~35% did not affect motor function or cause degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in control rats. However, in rotenone-exposed rats, progressive motor deficits were substantially attenuated contralateral to α-synuclein knockdown. Correspondingly, rotenone-induced degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, their dendrites, and their striatal terminals was decreased ipsilateral to α-synuclein knockdown. These data show that α-synuclein knockdown is neuroprotective in the rotenone model of PD and indicate that endogenous α-synuclein contributes to the specific vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to systemic mitochondrial inhibition. Our findings are consistent with a model in which genetic variants influencing α-synuclein expression modulate cellular susceptibility to environmental exposures in PD patients. shRNA targeting the SNCA transcript should be further evaluated as a possible neuroprotective therapy in PD. PMID:26075822

  12. Dynamic Similarities in Pathological Forms of α-Synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Ryan; Maranas, Janna

    2010-03-01

    The natively unstructured, membrane-bound protein α-synuclein is thought to play a role in vesicle trafficking. Its native function is subverted in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, during which it forms fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates in specific regions in the brain. It is believed that oligomers of α-synuclein are the toxic species, whereas sequestration into fibrils is neuroprotective. Evidence that α-synuclein changes shape as it interacts with membranes suggests that altered dynamics may drive the initial aggregation steps. To test this hypothesis, we conducted separate molecular dynamics simulations of native, mutated, and chemically-damaged forms of α-synuclein, representing the distinct genetic and sporadic causes of the disease. We measured the fractal dimension of individual amino-acid trajectories in order to identify differences in mobility between each simulated protein. Trajectories with higher fractal dimensions are space-filling, and thus correspond to more random, constrained motion; conversely, lower fractal dimensions indicate more directed motions. Although the disease-causing variants of α-synuclein are distinct, they show highly similar dynamical differences from the native form. This suggests that altered dynamics may facilitate oligomerization.

  13. Overexpression of Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Mutation LRRK2 G2019S in Mouse Forebrain Induces Behavioral Deficits and α-Synuclein Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Grima, Jonathan C.; Chen, Guanxing; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified as an unambiguous cause of late-onset, autosomal-dominant familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) and LRRK2 mutations are the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic PD known to date. A number of transgenic mice expressing wild-type or mutant LRRK2 have been described with varying degrees of LRRK2-related abnormalities and modest pathologies. None of these studies directly addressed the role of the kinase domain in the changes observed and none of the mice present with robust features of the human disease. In an attempt to address these issues, we created a conditional LRRK2 G2019S (LRRK2 GS) mutant and a functionally negative control, LRRK2 G2019S/D1994A (LRRK2 GS/DA). Expression of LRRK2 GS or LRRK2 GS/DA was conditionally controlled using the tet-off system in which the presence of tetracycline-transactivator protein (tTA) with a CAMKIIα promoter (CAMKIIα-tTA) induced expression of TetP-LRRK2 GS or TetP-LRRK2 GS/DA in the mouse forebrain. Overexpression of LRRK2 GS in mouse forebrain induced behavioral deficits and α-synuclein pathology in a kinase-dependent manner. Similar to other genetically engineered LRRK2 GS mice, there was no significant loss of dopaminergic neurons. These mice provide an important new tool to study neurobiological changes associated with the increased kinase activity from the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, which may ultimately lead to a better understanding of not only the physiologic actions of LRRK2, but also potential pathologic actions that underlie LRRK2 GS-associated PD. PMID:28321439

  14. Brain propagation of transduced α-synuclein involves non-fibrillar protein species and is enhanced in α-synuclein null mice.

    PubMed

    Helwig, Michael; Klinkenberg, Michael; Rusconi, Raffaella; Musgrove, Ruth E; Majbour, Nour K; El-Agnaf, Omar M A; Ulusoy, Ayse; Di Monte, Donato A

    2016-03-01

    Aggregation and neuron-to-neuron transmission are attributes of α-synuclein relevant to its pathogenetic role in human synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. Intraparenchymal injections of fibrillar α-synuclein trigger widespread propagation of amyloidogenic protein species via mechanisms that require expression of endogenous α-synuclein and, possibly, its structural corruption by misfolded conformers acting as pathological seeds. Here we describe another paradigm of long-distance brain diffusion of α-synuclein that involves inter-neuronal transfer of monomeric and/or oligomeric species and is independent of recruitment of the endogenous protein. Targeted expression of human α-synuclein was induced in the mouse medulla oblongata through an injection of viral vectors into the vagus nerve. Enhanced levels of intra-neuronal α-synuclein were sufficient to initiate its caudo-rostral diffusion that likely involved at least one synaptic transfer and progressively reached specific brain regions such as the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphae and amygdala in the pons, midbrain and forebrain. Transfer of human α-synuclein was compared in two separate lines of α-synuclein-deficient mice versus their respective wild-type controls and, interestingly, lack of endogenous α-synuclein expression did not counteract diffusion but actually resulted in a more pronounced and advanced propagation of exogenous α-synuclein. Self-interaction of adjacent molecules of human α-synuclein was detected in both wild-type and mutant mice. In the former, interaction of human α-synuclein with mouse α-synuclein was also observed and might have contributed to differences in protein transmission. In wild-type and α-synuclein-deficient mice, accumulation of human α-synuclein within recipient axons in the pons, midbrain and forebrain caused morphological evidence of neuritic pathology. Tissue sections from the medulla oblongata and pons were stained with different antibodies recognizing

  15. Deubiquitinase Usp8 regulates α-synuclein clearance and modifies its toxicity in Lewy body disease

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulou, Zoi; Lang, Johannes; Perrett, Rebecca M.; Elschami, Myriam; Hurry, Madeleine E. D.; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Mazaraki, Dimitra; Szabo, Aron; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis; Ansorge, Olaf; Fulga, Tudor A.; Tofaris, George K.

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease, misfolded α-synuclein accumulates, often in a ubiquitinated form, in neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies. An important outstanding question is whether ubiquitination in Lewy bodies is directly relevant to α-synuclein trafficking or turnover and Parkinson’s pathogenesis. By comparative analysis in human postmortem brains, we found that ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Lewy bodies is largely due to K63-linked ubiquitin chains and markedly reduced in the substantia nigra compared with the neocortex. The ubiquitin staining in cells with Lewy bodies inversely correlated with the content and pathological localization of the deubiquitinase Usp8. Usp8 interacted and partly colocalized with α-synuclein in endosomal membranes and, both in cells and after purification, it deubiquitinated K63-linked chains on α-synuclein. Knockdown of Usp8 in the Drosophila eye reduced α-synuclein levels and α-synuclein–induced eye toxicity. Accordingly, in human cells, Usp8 knockdown increased the lysosomal degradation of α-synuclein. In the dopaminergic neurons of the Drosophila model, unlike knockdown of other deubiquitinases, Usp8 protected from α-synuclein–induced locomotor deficits and cell loss. These findings strongly suggest that removal of K63-linked ubiquitin chains on α-synuclein by Usp8 is a critical mechanism that reduces its lysosomal degradation in dopaminergic neurons and may contribute to α-synuclein accumulation in Lewy body disease. PMID:27444016

  16. Localization of synucleins in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Akil, O; Weber, C M; Park, S N; Ninkina, N; Buchman, V; Lustig, L R

    2008-12-01

    Synucleins are widely expressed synaptic proteins within the central nervous system that have been implicated in such neurodegenerative disorders as Parkinson's disease. In this study, an initial characterization of all three synucleins, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein, within the cochlea was undertaken. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated all three synuclein mRNA species within microdissected cochlear tissue. Quantitative PCR suggests that beta-synuclein is the most abundantly expressed form, followed by gamma- and then alpha-synuclein. Western blot analysis similarly demonstrates all three synuclein proteins within microdissected cochlear tissue. Immunofluorescence localizes the three synucleins predominantly to the efferent neuronal system at the efferent outer hair cell synapse, with some additional localization within the efferent tunnel-crossing fibers (alpha- and gamma-synuclein), spiral ganglion (beta-synuclein), inner spiral bundle (gamma-synuclein), and stria vascularis (alpha- > beta-synuclein). Developmentally, gamma-synuclein can be seen in the region of the outer hair cells by E19, while alpha- and beta-synuclein do not clearly appear there until approximately P10. Additional studies in a null-mutant gamma-synuclein mouse show no histological changes in the organ of Corti with normal hair cell and spiral ganglion cell counts, and normal ABR and DPOAE thresholds in wild-type vs mutant littermates. Together, these results localize synucleins to the efferent cholinergic neuronal auditory system, pointing to a role in normal auditory function, and raising the potential implications for their role in auditory neurodegenerative disorders. However, gamma-synuclein alone is not required for the development and maintenance of normal hearing through P21. Whether overlapping roles of the other synucleins help compensate for the loss of gamma-synuclein remains to be determined.

  17. Extracellular α-synuclein induces sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 uncoupled from inhibitory G-protein leaving β-arrestin signal intact

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifang; Okada, Taro; Badawy, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed; Hirai, Chihoko; Kajimoto, Taketoshi; Nakamura, Shun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. The presence of α-synuclein (α-Syn)-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions, known as Lewy bodies, is the cytopathological hallmark of PD. Increasing bodies of evidence suggest that cell-to-cell transmission of α-Syn plays a role in the progression of PD. Although extracellular α-Syn is known to cause abnormal cell motility, the precise mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that impairment of platelet-derived growth factor-induced cell motility caused by extracellular α-Syn is mainly attributed to selective inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signalling. Treatment of human neuroblastoma cells with recombinant α-Syn caused S1P type 1 (S1P1) receptor-selective uncoupling from inhibitory G-protein (Gi) as determined by both functional and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based structural analyses. By contrast, α-Syn caused little or no effect on S1P2 receptor-mediated signalling. Both wild-type and α-Syn(A53T), a mutant found in familiar PD, caused uncoupling of S1P1 receptor, although α-Syn(A53T) showed stronger potency in uncoupling. Moreover, S1P1 receptor-mediated β-arrestin signal was unaltered by α-Syn(A53T). These results suggest that exogenous α-Syn modulates S1P1 receptor-mediated signalling from both Gi and β-arrestin signals into β-arrestin-biased signal. These findings uncovered a novel function of exogenous α-Syn in the cells. PMID:28300069

  18. α-Synuclein Membrane Association Is Regulated by the Rab3a Recycling Machinery and Presynaptic Activity*♦

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert H. C.; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Samuel, Filsy; Visanji, Naomi P.; Zhang, Gang; Marsilio, Diana; Langman, Tammy; Fraser, Paul E.; Tandon, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals α-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An α-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in α-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to the Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated α-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses, including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation, suggested that α-synuclein interacts with membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound α-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDP dissociation inhibitor mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased α-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes α-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDP dissociation inhibitor·Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates α-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity. PMID:23344955

  19. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p

  20. Xylosylated-proteoglycan-induced Golgi alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Y S; Rosenzweig, L J; Jakubowski, M L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside on the Golgi apparatus and proteoglycans (PG) of the renal glomerulus was investigated in an isolated kidney organ perfusion system and monitored by utilizing [35S]sulfate as the PG precursor. By electron microscopy, a selective intracytoplasmic vesiculization of Golgi apparatus of visceral epithelium was observed in the beta-xyloside-treated kidneys. Electron microscopic autoradiography revealed most grains localized to the intracytoplasmic Golgi-derived vesicles, while very few grains were associated with the extracellular matrix membranes. Biochemically, a 2.3-fold increase in cellular matrix and a reduction by a factor of 1.7 in extracellular matrix of [35S]sulfate incorporation was observed. Besides a larger macromolecular form (Kavg = 0.25; Mr = 130,000), lower molecular weight PGs were recovered in the cellular (Kavg = 0.46, Mr = 30,000) and matrical (Kavg = 0.42, Mr = 45,000) compartments after xyloside treatment. The xyloside treatment increased the incorporated radioactivity, mostly included in free glycosaminoglycans and small PGs, in the media fraction by 3.8-fold. These data indicate that xyloside induces a dramatic imbalance in the de novo-synthesized PGs of cellular and extracellular compartments and that cellular accumulation of xylosylated (sulfated) PGs selectively alters the Golgi apparatus of the glomerular epithelial cell, the cell that actively synthesizes PGs. Images PMID:3462708

  1. Mitochondrial dynamics in Parkinson's disease: a role for α-synuclein?

    PubMed

    Pozo Devoto, Victorio M; Falzone, Tomas L

    2017-09-01

    The distinctive pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease are the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons and the intracellular accumulation of Lewy bodies enriched in α-synuclein protein. Several lines of evidence from the study of sporadic, familial and pharmacologically induced forms of human Parkinson's disease also suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in disease progression. Although many functions have been proposed for α-synuclein, emerging data from human and animal models of Parkinson's disease highlight a role for α-synuclein in the control of neuronal mitochondrial dynamics. Here, we review the α-synuclein structural, biophysical and biochemical properties that influence relevant mitochondrial dynamic processes such as fusion-fission, transport and clearance. Drawing on current evidence, we propose that α-synuclein contributes to the mitochondrial defects that are associated with the pathology of this common and progressive neurodegenerative disease. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. α-Synuclein and anti-α-synuclein antibodies in Parkinson's disease, atypical Parkinson syndromes, REM sleep behavior disorder, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lynnae M; Schiess, Mya C; Coffey, Mary P; Klaver, Andrea C; Loeffler, David A

    2012-01-01

    α-synuclein is thought to play a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD) because it is the major protein in Lewy bodies, and because its gene mutations, duplication, and triplication are associated with early-onset PD. There are conflicting reports as to whether serum and plasma concentrations of α-synuclein and anti-α-synuclein antibodies differ between PD and control subjects. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of α-synuclein and its antibodies between individuals with typical PD (n=14), atypical Parkinson syndromes (n=11), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (n=10), and healthy controls (n=9), to assess the strength of association between these serum proteins, and to determine group sizes needed for a high probability (80% power) of detecting statistical significance for 25% or 50% differences between typical PD and control subjects for these measurements. Analysis of log-transformed data found no statistically significant differences between groups for either α-synuclein or its antibodies. The concentrations of these proteins were weakly correlated (Spearman rho=0.16). In subjects with typical PD and atypical Parkinson syndromes, anti-α-synuclein antibody levels above 1.5 µg/ml were detected only in subjects with no more than four years of clinical disease. Power analysis indicated that 236 and 73 samples per group would be required for an 80% probability that 25% and 50% differences, respectively, in mean α-synuclein levels between typical PD and control subjects would be statistically significant; for anti-α-synuclein antibodies, 283 and 87 samples per group would be required. Our findings are consistent with those previous studies which suggested that serum concentrations of α-synuclein and its antibodies are not significantly altered in PD.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of α-mangostin on mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein aggregation in rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xin-Mei; Li, Lian-Da; Duan, Chang-Ling; Li, Yu-Juan

    2017-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of α-mangostin and explore its mechanism in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by rotenone. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone and α-mangostin for 24 h. α-Mangostin significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. The rotenone-induced aggregation of α-synuclein and loss of TH were alleviated by α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment also reversed the rotenone-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species, activation of caspases (-8 and -3) and mitochondrial dysfunction, reflected by decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels. These findings suggest that α-mangostin has neuroprotective effects against PD-related neuronal injury.

  4. α-Synuclein increases β-amyloid secretion by promoting β-/γ-secretase processing of APP

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Hazel L.; Schneider, Bernard L.; Brown, David R.

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is often accompanied by β-amyloid deposition in some neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesised that α-synuclein promotes β-amyloid production from APP. β-Amyloid levels and APP amyloidogenic processing were investigated in neuronal cell lines stably overexpressing wildtype and mutant α-synuclein. γ-Secretase activity and β-secretase expression were also measured. We show that α-synuclein expression induces β-amyloid secretion and amyloidogenic processing of APP in neuronal cell lines. Certain mutations of α-synuclein potentiate APP amyloidogenic processing. γ-Secretase activity was not enhanced by wildtype α-synuclein expression, however β-secretase protein levels were induced. Furthermore, a correlation between α-synuclein and β-secretase protein was seen in rat brain striata. Iron chelation abolishes the effect of α-synuclein on neuronal cell β-amyloid secretion, whereas overexpression of the ferrireductase enzyme Steap3 is robustly pro-amyloidogenic. We propose that α-synuclein promotes β-amyloid formation by modulating β-cleavage of APP, and that this is potentially mediated by the levels of reduced iron and oxidative stress. PMID:28187176

  5. α-Synuclein increases β-amyloid secretion by promoting β-/γ-secretase processing of APP.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hazel L; Schneider, Bernard L; Brown, David R

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is often accompanied by β-amyloid deposition in some neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesised that α-synuclein promotes β-amyloid production from APP. β-Amyloid levels and APP amyloidogenic processing were investigated in neuronal cell lines stably overexpressing wildtype and mutant α-synuclein. γ-Secretase activity and β-secretase expression were also measured. We show that α-synuclein expression induces β-amyloid secretion and amyloidogenic processing of APP in neuronal cell lines. Certain mutations of α-synuclein potentiate APP amyloidogenic processing. γ-Secretase activity was not enhanced by wildtype α-synuclein expression, however β-secretase protein levels were induced. Furthermore, a correlation between α-synuclein and β-secretase protein was seen in rat brain striata. Iron chelation abolishes the effect of α-synuclein on neuronal cell β-amyloid secretion, whereas overexpression of the ferrireductase enzyme Steap3 is robustly pro-amyloidogenic. We propose that α-synuclein promotes β-amyloid formation by modulating β-cleavage of APP, and that this is potentially mediated by the levels of reduced iron and oxidative stress.

  6. DESIPRAMINE INDUCED CHANGES IN THE NOREPINEPRHINE TRANSPORTER, α- AND γ-SYNUCLEIN IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS, AMYGDALA AND STRIATUM

    PubMed Central

    Jeannotte, Alexis M.; McCarthy, John G.; Sidhu, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of depression in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has been well-documented in the clinic; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these overlapping pathologies remain elusive. Using a rodent model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, we previously demonstrated that in the frontal cortex the altered expression and protein interactions of alpha- and gamma-synculein (α-Syn, γ-Syn) were associated with dysregulated trafficking of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Chronic treatment with Desipramine (DMI), a NET-selective antidepressant, caused a disappearance of depressive-like behavior that was accompanied by a change in α-Syn and γ-Syn expression and their trafficking of NET. Using this same model, we examined the expression of NET, α-Syn and γ-Syn in the hippocampus, amygdale, brainstem, and striatum, all regions implicated in the development or maintenance of depression or PD pathology. Following chronic treatment with DMI, we observed a significant decrease in NET in the hippocampus, amygdala, and brainstem; decrease in γ-Syn in the hippocampus and amygdala; and, increase in α-Syn in the hippocampus and amygdala. Unexpectedly, we observed a significant decrease in α-Syn expression in the striatum of the WKY following chronic DMI treatment. The altered expression of NET, α-Syn and γ-Syn in different brain suggest that DMI’s ability to improve depressive-like behavior in a rodent is associated with region-specific changes in the regulation of NET by α- and γ-Syn. PMID:19818834

  7. Suppression of MAPK attenuates neuronal cell death induced by activated glia-conditioned medium in alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yshii, Lidia M; Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Avellar, Maria Christina W; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2015-10-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristics and symptoms that are well defined. Nevertheless, its aetiology remains unknown. PD is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies inside neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a soluble protein present in the pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. Evidence suggests that α-syn has a fundamental role in PD pathogenesis, given that it is an important component of Lewy bodies localized in the dopaminergic neurons of PD patients. In the present study, we investigated the influence of wild type (WT) and A30P α-syn overexpression on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y toxicity induced by the conditioned medium (CM) from primary cultures of glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. We observed that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show evidence of cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB inhibition by sodium salicylate or by blockage of P50 (NF-κB subunit). Furthermore, the expression of A30P α-syn in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y decreases the cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia versus WT α-syn or control group. This effect of A30P α-syn may be due to the low MAPK42/44 phosphorylation. This finding is substantiated by MEK1 inhibition by PD98059, decreasing LDH release by CM in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB blockage. Additionally, the expression of A30P α-syn on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y leads to decreased cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia, when compared to WT α-syn or control group. The mechanism underlying this process remains to be completely elucidated, but the present data suggest that MAPK42/44 phosphorylation plays an important role in this process. CRD42015020829.

  8. Enhanced ubiquitin-dependent degradation by Nedd4 protects against α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity in animal models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sian E.; Hallett, Penelope J.; Moens, Thomas; Smith, Gaynor; Mangano, Emily; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Liu, Ji-Long; Isacson, Ole; Tofaris, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by accumulation and misfolding of α-synuclein. Although the level of α-synuclein in neurons is fundamentally linked to the onset of neurodegeneration, multiple pathways have been implicated in its degradation, and it remains unclear which are the critical ubiquitination enzymes that protect against α-synuclein accumulation in vivo. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 targets α-synuclein to the endosomal–lysosomal pathway in cultured cells. Here we asked whether Nedd4-mediated degradation protects against α-synuclein-induced toxicity in the Drosophila and rodent models of Parkinson's disease. We show that overexpression of Nedd4 can rescue the degenerative phenotype from ectopic expression of α-synuclein in the Drosophila eye. Overexpressed Nedd4 in the Drosophila brain prevented the α-synuclein-induced locomotor defect whereas reduction in endogenous Nedd4 by RNAi led to worsening motor function and increased loss of dopaminergic neurons. Accordingly, AAV-mediated expression of wild-type but not the catalytically inactive Nedd4 decreased the α-synuclein-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the rat substantia nigra and reduced α-synuclein accumulation. Collectively, our data in two evolutionarily distant model organisms strongly suggest that Nedd4 is a modifier of α-synuclein pathobiology and thus a potential target for neuroprotective therapies. PMID:24388974

  9. A prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor, KYP-2047, reduces α-synuclein protein levels and aggregates in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Myöhänen, TT; Hannula, MJ; Van Elzen, R; Gerard, M; Van Der Veken, P; García-Horsman, JA; Baekelandt, V; Männistö, PT; Lambeir, AM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aggregation of α-synuclein is connected to the pathology of Parkinson's disease and prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) accelerates the aggregation of α-synuclein in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, on α-synuclein aggregation in cell lines overexpressing wild-type or A30P/A53T mutant human α-syn and in the brains of two A30P α-synuclein transgenic mouse strains. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cells were exposed to oxidative stress and then incubated with the PREP inhibitor during or after the stress. Wild-type or transgenic mice were treated for 5 days with KYP-2047 (2 × 3 mg·kg−1 a day). Besides immunohistochemistry and thioflavin S staining, soluble and insoluble α-synuclein protein levels were measured by Western blot. α-synuclein mRNA levels were quantified by PCR. The colocalization of PREP and α-synuclein,and the effect of KYP-2047 on cell viability were also investigated. KEY RESULTS In cell lines, oxidative stress induced a robust aggregation of α-synuclein,and low concentrations of KYP-2047 significantly reduced the number of cells with α-synuclein inclusions while abolishing the colocalization of α-synuclein and PREP. KYP-2047 significantly reduced the amount of aggregated α-synuclein,and it had beneficial effects on cell viability. In the transgenic mice, a 5-day treatment with the PREP inhibitor reduced the amount of α-synuclein immunoreactivity and soluble α-synuclein protein in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results suggest that the PREP may play a role in brain accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein, while KYP-2047 seems to effectively prevent these processes. PMID:22233220

  10. Mechanistic study of the inhibitory activity of Geum urbanum extract against α-Synuclein fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lobbens, Eva S; Breydo, Leonid; Skamris, Thomas; Vestergaard, Bente; Jäger, Anna K; Jorgensen, Lene; Uversky, Vladimir; van de Weert, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is a major pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease and is hypothesized to be linked to disease development, although this is not yet conclusive. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites primarily consist of fibrillated α-Synuclein; yet, there is no treatment available targeting stabilization of α-Synuclein in its native state. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of an ethanolic extract of Geum urbanum against α-Synuclein fibrillation and examine the structural changes of α-Synuclein in the presence of the extract. The anti-fibrillation and anti-aggregation activities of the plant extract were monitored by thioflavin T fibrillation assays and size exclusion chromatography, while structural changes were followed by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence, small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Since the extract is a complex mixture, structure-function relationships could not be determined. Under the experimental conditions investigated, Geum urbanum was found to inhibit α-Synuclein fibrillation in a concentration dependent way, and to partly disintegrate preformed α-Synuclein fibrils. Based on the structural changes of α-Synuclein in the presence of extract, we propose that Geum urbanum delays α-Synuclein fibrillation either by reducing the fibrillation ability of one or more of the aggregation prone intermediates or by directing α-Synuclein aggregation towards a non-fibrillar state. However, whether these alterations of the fibrillation pathway lead to less pathogenic species is yet to be determined.

  11. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape.

    PubMed

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A

    2012-10-30

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to test the counteraction hypothesis of counterbalancing effects between the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and denaturing osmolyte urea for the case of α-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease-linked protein whose monomer exhibits significant disorder. The single-molecule experiments, which avoid complications from protein aggregation, do not exhibit clear solvent-induced cooperative protein transitions for these osmolytes, unlike results from previous studies on globular proteins. Our data demonstrate the ability of TMAO and urea to shift α-synuclein structures towards either more compact or expanded average dimensions. Strikingly, the experiments directly reveal that a 21 [urea][TMAO] ratio has a net neutral effect on the protein's dimensions, a result that holds regardless of the absolute osmolyte concentrations. Our findings shed light on a surprisingly simple aspect of the interplay between urea and TMAO on α-synuclein in the context of intrinsically disordered proteins, with potential implications for the biological roles of such chemical chaperones. The results also highlight the strengths of single-molecule experiments in directly probing the chemical physics of protein structure and disorder in more chemically complex environments.

  12. Interaction of LRRK2 and α-Synuclein in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daher, João Paulo Lima

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative syndrome. It is best described as a movement disorder characterized by motor dysfunctions, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, and abnormal intraneuronal protein aggregates, named Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Nevertheless, knowledge of the molecular events leading to this pathophysiology is incomplete. To date, only mutations in the α-synuclein and LRRK2-encoding genes have been associated with typical findings of clinical and pathologic PD. LRRK2 appears to have a central role in the pathogenesis of PD as it is associated with α-synuclein pathology and other proteins implicated in neurodegeneration. Thus, LRRK2 dysfunction may influence the accumulation of α-synuclein and its pathology through diverse pathomechanisms altering cellular functions and signaling pathways, including immune system, autophagy, vesicle trafficking, and retromer complex modulation. Consequently, development of novel LRRK2 inhibitors can be justified to treat the neurodegeneration associated with abnormal α-synuclein accumulation.

  13. Non-cell-autonomous Neurotoxicity of α-synuclein Through Microglial Toll-like Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changyoun; Lee, He-Jin; Masliah, Eliezer; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-06-01

    Synucleinopathies are a collection of neurological diseases that are characterized by deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glia. These diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Although it has been increasingly clear that α-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and other synucleinopathies, the precise mechanism underlying the disease process remains to be unraveled. The past studies on how α-synuclein exerts pathogenic actions have focused on its direct, cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects. However, recent findings suggested that there might be indirect, non-cell-autonomous pathways, perhaps through the changes in glial cells, for the pathogenic actions of this protein. Here, we present evidence that α-synuclein can cause neurodegeneration through a non-cell-autonomous manner. We show that α-synuclein can be secreted from neurons and induces inflammatory responses in microglia, which in turn secreted neurotoxic agents into the media causing neurodegeneration. The neurotoxic response of microglia was mediated by activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a receptor for neuron-derived α-synuclein. This work suggests that TLR2 is the key molecule that mediates non-cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects of α-synuclein, hence a candidate for the therapeutic target.

  14. New Roles of Glycosaminoglycans in α-Synuclein Aggregation in a Cellular Model of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lehri-Boufala, Sonia; Ouidja, Mohand-Ouidir; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; Hénault, Emilie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Morin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The causes of Parkinson disease (PD) remain mysterious, although some evidence supports mitochondrial dysfunctions and α-synuclein accumulation in Lewy bodies as major events. The abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein has been associated with a deficiency in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Cathepsin D (cathD), the major lysosomal protease responsible of α-synuclein degradation was described to be up-regulated in PD model. As glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate cathD activity, and have been recently suggested to participate in PD physiopathology, we investigated their role in α-synuclein accumulation by their intracellular regulation of cathD activity. In a classical neuroblastoma cell model of PD induced by MPP+, the genetic expression of GAGs-biosynthetic enzymes was modified, leading to an increase of GAGs amounts whereas intracellular level of α-synuclein increased. The absence of sulfated GAGs increased intracellular cathD activity and limited α-synuclein accumulation. GAGs effects on cathD further suggested that specific sequences or sulfation patterns could be responsible for this regulation. The present study identifies, for the first time, GAGs as new regulators of the lysosome degradation pathway, regulating cathD activity and affecting two main biological processes, α-synuclein aggregation and apoptosis. Finally, this opens new insights into intracellular GAGs functions and new fields of investigation for glycobiological approaches in PD and neurobiology. PMID:25617759

  15. A molecular pathway of neurodegeneration linking alpha-synuclein to ApoE and Abeta peptides.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Gilbert; Schlüter, Oliver M; Südhof, Thomas C

    2008-03-01

    Pathogenic aggregates of alpha-synuclein are thought to contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. Inclusion bodies containing alpha-synuclein are present in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, alpha-synuclein mutations are found in cases of familial Parkinson's disease, and transgenic overexpression of alpha-synuclein causes neurodegeneration in mice. The molecular mechanisms involved, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we show that, in transgenic mice, alpha-synuclein induced neurodegeneration involves activation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system, a massive increase in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels and accumulation of insoluble mouse Abeta. ApoE was not protective, but was injurious, as deletion of ApoE delayed the neurodegeneration caused by alpha-synuclein and suppressed the accumulation of Abeta. Our data reveal a molecular link between central pathogenic mechanisms implicated in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and suggest that intracellular alpha-synuclein is pathogenic, at least in part, by activation of extracellular signaling pathways involving ApoE.

  16. New roles of glycosaminoglycans in α-synuclein aggregation in a cellular model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Lehri-Boufala, Sonia; Ouidja, Mohand-Ouidir; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; Hénault, Emilie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Morin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The causes of Parkinson disease (PD) remain mysterious, although some evidence supports mitochondrial dysfunctions and α-synuclein accumulation in Lewy bodies as major events. The abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein has been associated with a deficiency in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Cathepsin D (cathD), the major lysosomal protease responsible of α-synuclein degradation was described to be up-regulated in PD model. As glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate cathD activity, and have been recently suggested to participate in PD physiopathology, we investigated their role in α-synuclein accumulation by their intracellular regulation of cathD activity. In a classical neuroblastoma cell model of PD induced by MPP+, the genetic expression of GAGs-biosynthetic enzymes was modified, leading to an increase of GAGs amounts whereas intracellular level of α-synuclein increased. The absence of sulfated GAGs increased intracellular cathD activity and limited α-synuclein accumulation. GAGs effects on cathD further suggested that specific sequences or sulfation patterns could be responsible for this regulation. The present study identifies, for the first time, GAGs as new regulators of the lysosome degradation pathway, regulating cathD activity and affecting two main biological processes, α-synuclein aggregation and apoptosis. Finally, this opens new insights into intracellular GAGs functions and new fields of investigation for glycobiological approaches in PD and neurobiology.

  17. G2019S-LRRK2 Expression Augments α-Synuclein Sequestration into Inclusions in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmotilib, Hisham; Liu, Zhiyong; Stoyka, Lindsay; Daher, João Paulo Lima; Milnerwood, Austen J.; Unni, Vivek K.; Hirst, Warren D.; Yue, Zhenyu; Zhao, Hien T.; Fraser, Kyle; Kennedy, Richard E.; West, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic inclusions define α-synucleinopathies that include Parkinson's disease (PD). The most common genetic cause of PD is the G2019S LRRK2 mutation that upregulates LRRK2 kinase activity. However, the interaction between α-synuclein, LRRK2, and the formation of α-synuclein inclusions remains unclear. Here, we show that G2019S-LRRK2 expression, in both cultured neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compact, increases the recruitment of endogenous α-synuclein into inclusions in response to α-synuclein fibril exposure. This results from the expression of mutant G2019S-LRRK2, as overexpression of WT-LRRK2 not only does not increase formation of inclusions but reduces their abundance. In addition, treatment of primary mouse neurons with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, PF-06447475 and MLi-2, blocks G2019S-LRRK2 effects, suggesting that the G2019S-LRRK2 potentiation of inclusion formation depends on its kinase activity. Overexpression of G2019S-LRRK2 slightly increases, whereas WT-LRRK2 decreases, total levels of α-synuclein. Knockdown of total α-synuclein with potent antisense oligonucleotides substantially reduces inclusion formation in G2019S-LRRK2-expressing neurons, suggesting that LRRK2 influences α-synuclein inclusion formation by altering α-synuclein levels. These findings support the hypothesis that G2019S-LRRK2 may increase the progression of pathological α-synuclein inclusions after the initial formation of α-synuclein pathology by increasing a pool of α-synuclein that is more susceptible to forming inclusions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT α-Synuclein inclusions are found in the brains of patients with many different neurodegenerative diseases. Point mutation, duplication, or triplication of the α-synuclein gene can all cause Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S mutation in LRRK2 is the most common known genetic cause of PD. The interaction between G2019S-LRRK2 and α-synuclein may uncover new mechanisms and targets for

  18. α-Synuclein: The Long Distance Runner

    PubMed Central

    George, Sonia; Rey, Nolwen L; Reichenbach, Nicole; Steiner, Jennifer A; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by α-synuclein pathology in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Braak et al described the spatial and temporal spread of α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that α-synuclein can transfer from cell to cell. In this review, we highlight the involvement of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and in Braak's staging of Parkinson's disease pathology. We discuss whether a prion-like mechanism of α-synuclein spread might contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. We describe recent studies investigating cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and focus our review on the long-distance axonal transport of α-synuclein along neurons. PMID:23587141

  19. α-Synuclein: the long distance runner.

    PubMed

    George, Sonia; Rey, Nolwen L; Reichenbach, Nicole; Steiner, Jennifer A; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by α-synuclein pathology in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Braak et al described the spatial and temporal spread of α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that α-synuclein can transfer from cell to cell. In this review, we highlight the involvement of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and in Braak's staging of Parkinson's disease pathology. We discuss whether a prion-like mechanism of α-synuclein spread might contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. We describe recent studies investigating cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and focus our review on the long-distance axonal transport of α-synuclein along neurons. © 2013 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2013 International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor Is Reduced in -Synuclein Overexpressing Models of Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, Carmela; Dzamko, Nicolas; Madsen, Peder; Nyegaard, Mette; Pohlmann, Regina; Søndergaard, Rikke V.; Lassen, Louise B.; Andresen, Thomas L.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Jensen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to defects in autophagy as a common denominator in most neurodegenerative conditions. Progressive functional decline in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) occurs with age, and the consequent impairment in protein processing capacity has been associated with a higher risk of neurodegeneration. Defects in cathepsin D (CD) processing and α-synuclein degradation causing its accumulation in lysosomes are particularly relevant for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanism by which alterations in CD maturation and α-synuclein degradation leads to autophagy defects in PD neurons is still uncertain. Here we demonstrate that MPR300 shuttling between endosomes and the trans Golgi network is altered in α-synuclein overexpressing neurons. Consequently, CD is not correctly trafficked to lysosomes and cannot be processed to generate its mature active form, leading to a reduced CD-mediated α-synuclein degradation and α-synuclein accumulation in neurons. MPR300 is downregulated in brain from α-synuclein overexpressing animal models and in PD patients with early diagnosis. These data indicate MPR300 as crucial player in the autophagy-lysosomal dysfunctions reported in PD and pinpoint MRP300 as a potential biomarker for PD. PMID:27509067

  1. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Adam W; Frankfurt, Maya; Finkelstein, David I; Sidhu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  2. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  3. Induction of α-synuclein aggregate formation by CSF exosomes from patients with Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Stuendl, Anne; Kunadt, Marcel; Kruse, Niels; Bartels, Claudia; Moebius, Wiebke; Danzer, Karin M.; Mollenhauer, Brit

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular α-synuclein has been proposed as a crucial mechanism for induction of pathological aggregate formation in previously healthy cells. In vitro, extracellular α-synuclein is partially associated with exosomal vesicles. Recently, we have provided evidence that exosomal α-synuclein is present in the central nervous system in vivo. We hypothesized that exosomal α-synuclein species from patients with α-synuclein related neurodegeneration serve as carriers for interneuronal disease transmission. We isolated exosomes from cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy as a non-α-synuclein related disorder that clinically overlaps with Parkinson’s disease, and neurological controls. Cerebrospinal fluid exosome numbers, α-synuclein protein content of cerebrospinal fluid exosomes and their potential to induce oligomerization of α-synuclein were analysed. The quantification of cerebrospinal fluid exosomal α-synuclein showed distinct differences between patients with Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. In addition, exosomal α-synuclein levels correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment in cross-sectional samples from patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Importantly, cerebrospinal fluid exosomes derived from Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies induce oligomerization of α-synuclein in a reporter cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest that cerebrospinal fluid exosomes from patients with Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies contain a pathogenic species of α-synuclein, which could initiate oligomerization of soluble α-synuclein in target cells and confer disease pathology. PMID:26647156

  4. Self-oligomerization and protein aggregation of alpha-synuclein in the presence of Coomassie Brilliant Blue.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Lee, E K; Lee, J H; Chang, C S; Paik, S R

    2001-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, by its participation in abnormal protein depositions. As the protein has been suggested to play a significant role in the formation of the deposits which might be responsible for neurodegeneration, there is a strong demand to screen for alpha-synuclein-interactive small molecules. In this report, Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) interaction of alpha-synuclein has been investigated with respect to induction of protein self-oligomerization in the presence of the chemical coupling reagent N-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline. Both CBB-G and CBB-R, which differ by only two methyl groups, induced the self-oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in a biphasic manner with optimal dye concentrations of 250 microM and 150 microM, respectively. The protein aggregates of alpha-synuclein induced by the dyes in the absence of the coupling reagent were analysed by electron microscopy. Whereas CBB-G induced formation of protein aggregates with a worm-like structure, CBB-R induced clear fibrilization of alpha-synuclein on a background of granular structures. CBB-R interacted with alpha-synuclein approximately twice as effectively as CBB-G (dissociation constants 0.63 microM and 1.37 microM, respectively). These dye interactions were independent from the acidic C-terminus of alpha-synuclein, which was reminiscent of the Alphabeta25-35 interaction of alpha-synuclein. However, the metal-catalysed oxidative self-oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in the presence of Cu2+/H2O2, which was augmented synergistically by Alphabeta25-35, was not affected by the dyes. This indicates that the dye binding site is also distinctive from the Alphabeta25-35 interaction site on alpha-synuclein. These biochemically specific interactions between alpha-synuclein and the dyes indicate that alpha-synuclein-interactive small molecules could provide a tool with which to approach

  5. Ultrastructural hepatocytic alterations induced by silver nanoparticle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Almansour, Mansour; Sajti, Laszlo; Melhim, Walid; Jarrar, Bashir M

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in nanomedicine and consuming products with potential risk to human health. While considerable work was carried out on the molecular, biochemical, and physiological alterations induced by these particles, little is known of the ultrastructural pathological alterations that might be induced by nanosilver materials. The aim of the present work is to investigate the hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations that might be induced by SNP exposure. Male rats were subjected to a daily single dose (2 mg/kg) of SNPs (15-35 nm diameter) for 21 days. Liver biopsies from all rats under study were processed for transmission electron microscopy examination. The following hepatic ultrastructural alterations were demonstrated: mitochondria swelling and crystolysis, endoplasmic reticulum disruption, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid droplets accumulation, glycogen depletion, karyopyknosis, apoptosis, sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cells activation, and myelin figures formation. The current findings may indicate that SNPs can induce hepatocyte organelles alteration, leading to cellular damage that may affect the function of the liver. These findings might indicate that SNPs potentially trigger heptocyte ultrastructural alterations that may affect the function of the liver with potential risk on human health in relation to numerous applications of these particles. More work is needed to elucidate probable ultrastructural alterations in the vital organs that might result from nanosilver toxicity.

  6. Efavirenz Induces Neuronal Autophagy and Mitochondrial Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor in wide use for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although EFV is generally well tolerated, neuropsychiatric toxicity has been well documented. The toxic effects of EFV in hepatocytes and keratinocytes have been linked to mitochondrial perturbations and changes in autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of EFV on mitochondria and autophagy in neuronal cell lines and primary neurons. In SH-SY5Y cells, EFV induced a drop in ATP production, which coincided with increased autophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial depolarization. EFV-induced mitophagy was also detected by colocalization of mitochondria and autophagosomes and use of an outer mitochondrial membrane tandem fluorescent vector. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine increased the cytotoxic effect of EFV, suggesting that autophagy promotes cell survival. EFV also reduces ATP production in primary neurons, induces autophagy, and changes mitochondrial morphology. Overall, EFV is able to acutely induce autophagy and mitochondrial changes in neurons. These changes may be involved in the mechanism leading to central nervous system toxicity observed in clinical EFV use. PMID:25161171

  7. Altered ion channel formation by the Parkinson's-disease-linked E46K mutant of alpha-synuclein is corrected by GM3 but not by GM1 gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Fantini, Jacques; Chahinian, Henri; Maresca, Marc; Taïeb, Nadira; Yahi, Nouara

    2010-03-19

    Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is an amyloidogenic protein that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The ability of alpha-syn oligomers to form ionic channels is postulated as a channelopathy mechanism in human brain. Here we identified a ganglioside-binding domain in alpha-syn (fragment 34-50), which includes the mutation site 46 linked to a familial form of PD (E46K). We show that this fragment is structurally related to the common glycosphingolipid-binding domain (GBD) shared by various microbial and amyloid proteins, including Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide. alpha-Syn GBD interacts with several glycosphingolipids but has a marked preference for GM3, a minor brain ganglioside whose expression increases with aging. The alpha-syn mutant E46K has a stronger affinity for GM3 than the wild-type protein, and the interaction is inhibited by 3'-sialyllactose (the glycone part of GM3). Alanine substitutions of Lys34 and Tyr39 in synthetic GBD peptides resulted in limited interaction with GM3, demonstrating the critical role of these residues in GM3 recognition. When incubated with reconstituted phosphatidylcholine bilayers, the E46K protein formed channels that are five times less conductive than those formed by wild-type alpha-syn, exhibit a higher selectivity for cations, and present an asymmetrical response to voltage and nonstop single-channel activity. This E46K-associated channelopathy was no longer observed when GM3 was present in phosphatidylcholine bilayers. This corrective effect was highly specific for GM3, since it was not obtained with the major brain ganglioside GM1 but was still detected in bilayer membranes containing both GM3 and GM1. Moreover, synthetic GBD peptides prevented the interaction of alpha-syn proteins with GM3, thus abolishing the regulatory effects of GM3 on alpha-syn-mediated channel formation. Overall, these data show that GM3 can specifically regulate alpha-syn-induced channel formation and raise the

  8. Laser-induced alteration of contaminated papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, P.; Ligterink, F. J.; Pedersoli, J. L., Jr.; Scholten, H.; Schipper, D.; Havermans, J. B. G. A.; Aziz, H. A.; Quillet, V.; Kraan, M.; van Beek, B.; Corr, S.; Hua-Ströfer, H.-Y.; Stokmans, J.; Dalen, P. van; Kautek, W.

    Cleaning of paper objects represents one of the most complex cases of laser ablation, since low volumes of dispersed material phases are evaporated while a sensitive and fragile fibrous organic matrix has to be preserved. Conventional chemical and mechanical cleaning methods suffer from the common phenomenon that the foreign matter is diluted into the substrate rather than removed. The application of a laser beam allows highly localized and optically specific interaction. However, the occurrence of extreme temperatures and light intensities may cause irreversible alteration of the paper matrix. Further, incomplete removal and/or chemical conversion of contaminations may result in insufficient cleaning or affect the ageing behaviour. Laser treatments were performed by Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at three wavelengths (355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm). Papers contaminated with inks and adhesive-tape remnants served as model samples. Multispectral imaging and colorimetric results served to quantify and systematize the results.

  9. Mitochondrial translocation of α-synuclein is promoted by intracellular acidification

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nelson B.; DiEuliis, Diane; Leo, Paul; Mitchell, Drake C.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the selective vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Expression of the PD protein α-synuclein or its familial mutants often sensitizes neurons to oxidative stress and to damage by mitochondrial toxins. This effect is thought to be indirect, since little evidence physically linking α-synuclein to mitochondria has been reported. Here, we show that the distribution of α-synuclein within neuronal and non-neuronal cells is dependent on intracellular pH. Cytosolic acidification induces translocation of α-synuclein from the cytosol onto the surface of mitochondria. Translocation occurs rapidly under artificially-induced low pH conditions and as a result of pH changes during oxidative or metabolic stress. Binding is likely facilitated by low pH-induced exposure of the mitochondria-specific lipid cardiolipin. These results imply a direct role for α-synuclein in mitochondrial physiology, especially under pathological conditions, and in principle, link α-synuclein to other PD genes in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:18440504

  10. Spermidine protects against α-synuclein neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Sabrina; Broeskamp, Filomena; Sommer, Cornelia; Markaki, Maria; Habernig, Lukas; Alavian-Ghavanini, Ali; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Eisenberg, Tobias; Michael, Eva; Kroemer, Guido; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Sigrist, Stephan J; Madeo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    As our society ages, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson`s disease (PD) are increasing in pandemic proportions. While mechanistic understanding of PD is advancing, a treatment with well tolerable drugs is still elusive. Here, we show that administration of the naturally occurring polyamine spermidine, which declines continuously during aging in various species, alleviates a series of PD-related degenerative processes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, two established model systems for PD pathology. In the fruit fly, simple feeding with spermidine inhibited loss of climbing activity and early organismal death upon heterologous expression of human α-synuclein, which is thought to be the principal toxic trigger of PD. In this line, administration of spermidine rescued α-synuclein-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, a hallmark of PD, in nematodes. Alleviation of PD-related neurodegeneration by spermidine was accompanied by induction of autophagy, suggesting that this cytoprotective process may be responsible for the beneficial effects of spermidine administration. PMID:25483063

  11. GDNF fails to exert neuroprotection in a rat α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Decressac, Mickael; Ulusoy, Ayse; Mattsson, Bengt; Georgievska, Biljana; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders

    2011-08-01

    The neuroprotective effect of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor has been extensively studied in various toxic models of Parkinson's disease. However, it remains unclear whether this neurotrophic factor can protect against the toxicity induced by the aggregation-prone protein α-synuclein. Targeted overexpression of human wild-type α-synuclein in the nigrostriatal system, using adeno-associated viral vectors, causes a progressive degeneration of the nigral dopamine neurons and the development of axonal pathology in the striatum. In the present study, we investigated, using different paradigms of delivery, whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor can protect against the neurodegenerative changes and the cellular stress induced by α-synuclein. We found that viral vector-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into substantia nigra and/or striatum, administered 2-3 weeks before α-synuclein, was inefficient in preventing the wild-type α-synuclein-induced loss of dopamine neurons and terminals. In addition, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression did not ameliorate the behavioural deficit in this rat model of Parkinson's disease. Quantification of striatal α-synuclein-positive aggregates revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor had no effect on α-synuclein aggregation. These data provide the evidence for the lack of neuroprotective effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against the toxicity of human wild-type α-synuclein in an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease. The difference in neuroprotective efficacy of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor seen in our model and the commonly used neurotoxin models of Parkinson's disease, raises important issues pertinent to the interpretation of the results obtained in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease, and their relevance for the therapeutic use glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with

  12. α-Synuclein binds and sequesters PIKE-L into Lewy bodies, triggering dopaminergic cell death via AMPK hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Zhang, Zhentao; Liu, Xia; Manfredsson, Fredric P; He, Li; Iuvone, P Michael; Cao, Xuebing; Sun, Yi E; Jin, Lingjing; Ye, Keqiang

    2017-01-31

    The abnormal aggregation of fibrillar α-synuclein in Lewy bodies plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating α-synuclein pathological effects are incompletely understood. Here we show that α-synuclein binds phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and sequesters it in Lewy bodies, leading to dopaminergic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) hyperactivation. α-Synuclein interacts with PIKE-L, an AMPK inhibitory binding partner, and this action is increased by S129 phosphorylation through AMPK and is decreased by Y125 phosphorylation via Src family kinase Fyn. A pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in PIKE-L directly binds α-synuclein and antagonizes its aggregation. Accordingly, PIKE-L overexpression decreases dopaminergic cell death elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), whereas PIKE-L knockdown elevates α-synuclein oligomerization and cell death. The overexpression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or α-synuclein induces greater dopaminergic cell loss and more severe motor defects in PIKE-KO and Fyn-KO mice than in wild-type mice, and these effects are attenuated by the expression of dominant-negative AMPK. Hence, our findings demonstrate that α-synuclein neutralizes PIKE-L's neuroprotective actions in synucleinopathies, triggering dopaminergic neuronal death by hyperactivating AMPK.

  13. Dysregulated dopamine storage increases the vulnerability to α-synuclein in nigral neurons.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ayse; Björklund, Tomas; Buck, Kerstin; Kirik, Deniz

    2012-09-01

    Impairments in the capacity of dopaminergic neurons to handle cytoplasmic dopamine may be a critical factor underlying the selective vulnerability of midbrain dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, toxicity of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons has been suggested to be mediated by direct interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein through formation of abnormal α-synuclein species, although direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we investigated the role of dopamine availability on α-synuclein mediated neurodegeneration in vivo. We found that overexpression of α-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons in mice with deficient vesicular storage of dopamine led to a significant increase in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Importantly, silencing the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme - thereby reducing dopamine content in the nigral neurons - reversed the increased vulnerability back to the baseline level observed in wild-type littermates, but failed to eliminate it completely. Importantly, TH knockdown was not effective in altering the toxicity in the wild-type animals. Taken together, our data suggest that under normal circumstances, in healthy dopamine neurons, cytoplasmic dopamine is tightly controlled such that it does not contribute significantly to α-synuclein mediated toxicity. Dysregulation of the dopamine machinery in the substantia nigra, on the other hand, could act as a trigger for induction of increased toxicity in these neurons and could explain how these neurons become more vulnerable and die in the disease process.

  14. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Coretti, Lorena; Pero, Raffaela; Lembo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types.

  15. Cerebrospinal Fluid α-Synuclein Predicts Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease Progression in the DATATOP Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Tessandra; Liu, Changqin; Ginghina, Carmen; Cain, Kevin C.; Auinger, Peggy; Cholerton, Brenna; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develop both cognitive and motor impairment, and biomarkers for progression are urgently needed. Although α-synuclein is altered in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD, it is not known whether it predicts motor or cognitive deterioration. We examined clinical data and α-synuclein in >300 unmedicated patients with PD who participated in the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, with up to 8 years of follow-up. Longitudinal measures of motor and cognitive function were studied before (phase 1) and during (phase 2) levodopa therapy; cerebrospinal fluid was collected at the beginning of each phase. Correlations and linear mixed models were used to assess α-synuclein association with disease severity and prediction of progression in the subsequent follow-up period. Despite decreasing α-synuclein (phase 1 to phase 2 change of −0.05 ± 0.21 log-transformed values, P < 0.001), no correlations were observed between α-synuclein and motor symptoms. Longitudinally, lower α-synuclein predicted better preservation of cognitive function by several measures [Selective Reminding Test total recall α-synuclein × time interaction effect coefficient, −0.12 (P = 0.037); delayed recall, −0.05 (P = 0.002); New Dot Test, −0.03 (P = 0.002)]. Thus, α-synuclein, although not clinically useful for motor progression, might predict cognitive decline, and future longitudinal studies should include this outcome for further validation. PMID:24625392

  16. Microtubule Depolymerization Potentiates Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, A. Raquel; Arduíno, Daniela M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Cardoso, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondria function and alpha-synuclein fibrillization. We evaluated potential mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We studied a PD cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line in which platelet mitochondria from a PD subject were transferred to NT2 neuronal cells previously depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. Compared to a control cybrid cell line, the PD line showed reduced ATP levels, an increased free/polymerized tubulin ratio, and alpha-synuclein oligomer accumulation. Taxol (which stabilizes microtubules) normalized the PD tubulin ratio and reduced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. A nexus exists between mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton homeostasis, and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. In our model, mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an increased free tubulin, which destabilizes the microtubular network and promotes alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:20552056

  17. The effect of alpha-synuclein knockdown on MPP+ toxicity in models of human neurons.

    PubMed

    Fountaine, Timothy M; Venda, Lara Lourenco; Warrick, Nicholas; Christian, Helen C; Brundin, Patrik; Channon, Keith M; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein is central to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) but its role in the development of neurodegeneration remains unclear. alpha-Synuclein-knockout mice develop without gross abnormality and are resistant to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mitochondrial inhibitor widely used to model parkinsonism. Here we show that differentiated human dopaminergic neuron-like cells also have increased resistance to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+), the active metabolite of MPTP, when alpha-synuclein is knocked down using RNA interference. In attempting to understand how this occurred we found that lowering alpha-synuclein levels caused changes to intracellular vesicles, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), each of which is known to be an important component of the early events leading to MPP+ toxicity. Knockdown of alpha-synuclein reduced the availability of DAT on the neuronal surface by 50%, decreased the total number of intracellular vesicles by 37% but increased the density of VMAT2 molecules per vesicle by 2.8-fold. However, these changes were not associated with any reduction in MPP+ -induced superoxide production, suggesting that alpha-synuclein knockdown may have other downstream effects which are important. We then showed that alpha-synuclein knockdown prevented MPP+ -induced activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Activation of NOS is an essential step in MPTP toxicity and increasing evidence points to nitrosative stress as being important in neurodegeneration. Overall, these results show that as well as having a number of effects on cellular events upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction alpha-synuclein affects pathways downstream of superoxide production, possibly involving regulation of NOS activity.

  18. [The role of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Miklya, Ildikó; Pencz, Noémi; Hafenscher, Florencia; Göltl, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    α-synuclein, a small protein (140 amino acids) encoded by the SNCA gene is the best known isoform of the synuclein protein family. Though its physiological role is still not fully clarified, there is growing experimental evidence for a causal role of α-synuclein in the so-called conformational-neurodegenerative diseases. Conformational changes in the structure of the native soluble protein form insoluble neurotoxic aggregates and finally contribute to the formation of inclusion Lewy-bodies and Lewy-neurites. Neurodegeneration first hits the olfactory system, the peripheral autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system and the dorsal vagal motoneurons. The middle stage of the disease hits the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra; and the neocortex is affected only in the late stage of the disease. This precise order of neurodegeneration is not always valid, but increases the likelihood that Lewy-bodies and neurodegenaration spread to intact areas in a prion-like way. Prions are infectious proteins which do not contain nucleic acids and cause diseases because they form toxic aggregates and filaments by misfolding in a β-sheet-rich conformation. The misfolded protein behaves like a template inducing conformational change in the wild type proteins causing cross-reaction and leading to neurodegeneration. Later, the defective proteins may infect healthy nerve cells, thus neurodegeneration is extended. Growing experimental evidence shows that monomers and aggregates of α-synuclein are secreted via exocytosis from damaged nerve cells and taken up via endocytosis by healthy nerve cells furnishing evidence for the prion-like role of α-synuclein.

  19. Tolerance development to cadmium-induced alteration of drug action.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Miya, T S; Schnell, R C

    1976-05-01

    Cadmium administration potentiates the duration of hexobarbital-induced hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal metabolism of this drug in the male rat. The threshold dose of cadmium required to produce these alterations in drug action is 0.84 mg Ck/kg. If subthreshold doses of cadmium (0.21 or 0.42 mg Cd/kg) are administered prior to the 0.84 mg Cd/kg dose, the cadmium-induced alterations in drug action are no longer observed.

  20. Characterization of a Disordered Protein During Micellation: Interactions of α-Synuclein with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianhui; Sethi, Anurag; Anunciado, Divina; Vu, Dung M.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the interaction of α-Synuclein (αSyn) with lipid membranes, we carried out self-assembly molecular dynamics simulations of αSyn with monomeric and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a widely used membrane mimic. We find that both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contribute to the interactions of αSyn with SDS. In the presence of αSyn, our simulations suggest that SDS aggregates along the protein chain and forms small size micelles at very early times. Aggregation is followed by formation of a collapsed protein-SDS micelle complex, which is consistent with experimental results. Finally, interaction of αSyn with preformed micelles induces alterations in the shape of the micelle, and the N-terminal helix (residues 3 through 37) tends to associate with micelles. Overall, our simulations provide an atomistic description of the early timescale αSyn-SDS interaction during the self-assembly of SDS into micelles. PMID:22439820

  1. Radiation induces senescence and a bystander effect through metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Liao, E-C; Hsu, Y-T; Chuah, Q-Y; Lee, Y-J; Hu, J-Y; Huang, T-C; Yang, P-M; Chiu, S-J

    2014-05-22

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest; however, the metabolic processes of senescent cells remain active. Our previous studies have shown that radiation induces senescence of human breast cancer cells that display low expression of securin, a protein involved in control of the metaphase-anaphase transition and anaphase onset. In this study, the protein expression profile of senescent cells was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate associated metabolic alterations. We found that radiation induced the expression and activation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that has an important role in glycolysis. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase A, which is involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, the release of lactate and the acidification of the extracellular environment, was also induced. Inhibition of glycolysis by dichloroacetate attenuated radiation-induced senescence. In addition, radiation also induced activation of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to promote senescence. We also found that radiation increased the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that facilitates the export of lactate into the extracellular environment. Inhibition of glycolysis or the AMPK/NF-κB signalling pathways reduced MCT1 expression and rescued the acidification of the extracellular environment. Interestingly, these metabolic-altering signalling pathways were also involved in radiation-induced invasion of the surrounding, non-irradiated breast cancer and normal endothelial cells. Taken together, radiation can induce the senescence of human breast cancer cells through metabolic alterations.

  2. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase 3-mediated α-Synuclein Cleavage in Dopaminergic Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Young-Gun; Joh, Tong H.; Beal, M. Flint; Kim, Yoon-Seong

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the C-terminal truncation of α-synuclein is equally important as aggregation of α-synuclein in Parkinson disease (PD). Our previous results showed that an endopeptidase, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3), was induced and activated in dopaminergic (DA) cells upon stress conditions. Here, we report that MMP3 cleaved α-synuclein in vitro and in vivo and that α-synuclein and MMP3 were co-localized in Lewy bodies (LB) in the postmortem brains of PD patients. Incubation of α-synuclein with the catalytic domain of MMP3 (cMMP3) resulted in generation of several peptides, and the peptide profiles of WT α-synuclein (WTsyn) and A53T mutant (A53Tsyn) were different. Combined analysis using mass spectrometry and N-terminal determination revealed that MMP3 generated C-terminally truncated peptides of amino acids 1–78, 1–91, and 1–93 and that A53Tsyn produced significantly higher quantities of these peptides. Similar sizes of peptides were detected in N27 DA cells under oxidative stress and RNA interference to knock down MMP3-attenuated peptide generation. Co-overexpression of cMMP3 with either WTsyn or A53Tsyn led to a reduction in Triton X-100-insoluble aggregates and an increase in protofibril-like small aggregates. In addition, overexpression of the 1–93-amino acid peptide in the substantia nigra led to DA neuronal loss without LB-like aggregate formation. The results strongly indicate that MMP3 digestion of α-synuclein in DA neurons plays a pivotal role in the progression of PD through modulation of α-synuclein in aggregation, LB formation, and neurotoxicity. PMID:21330369

  3. Evidence for α-synuclein prions causing multiple system atrophy in humans with parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Prusiner, Stanley B.; Woerman, Amanda L.; Mordes, Daniel A.; Watts, Joel C.; Rampersaud, Ryan; Berry, David B.; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Kravitz, Stephanie N.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Glidden, David V.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Gentleman, Steve M.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Giles, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations that become self-propagating; the PrPSc prion causes the rare human disorder Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). We report here that multiple system atrophy (MSA) is caused by a different human prion composed of the α-synuclein protein. MSA is a slowly evolving disorder characterized by progressive loss of autonomic nervous system function and often signs of parkinsonism; the neuropathological hallmark of MSA is glial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of filaments of α-synuclein. To determine whether human α-synuclein forms prions, we examined 14 human brain homogenates for transmission to cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing full-length, mutant human α-synuclein fused to yellow fluorescent protein (α-syn140*A53T–YFP) and TgM83+/− mice expressing α-synuclein (A53T). The TgM83+/− mice that were hemizygous for the mutant transgene did not develop spontaneous illness; in contrast, the TgM83+/+ mice that were homozygous developed neurological dysfunction. Brain extracts from 14 MSA cases all transmitted neurodegeneration to TgM83+/− mice after incubation periods of ∼120 d, which was accompanied by deposition of α-synuclein within neuronal cell bodies and axons. All of the MSA extracts also induced aggregation of α-syn*A53T–YFP in cultured cells, whereas none of six Parkinson’s disease (PD) extracts or a control sample did so. Our findings argue that MSA is caused by a unique strain of α-synuclein prions, which is different from the putative prions causing PD and from those causing spontaneous neurodegeneration in TgM83+/+ mice. Remarkably, α-synuclein is the first new human prion to be identified, to our knowledge, since the discovery a half century ago that CJD was transmissible. PMID:26324905

  4. Selective Induced Altered Coccidians to Immunize and Prevent Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microbiomic flora in digestive tract is pivotal to the state of our health and disease. Antibiotics affect GI, control composition of microbiome, and shift equilibrium from health into disease status. Coccidiosis causes gastrointestinal inflammation. Antibiotic additives contaminate animal products and enter food chain, consumed by humans with possible allergic, antibiotic resistance and enigmatic side effects. Purposed study induced nonpathogenic, immunogenic organisms to protect against disease and abolish antibiotics' use in food animals and side effects in man. Diverse species of Coccidia were used as model. Immature organisms were treated with serial purification procedure prior to developmental stages to obtain altered strains. Chicks received oral gavage immunized with serial low doses of normal or altered organisms or sham treatment and were challenged with high infective normal organisms to compare pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mature induced altered forms of E. tenella and E. necatrix lacked developmental stage of “sporocysts” and contained free sporozoites. In contrast, E. maxima progressed to normal forms or did not mature at all. Animals that received altered forms were considerably protected with higher weight gain and antibody titers against challenge infection compared to those that received normal organisms (p < 0.05). This is the first report to induce selected protective altered organisms for possible preventive measures to minimize antibiotic use in food animals. PMID:27721824

  5. Behavioural deficits in transgenic mice expressing human truncated (1-120 amino acid) alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Yang, Sujeong; Sauchanka, Olga; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Anichtchik, Oleg

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in cortical and hippocampal areas is a pathological sign for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with dementia. However the mechanisms of alpha-synuclein triggered cellular dysfunction leading to the development of memory impairment is not clear. We have created a mouse model of DLB, where aggregation-prone human truncated (120 amino acid) alpha-synuclein is expressed in forebrain areas under the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CamKII-alpha) promoter. We have observed the presence of the transgenic protein in target forebrain areas, with small granular cytoplasmic accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein. This was associated with a progressive deficit in cortical-hippocampal memory tests including the Barnes maze and novel object recognition. This data suggests that low levels of aggregation prone alpha-synuclein are sufficient to induce memory deficits in mice and that forebrain regions associated with cognitive function may have an increased sensitivity to the truncated toxic form of alpha-synuclein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Seeding and transgenic overexpression of alpha-synuclein triggers dendritic spine pathology in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, Sonja; Rodrigues, Eva F; Peters, Finn; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Schmidt, Felix; Giese, Armin; Herms, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    Although misfolded and aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) is recognized in the disease progression of synucleinopathies, its role in the impairment of cortical circuitries and synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. We investigated how α-synuclein accumulation affects synaptic plasticity in the mouse somatosensory cortex using two distinct approaches. Long-term in vivo imaging of apical dendrites was performed in mice overexpressing wild-type human α-synuclein. Additionally, intracranial injection of preformed α-synuclein fibrils was performed to induce cortical α-syn pathology. We find that α-synuclein overexpressing mice show decreased spine density and abnormalities in spine dynamics in an age-dependent manner. We also provide evidence for the detrimental effects of seeded α-synuclein aggregates on dendritic architecture. We observed spine loss as well as dystrophic deformation of dendritic shafts in layer V pyramidal neurons. Our results provide a link to the pathophysiology underlying dementia associated with synucleinopathies and may enable the evaluation of potential drug candidates on dendritic spine pathology in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Untangling the Manganese-α-Synuclein Web

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Parmalee, Nancy L.; Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect a significant portion of the aging population. Several lines of evidence suggest a positive association between environmental exposures, which are common and cumulative in a lifetime, and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been implicated in neurodegeneration due to its ability to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation. The role of the α-Syn protein vis-a-vis Mn is controversial, as it seemingly plays a duplicitous role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. α-Syn has low affinity for Mn, however an indirect interaction cannot be ruled out. In this review we will examine the current knowledge surrounding the interaction of α-Syn and Mn in neurodegenerative process. PMID:27540354

  8. Virus Innexins induce alterations in insect cell and tissue function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host...

  9. Depot risperidone-induced adverse metabolic alterations in female rats.

    PubMed

    Horska, Katerina; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Karpisek, Michal; Suchy, Pavel; Opatrilova, Radka; Kotolova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with adverse metabolic effects including weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidaemia, alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation precedes weight gain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in adipokines, hormones and basic serum biochemical parameters induced by chronic treatment with depot risperidone at two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-dependent metabolic alterations induced by risperidone after 6 weeks of treatment were revealed. Concomitant to weight gain and increased liver weight, an adverse lipid profile with an elevated triglyceride level was observed in the high exposure group, administered a 40 mg/kg dose repeatedly, while the low dose exposure group, administered a 20 mg/kg dose, developed weight gain without alterations in the lipid profile and adipokine levels. An initial peak in leptin serum level after the higher dose was observed in the absence of weight gain. This finding may indicate that the metabolic alterations observed in this study are not consequent to body weight gain. Taken together, these data may support the primary effects of atypical antipsychotics on peripheral tissues.

  10. α-Synuclein and mitochondria: partners in crime?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Increased α-synuclein levels and mutations in mitochondria-associated proteins both cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD), and synuclein and mitochondria also play central, but poorly understood, roles in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. A fraction of synuclein interacts with mitochondria, and synuclein can produce mitochondrial fragmentation and impair mitochondrial complex I activity. However, the consequences of these mitochondrial changes for bioenergetic and other mitochondrial functions remain poorly defined, as does the role of synuclein-mitochondria interactions in the normal and pathologic effects of synuclein. Understanding the functional consequences of synuclein's interactions with mitochondria is likely to provide important insights into disease pathophysiology, and may also reveal therapeutic strategies.

  11. Synucleins regulate the kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Karina J; Makani, Sachin; Davis, Taylor; Westphal, Christopher H; Castillo, Pablo E; Chandra, Sreeganga S

    2014-07-09

    Genetic and pathological studies link α-synuclein to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal function of this presynaptic protein remains unknown. α-Synuclein, an acidic lipid binding protein, shares high sequence identity with β- and γ-synuclein. Previous studies have implicated synucleins in synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking, although the precise site of synuclein action continues to be unclear. Here we show, using optical imaging, electron microscopy, and slice electrophysiology, that synucleins are required for the fast kinetics of SV endocytosis. Slowed endocytosis observed in synuclein null cultures can be rescued by individually expressing mouse α-, β-, or γ-synuclein, indicating they are functionally redundant. Through comparisons to dynamin knock-out synapses and biochemical experiments, we suggest that synucleins act at early steps of SV endocytosis. Our results categorize α-synuclein with other familial PD genes known to regulate SV endocytosis, implicating this pathway in PD.

  12. Higher Vulnerability and Stress Sensitivity of Neuronal Precursor Cells Carrying an Alpha-Synuclein Gene Triplication

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Adrian; Oliveira, Luís M. A.; Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J.; Mak, Sally K.; Hesley, Jayne; Soldner, Frank; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Langston, J. William; Jovin, Thomas M.; Schüle, Birgitt

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and characteristic intracellular inclusions, called Lewy bodies. Genetic predisposition, such as point mutations and copy number variants of the SNCA gene locus can cause very similar PD-like neurodegeneration. The impact of altered α-synuclein protein expression on integrity and developmental potential of neuronal stem cells is largely unexplored, but may have wide ranging implications for PD manifestation and disease progression. Here, we investigated if induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) from a patient with Parkinson’s disease carrying a genomic triplication of the SNCA gene (SNCA-Tri). Our goal was to determine if these cells these neuronal precursor cells already display pathological changes and impaired cellular function that would likely predispose them when differentiated to neurodegeneration. To achieve this aim, we assessed viability and cellular physiology in human SNCA-Tri NPCs both under normal and environmentally stressed conditions to model in vitro gene-environment interactions which may play a role in the initiation and progression of PD. Human SNCA-Tri NPCs displayed overall normal cellular and mitochondrial morphology, but showed substantial changes in growth, viability, cellular energy metabolism and stress resistance especially when challenged by starvation or toxicant challenge. Knockdown of α-synuclein in the SNCA-Tri NPCs by stably expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in reversal of the observed phenotypic changes. These data show for the first time that genetic alterations such as the SNCA gene triplication set the stage for decreased developmental fitness, accelerated aging, and increased neuronal cell loss. The observation of this “stem cell pathology” could have a great impact on both quality and quantity of neuronal networks and could provide a powerful new

  13. Autophagy down regulates pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells and rescues both LPS and alpha-synuclein induced neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bussi, Claudio; Ramos, Javier Maria Peralta; Arroyo, Daniela S.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Gallea, Jose Ignacio; Wang, Ji Ming; Celej, Maria Soledad; Iribarren, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostatic mechanism, whereby cells autodigest parts of their cytoplasm for removal or turnover. Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with autophagy dysregulation, and drugs modulating autophagy have been successful in several animal models. Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) that become activated in pathological conditions and determine the fate of other neural cells. Here, we studied the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory molecules in microglial cells and their effects on neuronal cells. We observed that both trehalose and rapamycin activate autophagy in BV2 microglial cells and down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), in response to LPS and alpha-synuclein. Autophagy also modulated the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs in BV2 cells, which was required for NO production. These actions of autophagy modified the impact of microglial activation on neuronal cells, leading to suppression of neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for autophagy in the regulation of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecule secretion, which may be important for the control of inflammatory responses in the CNS and neurotoxicity. PMID:28256519

  14. Parkinson Disease-linked Vps35 R524W Mutation Impairs the Endosomal Association of Retromer and Induces α-Synuclein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Follett, Jordan; Bugarcic, Andrea; Yang, Zhe; Ariotti, Nicholas; Norwood, Suzanne J; Collins, Brett M; Parton, Robert G; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2016-08-26

    Endosomal sorting is a highly orchestrated cellular process. Retromer is a heterotrimeric complex that associates with endosomal membranes and facilitates the retrograde sorting of multiple receptors, including the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor for lysosomal enzymes. The cycling of retromer on and off the endosomal membrane is regulated by a network of retromer-interacting proteins. Here, we find that Parkinson disease-associated Vps35 variant, R524W, but not P316S, is a loss-of-function mutation as marked by a reduced association with this regulatory network and dysregulation of endosomal receptor sorting. Expression of Vps35 R524W-containing retromer results in the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein-positive aggregates, a hallmark of Parkinson disease. Overall, the Vps35 R524W-containing retromer has a decreased endosomal association, which can be partially rescued by R55, a small molecule previously shown to stabilize the retromer complex, supporting the potential for future targeting of the retromer complex in the treatment of Parkinson disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Autophagy down regulates pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells and rescues both LPS and alpha-synuclein induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Bussi, Claudio; Ramos, Javier Maria Peralta; Arroyo, Daniela S; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Gallea, Jose Ignacio; Wang, Ji Ming; Celej, Maria Soledad; Iribarren, Pablo

    2017-03-03

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostatic mechanism, whereby cells autodigest parts of their cytoplasm for removal or turnover. Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with autophagy dysregulation, and drugs modulating autophagy have been successful in several animal models. Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) that become activated in pathological conditions and determine the fate of other neural cells. Here, we studied the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory molecules in microglial cells and their effects on neuronal cells. We observed that both trehalose and rapamycin activate autophagy in BV2 microglial cells and down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), in response to LPS and alpha-synuclein. Autophagy also modulated the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs in BV2 cells, which was required for NO production. These actions of autophagy modified the impact of microglial activation on neuronal cells, leading to suppression of neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for autophagy in the regulation of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecule secretion, which may be important for the control of inflammatory responses in the CNS and neurotoxicity.

  16. Effect of 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal Modification on Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Hu, D.; Han, S.; Reaney, S.H.; Monte, D.A.Di; Fink, A.L.

    2007-07-12

    Several observations have implicated oxidative stress and aggregation of the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis of PD. alpha-Synuclein has been shown to have affinity for unsaturated fatty acids and membranes enriched in PUFAs, which are especially sensitive to oxidation under conditions of oxidative stress. One of the most important products of lipid oxidation is 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Consequently we investigated the effects of the interaction of HNE with alpha-synuclein. Incubation of HNE with alpha-synuclein at pH 7.4, 37oC resulted in covalent modification of the protein, with up to six HNE molecules incorporated as Michael addition products. FTIR and CD spectra indicated that HNE modification of alpha-synuclein resulted in a major conformational change involving increased beta-sheet. HNE modification of alpha-synuclein led to inhibition of fibrillation in an HNE-concentration-dependent manner. This inhibition of fibrillation was shown to be due to the formation of soluble oligomers based on SEC HPLC and AFM data. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis indicated that the HNE-induced oligomers are compact and tightly packed. Treatment with guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) demonstrated that the HNE-induced oligomers were very stable with an extremely slow rate of dissociation. Addition of 5 uM HNE-modified oligomers to primary mesencephalic cultures caused marked neurotoxicity, since the integrity of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons was reduced by 95% and 85%, respectively. Our observations indicate that HNE-modification of alpha-synuclein prevents fibrillation but may result in toxic oligomers which could therefore contribute to the demise of neurons subjected to oxidative damage.

  17. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  18. Diphenyl diselenide prevents hepatic alterations induced by paraquat in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michael D; de Freitas, Mayara L; Dalmolin, Laíza; Oliveira, Lia P; Fleck, Michelli A; Pagliarini, Paula; Acker, Carmine; Roman, Silvane S; Brandão, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)₂ on paraquat (PQ) induced alterations in rats liver. Adult male Wistar rats received (PhSe)₂ at 10 mg kg(-1), by oral administration (p.o.), during five consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last (PhSe)₂ dose, rats received PQ at 15 mg kg(-1), in a single intraperitoneally injection (i.p.). Seventy-two hours after PQ exposure, animals were sacrificed by decapitation for blood and liver samples obtainment. Histological alterations induced by PQ exposure, such as inflammatory cells infiltration and edema, were prevented by (PhSe)₂ administration. Moreover, (PhSe)₂ prevented hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by PQ and was effective in reducing the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, which was enhanced by PQ exposure. (PhSe)₂ also was effective in protecting against the reduction in ascorbic acid and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels induced by PQ. The inhibition of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, in rats exposed to PQ, was normalized by (PhSe)₂ pre-treatment, whereas the inhibition of catalase (CAT) activity was not prevented by (PhSe)₂. The serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) inhibition, induced by PQ administration, was also prevented by (PhSe)₂ pre-treatment. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were not modified by PQ and/or (PhSe)₂ administration. Therefore, (PhSe)₂ pre-treatment was effective in protecting against the hepatic alterations induced by PQ in rats. This protective effect can involve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of (PhSe)₂. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ciprofloxacin-induced glutathione redox status alterations in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin; Hincal, Filiz

    2004-08-01

    The possible oxidative stress inducing effect of a fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), was investigated in rats measuring glutathione redox status. For this purpose, the drug was administered to rats as two different single doses (100 and 150 mg/kg, ip) or a repeated dose (500 mg/kg/d, ig, for 5d). Then, total and oxidized glutathione levels were determined in hepatic and cerebral tissues of the rats by an enzymatic cycling assay, and the glutathione redox status was calculated. The possible protective effects of vitamin E or allopurinol against CPFX-induced alterations on glutathione system have also been examined. Following both routes of administration of CPFX, the total glutathione content of the liver, but not of brain decreased significantly. The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the brain increased after single or repeated dose treatments, but only with repeated doses of CPFX in the liver. CPFX induced dose-dependent alterations in the glutathione redox status in both tissues. With single doses the effect was more pronounced in cerebral tissue, and with repeated ig doses it was significant in both tissues. Pretreatment of rats with vitamin E or allopurinol before the administration of CPFX provided marked protection against glutathione redox status alterations in both tissues. Our results, thus, indicate that CPFX treatment introduces an oxidative stress in cerebral and hepatic tissues of rat.

  20. The Contribution of α-Synuclein Spreading to Parkinson's Disease Synaptopathy

    PubMed Central

    Faustini, Gaia; Missale, Cristina; Pizzi, Marina; Spano, PierFranco

    2017-01-01

    Synaptopathies are diseases with synapse defects as shared pathogenic features, encompassing neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, the most common age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder, nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficits are responsible for the onset of motor symptoms that have been related to α-synuclein deposition at synaptic sites. Indeed, α-synuclein accumulation can impair synaptic dopamine release and induces the death of nigrostriatal neurons. While in physiological conditions the protein can interact with and modulate synaptic vesicle proteins and membranes, numerous experimental evidences have confirmed that its pathological aggregation can compromise correct neuronal functioning. In addition, recent findings indicate that α-synuclein pathology spreads into the brain and can affect the peripheral autonomic and somatic nervous system. Indeed, monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillary α-synuclein can move from cell to cell and can trigger the aggregation of the endogenous protein in recipient neurons. This novel “prion-like” behavior could further contribute to synaptic failure in PD and other synucleinopathies. This review describes the major findings supporting the occurrence of α-synuclein pathology propagation in PD and discusses how this phenomenon could induce or contribute to synaptic injury and degeneration. PMID:28133550

  1. α-Synuclein in cutaneous autonomic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningshan; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Lafo, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a cutaneous biomarker for Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Twenty patients with PD and 14 age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent examinations, autonomic testing, and skin biopsies at the distal leg, distal thigh, and proximal thigh. α-Synuclein deposition and the density of intraepidermal, sudomotor, and pilomotor nerve fibers were measured. α-Synuclein deposition was normalized to nerve fiber density (the α-synuclein ratio). Results were compared with examination scores and autonomic function testing. Results: Patients with PD had a distal sensory and autonomic neuropathy characterized by loss of intraepidermal and pilomotor fibers (p < 0.05 vs controls, all sites) and morphologic changes to sudomotor nerve fibers. Patients with PD had greater α-synuclein deposition and higher α-synuclein ratios compared with controls within pilomotor nerves and sudomotor nerves (p < 0.01, all sites) but not sensory nerves. Higher α-synuclein ratios correlated with Hoehn and Yahr scores (r = 0.58–0.71, p < 0.01), with sympathetic adrenergic function (r = −0.40 to −0.66, p < 0.01), and with parasympathetic function (r = −0.66 to −0.77, p > 0.01). Conclusions: We conclude that α-synuclein deposition is increased in cutaneous sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic fibers but not sensory fibers of patients with PD. Higher α-synuclein deposition is associated with greater autonomic dysfunction and more advanced PD. These data suggest that measures of α-synuclein deposition in cutaneous autonomic nerves may be a useful biomarker in patients with PD. PMID:24089386

  2. Gut Feelings About α‐Synuclein in Gastrointestinal Biopsies: Biomarker in the Making?

    PubMed Central

    Ruffmann, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, several studies have investigated the potential of immunohistochemical detection of α‐synuclein in the gastrointestinal tract to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD). Although methodological heterogeneity has hindered comparability between studies, it has become increasingly apparent that the high sensitivity and specificity reported in preliminary studies has not been sustained in subsequent large‐scale studies. What constitutes pathological α‐synuclein in the alimentary canal that could distinguish between PD patients and controls and how this can be reliably detected represent key outstanding questions in the field. In this review, we will comment on and compare the variable technical aspects from previous studies, and by highlighting some advantages and shortcomings we hope to delineate a standardized approach to facilitate the consensus criteria urgently needed in the field. Furthermore, we will describe alternative detection techniques to conventional immunohistochemistry that have recently emerged and may facilitate ease of interpretation and reliability of gastrointestinal α‐synuclein detection. Such techniques have the potential to detect the presence of pathological α‐synuclein and include the paraffin‐embedded tissue blot, the proximity ligation assay, the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, and the real‐time quaking‐induced conversion assay. Finally, we will review 2 nonsynonymous theories that have driven enteric α‐synuclein research, namely, (1) that α‐synuclein propagates in a prion‐like fashion from the peripheral nervous system to the brain via vagal connections and (2) that gastrointestinal α‐synuclein deposition may be used as a clinically useful biomarker in PD. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26799450

  3. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  4. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2015-03-17

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD.

  5. Characterization of Cardiovascular Alterations Induced by Different Chronic Cisplatin Treatments.

    PubMed

    Herradón, Esperanza; González, Cristina; Uranga, José A; Abalo, Raquel; Martín, Ma I; López-Miranda, Visitacion

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, many clinical studies have revealed that some cisplatin-treated cancer survivors have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, being cisplatin-induced cardiovascular toxicity an increasing concern. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cardiovascular alterations induced by different chronic cisplatin treatments, and to identify some of the mechanisms involved. Direct blood pressure, basal cardiac (left ventricle and coronary arteries) and vascular (aortic and mesenteric) functions were evaluated in chronic (5 weeks) saline- or cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats. Three different doses of cisplatin were tested (1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/week). Alterations in cardiac and vascular tissues were also investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, and or quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cisplatin treatment provoked a significant modification of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and basal cardiac function at the maximum dose tested. However, vascular endothelial dysfunction occurred at lower doses. The expression of collagen fibers and conexin-43 were increased in cardiac tissue in cisplatin-treated rats with doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg/week. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was also modified in cardiac and vascular tissues after cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, chronic cisplatin treatment provokes cardiac and vascular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, vascular endothelial dysfunction occurs at lower doses than cardiac and systemic cardiovascular toxicity. Moreover, some structural changes in cardiac and vascular tissues are also patent even before any systemic cardiovascular alterations.

  6. Characterization of Cardiovascular Alterations Induced by Different Chronic Cisplatin Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Herradón, Esperanza; González, Cristina; Uranga, José A.; Abalo, Raquel; Martín, Ma I.; López-Miranda, Visitacion

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, many clinical studies have revealed that some cisplatin-treated cancer survivors have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, being cisplatin-induced cardiovascular toxicity an increasing concern. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cardiovascular alterations induced by different chronic cisplatin treatments, and to identify some of the mechanisms involved. Direct blood pressure, basal cardiac (left ventricle and coronary arteries) and vascular (aortic and mesenteric) functions were evaluated in chronic (5 weeks) saline- or cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats. Three different doses of cisplatin were tested (1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/week). Alterations in cardiac and vascular tissues were also investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, and or quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cisplatin treatment provoked a significant modification of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and basal cardiac function at the maximum dose tested. However, vascular endothelial dysfunction occurred at lower doses. The expression of collagen fibers and conexin-43 were increased in cardiac tissue in cisplatin-treated rats with doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg/week. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was also modified in cardiac and vascular tissues after cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, chronic cisplatin treatment provokes cardiac and vascular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, vascular endothelial dysfunction occurs at lower doses than cardiac and systemic cardiovascular toxicity. Moreover, some structural changes in cardiac and vascular tissues are also patent even before any systemic cardiovascular alterations. PMID:28533750

  7. Tobacco-induced alterations to Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bagaitkar, Juhi; Williams, Lisa R.; Renaud, Diane E.; Bemakanakere, Manjunatha R.; Scott, David A.; Demuth, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Smokers are more susceptible than non-smokers to persistent infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent of periodontitis. Patients who smoke exhibit increased susceptibility to periodontitis and are more likely to display severe disease and be refractory to treatment. Paradoxically, smokers demonstrate reduced clinical inflammation. We show that P. gingivalis cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induce a lower pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, IL12 p40) from monocytes and PBMCs than do unexposed bacteria. This effect is reversed when CSE-exposed bacteria are subcultured in fresh medium without CSE. Using microarrays representative of the P. gingivalis genome, CSE-exposure resulted in differential regulation of 6.8% of P. gingivalis genes, including detoxification and oxidative stress-related genes; DNA repair genes; and multiple genes related to P. gingivalis virulence, including genes in the major fimbrial and capsular operons. Exposure to CSE also altered the expression of outer membrane proteins, most notably by inducing the virulence factors RagA and RagB, and a putative lipoprotein co-transcribed with the minor fimbrial antigen. Therefore, CSE represents an environmental stress to which P. gingivalis adapts by altering gene expression and outer membrane proteins. These changes may explain, in part, the altered virulence and host-pathogen interactions that have been documented in vivo in smokers with periodontal disease. PMID:19175666

  8. Tea tree oil-induced transcriptional alterations in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2013-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO.

  9. Levodopa (L-DOPA) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cell death signaling through DRD2 in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-synuclein-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Byeong C; Nguyen, Dai-Trang T; Samidurai, Manikandan; Choi, Seong-Min

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the formation of Lewy bodies (LBs) in dopaminergic neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn), a major protein component of LBs, is known to regulate synaptic plasticity, with a crucial role in memory and motor function in the central nervous system. Levodopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; also known as L-DOPA) is considered the most effective medication for controlling the symptoms of PD. However, it is unclear whether L-DOPA improves the neuropathology of PD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of L-DOPA on SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. We assessed the protein and mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death markers using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR. Our data showed that L-DOPA could attenuate ER stress markers, including the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), C/EBPhomologous protein expression (CHOP), immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP), sliced X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1), and reduce nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling through dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. In conclusion, we suggest that L-DOPA may attenuate the neuropathology of PD by regulating signaling related to DRD2 in neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. Our study, therefore, indicates an additional role for L-DOPA in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Petit, Géraldine H; Berkovich, Elijahu; Hickery, Mark; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Rasagiline Ameliorates Olfactory Deficits in an Alpha-Synuclein Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine H.; Berkovich, Elijahu; Hickery, Mark; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23573275

  12. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-09

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  13. Environmental toxicants--induced epigenetic alterations and their reversers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minju; Bae, Minji; Na, Hyunkyung; Yang, Mihi

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics has been emphasized in the postgenome era to clarify obscure health risks of environmental toxicants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In addition, mixed exposure in real life can modify health consequences of the toxicants. Particularly, some nutritional and dietary materials modify individual susceptibility through changes in the epigenome. Therefore, we focused on some environmental toxicants that induce epigenetic alterations, and introduced chemopreventive materials to reverse the toxicants-induced epigenetic alterations. Methodologically, we used global and specific DNA methylation as epigenetic end points and searched epigenetic modulators in food. We reviewed various epigenetic end points induced by environmental toxicants including alcohol, asbestos, nanomaterials, benzene, EDCs, metals, and ionizing radiation. The epigenetic end points can be summarized into global hypomethylation and specific hypermethylation at diverse tumor suppress genes. Exposure timing, dose, sex, or organ specificity should be considered to use the epigenetic end points as biomarkers for exposure to the epimutagenic toxicants. Particularly, neonatal exposure to the epimutagens can influence their future adult health because of characteristics of the epimutagens, which disrupt epigenetic regulation in imprinting, organogenesis, development, etc. Considering interaction between epimutagenic toxicants and their reversers in food, we suggest that multiple exposures to them can alleviate or mask epigenetic toxicity in real life. Our present review provides useful information to find new end points of environmental toxicants and to prevention from environment-related diseases.

  14. Alteration of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Properties Induced by Particle Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Polen, M.; Beydoun, H.; Lawlis, E.; Ahern, A.; Jahn, L.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles that can serve as ice nuclei frequently experience rapid and extensive chemical aging during atmospheric transport. This is known to significantly alter some ice nucleation modes of the few types of ice nucleation particle systems where aging effects have been simulated, such as for mineral dust. Yet much of our understanding of atmospheric particle freezing properties is derived from measurements of fresh or unaged particles. We know almost nothing regarding how atmospheric aging might alter the freezing properties of biomass burning aerosol or biological particle nucleants. We have investigated the effects of simulated aging using a chamber reactor on the heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) and ice-active bacteria particles. Some types of aging were found to enhance the freezing ability of BBA, exhibited as a shift in a portion of the droplet freezing curve to warmer temperatures by a few °C. Ice-active bacteria were found to consistently loose their most ice-active nucleants after repeated aging cycles. The bacterial systems always retained significantly efficient ice active sites that still allowed them to induce freezing at mild/warm temperatures, despite this decrease in freezing ability. A comprehensive series of online single-particle mass spectrometry and offline spectromicroscopic analysis of individual particles was used to determine how the aging altered the aerosol's composition, and gain mechanistic insights into how this in turn altered the freezing properties. Our new ice nucleation framework that uses a continuous distribution of ice active site ability (contact angle) was used to interpret the droplet freezing spectra and understand how aging alters the internal and external variability, and rigidity, of the ice active sites.

  15. Exercise prevents cardiometabolic alterations induced by chronic use of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; Sousa Filho, Wilson Martins de; Oliveira Neto, Joselito de; Marinho, Maria de Jesus Ferreira; Motta Neto, Renato; Smith, Manuela Maria Ramos Lima; Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno da

    2009-10-01

    Chronically, glucocorticoids induce adverse cardiometabolic alterations including insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, liver steatosis and arterial hypertension. To evaluate the effect of regular practice of aerobic exercise on cardiometabolic alterations induced by chronic administration of dexamethasone (Dex - 0.5 mg/kg/day ip) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided in four groups: Control group; Trained group; Treated with Dex group and Treated with Dex and trained group. The exercise training (initiated 72 hours after the first dose of Dex) was carried out three times a week until the end of the treatment. At the end of this period, the following biochemical assessments were performed: fasting glycemia, oral glucose tolerance test and analysis of the blood lipid profile that included total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, VLDL-c and triglycerides (TG). The weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, the histopathological analysis of the liver and cardiometabolic indices (TC/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c and TG/HDL-c) were also performed. Hyperglycemia, lower glucose tolerance, increased TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c, TG, CT/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c and TG/HDL-c, decreased HDL-c, presence of liver steatosis and muscular hypotrophy were observed in the animals treated with Dex. The exercise training reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, decreased dyslipidemia and prevented liver steatosis, muscular hypotrophy and reduced CT/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c and TG/HDL-c ratios. However, there was no significant effect on HDL-c. The aerobic exercise training have a protective effect against the cardiometabolic alterations induced by the chronic use of glucocorticoids.

  16. Modulating the Amyloidogenesis of α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Sivanesam, Kalkena; Andersen, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    Alphα-synuclein is found in the neuronal cells but its native function is not well known. While α-synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that adopts a helical conformation upon membrane binding, numerous studies have shown that oligomeric b-forms of this protein are cytotoxic. This response to misfolded species contributes to Parkinson’s Disease etiology and symptoms. The resulting amyloid fibrils are an established diagnostic in Parkinson’s Disease. In this review, we focus on strategies that have been used to inhibit the amyloidogenesis of α-synuclein either by stabilizing the native state, or by redirecting the pathway to less toxic aggregates. Small molecules such as polyphenols, peptides as well as large proteins have proven effective at protecting cells against the cytotoxicity of α-synuclein. These strategies may lead to the development of therapeutic agents that could prove useful in combating this disease. PMID:26517049

  17. Mechanism of Anti-α-Synuclein Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Sung; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Immunization therapy targeting α-synuclein has emerged as a promising approach for Parkinson’s disease and perhaps for other synucleinopathies. Several antibodies have shown therapeutic effects in mouse models of synucleinopathies and have alleviated the pathological and behavioral phenotypes of these mice. The mechanisms through which the immunization therapy works were initially puzzling, especially given that α-synuclein is a typical cytosolic protein. Recent studies, however, suggested that extracellular α-synuclein is an important pathogenic entity, and hence, a target for immunotherapy. Here, we review the literature describing immunization therapy for synucleinopathies in mouse models and provide current thoughts on the potential mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of α-synuclein immunotherapy. PMID:26828212

  18. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC), The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC, The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  19. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  20. Alpha-Synuclein Expression Restricts RNA Viral Infections in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Beatman, Erica L.; Massey, Aaron; Shives, Katherine D.; Burrack, Kristina S.; Chamanian, Mastooreh; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have discovered that native, neuronal expression of alpha-synuclein (Asyn) inhibits viral infection, injury, and disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Enveloped RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), invade the CNS and cause encephalitis, yet little is known about the innate neuron-specific inhibitors of viral infections in the CNS. Following WNV infection of primary neurons, we found that Asyn protein expression is increased. The infectious titer of WNV and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) TC83 in the brains of Asyn-knockout mice exhibited a mean increase of 104.5 infectious viral particles compared to the titers in wild-type and heterozygote littermates. Asyn-knockout mice also exhibited significantly increased virus-induced mortality compared to Asyn heterozygote or homozygote control mice. Virus-induced Asyn localized to perinuclear, neuronal regions expressing viral envelope protein and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated trafficking protein Rab1. In Asyn-knockout primary neuronal cultures, the levels of expression of ER signaling pathways, known to support WNV replication, were significantly elevated before and during viral infection compared to those in Asyn-expressing primary neuronal cultures. We propose a model in which virus-induced Asyn localizes to ER-derived membranes, modulates virus-induced ER stress signaling, and inhibits viral replication, growth, and injury in the CNS. These data provide a novel and important functional role for the expression of native alpha-synuclein, a protein that is closely associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. IMPORTANCE Neuroinvasive viruses such as West Nile virus are able to infect neurons and cause severe disease, such as encephalitis, or infection of brain tissue. Following viral infection in the central nervous system, only select neurons are infected, implying that neurons exhibit innate resistance to viral infections. We discovered that native neuronal

  1. Alpha-Synuclein Proteins Promote Pro-Inflammatory Cascades in Microglia: Stronger Effects of the A53T Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Claire; Gustin, Audrey; Birck, Cindy; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Beaume, Nicolas; Felten, Paul; Grandbarbe, Luc; Heuschling, Paul; Heurtaux, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is histologically described by the deposition of α-synuclein, whose accumulation in Lewy bodies causes dopaminergic neuronal death. Although most of PD cases are sporadic, point mutations of the gene encoding the α-synuclein protein cause inherited forms of PD. There are currently six known point mutations that result in familial PD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have also been described as early events associated with dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Though it is known that microglia are activated by wild-type α-synuclein, little is known about its mutated forms and the signaling cascades responsible for this microglial activation. The present study was designed to investigate consequences of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein (A53T, A30P and E46K) exposure on microglial reactivity. Interestingly, we described that α-synuclein-induced microglial reactivity appeared to be peptide-dependent. Indeed, the A53T protein activated more strongly microglia than the wild-type α-synuclein and other mutants. This A53T-induced microglial reactivity mechanism was found to depend on phosphorylation mechanisms mediated by MAPKs and on successive NFkB/AP-1/Nrf2 pathways activation. These results suggest that the microgliosis intensity during PD might depend on the type of α-synuclein protein implicated. Indeed, mutated forms are more potent microglial stimulators than wild-type α-synuclein. Based on these data, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic strategies may be valid in order to reduce microgliosis but also to subsequently slow down PD progression, especially in familial cases. PMID:27622765

  2. Fibrinogen Induces Alterations of Endothelial Cell Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    PATIBANDLA, PHANI K.; TYAGI, NEETU; DEAN, WILLIAM L.; TYAGI, SURESH C.; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that an elevated content of fibrinogen (Fg) increased formation of filamentous actin and enhanced endothelial layer permeability. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that Fg binding to endothelial cells (ECs) alters expression of actin-associated endothelial tight junction proteins (TJP). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were grown in gold plated chambers of an electrical cell-substrate impedance system, 8-well chambered, or in 12-well plates. Confluent ECs were treated with Fg (2 or 4 mg/ml), Fg (4 mg/ml) with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126), Fg (4 mg/ml) with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or BQ788 (endothelin type B receptor blocker), endothelin-1, endothelin-1 with BQ788, or medium alone for 24 h. Fg induced a dose-dependent decrease in EC junction integrity as determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR data showed that the higher dose of Fg decreased the contents of TJPs, occludin, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), and zona occluden-2 (ZO-2) in ECs. Fg-induced decreases in contents of the TJPs were blocked by PD98059, U0126, or anti-ICAM-1 antibody. While BQ788 inhibited endothelin-1-induced decrease in TEER, it did not affect Fg-induced decrease in TEER. These data suggest that Fg increases EC layer permeability via the MEK kinase signaling pathway by affecting occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2, TJPs, which are bound to actin filaments. Therefore, increased binding of Fg to its major EC receptor, ICAM-1, during cardiovascular diseases may increase microvascular permeability by altering the content and possibly subcellular localization of endothelial TJPs. PMID:19507189

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-induced structural alterations of RNAse A.

    PubMed

    Lasch, P; Petras, T; Ullrich, O; Backmann, J; Naumann, D; Grune, T

    2001-03-23

    Proteins exposed to oxidative stress are degraded via proteolytic pathways. In the present study, we undertook a series of in vitro experiments to establish a correlation between the structural changes induced by mild oxidation of the model protein RNase A and the proteolytic rate found upon exposure of the modified protein toward the isolated 20 S proteasome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used as a structure-sensitive probe. We report here strong experimental evidence for oxidation-induced conformational rearrangements of the model protein RNase A and, at the same time, for covalent modifications of amino acid side chains. Oxidation-related conformational changes, induced by H(2)O(2) exposure of the protein may be monitored in the amide I region, which is sensitive to changes in protein secondary structure. A comparison of the time- and H(2)O(2) concentration-dependent changes in the amide I region demonstrates a high degree of similarity to spectral alterations typical for temperature-induced unfolding of RNase A. In addition, spectral parameters of amino acid side chain marker bands (Tyr, Asp) revealed evidence for covalent modifications. Proteasome digestion measurements on oxidized RNase A revealed a specific time and H(2)O(2) concentration dependence; at low initial concentration of the oxidant, the RNase A turnover rate increases with incubation time and concentration. Based on these experimental findings, a correlation between structural alterations detected upon RNase A oxidation and proteolytic rates of RNase A is established, and possible mechanisms of the proteasome recognition process of oxidatively damaged proteins are discussed.

  4. Diethanolamine alters neurogenesis and induces apoptosis in fetal mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Wu, Renan; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is present in many consumer products such as shampoo. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline, and we previously reported that dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy reduces neurogenesis and increases apoptosis in the hippocampus of fetal rats and mice. Therefore, DEA could also alter brain development. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mice were dosed dermally from gestation day 7 through 17 with DEA at 0, 20, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/kg body/day. At doses of DEA > 80 mg/kg body/day, we observed decreased litter size. In fetuses (embryonic day 17) collected from dams treated dermally with 80 mg/kg body/day DEA, we observed decreased neural progenitor cell mitosis at the ventricular surface of the ventricular zone of the hippocampus [to 56±14% (SE) histone 3 (H3) phosphorylation as compared to controls; P < 0.01]. We also observed increased apoptosis in fetal hippocampus (to 170±10% of control measured using TUNEL and to 178±7% of control measured using activated caspase 3; P < 0.01). Thus, maternal exposure to DEA reduces the number of neural progenitor cells in hippocampus by two mechanisms, and this could permanently alter memory function in offspring of mothers exposed to this common ingredient of shampoos and soaps.—Craciunescu, C. N., Wu, R., Zeisel, S. H. Diethanolamine alters neurogenesis and induces apoptosis in fetal mouse hippocampus. PMID:16873886

  5. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge.

  6. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  7. Structural transitions in the intrinsically disordered Parkinson's protein alpha-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliezer, David

    2013-03-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein is genetically and histopathologically associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. Although considered to belong to the category of intrinsically disordered proteins for well over a decade, recent reports have suggested that synuclein may actually exist predominantly in a native, well-structured, tetrameric form. Experiments using in-cell NMR, which bypass potential structural perturbations caused by purification protocols, conclusively demonstrate that recombinant synuclein is in fact highly disordered and monomeric. In the presence of membranes, however, the protein undergoes a coil-to-helix transition to adopt several highly helical conformations, which are proposed to mediate both its normal function and its membrane-induced aggregation into amyloid fibrils. Supported by NIH grant R37AG019391

  8. Formation of covalent di-tyrosine dimers in recombinant α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    van Maarschalkerweerd, A; Pedersen, MN; Peterson, H; Nilsson, M; Nguyen, TTT; Skamris, T; Rand, K; Vetri, V; Langkilde, AE; Vestergaard, B

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with fibril deposition in the diseased brain. Misfolding events of the intrinsically disordered synaptic protein α-synuclein are suggested to lead to the formation of transient oligomeric and cytotoxic species. The etiology of Parkinson's disease is further associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress causes chemical modification of native α-synuclein, plausibly further influencing misfolding events. Here, we present evidence for the spontaneous formation of covalent di-tyrosine α-synuclein dimers in standard recombinant protein preparations, induced without extrinsic oxidative or nitrative agents. The dimers exhibit no secondary structure but advanced SAXS studies reveal an increased structural definition, resulting in a more hydrophobic micro-environment than the highly disordered monomer. Accordingly, monomers and dimers follow distinct fibrillation pathways. PMID:28232892

  9. Cyclodextrins 3-Functionalized with 8-Hydroxyquinolines: Copper-Binding Ability and Inhibition of Synuclein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Valentina; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Vecchio, Graziella

    2016-09-06

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are multifactorial disorders related to protein aggregation, metal dyshomeostasis, and oxidative stress. To advance understanding in this area and to contribute to therapeutic development, many efforts have been directed at devising suitable agents that can target metal ions associated with relevant biomolecules such as α-synuclein. This paper presents a new cyclodextrin-8-hydroxyquinoline conjugate and discusses the properties of four cyclodextrins 3-functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline as copper(II) chelators and inhibitors of copper-induced synuclein aggregation. The encouraging results establish the potential of cyclodextrin-8-hydroxyquinoline conjugates as chelators for the control of copper toxicity.

  10. Phlebotomy-induced anemia alters hippocampal neurochemistry in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, Diana J.; Tkac, Ivan; Stucker, Sara; Ennis, Kathleen M.; Sola-Visner, Martha; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in preterm infants. The hippocampus undergoes rapid differentiation during late fetal/early neonatal life and relies on adequate oxygen and iron to support oxidative metabolism necessary for development. Anemia shortchanges these two critical substrates, potentially altering hippocampal development and function. Methods PIA (hematocrit <25%) was induced in neonatal mice pups from postnatal day (P)3 to P14. Neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus were determined using in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 9.4T and compared with control animals at P14. Gene expression was assessed using qRT-PCR. Results PIA decreased brain iron concentration, increased hippocampal lactate and creatine concentrations, and decreased phosphoethanolamine (PE) concentration and the phosphocreatine/creatine ratio. Hippocampal transferrin receptor (Tfrc) gene expression was increased, while the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha (CamKIIα) was decreased in PIA mice. Conclusion This clinically relevant model of neonatal anemia alters hippocampal energy and phospholipid metabolism and gene expression during a critical developmental period. Low target hematocrits for preterm neonates in the NICU may have potential adverse neural implications. PMID:25734245

  11. Phlebotomy-induced anemia alters hippocampal neurochemistry in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Diana J; Tkac, Ivan; Stucker, Sara; Ennis, Kathleen M; Sola-Visner, Martha; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-06-01

    Phlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in preterm infants. The hippocampus undergoes rapid differentiation during late fetal/early neonatal life and relies on adequate oxygen and iron to support oxidative metabolism necessary for development. Anemia shortchanges these two critical substrates, potentially altering hippocampal development and function. PIA (hematocrit <25%) was induced in neonatal mice pups from postnatal day (P)3 to P14. Neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus were determined using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 9.4T and compared with control animals at P14. Gene expression was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PIA decreased brain iron concentration, increased hippocampal lactate and creatine concentrations, and decreased phosphoethanolamine (PE) concentration and the phosphocreatine/creatine ratio. Hippocampal transferrin receptor (Tfrc) gene expression was increased, while the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IIα (CamKIIα) was decreased in PIA mice. This clinically relevant model of neonatal anemia alters hippocampal energy and phospholipid metabolism and gene expression during a critical developmental period. Low target hematocrits for preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may have potential adverse neural implications.

  12. Copper binding regulates intracellular alpha-synuclein localisation, aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Moualla, Dima; Wright, Josephine A; Brown, David R

    2010-05-01

    Alpha-synuclein is a natively unfolded protein that aggregates and forms inclusions that are associated with a range of diseases that include Parkinson's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. The mechanism behind the formation of these inclusions and their possible role in disease remains unclear. Alpha-synuclein has also been shown to bind metals including copper and iron. We used a cell culture model of alpha-synuclein aggregation to examine the relationship between metals and formation of aggregates of the protein. While the levels of iron appear to have no role in aggregate formation or localisation of the protein in cells, copper appears to be important for both aggregation and cellular localisation of alpha-synuclein. Reduction in cellular copper resulted in a great decrease in aggregate formation both in terms of large aggregates visible in cells and oligomers observed in western blot analysis of cell extracts. Reduction in copper also resulted in a change in localisation of the protein which became more intensely localised to the plasma membrane in medium with low copper. These changes were reversed when copper was restored to the cells. Mutants of the copper binding domains altered the response to copper. Deletion of either the N- or C-termini resulted in a loss of aggregation while deletion of the C-termini also resulted in a loss of membrane association. Increased expression of alpha-synuclein also increased cell sensitivity to the toxicity of copper. These results suggest that the potential pathological role of alpha-synuclein aggregates is dependent upon the copper binding capacity of the protein.

  13. Curcumin prevents paracetamol-induced liver mitochondrial alterations.

    PubMed

    Granados-Castro, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Sarai; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Eugenio-Pérez, Dianelena; Pinzón, Enrique; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-02-01

    In the present study was evaluated if curcumin is able to attenuate paracetamol (PCM)-induced mitochondrial alterations in liver of mice. Mice (n = 5-6/group) received curcumin (35, 50 or 100 mg/kg bw) 90 min before PCM injection (350 mg/kg bw). Plasma activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was measured; histological analyses were done; and measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP synthesis, aconitase activity and activity of respiratory complexes was carried out. Curcumin prevented in a dose-dependent manner PCM-induced liver damage. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) attenuated PCM-induced liver histological damage (damaged hepatocytes from 28.3 ± 7.7 to 8.3 ± 0.7%) and increment in plasma ALT (from 2300 ± 150 to 690 ± 28 U/l) and AST (from 1603 ± 43 to 379 ± 22 U/l) activity. Moreover, curcumin attenuated the decrease in oxygen consumption using either succinate or malate/glutamate as substrates (evaluated by state 3, respiratory control ratio, uncoupled respiration and adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio), in membrane potential, in ATP synthesis, in aconitase activity and in the activity of respiratory complexes I, III and IV. These results indicate that the protective effect of curcumin in PCM-induced hepatotoxicity is associated with attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  15. Interaction of Synuclein and Inflammation in Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    We also performed cell culture studies on the activation of microglia by alpha-synuclein. In our in vivo studies, we found that both alpha...between DA and the synucleins. In our in vitro studies, we noted that the synucleins caused microglia to adhere to plastic surfaces. This adhesion was...synucleins, we found that only LTB4, a leukotriene, and CX3CL1, a chemokine, enticed microglia to migrate to naked or laminin-coated filters. While we

  16. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Hailey; Tran, Hong T.; Haak, David C.; Zhang, Liqing; Barney, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture. The herbicide injury resulted in 9,205 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome. In total, 5,914 of these DMRs were induced in a dose-dependent manner, wherein the methylation levels were positively correlated to the severity of the herbicide injury, suggesting that plants can modulate the magnitude of methylation changes based on the severity of the stress. Of the 3,680 genes associated with glyphosate-induced DMRs, only 7% were also implicated in methylation changes following biotic or salinity stress. These results demonstrate that plants respond to herbicide stress through changes in methylation patterns that are, in general, dose-sensitive and, at least partially, stress-specific. PMID:28740750

  17. Treadmill Exercise Induces Hippocampal Astroglial Alterations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Caren; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Nardin, Patrícia; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Vizueti, Adriana Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Bobermin, Larissa; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Jaqueline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day) for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry) and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy. PMID:23401802

  18. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) Are Resistant to a Reserpine-Induced Progressive Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Differences in Motor Behavior, Tyrosine Hydroxylase and α-Synuclein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Anderson H. F. F.; Meurer, Ywlliane S. R.; da Silva, Anatildes F.; Medeiros, André M.; Campêlo, Clarissa L. C.; Abílio, Vanessa C.; Engelberth, Rovena C. G. K.; Cavalcante, Jeferson S.; Izídio, Geison S.; Ribeiro, Alessandra M.; Silva, Regina H.

    2017-01-01

    Reserpine is an irreversible inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) used to study Parkinson’s disease (PD) and screening for antiparkinsonian treatments in rodents. Recently, the repeated treatment with a low-dose of reserpine was proposed as a progressive model of PD. Rats under this treatment show progressive catalepsy behavior, oral movements and spontaneous motor activity decrement. In parallel, compared to Wistar rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are resistant to acute reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia. We aimed to assess whether SHR would present differential susceptibility to repeated reserpine-induced deficits in the progressive model of PD. Male Wistar and SHR rats were administered 15 subcutaneously (s.c.) injections of reserpine (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle, every other day and motor activity was assessed by the catalepsy, oral movements and open field tests. Only reserpine-treated Wistar rats presented increased latency to step down in the catalepsy test and impaired spontaneous activity in the open field. On the other hand, there was an increase in oral movements in both reserpine-treated strains, although with reduced magnitude and latency to instauration in SHR. After a 15-day withdrawn period, both strains recovered from motor impairment, but SHR animals expressed reduced latencies to reach control levels. Finally, we performed immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and α-synuclein (α-syn) 48 h after the last injection or 15 days after withdrawn. Reserpine-treated animals presented a reduction in TH and an increase in α-syn immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra and dorsal striatum (dSTR), which were both recovered after 15 days of withdraw. Furthermore, SHR rats were resistant to reserpine-induced TH decrement in the substantia nigra, and presented reduced immunoreactivity to α-syn in the dSTR relative to Wistar rats, irrespective of treatment. This effect was accompanied by increase of malondaldhyde (MDA) in

  19. Environmental and genetic factors support the dissociation between α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Sant'Anna, Ricardo; Szegö, Éva Mónika; Fonseca-Ornelas, Luis; Pinho, Raquel; Carija, Anita; Gerhardt, Ellen; Masaracchia, Caterina; Abad Gonzalez, Enrique; Rossetti, Giulia; Carloni, Paolo; Fernández, Claudio O; Foguel, Debora; Milosevic, Ira; Zweckstetter, Markus; Ventura, Salvador; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2016-10-18

    Synucleinopathies are a group of progressive disorders characterized by the abnormal aggregation and accumulation of α-synuclein (aSyn), an abundant neuronal protein that can adopt different conformations and biological properties. Recently, aSyn pathology was shown to spread between neurons in a prion-like manner. Proteins like aSyn that exhibit self-propagating capacity appear to be able to adopt different stable conformational states, known as protein strains, which can be modulated both by environmental and by protein-intrinsic factors. Here, we analyzed these factors and found that the unique combination of the neurodegeneration-related metal copper and the pathological H50Q aSyn mutation induces a significant alteration in the aggregation properties of aSyn. We compared the aggregation of WT and H50Q aSyn with and without copper, and assessed the effects of the resultant protein species when applied to primary neuronal cultures. The presence of copper induces the formation of structurally different and less-damaging aSyn aggregates. Interestingly, these aggregates exhibit a stronger capacity to induce aSyn inclusion formation in recipient cells, which demonstrates that the structural features of aSyn species determine their effect in neuronal cells and supports a lack of correlation between toxicity and inclusion formation. In total, our study provides strong support in favor of the hypothesis that protein aggregation is not a primary cause of cytotoxicity.

  20. DOPAL derived alpha-synuclein oligomers impair synaptic vesicles physiological function

    PubMed Central

    Plotegher, N.; Berti, G.; Ferrari, E.; Tessari, I.; Zanetti, M.; Lunelli, L.; Greggio, E.; Bisaglia, M.; Veronesi, M.; Girotto, S.; Dalla Serra, M.; Perego, C.; Casella, L.; Bubacco, L.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons and by accumulation of alpha-synuclein (aS) aggregates in the surviving neurons. The dopamine catabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is a highly reactive and toxic molecule that leads to aS oligomerization by covalent modifications to lysine residues. Here we show that DOPAL-induced aS oligomer formation in neurons is associated with damage of synaptic vesicles, and with alterations in the synaptic vesicles pools. To investigate the molecular mechanism that leads to synaptic impairment, we first aimed to characterize the biochemical and biophysical properties of the aS-DOPAL oligomers; heterogeneous ensembles of macromolecules able to permeabilise cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. aS-DOPAL oligomers can induce dopamine leak in an in vitro model of synaptic vesicles and in cellular models. The dopamine released, after conversion to DOPAL in the cytoplasm, could trigger a noxious cycle that further fuels the formation of aS-DOPAL oligomers, inducing neurodegeneration. PMID:28084443

  1. Environmental and genetic factors support the dissociation between α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Sant’Anna, Ricardo; Szegö, Éva Mónika; Fonseca-Ornelas, Luis; Pinho, Raquel; Carija, Anita; Gerhardt, Ellen; Masaracchia, Caterina; Abad Gonzalez, Enrique; Rossetti, Giulia; Carloni, Paolo; Fernández, Claudio O.; Foguel, Debora; Milosevic, Ira; Zweckstetter, Markus; Ventura, Salvador; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2016-01-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of progressive disorders characterized by the abnormal aggregation and accumulation of α-synuclein (aSyn), an abundant neuronal protein that can adopt different conformations and biological properties. Recently, aSyn pathology was shown to spread between neurons in a prion-like manner. Proteins like aSyn that exhibit self-propagating capacity appear to be able to adopt different stable conformational states, known as protein strains, which can be modulated both by environmental and by protein-intrinsic factors. Here, we analyzed these factors and found that the unique combination of the neurodegeneration-related metal copper and the pathological H50Q aSyn mutation induces a significant alteration in the aggregation properties of aSyn. We compared the aggregation of WT and H50Q aSyn with and without copper, and assessed the effects of the resultant protein species when applied to primary neuronal cultures. The presence of copper induces the formation of structurally different and less-damaging aSyn aggregates. Interestingly, these aggregates exhibit a stronger capacity to induce aSyn inclusion formation in recipient cells, which demonstrates that the structural features of aSyn species determine their effect in neuronal cells and supports a lack of correlation between toxicity and inclusion formation. In total, our study provides strong support in favor of the hypothesis that protein aggregation is not a primary cause of cytotoxicity. PMID:27708160

  2. DOPAL derived alpha-synuclein oligomers impair synaptic vesicles physiological function.

    PubMed

    Plotegher, N; Berti, G; Ferrari, E; Tessari, I; Zanetti, M; Lunelli, L; Greggio, E; Bisaglia, M; Veronesi, M; Girotto, S; Dalla Serra, M; Perego, C; Casella, L; Bubacco, L

    2017-01-13

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons and by accumulation of alpha-synuclein (aS) aggregates in the surviving neurons. The dopamine catabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is a highly reactive and toxic molecule that leads to aS oligomerization by covalent modifications to lysine residues. Here we show that DOPAL-induced aS oligomer formation in neurons is associated with damage of synaptic vesicles, and with alterations in the synaptic vesicles pools. To investigate the molecular mechanism that leads to synaptic impairment, we first aimed to characterize the biochemical and biophysical properties of the aS-DOPAL oligomers; heterogeneous ensembles of macromolecules able to permeabilise cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. aS-DOPAL oligomers can induce dopamine leak in an in vitro model of synaptic vesicles and in cellular models. The dopamine released, after conversion to DOPAL in the cytoplasm, could trigger a noxious cycle that further fuels the formation of aS-DOPAL oligomers, inducing neurodegeneration.

  3. Calcipotriol inhibits α-synuclein aggregation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by a Calbindin-D28k-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Alexandre N; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Pountney, Dean L

    2017-04-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium-buffering protein, calbindin-D28k, and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons. Recent cell culture studies have shown that α-synuclein aggregation can be induced by raised intracellular-free Ca(II) and demonstrated that raised intracellular calcium and oxidative stress can act synergistically to promote α-synuclein aggregation. We hypothesized that calcipotriol, a potent vitamin D analogue used pharmaceutically, may be able to suppress calcium-dependent α-synuclein aggregation by inducing calbindin-D28k expression. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis showed that calcipotriol potently induced calbindin-D28k in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Calcipotriol significantly decreased the frequency of α-synuclein aggregate positive cells subjected to treatments that cause raised intracellular-free Ca(II) (potassium depolarization, KCl/H2 O2 combined treatment, and rotenone) in a dose-dependent manner and increased viability. Suppression of calbindin-D28k expression in calcipotriol-treated cells using calbindin-D28k-specific siRNA showed significantly higher α-synuclein aggregation levels, indicating that calcipotriol-mediated blocking of calcium-dependent α-synuclein aggregation was dependent on the induction of calbindin-D28k expression. These data indicate that targeting raised intraneuronal-free Ca(II) in the brain by promoting the expression of calbindin-D28k at the transcriptional level using calcipotriol could prevent α-synuclein aggregate formation and ameliorate

  4. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  5. Compartmentalization and ultrastructural alterations induced by chromium in aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mangabeira, Pedro A; Ferreira, Aluane S; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Fernandes, Valéria F; Lucena, Emerson; Souza, Vânia L; dos Santos Júnior, Alberto J; Oliveira, Arno H; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie F; Barbier, Fréderique; Silva, Delmira C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the sites of accumulation of Cr in the species of macrophytes that are abundant in the Cachoeira river, namely, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Borreria scabiosoides, Polygonum ferrugineum and Eichhornia crassipes. Plants were grown in nutritive solution supplemented with 0.25 and 50 mg l(-1) of CrCl(3)·6H(2)O. Samples of plant tissues were digested with HNO(3)/HCl in a closed-vessel microwave system and the concentrations of Cr determined using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ultrastructure of root, stem and leaf tissue was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in order to determine the sites of accumulation of Cr and to detect possible alterations in cell organelles induced by the presence of the metal. Chromium accumulated principally in the roots of the four macrophytes (8.6-30 mg kg(-1) dw), with much lower concentrations present in the stems and leaves (3.8-8.6 and 0.01-9.0 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). Within root tissue, Cr was present mainly in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells and cell walls of xylem and parenchyma. Alterations in the shape of the chloroplasts and nuclei were detected in A. philoxeroides and B. scabiosoides, suggesting a possible application of these aquatic plants as biomarkers from Cr contamination.

  6. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  7. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Walraven, Jeremy A.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  8. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-10-15

    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning.

  9. Cofilin mediates ATP depletion-induced endothelial cell actin alterations.

    PubMed

    Suurna, Maria V; Ashworth, Sharon L; Hosford, Melanie; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Shah, Bijal M; Bamburg, James R; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2006-06-01

    Ischemia and sepsis lead to endothelial cell damage, resulting in compromised microvascular flow in many organs. Much remains to be determined regarding the intracellular structural events that lead to endothelial cell dysfunction. To investigate potential actin cytoskeletal-related mechanisms, ATP depletion was induced in mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells (MS1). Fluorescent imaging and biochemical studies demonstrated a rapid and progressive increase in F-actin along with a decrease in G-actin at 60 min. Confocal microscopic analysis showed ATP depletion resulted in destruction of actin stress fibers and accumulation of F-actin aggregates. We hypothesized these actin alterations were secondary to dephosphorylation/activation of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin proteins. Cofilin, the predominant isoform expressed in MS1 cells, was rapidly dephosphorylated/activated during ATP depletion. To directly investigate the role of cofilin activation on the actin cytoskeleton during ischemia, MS1 cells were infected with adenoviruses containing the cDNAs for wild-type Xenopus laevis ADF/cofilin green fluorescent protein [XAC(wt)-GFP], GFP, and the constitutively active and inactive isoforms XAC(S3A)-GFP and XAC(S3E)-GFP. The rate and extent of cortical actin destruction and actin aggregate formation were increased in ATP-depleted XAC(wt)-GFP- and XAC(S3A)-GFP-expressing cells, whereas increased actin stress fibers were observed in XAC(S3E)-GFP-expressing cells. To investigate the upstream signaling pathway of ADF/cofilin, LIM kinase 1-GFP (LIMK1-GFP) was expressed in MS1 cells. Cells expressing LIMK1-GFP protein had higher levels of phosphorylated ADF/cofilin, increased stress fibers, and delayed F-actin cytoskeleton destruction during ATP depletion. These results strongly support the importance of cofilin regulation in ischemia-induced endothelial cell actin cytoskeleton alterations leading to cell damage and microvascular dysfunction.

  10. Structural Characteristics of the Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Stabilized By the Flavonoid Baicalein

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, D.-P.; Fink, A.L.; Uversky, V.N.

    2009-05-18

    The flavonoid baicalein inhibits fibrillation of alpha-synuclein, which is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. It has been known that baicalein induces the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomers and consequently prevents their fibrillation. In order to evaluate the structural properties of baicalein-stabilized oligomers, we purified oligomer species by HPLC and examined their stability and structure by CD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography HPLC, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Baicalein-stabilized oligomers are beta-sheet-enriched according to CD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. They did not form fibrils even after very prolonged incubation. From small-angle X-ray scattering data and atomic force microscopy images, the oligomers were characterized as quite compact globular species. Oligomers were extremely stable, with a GdmCl C(m)=3.3 M. This high stability explains the previously observed inhibition properties of baicalein against alpha-synuclein fibrillation. These baicalein-stabilized oligomers, added to the solution of aggregating alpha-synuclein, were able to noticeably inhibit its fibrillation. After prolonged coincubation, short fibrils were formed, suggesting an effective interaction of oligomers with monomeric alpha-synuclein. Membrane permeability tests suggested that the baicalein-stabilized oligomers had a mild effect on the integrity of the membrane surface. This effect was rather similar to that of the monomeric protein, suggesting that targeted stabilization of certain alpha-synuclein oligomers might offer a potential strategy for the development of novel Parkinson's disease therapies.

  11. Galantamine reverses scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations in Dugesia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Latha; Amatya, Christina; DeSaer, Cassie J; Dalhoff, Zachary; Eggerichs, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    In planaria (Dugesia tigrina), scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, induced distinct behaviors of attenuated motility and C-like hyperactivity. Planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) displayed a dose-dependent negative correlation with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mM, and a further increase in scopolamine concentration to 2.25 mM did not further decrease pLMV. Planarian hyperactivity counts was dose-dependently increased following pretreatment with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 0.5 mM and then decreased for scopolamine concentrations ≥ 1 mM. Planarian learning and memory investigated using classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments demonstrated that scopolamine (1 mM) negatively influenced associative learning indicated by a significant decrease in % positive behaviors from 86 % (control) to 14 % (1 mM scopolamine) and similarly altered memory retention, which is indicated by a decrease in % positive behaviors from 69 % (control) to 27 % (1 mM scopolamine). Galantamine demonstrated a complex behavior in planarian motility experiments since co-application of low concentrations of galantamine (0.001 and 0.01 mM) protected planaria against 1 mM scopolamine-induced motility impairments; however, pLMV was significantly decreased when planaria were tested in the presence of 0.1 mM galantamine alone. Effects of co-treatment of scopolamine and galantamine on memory retention in planaria via classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments showed that galantamine (0.01 mM) partially reversed scopolamine (1 mM)-induced memory deficits in planaria as the % positive behaviors increased from 27 to 63 %. The results demonstrate, for the first time in planaria, scopolamine's effects in causing learning and memory impairments and galantamine's ability in reversing scopolamine-induced memory impairments.

  12. Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 μm. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, Ω, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation

  13. Involvement of the serotonergic system in orexin-induced behavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ichiyo; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kunii, Kaiko; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Goto, Katsutoshi

    2002-03-15

    We have demonstrated involvement of the serotonergic system in orexin-induced behavioral responses in rats. Orexin-A and -B (hypocretin-1 and -2) significantly increased total locomotor activity when administered centrally. They also induced behavioral alterations; increasing grooming, face washing and wet dog shaking in rats. Haloperidol inhibited orexin-induced hyperlocomotion and these behavioral alterations. Serotonin antagonists, ritanserin and metergoline, did not attenuate orexin-induced hyperlocomotion but partly inhibited orexin-induced behavioral alterations. These results suggest that the dopaminergic system might be involved in orexin-induced hyperlocomotion, while both the serotonergic system as well as the dopaminergic system might be involved in orexin-induced behavioral responses.

  14. Alpha-synuclein propagation: New insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Dehay, Benjamin; Vila, Miquel; Bezard, Erwan; Brundin, Patrik; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation of alpha-synuclein is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed synucleinopathies. Emerging evidence strongly implicates cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein as a common pathogenetic mechanism in synucleinopathies. The impact of alpha-synuclein pathology on neuronal dysfunction and behavioral impairments is being explored in animal models. This review provides an update on how research in animal models supports the concept that misfolded alpha-synuclein spreads from cell to cell and describes how findings in animal models might relate to the disease process in humans. Finally, we discuss the current underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms and future therapeutic strategies targeting alpha-synuclein propagation.

  15. α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as potential biological fluid biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Waragai, Masaaki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Sekigawa, Akio; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Fujita, Masayo; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2010-10-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common form of movement disorder and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. Currently, PD cannot be prevented or cured, and no single diagnostic biomarkers are available. Notably, recent studies suggest that two familial PD-linked molecules, α-synuclein and DJ-1, are present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and that their levels may be altered during the progression of PD. In this regard, sensitive and accurate methods for evaluation of α-synuclein and DJ-1 levels in the CSF and blood have been developed, and the results suggest that the levels of both molecules are significantly decreased in the CSF in patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, specific detection and quantification of neurotoxic oligometric forms of α-synuclein in the blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays might be expected as potential peripheral biomarkers for PD, although further validation is required. Currently, neither α-synuclein nor DJ-1 is satisfactory as a single biomarker for PD, but combinatory evaluation of these biological fluid molecules with other biomarkers and imaging techniques may provide reliable information for diagnosis of PD.

  16. α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waragai, Masaaki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Sekigawa, Akio; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Fujita, Masayo; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common form of movement disorder and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. Currently, PD cannot be prevented or cured, and no single diagnostic biomarkers are available. Notably, recent studies suggest that two familial PD-linked molecules, α-synuclein and DJ-1, are present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and that their levels may be altered during the progression of PD. In this regard, sensitive and accurate methods for evaluation of α-synuclein and DJ-1 levels in the CSF and blood have been developed, and the results suggest that the levels of both molecules are significantly decreased in the CSF in patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, specific detection and quantification of neurotoxic oligometric forms of α-synuclein in the blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays might be expected as potential peripheral biomarkers for PD, although further validation is required. Currently, neither α-synuclein nor DJ-1 is satisfactory as a single biomarker for PD, but combinatory evaluation of these biological fluid molecules with other biomarkers and imaging techniques may provide reliable information for diagnosis of PD. PMID:21151436

  17. Is the NACP/Synuclein gene involved in early-onset Alheimer`s disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, D.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.; Frebourg, T.

    1994-09-01

    The major component of senile plaques (SP), the most specific histologic lesion of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is the A4 peptide, derived from a large precursor protein (APP). Recently, a second major component of SP has been isolated. This 35 AA peptide was named non-A4 component amyloid (NAC) and its precursor - a 140 AA protein - was named NACP. Computer homology search has allowed us to establish that the NACP gene is homologous to the rat synuclein gene which is expressed in neurons. Since APP mutations have been shown to cause early-onset Alzheimer`s disease (EOAD) in several families, we investigated whether the NACP/synuclein gene was also involved in familial early-onset Alzheimer`s disease (FEOAD). RT-PCR and direct sequencing of the entire NACP open reading frame did not reveal any alteration of the NACP coding sequence in lymphocytes of 26 unrelated FEOAD patients. We showed that the NACP/synuclein gene was alternatively spliced and that the different transcripts potentially encoded for distinct proteins all containing the NAC peptide. Accumulation of NAC in SP might result from a dysregulation of NACP/synuclein expression.

  18. Analysis of chromosomal alterations induced by asbestos and ceramic fibers.

    PubMed

    Dopp, E; Schiffmann, D

    1998-08-01

    increase of chromosomal breakage in the pericentric heterochromatin regions of chromosomes 1 and 9 in AFC after exposure to asbestos and ceramic fibers. The number of hyperdiploid cells was also significantly increased. These results show that asbestos as well as ceramic fibers are inducers of structural and numerical chromosomal alterations.

  19. Protective efficacy of phosphodiesterase-1 inhibition against alpha-synuclein toxicity revealed by compound screening in LUHMES cells.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Moebius, Claudia; Melms, Johannes; Chiu, Wei-Hua; Goebel, Joachim N; Chakroun, Tasnim; Koeglsperger, Thomas; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Rösler, Thomas W; Bickle, Marc; Höglinger, Günter U

    2017-09-13

    α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity is a core pathogenic event in neurodegenerative synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy. There is currently no disease-modifying therapy available for these diseases. We screened 1,600 FDA-approved drugs for their efficacy to protect LUHMES cells from degeneration induced by wild-type α-synuclein and identified dipyridamole, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, as top hit. Systematic analysis of other phosphodiesterase inhibitors identified a specific phosphodiesterase 1 inhibitor as most potent to rescue from α-synuclein toxicity. Protection was mediated by an increase of cGMP and associated with the reduction of a specific α-synuclein oligomeric species. RNA interference experiments confirmed PDE1A and to a smaller extent PDE1C as molecular targets accounting for the protective efficacy. PDE1 inhibition also rescued dopaminergic neurons from wild-type α-synuclein induced degeneration in the substantia nigra of mice. In conclusion, this work identifies inhibition of PDE1A in particular as promising target for neuroprotective treatment of synucleinopathies.

  20. Drought induces alterations in the stomatal development program in Populus.

    PubMed

    Hamanishi, Erin T; Thomas, Barb R; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2012-08-01

    Much is known about the physiological control of stomatal aperture as a means by which plants adjust to water availability. By contrast, the role played by the modulation of stomatal development to limit water loss has received much less attention. The control of stomatal development in response to water deprivation in the genus Populus is explored here. Drought induced declines in stomatal conductance as well as an alteration in stomatal development in two genotypes of Populus balsamifera. Leaves that developed under water-deficit conditions had lower stomatal indices than leaves that developed under well-watered conditions. Transcript abundance of genes that could hypothetically underpin drought-responsive changes in stomatal development was examined, in two genotypes, across six time points, under two conditions, well-watered and with water deficit. Populus homologues of STOMAGEN, ERECTA (ER), STOMATA DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 1 (SDD1), and FAMA had variable transcript abundance patterns congruent with their role in the modulation of stomatal development in response to drought. Conversely, there was no significant variation in transcript abundance between genotypes or treatments for the Populus homologues of YODA (YDA) and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). The findings highlight the role that could be played by stomatal development during leaf expansion as a longer term means by which to limit water loss from leaves. Moreover, the results point to the key roles played by the regulation of the homologues of STOMAGEN, ER, SDD1, and FAMA in the control of this response in poplar.

  1. Altered Histone Monoubiquitylation Mediated by Mutant Huntingtin Induces Transcriptional Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee-Ohk; Chawla, Prianka; Overland, Ryan P.; Xia, Eva; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

    2008-01-01

    Although transcriptional dysregulation is a critical pathogenic mechanism in Huntington's disease (HD), it is still not known how mutant huntingtin causes it. Here we show that alteration of histone monoubiquitylation is a key mechanism. Disrupted interaction of huntingtin with Bmi-1, a component of the hPRC1L E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, increases monoubiquityl histone H2A (uH2A) levels in a cell culture model of HD. Genes with expression that is repressed in transgenic R6/2 mouse brain have increased uH2A and decreased uH2B at their promoters, whereas actively transcribed genes show the opposite pattern. Reduction in uH2A reverses transcriptional repression and inhibits methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 in cell culture. In contrast, reduction in uH2B induces transcriptional repression and inhibits methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4. This is the first report to demonstrate hPRC1L as a huntingtin-interacting histone modifying complex and a crucial role for histone monoubiquitylation in mammalian brain gene expression, which broadens our understanding of histone code. These findings also provide a rationale for targeting histone monoubiquitylation for therapy in HD. PMID:18400894

  2. Chaperone-like activities of {alpha}-synuclein: {alpha}-Synuclein assists enzyme activities of esterases

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Misun; Kim, SeungBum; Kang, Mira; Ryu, Yeonwoo . E-mail: ywryu@ajou.ac.kr; Doohun Kim, T. . E-mail: doohunkim@ajou.ac.kr

    2006-08-11

    {alpha}-Synuclein, a major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), has been implicated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), although the physiological function of {alpha}-synuclein has not yet been known. Here we have shown that {alpha}-synuclein, which has no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure, can protect the enzyme activity of microbial esterases against stress conditions such as heat, pH, and organic solvents. In particular, the flexibility of {alpha}-synuclein and its C-terminal region seems to be important for complex formation, but the structural integrity of the C-terminal region may not be required for stabilization of enzyme activity. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in vivo enzyme assays showed highly specific interactions of esterases with {alpha}-synuclein. Our results indicate that {alpha}-synuclein not only protects the enzyme activity of microbial esterases in vitro, but also can stabilize the active conformation of microbial esterases in vivo.

  3. Astrocytic expression of Parkinson's disease-related A53T alpha-synuclein causes neurodegeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xing-Long; Long, Cai-Xia; Sun, Lixin; Xie, Chengsong; Lin, Xian; Cai, Huaibin

    2010-04-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. While neuronal deposition of alpha-synuclein serves as a pathological hallmark of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies, alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates are also present in astrocytes. The pathological consequence of astrocytic accumulation of alpha-synuclein, however, is unclear. Here we show that PD-related A53T mutant alpha-synuclein, when selectively expressed in astrocytes, induced rapidly progressed paralysis in mice. Increasing accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates was found in presymptomatic and symptomatic mouse brains and correlated with the expansion of reactive astrogliosis. The normal function of astrocytes was compromised as evidenced by cerebral microhemorrhage and down-regulation of astrocytic glutamate transporters, which also led to increased inflammatory responses and microglial activation. Interestingly, the activation of microglia was mainly detected in the midbrain, brainstem and spinal cord, where a significant loss of dopaminergic and motor neurons was observed. Consistent with the activation of microglia, the expression level of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) was significantly up-regulated in the brain of symptomatic mice and in cultured microglia treated with conditioned medium derived from astrocytes over-expressing A53T alpha-synuclein. Consequently, the suppression of COX-1 activities extended the survival of mutant mice, suggesting that excess inflammatory responses elicited by reactive astrocytes may contribute to the degeneration of neurons. Our findings demonstrate a critical involvement of astrocytic alpha-synuclein in initiating the non-cell autonomous killing of neurons, suggesting the viability of reactive astrocytes and microglia as potential therapeutic targets for PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Caudo-rostral brain spreading of α-synuclein through vagal connections

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Ayse; Rusconi, Raffaella; Pérez-Revuelta, Blanca I; Musgrove, Ruth E; Helwig, Michael; Winzen-Reichert, Bettina; Monte, Donato A Di

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein accumulation and pathology in Parkinson's disease typically display a caudo-rostral pattern of progression, involving neuronal nuclei in the medulla oblongata at the earliest stages. In this study, selective expression and accumulation of human α-synuclein within medullary neurons was achieved via retrograde transport of adeno-associated viral vectors unilaterally injected into the vagus nerve in the rat neck. The exogenous protein progressively spread toward more rostral brain regions where it could be detected within axonal projections. Propagation to the pons, midbrain and forebrain followed a stereotypical pattern of topographical distribution. It affected areas such as the coeruleus–subcoeruleus complex, dorsal raphae, hypothalamus and amygdala ipsilateral and, to a lesser extent, contralateral to the injection side. Spreading was accompanied by evidence of neuritic pathology in the form of axonal varicosities intensely immunoreactive for human α-synuclein and containing Thioflavin-S-positive fibrils. Thus, overexpression of human α-synuclein in the lower brainstem is sufficient to induce its long-distance caudo-rostral propagation, recapitulating features of Parkinson's disease and mechanisms of disease progression. PMID:23703938

  5. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5–5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27314012

  6. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5-5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Therapeutic approaches to target alpha-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Brundin, Patrik; Dave, Kuldip D; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2017-10-04

    Starting two decades ago with the discoveries of genetic links between alpha-synuclein and Parkinson's disease risk and the identification of aggregated alpha-synuclein as the main protein constituent of Lewy pathology, alpha-synuclein has emerged as the major therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies. Following the suggestion that alpha-synuclein pathology gradually spreads through the nervous system following a stereotypic pattern and the discovery that aggregated forms of alpha-synuclein can propagate pathology from one cell to another, and thereby probably aggravate existing deficits as well as generate additional symptoms, the idea that alpha-synuclein is a viable therapeutic target gained further support. In this review we describe current challenges and possibilities with alpha-synuclein as a therapeutic target. We briefly highlight gaps in the knowledge of the role of alpha-synuclein in disease, and propose that a deeper understanding of the pathobiology of alpha-synuclein can lead to improved therapeutic strategies. We describe several treatment approaches that are currently being tested in advanced animal experiments or already are in clinical trials. We have divided them into approaches that reduce alpha-synuclein production; inhibit alpha-synuclein aggregation inside cells; promote its degradation either inside or outside cells; and reduce its uptake by neighbouring cells following release from already affected neurons. Finally, we briefly discuss challenges related to the clinical testing of alpha-synuclein therapies, for example difficulties in monitoring target engagement and the need for relatively large trials of long duration. We conclude that alpha-synuclein remains one of the most compelling therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease, and related synucleinopathies, and that the multitude of approaches being tested provides hope for the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hydrological Alterations Due to Climate-Induced Regional Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Vivoni, E. R.; Springer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    An extended, severe drought in the southwestern U.S. from 2000 to 2003 was accompanied by increased temperatures and bark beetle infestations, inducing the large-scale mortality of woody overstory (Pinus edulis). The consequential redistribution of water, radiation, and nutrient availability modified the ecosystem phenology, species composition, and forced the ecosystem to transition into a new state. We hypothesize that the hydrological processes in the ecosystem were also altered due to the mortality. Thus, our objective is to investigate changes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum at the watershed scale. The Rio Ojo Caliente Basin is a subbasin of the Upper Rio Grande, located mostly in New Mexico, and is approximately 1,000 km2. Examining a remotely-sensed vegetation index (1-km AVHRR NDVI from 1990 to 2006), there is an increasing trend in the NDVI from 1989 to 1999 (pre-mortality period), a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2003 (mortality period), and a dramatic increasing trend from 2004 to 2006 (post-mortality period) in which the NDVI rebounds to nearly pre-mortality magnitudes. This pattern exists across varying spatial scales (plot to watershed to region) and signifies a profound alteration in the ecosystem, for while the vegetation composition was altered to a great degree, the system rapidly returned to a homeostatic state balancing resource supply and use during the post-mortality period. To investigate hydrological changes due to the mortality, we employ a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model, tRIBS (TIN-based Real-Time Integrated Basin Simulator) for the Rio Ojo Caliente Basin. STATSGO 1-km soils data, 10-meter National Elevation Dataset DEMs, Carson National Forest vegetation species data, and MM5-downscaled NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-I meteorologic data are used as model inputs. A combination of MODIS and AVHRR remote-sensing data, values from the literature, and field data from a long-term, pi {n}on-juniper (PJ) observation site in Los

  9. Exercise Induced Alterations in Rat Monocyte Number, Morphology, and Function

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the histophysiological alterations in monocytes and macrophages induced by short periods of exercise. Male Wistar rats (age = 2 months, body weight = 200g) were divided into seven groups (N = 6 each): sedentary control (C), groups exercised (swimming) at low intensity for 5 (5L), 10 (10L), and 15 minutes (15L), and groups exercised at moderate intensity for 5 (5M), 10 (10M) or 15 minutes (15M). At moderate intensity the animals carried a load of 5% of body weight on their backs. Blood monocytes were evaluated for quantity and morphology, and peritoneal macrophages were analyzed for quantity and phagocytic activity. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0.05). Low intensity groups and 5M exhibited an increase in monocyte levels when compared with the control. There was an increase in monocyte cellular area for the 5L, 10L, 5M and 10M groups; monocyte nuclear area increased for the 10L, 5M and 10M groups in comparison with the control. There was an increase in peritoneal macrophages for the 15L, 10M, 15M and decrease for the 5M group. Macrophage phagocytic capacity increased for low intensity groups and for 10M group. The exercise performed for short periods modulated macrophage levels and function, and monocyte levels and morphology, in an intensity-dependent manner. The sum of acute responses observed in this study may exert a protective effect against sickness and may be used to improve health and lifespan. PMID:27182297

  10. Copper Binding and Subsequent Aggregation of α-Synuclein Are Modulated by N-Terminal Acetylation and Ablated by the H50Q Missense Mutation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rebecca J; Paskins, Aimee R; Dalton, Caroline F; Smith, David P

    2016-08-30

    The Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein exhibits significant conformational heterogeneity. Bacterially expressed α-synuclein is known to bind to copper, resulting in the formation of aggregation-prone compact conformations. However, in vivo, α-synuclein undergoes acetylation at its N-terminus. Here the effect of this modification and the pathological H50Q mutation on copper binding and subsequent conformational transitions were investigated by electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that acetylation perturbs the ability of α-synuclein to bind copper and that the H50Q missense mutation in the presence of N-terminal acetylation prevents copper binding. These modifications and mutations prevent the formation of the most compact conformations and inhibit copper-induced aggregation.

  11. Immunotherapy targeting α-synuclein protofibrils reduced pathology in (Thy-1)-h[A30P] α-synuclein mice.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Veronica; Fagerqvist, Therese; Nordström, Eva; Eriksson, Fredrik; Lord, Anna; Tucker, Stina; Andersson, Jessica; Johannesson, Malin; Schell, Heinrich; Kahle, Philipp J; Möller, Christer; Gellerfors, Pär; Bergström, Joakim; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein) in the central nervous system (CNS) is an early pathogenic event in Parkinson's disease and other Lewy body disorders. In recent years, animal studies have indicated immunotherapy with antibodies directed against α-synuclein as a promising novel treatment strategy. Since large α-synuclein oligomers, or protofibrils, have been demonstrated to possess pronounced cytotoxic properties, such species should be particularly attractive as therapeutic targets. In support of this, (Thy-1)-h[A30P] α-synuclein transgenic mice with motor dysfunction symptoms were found to display increased levels of α-synuclein protofibrils in the CNS. An α-synuclein protofibril-selective monoclonal antibody (mAb47) was evaluated in this α-synuclein transgenic mouse model. As measured by ELISA, 14month old mice treated for 14weeks with weekly intraperitoneal injections of mAb47 displayed significantly lower levels of both soluble and membrane-associated protofibrils in the spinal cord. Besides the lower levels of pathogenic α-synuclein demonstrated, a reduction of motor dysfunction in transgenic mice upon peripheral administration of mAb47 was indicated. Thus, immunotherapy with antibodies targeting toxic α-synuclein species holds promise as a future disease-modifying treatment in Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

  12. Soluble α-synuclein is a novel modulator of Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Megan E.; Sherman, Mathew A.; Greimel, Susan; Kuskowski, Michael; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Lesné, Sylvain E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has emphasized soluble species of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau as pathogenic effectors in AD. Despite the fact that Aβ, tau and α-synuclein (αSyn) can promote each other’s aggregation, the potential contribution of soluble αSyn to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we found a ~2-fold increase over controls in soluble αSyn levels in AD brains in the absence of LB cytopathology. Importantly, soluble αSyn levels were a quantitatively stronger correlate of cognitive impairment than soluble Aβ and tau levels. To examine a putative role for αSyn in modulating cognitive function, we used the Barnes circular maze to assess spatial reference memory in transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type αSyn. The results revealed that a ~3-fold elevation of αSyn in vivo induced memory deficits similar to those observed in AD mouse models. The neurobiological changes associated with this elevation of soluble αSyn included decreases in selected synaptic vesicle proteins and an alteration of the protein composition of synaptic vesicles. Finally, a synergism between Aβ/APP and human tau appears to be responsible for the abnormal elevation of soluble αSyn in transgenic mice. Altogether, our data reveal an unexpected role for soluble, intraneuronal αSyn in AD pathophysiology. PMID:22836259

  13. Low alpha-synuclein levels in the blood are associated with insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Araujo, Gerardo; Nakagami, Hironori; Takami, Yoichi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Morishita, Ryuichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the protein alpha-synuclein (SNCA) have been linked to Parkinson’s disease. We recently reported that non-mutated SNCA enhanced glucose uptake through the Gab1-PI3 kinase-Akt pathway and elucidated its effects on glucose regulation. Here, we examined the association of SNCA with insulin resistance (IR), a condition that is characterized by decreased tissue glucose uptake. Our observations include those from a population study as well as a SNCA-deficient mouse model, which had not previously been characterized in an IR scenario. In 1,152 patients, we found that serum SNCA levels were inversely correlated with IR indicators—body mass index, homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI)—and, to a lesser extent, with blood pressure and age. Additionally, SNCA-deficient mice displayed alterations in glucose and insulin responses during diet-induced IR. Moreover, during euglycemic clamp assessments, SNCA knock-out mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed severe IR in adipose tissues and skeletal muscle. These findings provide new insights into IR and diabetes and point to SNCA as a potential candidate for further research. PMID:26159928

  14. α-synuclein and synapsin III cooperatively regulate synaptic function in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Zaltieri, Michela; Grigoletto, Jessica; Longhena, Francesca; Navarria, Laura; Favero, Gaia; Castrezzati, Stefania; Colivicchi, Maria Alessandra; Della Corte, Laura; Rezzani, Rita; Pizzi, Marina; Benfenati, Fabio; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Missale, Cristina; Spano, PierFranco; Bellucci, Arianna

    2015-07-01

    The main neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease are dopaminergic nigrostriatal neuron degeneration, and intraneuronal and intraneuritic proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, respectively, which mainly contain α-synuclein (α-syn, also known as SNCA). The neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (also known as SYN3), is a pivotal regulator of dopamine neuron synaptic function. Here, we show that α-syn interacts with and modulates synapsin III. The absence of α-syn causes a selective increase and redistribution of synapsin III, and changes the organization of synaptic vesicle pools in dopamine neurons. In α-syn-null mice, the alterations of synapsin III induce an increased locomotor response to the stimulation of synapsin-dependent dopamine overflow, despite this, these mice show decreased basal and depolarization-dependent striatal dopamine release. Of note, synapsin III seems to be involved in α-syn aggregation, which also coaxes its increase and redistribution. Furthermore, synapsin III accumulates in the caudate and putamen of individuals with Parkinson's disease. These findings support a reciprocal modulatory interaction of α-syn and synapsin III in the regulation of dopamine neuron synaptic function. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Proteomic Studies of Nitrated Alpha-Synuclein Microglia Regulation by CD4+CD25+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Stone, David K.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2009-01-01

    Microglial inflammatory responses affect Parkinson's disease (PD) associated nigrostriatal degeneration. This is triggered, in measure, by misfolded, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-α-syn) contained within Lewy bodies that are released from dying or dead dopaminergic neurons into the extravascular space. N-α-syn-stimulated microglial immunity is regulated by CD4+ T cells. Indeed, CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Treg) induce neuroprotective immune responses. This is seen in rodent models of stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus associated dementia, and PD. To elucidate the mechanism for Treg-mediated microglial responses, we used a proteomic platform integrating difference gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry peptide sequencing. These tests served to determine the consequences of Treg on the N-α-syn stimulated microglia. The data demonstrated that Treg substantially alter the microglial proteome in response to N-α-syn. This is seen through Treg's abilities to suppress microglial neurotoxic proteins linked to cell metabolism, migration, protein transport and degradation, redox biology, cytoskeletal, and bioenergetic activities. We conclude that Treg modulate the N-α-syn microglial proteome and, in this way, can slow the tempo and course of PD. PMID:19432400

  16. Pressure effects on α-synuclein amyloid fibrils: An experimental investigation on their dissociation and reversible nature.

    PubMed

    Piccirilli, Federica; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Spinozzi, Francesco; Bubacco, Luigi; Mariani, Paolo; Beltramini, Mariano; Tessari, Isabella; Militello, Valeria; Perucchi, Andrea; Amenitsch, Heinz; Baldassarri, Enrico; Steinhart, Milos; Lupi, Stefano; Ortore, Maria Grazia

    2017-08-01

    α-synuclein amyloid fibrils are found in surviving neurons of Parkinson's disease affected patients, but the role they play in the disease development is still under debate. A growing number of evidences points to soluble oligomers as the major cytotoxic species, while insoluble fibrillar aggregates could even play a protection role. In this work, we investigate α-synuclein fibrils dissociation induced at high pressure by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Fibrils were produced from wild type α-synuclein and two familial mutants, A30P and A53T. Our results enlighten the different reversible nature of α-synuclein fibrils fragmentation at high pressure and suggest water excluded volumes presence in the fibrils core. Wild type and A30P species stabilized at high pressure are highly amyloidogenic and quickly re-associate into fibrils upon decompression, while A53T species shows a partial reversibility of the process likely due to the presence of an intermediate oligomeric state stabilized at high pressure. The amyloid fibrils dissociation process is here suggested to be associated to a negative activation volume, supporting the notion that α-synuclein fibrils are in a high-volume and high-compressibility state and hinting at the presence of a hydration-mediated activated state from which dissociation occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunotherapy in Parkinson's Disease: Micromanaging Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    George, Sonia; Brundin, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Currently, several α-synuclein immunotherapies are being tested in experimental Parkinson's disease models and in clinical trials. Recent research has revealed that α-synuclein is not just an intracellular synaptic protein but also exists extracellularly. Moreover, the transfer of misfolded α-synuclein between cells might be a crucial step in the process leading to a progressive increase in deposition of α-synuclein aggregates throughout the Parkinson's disease brain. The revelation that α-synuclein is present outside cells has increased the interest in antibody-based therapies and opens up for the notion that microglia might play a key role in retarding Parkinson's disease progression. The objectives of this review are to describe and contrast the use of active and passive immunotherapy in treating α-synucleinopathies and highlight the likely important role of microglia in clearing misfolded α-synuclein from the extracellular space.

  18. Rab1A over-expression prevents Golgi apparatus fragmentation and partially corrects motor deficits in an alpha-synuclein based rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Coune, P G; Bensadoun, J C; Aebischer, P; Schneider, B L

    2011-01-01

    Although the overabundance of human alpha-synuclein in nigral dopaminergic neurons is considered to play a pathogenic role in Parkinson's disease (PD), it remains unclear how alpha-synuclein leads to neuronal degeneration and motor symptoms. Here, we explored the effect of human alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra following AAV-mediated gene delivery inducing a moderate loss of dopaminergic neurons together with motor impairments. A significant fraction of the surviving nigral neurons were found to express human αSyn and displayed a pathological fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. This observation prompted further investigation on the role of the secretory pathway, in particular at the ER/Golgi level, in alpha-synuclein toxicity. To address this question, we co-expressed human alpha-synuclein with Rab1A, a regulator of ER-to-Golgi vesicular trafficking, and found a significant reduction of Golgi fragmentation. Rab1A did not protect the dopaminergic neurons from the alpha-synuclein-induced degeneration that occurred within several months following vector injection. However, we observed in animals co-expressing Rab1A an improvement of motor behavior that correlates with the rescue of normal Golgi morphology in alpha-synuclein-expressing dopaminergic neurons. The non-prenylable mutant Rab1A-DeltaCC did not produce any of the effects observed with the wild-type form of Rab1A, linking the protective role of Rab1A with its activity in ER-to-Golgi vesicular trafficking. In conclusion, Rab1A can rescue the Golgi fragmentation caused by the overabundance of alpha-synuclein in nigral dopaminergic neurons, improving the ability of the surviving neurons to control motor function in hemiparkinsonian animals.

  19. Chronic Methamphetamine Increases Alpha-Synuclein Protein Levels in the Striatum and Hippocampus but not in the Cortex of Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Butler, B.; Gamble-George, J.; Prins, P.; North, A.; Clarke, J.T; Khoshbouei, H.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug worldwide. More than 290 tons of methamphetamine was synthesized in the year 2005 alone, corresponding to approximately ~3 billion 100 mg doses of methamphetamine. Drug addicts abuse high concentrations of methamphetamine for months and even years. Current reports in the literature are consistent with the interpretation that methamphetamine-induced neuronal injury may render methamphetamine users more susceptible to neurodegenerative pathologies. Specifically, chronic exposure to psychostimulants is associated with increases in striatal alpha-synuclein expression, a synaptic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This raises the question whether methamphetamine exposure affects alpha-synuclein levels in the brain. In this short report, we examined alpha-synuclein protein and mRNA levels in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of adolescent male mice following a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine (24mg/kg/daily/14days). We found that methamphetamine exposure resulted in a decrease in the monomeric form of alpha-synuclein (molecular species <19 kDa), while increasing higher molecular weight alpha-synuclein species (>19 kDa) in the striatum and hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Despite the elevation of high molecular weight alpha-synuclein species (>19 kDa), there was no change in the alpha-synuclein mRNA levels in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of mice exposed to methamphetamine. The methamphetamine-induced increase in high molecular weight alpha-synuclein protein levels might be one of the causal mechanisms or one of the compensatory consequences of methamphetamine-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:25621291

  20. Alpha-synuclein in PD: pathogenesis and treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    provided in Block 14 The discovery that mutations in the gene for alphasynuclein could cause Parkinson�s disease (PD) was the first demonstration that PD...Appendices 5 5 5 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 1. INTRODUCTION: Alpha synuclein is a key target in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease . The present application...studies the effects of alpha synuclein positive versus alpha synuclein negative nigral neurons in patients with Parkinson’s disease . We also studied

  1. Definition of a molecular pathway mediating α-synuclein neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Burré, Jacqueline; Sharma, Manu; Südhof, Thomas C

    2015-04-01

    α-Synuclein physiologically chaperones SNARE-complex assembly at the synapse but pathologically misfolds into neurotoxic aggregates that are characteristic for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and that may spread from one neuron to the next throughout the brain during Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. In normal nerve terminals, α-synuclein is present in an equilibrium between a cytosolic form that is natively unfolded and monomeric and a membrane-bound form that is composed of an α-helical multimeric species that chaperones SNARE-complex assembly. Although the neurotoxicity of α-synuclein is well established, the relationship between the native conformations of α-synuclein and its pathological aggregation remain incompletely understood; most importantly, it is unclear whether α-synuclein aggregation originates from its monomeric cytosolic or oligomeric membrane-bound form. Here, we address this question by introducing into α-synuclein point mutations that block membrane binding and by then assessing the effect of blocking membrane binding on α-synuclein aggregation and neurotoxicity. We show that membrane binding inhibits α-synuclein aggregation; conversely, blocking membrane binding enhances α-synuclein aggregation. Stereotactic viral expression of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein in the substantia nigra of mice demonstrated that blocking α-synuclein membrane binding significantly enhanced its neurotoxicity in vivo. Our data delineate a folding pathway for α-synuclein that ranges from a physiological multimeric, α-helical, and membrane-bound species that acts as a SNARE-complex chaperone over a monomeric, natively unfolded form to an amyloid-like aggregate that is neurotoxic in vivo. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355221-12$15.00/0.

  2. Partial Peptide of α-Synuclein Modified with Small-Molecule Inhibitors Specifically Inhibits Amyloid Fibrillation of α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kobayashi, Natsuki; Sasaki, Yasuhiko; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents the amyloid formation of α-synuclein, amyloid β1–42 (Aβ1–42), and mouse prion protein. Moreover, PQQ-modified α-synuclein and a proteolytic fragment of the PQQ-modified α-synuclein are able to inhibit the amyloid formation of α-synuclein. Here, we identified the peptide sequences that play an important role as PQQ-modified specific peptide inhibitors of α-synuclein. We demonstrate that the PQQ-modified α-Syn36–46 peptide, which is a partial sequence of α-synuclein, prevented α-synuclein amyloid fibril formation but did not inhibit Aβ1–42 fibril formation. In addition, the α-synuclein partial peptide modified with other small-molecule inhibitors, Baicalein and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), prevented α-synuclein fibril formation. Currently reported quinone amyloid inhibitors do not have selectivity toward protein molecules. Therefore, our achievements provide a novel strategy for the development of targeted specific amyloid formation inhibitors: the combination of quinone compounds with specific peptide sequence from target proteins involved in amyloid formation. PMID:23358249

  3. Impairment of mitochondria dynamics by human A53T α-synuclein and rescue by NAP (davunetide) in a cell model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Melo, T Q; van Zomeren, K C; Ferrari, M F R; Boddeke, H W G M; Copray, J C V M

    2017-03-01

    The formation of oligomers and aggregates of overexpressed or mutant α-synuclein play a role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease by causing dysfunction of mitochondria, reflected in their disturbed mobility and production of ROS. The mode of action and mechanisms underlying this mitochondrial impairment is still unclear. We have induced stable expression of wild-type, A30P or A53T α-synuclein in neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and studied anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial trafficking in this cell model for Parkinson's disease. In contrast to wild-type and A30P, A53T α-synuclein significantly inhibited mitochondrial trafficking, at first retrogradely and in a later stage anterogradely. Accordingly, A53T α-synuclein also caused the highest increase in ROS production in the dysmobilized mitochondria in comparison to wild-type or A30P α-synuclein. Treatment with NAP, the eight amino acid peptide identified as the active component of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), completely annihilated the adverse effects of A53T on mitochondrial dynamics. Our results reveal that A53T α-synuclein (oligomers or aggregates) leads to the inhibition of mitochondrial trafficking, which can be rescued by NAP, suggesting the involvement of microtubule disruption in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Targeting the intrinsically disordered structural ensemble of α-synuclein by small molecules as a potential therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergely; Gardai, Shyra J; Zago, Wagner; Bertoncini, Carlos W; Cremades, Nunilo; Roy, Susan L; Tambe, Mitali A; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Galvagnion, Celine; Skibinski, Gaia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bova, Michael; Regnstrom, Karin; Chiou, San-San; Johnston, Jennifer; Callaway, Kari; Anderson, John P; Jobling, Michael F; Buell, Alexander K; Yednock, Ted A; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M; Schenk, Dale; McConlogue, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The misfolding of intrinsically disordered proteins such as α-synuclein, tau and the Aβ peptide has been associated with many highly debilitating neurodegenerative syndromes including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Therapeutic targeting of the monomeric state of such intrinsically disordered proteins by small molecules has, however, been a major challenge because of their heterogeneous conformational properties. We show here that a combination of computational and experimental techniques has led to the identification of a drug-like phenyl-sulfonamide compound (ELN484228), that targets α-synuclein, a key protein in Parkinson's disease. We found that this compound has substantial biological activity in cellular models of α-synuclein-mediated dysfunction, including rescue of α-synuclein-induced disruption of vesicle trafficking and dopaminergic neuronal loss and neurite retraction most likely by reducing the amount of α-synuclein targeted to sites of vesicle mobilization such as the synapse in neurons or the site of bead engulfment in microglial cells. These results indicate that targeting α-synuclein by small molecules represents a promising approach to the development of therapeutic treatments of Parkinson's disease and related conditions.

  5. Targeting the Intrinsically Disordered Structural Ensemble of α-Synuclein by Small Molecules as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Gergely; Gardai, Shyra J.; Zago, Wagner; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Cremades, Nunilo; Roy, Susan L.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Galvagnion, Celine; Skibinski, Gaia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bova, Michael; Regnstrom, Karin; Chiou, San-San; Johnston, Jennifer; Callaway, Kari; Anderson, John P.; Jobling, Michael F.; Buell, Alexander K.; Yednock, Ted A.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M.; Schenk, Dale; McConlogue, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The misfolding of intrinsically disordered proteins such as α-synuclein, tau and the Aβ peptide has been associated with many highly debilitating neurodegenerative syndromes including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Therapeutic targeting of the monomeric state of such intrinsically disordered proteins by small molecules has, however, been a major challenge because of their heterogeneous conformational properties. We show here that a combination of computational and experimental techniques has led to the identification of a drug-like phenyl-sulfonamide compound (ELN484228), that targets α-synuclein, a key protein in Parkinson’s disease. We found that this compound has substantial biological activity in cellular models of α-synuclein-mediated dysfunction, including rescue of α-synuclein-induced disruption of vesicle trafficking and dopaminergic neuronal loss and neurite retraction most likely by reducing the amount of α-synuclein targeted to sites of vesicle mobilization such as the synapse in neurons or the site of bead engulfment in microglial cells. These results indicate that targeting α-synuclein by small molecules represents a promising approach to the development of therapeutic treatments of Parkinson’s disease and related conditions. PMID:24551051

  6. Investigation of Stress Induced Alterations in Neutrophil Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-23

    defense against bacterial incursion and to examine the effects on this cell in two biological systems of stress effects including 1) a week - long...response of neutrophils from the matched controls indicating that migration capability may not represent a function altered by the psycological and

  7. Ultraviolet Irradiation-Induced Volume Alteration of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to understand how extracellular stresses, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, affect corneal epithelial cells. Cell volume changes, damage to corneal epithelial integrity, and cellular responses were assessed after exposure to UVC stresses. Methods Primary human and rabbit corneal epithelial cells were exposed to UVC light in culture conditions. Ultraviolet C irradiation–induced changes in cell size and volume were measured by real-time microscopy and self-quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein, respectively. The effects of UVC irradiation on Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and FAK-dependent integrin signaling were detected by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunostaining. Results Ultraviolet C irradiation induced both size and volume shifts in human and rabbit corneal epithelial cells. Ultraviolet C irradiation-induced decrease of cell volume elicited activation of Src and FAK, characterized by increased phosphorylations of SrcY416, FAKY397, and FAKY925. In addition, immunostaining studies showed UVC irradiation–induced increases in phosphorylation of FAK and formation of integrin β5 clustering. Application of Kv channel blockers, including 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), α-DTX, and depressing substance-1 (BDS-1), effectively suppressed UVC irradiation–induced cell volume changes, and subsequently inhibited UVC irradiation–induced phosphorylation of Src/FAK, and formation of integrin β5 clustering, suggesting UVC irradiation–induced volume changes and Src/FAK activation. Hyperosmotic pressure–induced volume decreases were measured in comparison with effects of UVC irradiation on volume and Src/FAK activation. However, Kv channel blocker, 4-AP, had no effect on hyperosmotic pressure–induced responses. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that UVC irradiation–induced decreases in cell volume lead to Src/FAK activation due to a rapid loss of K ions through membrane Kv channels. PMID:27978555

  8. [Psychotherapy and music-induced altered state of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Rüegg, Urs Z

    2007-01-01

    The author has a concept of illness which perceives it mainly as a loss of self-confidence, of acceptance and of being integrated as a part of a greater entirety. Therefore therapy has to offer support in order to allow the awareness of these values to grow. The main means to do this is the accompaniment of the patient into an altered state of consciousness. The author describes the use of musical trance as an induction to an altered state of consciousness, the place this method occupies within the field of music therapy, the main pillars of musical trance and their history, the scientific concepts and the methodological approach in various settings. Furthermore epistemological approaches are discussed, as well as the use of the method for general practitioners working psychotherapeutically and the actual state of research. Work with music therapy related Balint-Groups is outlined.

  9. Accumulation of α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies is associated with decline in the α-synuclein-degrading enzymes kallikrein-6 and calpain-1.

    PubMed

    Miners, J Scott; Renfrew, Ruth; Swirski, Marta; Love, Seth

    2014-12-05

    Kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 are amongst a small group of proteases that degrade α-synuclein. We have explored the possibility that reduction in the level or activity of these enzymes contributes to the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy body diseases. We measured calpain-1 activity by fluorogenic activity assay, kallikrein-6 level by sandwich ELISA, and levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129 (α-synuclein-P129), in post-mortem brain tissue in pure dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n=12), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19). Calpain-1 activity was significantly reduced in DLB within the cingulate and parahippocampal cortex, regions with highest α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129 load, and correlated inversely with the levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Calpain-1 was unaltered in the thalamus and frontal cortex, regions with less α-synuclein pathology. Kallikrein-6 level was reduced in the cingulate cortex in the DLB cohort, and correlated inversely with α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Kallikrein-6 was also reduced in DLB in the thalamus but not in relation to α-synuclein or α-synuclein-P129 load and was unaltered in the frontal and parahippocampal cortex. In SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild-type α-synuclein there was partial co-localisation of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 with α-synuclein, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 increased the amount of α-synuclein in cell lysates. Our results indicate that reductions in kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 may contribute to the accumulation of α-synuclein in DLB.

  10. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Adsorption of alpha-synuclein on lipid bilayers: modulating the structure and stability of protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Pandey, Anjan P; Cambrea, Lee R; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hovis, Jennifer S

    2010-03-25

    The interaction of alpha-synuclein with phospholipid membranes has been examined using supported lipid bilayers and epi-fluorescence microscopy. The membranes contained phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA), which mix at physiological pH. Upon protein adsorption, the lipids undergo fluid-fluid phase separation into PC-rich and PA-rich regions. The protein preferentially adsorbs to the PA-rich regions. The adsorption and subsequent aggregation of alpha-synuclein was probed by tuning several parameters: the charge on the lipids, the charge on the protein, and the screening environment. Conditions which promoted the greatest extent of adsorption resulted in structurally heterogeneous aggregates, while comparatively homogeneous aggregates were observed under conditions whereby adsorption did not occur as readily. Our observation that different alterations to the system lead to different degrees of aggregation and different aggregate structures poses a challenge for drug discovery. Namely, therapies aimed at neutralizing alpha-synuclein must target a broad range of potentially toxic, membrane-bound assemblies.

  12. Exposure to bacterial endotoxin generates a distinct strain of α-synuclein fibril

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changyoun; Lv, Guohua; Lee, Jun Sung; Jung, Byung Chul; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hong, Chul-Suk; Valera, Elvira; Lee, He-Jin; Paik, Seung R.; Hasegawa, Masato; Masliah, Eliezer; Eliezer, David; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    A single amyloidogenic protein is implicated in multiple neurological diseases and capable of generating a number of aggregate “strains” with distinct structures. Among the amyloidogenic proteins, α-synuclein generates multiple patterns of proteinopathies in a group of diseases, such as Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, the link between specific conformations and distinct pathologies, the key concept of the strain hypothesis, remains elusive. Here we show that in the presence of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), α-synuclein generated a self-renewable, structurally distinct fibril strain that consistently induced specific patterns of synucleinopathies in mice. These results suggest that amyloid fibrils with self-renewable structures cause distinct types of proteinopathies despite the identical primary structure and that exposure to exogenous pathogens may contribute to the diversity of synucleinopathies. PMID:27488222

  13. Potential Modes of Intercellular α-Synuclein Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Valdinocci, Dario; Radford, Rowan A. W.; Siow, Sue Maye; Chung, Roger S.; Pountney, Dean L.

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different suite of molecular triggers that initiate pathogenesis. The mechanisms whereby α-synuclein aggregates mediate cytotoxicity also remain to be fully elucidated. However, recent studies have implicated the cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein as the major mode of disease propagation between brain regions during disease progression. Here, we review the current evidence for different modes of α-synuclein cellular release, movement and uptake, including exocytosis, exosomes, tunneling nanotubes, glymphatic flow and endocytosis. A more detailed understanding of the major modes by which α-synuclein pathology spreads throughout the brain may provide new targets for therapies that halt the progression of disease. PMID:28241427

  14. Lysosomal Dysfunction and α-Synuclein Aggregation in Parkinson's Disease: Diagnostic Links.

    PubMed

    Moors, Tim; Paciotti, Silvia; Chiasserini, Davide; Calabresi, Paolo; Parnetti, Lucilla; Beccari, Tommaso; van de Berg, Wilma D J

    2016-06-01

    Lysosomal impairment is increasingly recognized as a central event in the pathophysiology of PD. Genetic associations between lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher disease and PD, highlight common risk factors and pathological mechanisms. Because the autophagy-lysosomal system is involved in the intralysosomal hydrolysis of dysfunctional proteins, lysosomal impairment may contribute to α-synuclein aggregation in PD. The degradation of α-synuclein is a complex process involving different proteolytic mechanisms depending on protein burden, folding, posttranslational modifications, and yet unknown factors. In this review, evidence for lysosomal dysfunction in PD and its intimate relationship with α-synuclein aggregation are discussed, after which the question of whether lysosomal proteins may serve as diagnostic biomarkers for PD is addressed. Changes in lysosomal enzymes, such as reduced glucocerebrosidase and cathepsin levels, have been observed in affected brain regions in PD patients. The detection of lysosomal proteins in CSF may provide a read-out of lysosomal dysfunction in PD and holds promise for the development of diagnostic PD biomarkers. Initial PD biomarker studies demonstrated altered lysosomal enzyme activities in CSF of PD patients when compared with controls. However, CSF lysosomal enzyme activities alone could not discriminate between PD patients and controls. The combination of CSF lysosomal markers with α-synuclein species and indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and other pathological proteins in PD may be able to facilitate a more accurate diagnosis of PD. Further CSF biomarker studies are needed to investigate the utility of CSF lysosomal proteins as measures of disease state and disease progression in PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Neonatal hyperoxia induces alterations in neurotrophin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sengoku, T; Murray, K M; Wilson, M E

    2016-02-01

    Each year in the United States, nearly 500,000 infants a year are born prematurely. Babies born before 35 weeks gestation are often placed on ventilators and/or given supplemental oxygen. This increase in oxygen, while critical for survival, can cause long-term damage to lungs, retinas and brains. In particular, hyperoxia causes apoptosis in neurons and alters glial activity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are members of the neurotrophin family of proteins that function to promote the growth, differentiation and development of the nervous system. We hypothesized that hyperoxia can alter the regulation of these genes and by doing so adversely affect the development of the brain. We predicted that mice exposed to hyperoxic conditions would have differences in BDNF and GDNF mRNA expression and relative level of methylated promoter regions coinciding with differences in the relative levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA expression. To test this hypothesis, newborn C57Bl/6 mice and their littermates were placed in hyperoxic or normoxic conditions from postnatal day 7 to 12. There were significant decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex following hyperoxia, but a significant increase in the isocortex. GDNF mRNA expression was significantly increased in both the isocortex and prefrontal cortex following hyperoxia. DNMT1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the isocortex but significantly increased in the prefrontal following hyperoxia. Together these data suggest that short-term exposure to hyperoxic conditions can affect the regulation and expression of BDNF and GDNF potentially leading to alterations in neural development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Uranium-induced sensory alterations in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Faucher, K; Floriani, M; Gilbin, R; Adam-Guillermin, C

    2012-11-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to uranium ions (UO(2)(2+)) on sensory tissues including the olfactory and lateral line systems was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using scanning electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to uranium damaged sensory tissues in fish. The fish were exposed to uranium at the concentration of 250 μg l(-1) for 10 days followed by a depuration period of 23 days. Measurements of uranium uptake in different fish organs: olfactory rosettes and bulbs, brain, skin, and muscles, were also determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during the entire experimental period. The results showed that uranium displayed a strong affinity for sensory structures in direct contact with the surrounding medium, such as the olfactory and lateral line systems distributed on the skin. A decreasing gradient of uranium concentration was found: olfactory rosettes>olfactory bulbs>skin>muscles>brain. At the end of the experiment, uranium was present in non-negligible quantities in sensory tissues. In parallel, fish exposed to uranium showed severe sensory tissue alterations at the level of the olfactory and lateral line systems. In both sensory systems, the gross morphology was altered and the sensory hair cells were significantly damaged very early after the initiation of exposure (from the 3rd day). At the end of the experiment, after 23 days of depuration, the lateral line system still displayed slight tissue alterations, but approximately 80% of the neuromasts in this system had regenerated. In contrast, the olfactory system took more time to recover, as more than half of the olfactory rosettes observed remained destroyed at the end of the experiment. This study showed, for the first time, that uranium is able to damage fish sensory tissues to such an extent that tissue regeneration is delayed.

  17. Localization of pellicle-induced open contacts using Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    The recently developed Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration (CIVA) technique for localizing open metal conductors was used successfully to identify transistors with electrically open metal-1 contacts to silicon. The transistors were in the I/O port circuitry of a failing microcontroller and were completely covered by a metal-2 power bus. The root cause of the open contacts was a subtle scratch in the pellicle over the contact reticle. The scratch prevented full exposure of the photoresist, resulting in incomplete removal of the interlevel oxide in several contact windows. In addition to this powerful new application of CIVA, a number of failure analysis techniques utilizing both the electrical and physical properties of the failing microcontrollers were employed to identify and confirm the open contacts. These techniques are reviewed and recommendations are given for improved pellicle/reticle inspection.

  18. Radiation-induced alterations of fracture healing biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Panjabi, M.M.; Kapp, D.; Doganis, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the normal temporal progression of the physical properties of healing fractures were studied in a rat model. Fractures were surgically produced in the femur, stabilized with an intramedullary pin, and irradiated. One group of rats was exposed to 2,500 rads in divided doses over 2 weeks, beginning 3 days after fracture, and compared to a control group with fractures which were not irradiated. Animals were sacrificed at periodic intervals and the bones were tested to failure in torsion. The torque, stiffness, and energy increased and the angle decreased for the nonirradiated specimens in the expected fashion. This progression was deleteriously altered in the irradiated femurs.

  19. ALTERED HYPOTHALAMIC FUNCTION IN DIET-INDUCED OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    Velloso, L A; Schwartz, M W

    2012-01-01

    Energy homeostasis involves a complex network of hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic neurons that transduce hormonal, nutrient and neuronal signals into responses that ultimately match caloric intake to energy expenditure and thereby promote stability of body fat stores. Growing evidence suggests that rather than reflecting a failure to regulate caloric intake, common forms of obesity involve fundamental changes to this homeostatic system that favor the defense of an elevated level of body adiposity. This article reviews emerging evidence that during high-fat feeding, obesity pathogenesis involves fundamental alteration of hypothalamic systems that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. PMID:21386802

  20. Nickel-induced heritable alterations in retroviral transforming gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Biggart, N W; Gallick, G E; Murphy, E C

    1987-01-01

    Determination of the mutagenic effects of carcinogenic nickel compounds has been difficult because, like many metals, nickel is poorly or nonmutagenic in procaryotic mutagenicity assays. We attempted to characterize nickel-induced genetic lesions by assessing the effect of nickel chloride on the conditionally defective expression of the v-mos transforming gene in normal rat kidney cells infected with the Murine sarcoma virus mutant ts110 (MuSVts110) retrovirus. MuSVts110 contains an out-of-frame gag gene-mos gene junction that prevents the expression of the v-mos gene at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C). In MuSVts110-infected cells (6m2 cells) grown at 33 degrees C, however, this defect can be suppressed by a splicing event that restores the mos reading frame, allowing the expression of a gag-mos fusion protein which induces the transformed phenotype. The capacity to splice the viral transcript at 33 degrees C, but not at 39 degrees C, is an intrinsic property of the viral RNA. This property allowed us to target the MuSVts110 genome using a positive selection scheme whereby nickel was used to induce genetic changes which resulted in expression of the transformed phenotype at 39 degrees C. We treated 6m2 cells with NiCl2 and isolated foci consisting of cells which had reverted to the transformed phenotype at 39 degrees C. We found that brief nickel treatment increased the reversion frequency of 6m2 cells grown at 39 degrees C sevenfold over the spontaneous reversion frequency. The nickel-induced revertants displayed the following heritable characteristics: They stably maintained the transformed phenotype at 39 degrees C; unlike the MuSVts110 RNA in 6m2 cells, the nickel-induced revertant viral RNA could be spliced efficiently at 39 degrees C; as a consequence of the enhanced accumulation of spliced viral RNA, the nickel-induced revertants produced substantial amounts of the transforming v-mos protein P85gag-mos at 39 degrees C; the nickel-induced

  1. Ambroxol effects in glucocerebrosidase and α-synuclein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Migdalska-Richards, Anna; Daly, Liam; Bezard, Erwan; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-11-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase 1 gene that result in deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Both homozygous and heterozygous glucocerebrosidase 1 mutations confer an increased risk for developing Parkinson disease. Current estimates indicate that 10 to 25% of Parkinson patients carry glucocerebrosidase 1 mutations. Ambroxol is a small molecule chaperone that has been shown to increase glucocerebrosidase activity in vitro. This study investigated the effect of ambroxol treatment on glucocerebrosidase activity and on α-synuclein and phosphorylated α-synuclein protein levels in mice. Mice were treated with ambroxol for 12 days. After the treatment, glucocerebrosidase activity was measured in the mouse brain lysates. The brain lysates were also analyzed for α-synuclein and phosphorylated α-synuclein protein levels. Ambroxol treatment resulted in increased brain glucocerebrosidase activity in (1) wild-type mice, (2) transgenic mice expressing the heterozygous L444P mutation in the murine glucocerebrosidase 1 gene, and (3) transgenic mice overexpressing human α-synuclein. Furthermore, in the mice overexpressing human α-synuclein, ambroxol treatment decreased both α-synuclein and phosphorylated α-synuclein protein levels. Our work supports the proposition that ambroxol should be further investigated as a potential novel disease-modifying therapy for treatment of Parkinson disease and neuronopathic Gaucher disease to increase glucocerebrosidase activity and decrease α-synuclein and phosphorylated α-synuclein protein levels. Ann Neurol 2016;80:766-775. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  2. Lysosomal Degradation of α-Synuclein in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Sally K.; McCormack, Alison L.; Manning-Boğ, Amy B.; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Di Monte, Donato A.

    2010-01-01

    Pathologic accumulation of α-synuclein is a feature of human parkinsonism and other neurodegenerative diseases. This accumulation may be counteracted by mechanisms of protein degradation that have been investigated in vitro but remain to be elucidated in animal models. In this study, lysosomal clearance of α-synuclein in vivo was indicated by the detection of α-synuclein in the lumen of lysosomes isolated from the mouse midbrain. When neuronal α-synuclein expression was enhanced as a result of toxic injury (i.e. treatment of mice with the herbicide paraquat) or transgenic protein overexpression, the intralysosomal content of α-synuclein was also significantly increased. This effect was paralleled by a marked elevation of the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A) and the lysosomal heat shock cognate protein of 70 kDa (hsc70), two essential components of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed an increase in punctate (lysosomal) LAMP-2A staining that co-localized with α-synuclein within nigral dopaminergic neurons of paraquat-treated and α-synuclein-overexpressing animals. The data provide in vivo evidence of lysosomal degradation of α-synuclein under normal conditions and, quite importantly, under conditions of enhanced protein burden. In the latter, increased lysosomal clearance of α-synuclein was mediated, at least in part, by CMA induction. It is conceivable that these neuronal mechanisms of protein clearance play an important role in neurodegenerative processes characterized by abnormal α-synuclein buildup. PMID:20200163

  3. Selective noradrenergic vulnerability in α-synuclein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Evangelos; Vassilatis, Demetrios K; Vila, Miquel; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2010-12-01

    Classical pathological signs of Parkinson's disease (PD) include loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra (SN) and noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus (LC), and deposition of Lewy bodies rich in the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (ASYN). Mammalian genetic models based on ASYN overexpression, however, have generally not reproduced the profound dopaminergic deficit of PD and do not display classical PD phenotypes. In the current study we examined these catecholaminergic systems in transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A53T mutant of human ASYN under the Prion promoter. Surprisingly we detected a substantial reduction in norepinephrine (NE), but not dopamine (DA), levels in spinal cord, olfactory bulb and striatum of aged (15-month-old), but not young (4-month-old) transgenic compared to control mice. In spinal cord and olfactory bulb of 15-month-old Tg mice there was an age-dependent decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels, which in spinal cord was accompanied by a decrease in TH-positive terminals detected by immunohistochemistry. There was no difference in the number of TH-positive neuron cell bodies in SN or LC between Tg and control mice. We conclude that aberrant ASYN, expressed in both SN and LC, induces preferential degeneration of noradrenergic terminals. These observations suggest that in mice the NE may be more vulnerable than the DA system to the toxic effects of aberrant alpha-synuclein, and are in line with the major damage to the NE system that occurs in patients with PD. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein-Induced Membrane Curvature Alters Local Membrane Tension

    PubMed Central

    Rangamani, Padmini; Mandadap, Kranthi K.; Oster, George

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of proteins onto membranes can alter the local membrane curvature. This phenomenon has been observed in biological processes such as endocytosis, tubulation, and vesiculation. However, it is not clear how the local surface properties of the membrane, such as membrane tension, change in response to protein adsorption. In this article, we show that the partial differential equations arising from classical elastic model of lipid membranes, which account for simultaneous changes in shape and membrane tension due to protein adsorption in a local region, cannot be solved for nonaxisymmetric geometries using straightforward numerical techniques; instead, a viscous-elastic formulation is necessary to fully describe the system. Therefore, we develop a viscous-elastic model for inhomogeneous membranes of the Helfrich type. Using the newly available viscous-elastic model, we find that the lipids flow to accommodate changes in membrane curvature during protein adsorption. We show that, at the end of protein adsorption process, the system sustains a residual local tension to balance the difference between the actual mean curvature and the imposed spontaneous curvature. We also show that this change in membrane tension can have a functional impact such as altered response to pulling forces in the presence of proteins. PMID:25099814

  5. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pentobarbital is a common anesthetic agent used in animal research that is known to alter sympathetic function and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. The in vivo effects of iv pentobarbital on glucose homeostasis were studied in chronically catheterized fasted rats. Whole body glucose kinetics, assessed by the constant iv infusion of (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose, were determined in all rats in the conscious state. Thereafter, glucose metabolism was followed over the next 4 hr in 3 subgroups of rats; conscious, anesthetized with body temperature maintained, and anesthetized with body temperature not maintained. Hypothermia (a 5/sup 0/C decrease) developed spontaneously in anesthetized rats kept at ambient temperature (22/sup 0/C). No differences were seen in MABP and heart rate between conscious and normothermic anesthetized rats; however, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a decrease in MABP (20%) and heart rate (35%). Likewise, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations, the rate of glucose appearance (Ra), recycling and metabolic clearance (MCR) did not differ between conscious and normothermic anesthetized animals. In contrast, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a 50% reduction in plasma lactate, a 40% drop in glucose Ra, and a 30-40% decrease in glucose recycling and MCR. Thus, pentobarbital does not appear to alter in vivo glucose kinetics, compared to unanesthetized controls, provided that body temperature is maintained.

  6. Altered brain energetics induces mitochondrial fission arrest in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Trushin, Sergey; Christensen, Trace A; Bachmeier, Benjamin V; Gateno, Benjamin; Schroeder, Andreas; Yao, Jia; Itoh, Kie; Sesaki, Hiromi; Poon, Wayne W; Gylys, Karen H; Patterson, Emily R; Parisi, Joseph E; Diaz Brinton, Roberta; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Trushina, Eugenia

    2016-01-05

    Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the brain tissue from patients and mouse models of AD. We identified a previously unknown mitochondrial fission arrest phenotype that results in elongated interconnected organelles, "mitochondria-on-a-string" (MOAS). Our data suggest that MOAS formation may occur at the final stages of fission process and was not associated with altered translocation of activated dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria but with reduced GTPase activity. Since MOAS formation was also observed in the brain tissue of wild-type mice in response to hypoxia or during chronological aging, fission arrest may represent fundamental compensatory adaptation to bioenergetic stress providing protection against mitophagy that may preserve residual mitochondrial function. The discovery of novel mitochondrial phenotype that occurs in the brain tissue in response to energetic stress accurately detected only using 3D EM reconstruction argues for a major role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating neuronal survival.

  7. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  8. Stress-Induced Permeability Alterations in an Argillaceous Limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Głowacki, A.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments that were conducted to determine the influence of a triaxial stress state on the evolution of the permeability of an argillaceous limestone. The limestone rock is found in the Ordovician rock formations above the Precambrian basement located in southern Ontario, Canada, which is being considered as a potential host rock for the construction of a deep ground repository for storing low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. The paper presents the results of an extensive series of hydraulic pulse tests and steady-state tests that were conducted to determine the permeability alterations in zones that can experience levels of damage that can be present in vicinity of an excavated underground opening. A "state-space" relationship is developed to describe permeability evolution with the triaxial stress in the pre-failure regime. The permeability evolution in extensively damaged post-failure states of the rock is also investigated. It is shown that permeability alterations were four orders of magnitude higher as a result of significant damage to the material, which is an important consideration in establishing the efficiency of the host rock formation as a barrier for the long-term containment of radionuclide migration.

  9. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  10. Impact of high cholesterol in a Parkinson's disease model: Prevention of lysosomal leakage versus stimulation of α-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ida; Nath, Sangeeta; Bornefall, Per; Giraldo, Ana Maria Villamil; Öllinger, Karin

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by accumulation of intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of aggregated α-synuclein. Controversies exist as to whether high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of the disease and whether statin treatment could have a protective effect. Using a model system of BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), we found that MPP(+)-induced cell death was accompanied by cholesterol accumulation in a lysosomal-like pattern in pre-apoptotic cells. To study the effects of lysosomal cholesterol accumulation, we increased lysosomal cholesterol through pre-treatment with U18666A and found delayed leakage of lysosomal contents into the cytosol, which reduced cell death. This suggests that increased lysosomal cholesterol is a stress response mechanism to protect lysosomal membrane integrity in response to early apoptotic stress. However, high cholesterol also stimulated the accumulation of α-synuclein. Treatment with the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin reduced MPP(+)-induced cell death by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species, but did not prevent lysosomal cholesterol increase nor affect α-synuclein accumulation. Our study indicates a dual role of high cholesterol in Parkinson's disease, in which it acts both as a protector against lysosomal membrane permeabilization and as a stimulator of α-synuclein accumulation.

  11. Oxidant induced alteration of carbohydrate production and allocation in plants

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Heath

    1998-01-01

    Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity is manifested by slower growth, hindered development, lower reproduction rates, impaired ability to resist disease, and other stresses. While many metabolic events have been linked to oxidant exposure, three major shifts have been well-studied:...

  12. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia.

  13. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  14. The alteration of copper homeostasis in inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Han, Ming; Lin, Zhexuan; Zhang, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Significant changes of copper homeostasis were triggered by lipopolysaccharides, which result in systemic inflammatory response and contribute to hepatic injury. Administration of lipopolysaccharides resulted in the increase of plasma "free" copper and total copper concentrations, whereas, the decrease of "free" copper and total copper contents in liver tissue. Copper-associated proteins were detected and showed a down-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and up-regulation of copper metabolism domain containing 1 and copper transporter 1. The alteration of these proteins would lower the apoptotic threshold. Meanwhile, the increasing of circulation copper might cause oxidative injury through Fenton reaction and contribute to tissue injury. Our findings underscored the possibility that these changes in systemic copper homeostasis might provide a novel insight of the characteristic of the acute phase of inflammatory response and the underlying influence on tissue injury.

  15. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  16. Hepatoepigenetic Alterations in Viral and Nonviral-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Setshedi, Mashiko; Hairwadzi, Henry N.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major public health concern and one of the leading causes of tumour-related deaths worldwide. Extensive evidence endorses that HCC is a multifactorial disease characterised by hepatic cirrhosis mostly associated with chronic inflammation and hepatitis B/C viral infections. Interaction of viral products with the host cell machinery may lead to increased frequency of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that cause harmful alterations in gene transcription. This may provide a progressive selective advantage for neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes associated with phenotypic heterogeneity of intratumour HCC cells, thus posing even more challenges in HCC treatment development. Epigenetic aberrations involving DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding miRNA dysregulation have been shown to be intimately linked with and play a critical role in tumour initiation, progression, and metastases. The current review focuses on the aberrant hepatoepigenetics events that play important roles in hepatocarcinogenesis and their utilities in the development of HCC therapy. PMID:28105421

  17. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  18. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  19. Thorium-induced neurobehavioural and neurochemical alterations in Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Ali, Manjoor; Mishra, Pravin; Pandey, B N; Sharma, Pragya; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2009-04-01

    Thorium ((232)Th), a heavy metal radionuclide that targets the liver and skeleton, has been shown to accumulate in the central nervous system at low levels. The present study was aimed to investigate neurobehavioural and neurochemical changes in mice treated with (232)Th at sub-lethal doses. Swiss albino mice were administered intraperitoneally with thorium nitrate. The chelation-based therapeutic effect of calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (Ca-DTPA) was tested on the (232)Th-treated mice. (232)Th localisation was determined in brain regions by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method. Achetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in different brain regions was evaluated to assess the cholinergic function of mice CNS. Oxidative damage was evaluated by assessing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and the level of lipid peroxidation. The neurobehavioural alteration in the treated mice was studied by the shuttle box method. (232)Th accumulation found in different brain regions followed the order: Cerebellum (Cbl) > cortex (Ctx) > hippocampus (Hp) > striatum (Str). However, removal of (232)Th by Ca-DTPA was significant from brain regions like Cbl, Ctx and Str but not from Hp. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was observed in the treated mice but activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase was found substantially decreased. (232)Th treatment impaired the learning and memory-based neurobehaviour of the mice. Furthermore, our data suggest that Ca-DTPA injection in (232)Th-treated animals failed to improve the neurobehaviour of the treated mice, perhaps because Ca-DTPA could not decorporate (232)Th or mitigate (232)Th-mediated neurochemical changes effectively from/in hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory response. Administration of (232)Th in mice caused neurobehavioural alteration and impairment of cholinergic

  20. Inactivation of AMPKα1 induces asthenozoospermia and alters spermatozoa morphology.

    PubMed

    Tartarin, Pauline; Guibert, Edith; Touré, Aminata; Ouiste, Claire; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Sanz, Nieves; Brière, Sylvain; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Delaleu, Bernadette; McNeilly, Judith R; McNeilly, Alan S; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Dupont, Joëlle; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Froment, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, is present in metabolic tissues (muscle and liver) and has been identified as a modulator of the female reproductive functions. However, its function in the testis has not yet been clearly defined. We have investigated the potential role of AMPK in male reproduction by using transgenic mice lacking the activity of AMPK catalytic subunit α1 gene [α1AMPK knockout (KO)]. In the testis, the α1AMPK subunit is expressed in germ cells and also in somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig cells). α1AMPK KO male mice show a decrease in fertility, despite no clear alteration in the testis morphology or sperm production. However, in α1AMPK(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that spermatozoa have structural abnormalities and are less motile than in control mice. These spermatozoa alterations are associated with a 50% decrease in mitochondrial activity, a 60% decrease in basal oxygen consumption, and morphological defects. The α1AMPK KO male mice had high androgen levels associated with a 5- and 3-fold increase in intratesticular cholesterol and testosterone concentrations, respectively. High concentrations of proteins involved in steroid production (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lysate, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) were also detected in α1AMPK(-/-) testes. In the pituitary, the LH and FSH concentrations tended to be lower in α1AMPK(-/-) male mice, probably due to the negative feedback of the high testosterone levels. These results suggest that total α1AMPK deficiency in male mice affects androgen production and quality of spermatozoa, leading to a decrease in fertility.

  1. Vanadium exposure-induced neurobehavioral alterations among Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhou, Dinglun; Zhang, Qin; Feng, Chengyong; Zheng, Wei; He, Keping; Lan, Yajia

    2013-05-01

    Vanadium-containing products are manufactured and widely used in the modern industry. Yet the neurobehavioral toxicity due to occupational exposure to vanadium remained elusive. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the neurotoxic effects of occupational vanadium exposure. A total of 463 vanadium-exposed workers (exposed group) and 251 non-exposed workers (control group) were recruited from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. A WHO-recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) and event-related auditory evoked potentials test (P300) were used to assess the neurobehavioral functions of all study subjects. A general linear model was used to compare outcome scores between the two groups while controlling for possible confounders. The exposed group showed a statistically significant neurobehavioral alteration more than the control group in the NCTB tests. The exposed workers also exhibited an increased anger-hostility, depression-dejection and fatigue-inertia on the profile of mood states (p<0.05). Performances in the simple reaction time, digit span, benton visual retention and pursuit aiming were also poorer among exposed workers as compared to unexposed control workers (p<0.05). Some of these poor performances in tests were also significantly related to workers' exposure duration. P300 latencies were longer in the exposed group than in the control (p<0.05). Longer mean reaction times and more counting errors were also found in the exposed workers (p<0.05). Given the findings of our study and the limitations of neurobehavioral workplace testing, we found evidence of altered neurobehavioral outcomes by occupational exposure to vanadium.

  2. Mechanically induced alterations in cultured skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Hatfaludy, S.; Karlisch, P.; Shansky, J.

    1991-01-01

    Model systems are available for mechanically stimulating cultured skeletal muscle cells by passive tensile forces which simulate those found in vivo. When applied to embryonic muscle cells in vitro these forces induce tissue organogenesis, metabolic adaptations, and muscle cell growth. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cell growth correlates with stretch-induced increases in the efflux of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2(alpha) in a time and frequency dependent manner. These prostaglandins act as mechanical 'second messengers' regulating skeletal muscle protein turnover rates. Since they also effect bone remodelling in response to tissue loading and unloading, secreted prostaglandins may serve as paracrine growth factors, coordinating the growth rates of muscle and bone in response to external mechanical forces. Cell culture model systems will supplement other models in understanding mechanical transduction processes at the molecular level.

  3. Mechanically induced alterations in cultured skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Hatfaludy, S.; Karlisch, P.; Shansky, J.

    1991-01-01

    Model systems are available for mechanically stimulating cultured skeletal muscle cells by passive tensile forces which simulate those found in vivo. When applied to embryonic muscle cells in vitro these forces induce tissue organogenesis, metabolic adaptations, and muscle cell growth. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cell growth correlates with stretch-induced increases in the efflux of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2(alpha) in a time and frequency dependent manner. These prostaglandins act as mechanical 'second messengers' regulating skeletal muscle protein turnover rates. Since they also effect bone remodelling in response to tissue loading and unloading, secreted prostaglandins may serve as paracrine growth factors, coordinating the growth rates of muscle and bone in response to external mechanical forces. Cell culture model systems will supplement other models in understanding mechanical transduction processes at the molecular level.

  4. PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance.

  5. Alteration of fibroblast phenotype by asbestos-induced autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Jean C; Li, Sheng'ai; Holland, Sara; Sentissi, Jami J

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a relentlessly progressive disease for which the etiology can be idiopathic or associated with environmental or occupational exposures. There is not a clear explanation for the chronic and progressive nature of the disease, leaving treatment and prevention options limited. However, there is increasing evidence of an autoimmune component, since fibrotic diseases are often accompanied by production of autoantibodies. Because exposure to silicates such as silica and asbestos can lead to both autoantibodies and pulmonary/pleural fibrosis, these exposures provide an excellent tool for examining the relationship between these outcomes. This study explored the possibility that autoantibodies induced by asbestos exposure in mice would affect fibroblast phenotype. L929 fibroblasts and primary lung fibroblasts were treated with serum IgG from asbestos- or saline-treated mice, and tested for binding using cell-based ELISA, and for phenotypic changes using immunofluorescence, laser scanning cytometry and Sirius Red collagen assay. Autoantibodies in the serum of C57Bl/6 mice exposed to asbestos (but not sera from untreated mice) bound to mouse fibroblasts. The autoantibodies induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype, as demonstrated by increased expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA), which was lost when the serum was cleared of IgG. Cells treated with purified IgG of exposed mice produced excess collagen. Using ELISA, we tested serum antibody binding to DNA topoisomerase (Topo) I, vimentin, TGFβ-R, and PDGF-Rα. Antibodies to DNA Topo I and to PDGF-Rα were detected, both of which have been shown by others to be able to affect fibroblast phenotype. The anti-fibroblast antibodies (AFA) also induced STAT-1 activation, implicating the PDGF-R pathway as part of the response to AFA binding. These data support the hypothesis that asbestos induces AFA that modify fibroblast phenotype, and suggest a mechanism whereby autoantibodies may mediate

  6. Light-Induced Alterations in Striatal Neurochemical Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our present knowledge regarding circadian rhythms and biological activity during space flight has been derived from those missions orbiting the Earth. During space missions, astronauts can become exposed to bright/dark cycles that vary considerably from those that entrain the mammalian biological timing system to the 24-hour cycle found on Earth. As a spacecraft orbits the Earth, the duration of the light/dark period experienced becomes a function of the time it takes to circumnavigate the planet which in turn depends upon the altitude of the craft. Orbiting the Earth at an altitude of 200-800 km provides a light/dark cycle lasting between 80 and 140 minutes, whereas a voyage to the moon or even another planet would provide a light condition of constant light. Currently, little is known regarding the effects of altered light/dark cycles on neurochemical levels within the central nervous system (CNS). Many biochemical, physiological and behavioral phenomena are under circadian control, governed primarily by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. As such, these phenomena are subject to influence by the environmental light/dark cycle. Circadian variations in locomotor and behavioral activities have been correlated to both the environmental light/dark cycle and to dopamine (DA) levels within the CNS. It has been postulated by Martin-Iverson et al. that DA's role in the control of motor activity is subject to modulation by circadian rhythms (CR), environmental lighting and excitatory amino acids (EAAs). In addition, DA and EAA receptor regulated pathways are involved in both the photic entrainment of CR and the control of motor activity. The cellular mechanisms by which DA and EAA-receptor ligands execute these functions, is still unclear. In order to help elucidate these mechanisms, we set out to determine the effects of altered environmental light/dark cycles on CNS neurotransmitter levels. In this study, we focused on the striatum, a region of the brain

  7. Alteration of urinary carnitine profile induced by benzoate administration.

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, T

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of sodium benzoate on carnitine metabolism, the acylcarnitine profile in the urine of five normal volunteers and two patients with urea cycle disorders was examined with fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The volunteer subjects were given 5 g of sodium benzoate orally and the two patients with urea cycle disorders (carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency type I and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency) were already undergoing treatment with sodium benzoate and L-carnitine. The amount of benzoylcarnitine excretion depended on the dose of both sodium benzoate and L-carnitine in a reciprocal relation. Increased excretions of acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine were also noted after sodium benzoate administration. The alteration of the urinary aclycarnitine profile was consistent with the change of mitochondrial CoA profile predicted by in vitro studies of an animal model. It is suggested that urinary acylcarnitine analysis is important to assess the effect of benzoate administration on mitochondrial function in vivo. Supplementation with carnitine may be necessary to minimise the adverse effects of sodium benzoate treatment in hyperammonaemia. PMID:1863104

  8. Cold-induced alteration of adipokine profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Iwen, K Alexander; Wenzel, Eike T; Ott, Volker; Perwitz, Nina; Wellhöner, Peter; Lehnert, Hendrik; Dodt, Christoph; Klein, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Adipose tissue function and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are tightly interconnected. Adipose tissue is densely innervated by the SNS. Adipokines secreted by adipose tissue are implicated in maintaining energy homeostasis, the control of blood pressure, immune system function, hemostasis, and atherosclerosis. Little is known about a direct effect of SNS activation on influencing adipose tissue endocrine function in humans. In 10 lean, healthy male volunteers, SNS was activated by whole-body exposure to cold for 2 hours; a group of 10 subjects served as controls. Vital parameters were evaluated, plasma adipokine levels were measured, and adipokine gene expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was determined. Cold exposure caused an increase in cold sensation and a drop in body temperature and heart rate. Norepinephrine, but not epinephrine, plasma levels were elevated. Adiponectin plasma concentrations were acutely and significantly decreased. There was a trend of increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plasma concentrations. Interleukin-6 and leptin levels increased and decreased, respectively, in both groups. Vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels were unaffected. Subcutaneous adipokine gene expression was unchanged. Cold exposure caused SNS activation and differentially influenced adipokine secretion. Adiponectin levels were acutely reduced, whereas monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations tended to increase. No specific changes in leptin and IL-6 concentrations were detectable. The observed alterations appeared to be posttranscriptional because adipokine gene expression was found to be unaltered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Hargrove, D.M.; Hyde, P.M.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1987-12-01

    Because pentobarbital is often used in investigations related to carbohydrate metabolism, the in vivo effect of this drug on glucose homeostasis was studied. Glucose kinetics assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose, were determined in three groups of catheterized fasted rats: conscious, anesthetized and body temperature maintained, and anesthetized but body temperature not maintained. After induction of anesthesia, marked hypothermia developed in rats not provided with external heat. Anesthetized rats that developed hypothermia showed a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (25%) and heart rate (40%). Likewise, the plasma lactate concentration and the rates of glucose appearance, recycling, and metabolic clearance were reduced by 30-50% in the hypothermic anesthetized rats. Changes in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism were prevented when body temperature was maintained. Because plasma pentobarbital levels were similar between the euthermic and hypothermic rats during the first 2 h of the experiment, the rapid reduction in glucose metabolism in this latter group appears related to the decrease in body temperature. The continuous infusion of epinephrine produced alterations in glucose kinetics that were not different between conscious animals and anesthetized rats with body temperature maintained. Thus pentobarbital-anesthetized rats became hypothermic when kept at room temperature and exhibited marked decreases in glucose metabolism. Such changes were absent when body temperature was maintained during anesthesia.

  10. Immunologically Induced Alterations of Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souhrada, M.; Souhrada, J. F.

    1984-08-01

    Active and passive sensitization, both in vivo and in vitro, caused significant hyperpolarization of airway smooth muscle cell preparations isolated from guinea pigs. An increase in the contribution of the electrogenic Na+ pump to the resting membrane potential was responsible for this change. Hyperpolarization, as induced by passive sensitization, was not prevented by agents that inhibit specific mediators of anaphylaxis but was abolished when serum from sensitized animals was heated. The heat-sensitive serum factor, presumably reaginic antibodies, appears to be responsible for the membrane hyperpolarization of airway smooth muscle cells after sensitization.

  11. Alpha-synuclein and tau: teammates in neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Moussaud, Simon; Jones, Daryl R; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Delenclos, Marion; Ross, Owen A; McLean, Pamela J

    2014-10-29

    The accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates is the hallmark of Parkinson's disease, and more generally of synucleinopathies. The accumulation of tau aggregates however is classically found in the brains of patients with dementia, and this type of neuropathological feature specifically defines the tauopathies. Nevertheless, in numerous cases α-synuclein positive inclusions are also described in tauopathies and vice versa, suggesting a co-existence or crosstalk of these proteinopathies. Interestingly, α-synuclein and tau share striking common characteristics suggesting that they may work in concord. Tau and α-synuclein are both partially unfolded proteins that can form toxic oligomers and abnormal intracellular aggregates under pathological conditions. Furthermore, mutations in either are responsible for severe dominant familial neurodegeneration. Moreover, tau and α-synuclein appear to promote the fibrillization and solubility of each other in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that interactions between tau and α-synuclein form a deleterious feed-forward loop essential for the development and spreading of neurodegeneration. Here, we review the recent literature with respect to elucidating the possible links between α-synuclein and tau.

  12. Parvovirus Induced Alterations in Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Niskanen, Einari A.; Jylhävä, Juulia; Paloheimo, Outi; Dross, Nicolas; Smolander, Hanna; Langowski, Jörg; Timonen, Jussi; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analyzis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications. PMID:19536327

  13. Parvovirus induced alterations in nuclear architecture and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Teemu O; Niskanen, Einari A; Jylhävä, Juulia; Paloheimo, Outi; Dross, Nicolas; Smolander, Hanna; Langowski, Jörg; Timonen, Jussi; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2009-06-17

    The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analysis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications.

  14. Prepuberal light phase feeding induces neuroendocrine alterations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    García-Luna, C; Soberanes-Chávez, P; de Gortari, P

    2017-01-01

    Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions. As tRF in young animals is poorly studied, we subjected prepuberal rats to a tRF either in light (LPF) or in darkness phase (DPF) and analyzed HPT and HPA response when they reach adulthood, as well as their arcuate (ARC) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei neurons' sensitivity to leptin in subsets of 10-week-old animals after fasting and with i.p. leptin treatment. LPF group showed high body weight and food intake, along with increased visceral fat pads, corticosterone, leptin and insulin serum levels, whereas circulating T4 decreased. HPA axis hyperactivity was demonstrated by their high PVN Crf mRNA expression; the blunted activity of HPT axis, by the decreased hypophysiotropic PVN Trh mRNA expression. Trh impaired expression to the positive energy balance in LPF, accounted for their ARC leptin resistance, evinced by an increased Npy and Socs3 mRNA expression. We concluded that the hyperphagia of prepuberal LPF animals could account for the HPA axis hyperactivity and for the HPT blocked function due to the altered ARC leptin signaling and impaired NPY regulation on PVN TRH neurons. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  16. Plasma-induced Escape and Alterations of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.; Ewrin, J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Leblanc, F.

    2009-12-01

    The atmospheres of planets and planetary satellites are typically imbedded in space plasmas. Depending on the interaction with the induced or intrinsic fields energetic ions can have access to the thermosphere and the corona affecting their composition and thermal structure and causing loss to space. These processes are often lumped together as ‘atmospheric sputtering’ (Johnson 1994). In this talk I will review the results of simulations of the plasma bombardment at a number of solar system bodies and use those data to describe the effect on the upper atmosphere and on escape. Of considerable recent interest is the modeling of escape from Titan. Prior to Cassini’s tour of the Saturnian system, plasma-induced escape was suggested to be the dominant loss process, but recent models of enhanced thermal escape, often referred to as ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape, have been suggested to lead to much larger Titan atmospheric loss rates (Strobel 2008; Cui et al. 2008). Such a process has been suggested to be active at some point in time on a number of solar system bodies. I will present hybrid fluid/ kinetic models of the upper atmosphere of certain bodies in order to test both the plasma-induced and thermal escape processes. Preliminary results suggest that the loss rates estimated using the ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape process can be orders of magnitude too large. The implications for Mars, Titan and Pluto will be discussed. Background for this talk is contained in the following papers (Johnson 2004; 2009; Chaufray et al. 2007; Johnson et al. 2008; 2009; Tucker and Johnson 2009). References: Chaufray, J.Y., R. Modolo, F. Leblanc, G. Chanteur, R.E. Johnson, and J.G. Luhmann, Mars Solar Wind interaction: formation of the Martian corona and atmosphric loss to space, JGR 112, E09009, doi:10.1029/2007JE002915 (2007) Cui, J., Yelle, R. V., Volk, K. Distribution and escape of molecular hydrogen in Titan's thermosphere and exosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10

  17. [Morphological alterations induced by preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Huber-van der Velden, K K; Thieme, H; Eichhorn, M

    2012-11-01

    A large number of experimental and clinical investigations carried out recently have confirmed that the chronic application of eye drops induces significant cytological and histological impairment in ocular tissues. It is also generally accepted that preservatives are the components responsible for the observed changes. The most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which has a relatively high toxicity. Possible consequences of preservatives on the eye are chronic inflammation and subsequent fibrosis of the subconjunctiva and cell loss and structural changes in the conjunctival epithelium as well as in the epithelial and endothelial layers of the cornea. Frequently, dry eye symptoms occur or deteriorate during therapy. During the last few years new preservatives have been developed which seem to have fewer side effects; however, relatively little data are available with regard to these new substances. To minimize impairments of the eye, preservative-free formulations should be considered for therapy.

  18. Diet-induced obesity alters memory consolidation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanini, P; Arbo, B D; Niches, G; Czarnabay, D; Benetti, F; Ribeiro, M F; Cecconello, A L

    2017-10-15

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hypercaloric diet on the object recognition memory of female rats and on possible related metabolic changes. The animals submitted to the hypercaloric diet presented a higher food intake in grams and in calories, resulting in increased weight gain and liposomatic index in comparison with the animals exposed to the control diet. These animals presented a memory deficit in the object recognition test and increased serum levels of glucose and leptin. However, no significant differences were found in the serum levels of insulin, TNF-α and IL-1β, in the index of insulin resistance (HOMA), in the hippocampal levels of insulin, TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as on Akt expression or activation in the hippocampus. Our findings indicate that adult female rats submitted to a hypercaloric diet present memory consolidation impairment, which could be associated with diet-induced weight gain and leptin resistance, even without the development of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  20. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  1. Single-molecule FRET studies on alpha-synuclein oligomerization of Parkinson’s disease genetically related mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatto, Laura; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Dear, Alexander J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Cremades, Nunilo; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David

    2015-11-01

    Oligomers of alpha-synuclein are toxic to cells and have been proposed to play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. As certain missense mutations in the gene encoding for alpha-synuclein induce early-onset forms of the disease, it has been suggested that these variants might have an inherent tendency to produce high concentrations of oligomers during aggregation, although a direct experimental evidence for this is still missing. We used single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer to visualize directly the protein self-assembly process by wild-type alpha-synuclein and A53T, A30P and E46K mutants and to compare the structural properties of the ensemble of oligomers generated. We found that the kinetics of oligomer formation correlates with the natural tendency of each variant to acquire beta-sheet structure. Moreover, A53T and A30P showed significant differences in the averaged FRET efficiency of one of the two types of oligomers formed compared to the wild-type oligomers, indicating possible structural variety among the ensemble of species generated. Importantly, we found similar concentrations of oligomers during the lag-phase of the aggregation of wild-type and mutated alpha-synuclein, suggesting that the properties of the ensemble of oligomers generated during self-assembly might be more relevant than their absolute concentration for triggering neurodegeneration.

  2. Radiation-induced functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiongmin; Wu, Donglin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the radiation-induced brain functional alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy (RT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and statistic scale.The fMRI data of 35 NPC patients with RT and 24 demographically matched untreated NPC patients were acquired. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also measured to evaluate their global cognition performance. Multivariate pattern analysis was performed to find the significantly altered functional connections between these 2 groups, while the linear correlation level was detected between the altered functional connections and the MoCA scores.Forty-five notably altered functional connections were found, which were mainly located between 3 brain networks, the cerebellum, sensorimotor, and cingulo-opercular. With strictly false discovery rate correction, 5 altered functional connections were shown to have significant linear correlations with the MoCA scores, that is, the connections between the vermis and hippocampus, cerebellum lobule VI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus and dorsal frontal cortex, cuneus and middle occipital lobe, and insula and cuneus. Besides, the connectivity between the vermis and hippocampus was also significantly correlated with the attention score, 1 of the 7 subscores of the MoCA.The present study provides new insights into the radiation-induced functional connectivity impairments in NPC patients. The results showed that the RT may induce the cognitive impairments, especially the attention alterations. The 45 altered functional connections, especially the 5 altered functional connections that were significantly correlated to the MoCA scores, may serve as the potential biomarkers of the RT-induced brain functional impairments and provide valuable targets for further functional recovery treatment.

  3. Radiation-induced functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiongmin; Wu, Donglin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study aims to investigate the radiation-induced brain functional alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy (RT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and statistic scale. The fMRI data of 35 NPC patients with RT and 24 demographically matched untreated NPC patients were acquired. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also measured to evaluate their global cognition performance. Multivariate pattern analysis was performed to find the significantly altered functional connections between these 2 groups, while the linear correlation level was detected between the altered functional connections and the MoCA scores. Forty-five notably altered functional connections were found, which were mainly located between 3 brain networks, the cerebellum, sensorimotor, and cingulo-opercular. With strictly false discovery rate correction, 5 altered functional connections were shown to have significant linear correlations with the MoCA scores, that is, the connections between the vermis and hippocampus, cerebellum lobule VI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus and dorsal frontal cortex, cuneus and middle occipital lobe, and insula and cuneus. Besides, the connectivity between the vermis and hippocampus was also significantly correlated with the attention score, 1 of the 7 subscores of the MoCA. The present study provides new insights into the radiation-induced functional connectivity impairments in NPC patients. The results showed that the RT may induce the cognitive impairments, especially the attention alterations. The 45 altered functional connections, especially the 5 altered functional connections that were significantly correlated to the MoCA scores, may serve as the potential biomarkers of the RT-induced brain functional impairments and provide valuable targets for further functional recovery treatment. PMID:27442663

  4. Cyclooxygenase inhibition does not alter methacholine-induced sweating

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; Paull, Gabrielle; Stapleton, Jill M.; Meade, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic agents (e.g., methacholine) induce cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Reports indicate that either nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), or both can contribute to cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation. Also, NO is reportedly involved in cholinergic sweating; however, whether COX contributes to cholinergic sweating is unclear. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) were evaluated in 10 healthy young (24 ± 4 yr) adults (7 men, 3 women) at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 mM ketorolac (a nonselective COX inhibitor), 3) 10 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor), or 4) a combination of 10 mM ketorolac + 10 mM l-NAME. At the four skin sites, methacholine was simultaneously infused in a dose-dependent manner (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 2,000 mM). Relative to the control site, forearm CVC was not influenced by ketorolac throughout the protocol (all P > 0.05), whereas l-NAME and ketorolac + l-NAME reduced forearm CVC at and above 10 mM methacholine (all P < 0.05). Conversely, there was no main effect of treatment site (P = 0.488) and no interaction of methacholine dose and treatment site (P = 0.711) on forearm sweating. Thus forearm sweating (in mg·min−1·cm−2) from baseline up to the maximal dose of methacholine was not different between the four sites (at 2,000 mM, control 0.50 ± 0.23, ketorolac 0.44 ± 0.23, l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.22, and ketorolac + l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.23). We show that both NO synthase and COX inhibition do not influence cholinergic sweating induced by 1–2,000 mM methacholine. PMID:25213633

  5. Cyclooxygenase inhibition does not alter methacholine-induced sweating.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; Paull, Gabrielle; Stapleton, Jill M; Meade, Robert D; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    Cholinergic agents (e.g., methacholine) induce cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Reports indicate that either nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), or both can contribute to cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation. Also, NO is reportedly involved in cholinergic sweating; however, whether COX contributes to cholinergic sweating is unclear. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) were evaluated in 10 healthy young (24 ± 4 yr) adults (7 men, 3 women) at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 mM ketorolac (a nonselective COX inhibitor), 3) 10 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor), or 4) a combination of 10 mM ketorolac + 10 mM l-NAME. At the four skin sites, methacholine was simultaneously infused in a dose-dependent manner (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 2,000 mM). Relative to the control site, forearm CVC was not influenced by ketorolac throughout the protocol (all P > 0.05), whereas l-NAME and ketorolac + l-NAME reduced forearm CVC at and above 10 mM methacholine (all P < 0.05). Conversely, there was no main effect of treatment site (P = 0.488) and no interaction of methacholine dose and treatment site (P = 0.711) on forearm sweating. Thus forearm sweating (in mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) from baseline up to the maximal dose of methacholine was not different between the four sites (at 2,000 mM, control 0.50 ± 0.23, ketorolac 0.44 ± 0.23, l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.22, and ketorolac + l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.23). We show that both NO synthase and COX inhibition do not influence cholinergic sweating induced by 1-2,000 mM methacholine.

  6. Southern Analysis of Genomic Alterations in Gamma-Ray-Induced Aprt- Hamster Cell Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Grosovsky, Andrew J.; Drobetsky, Elliot A.; deJong, Pieter J.; Glickman, Barry W.

    1986-01-01

    The role of genomic alterations in mutagenesis induced by ionizing radiation has been the subject of considerable speculation. By Southern blotting analysis we show here that 9 of 55 (approximately 1/6) gamma-ray-induced mutants at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (aprt) locus of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have a detectable genomic rearrangement. These fall into two classes: intragenic deletions and chromosomal rearrangements. In contrast, no major genomic alterations were detected among 67 spontaneous mutants, although two restriction site loss events were observed. Three gamma-ray-induced mutants were found to be intragenic deletions; all may have identical break-points. The remaining six gamma-ray-induced mutants demonstrating a genomic alteration appear to be the result of chromosomal rearrangements, possibly translocation or inversion events. None of the remaining gamma-ray-induced mutants showed any observable alteration in blotting pattern indicating a substantial role for point mutation in gamma-ray-induced mutagenesis at the aprt locus. PMID:3013724

  7. Dietary teasaponin ameliorates alteration of gut microbiota and cognitive decline in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhang, Peng; Newell, Kelly A; Wang, Hongqin; Zheng, Kuiyang; Yu, Yinghua

    2017-09-22

    A high-fat (HF) diet alters gut microbiota and promotes obesity related inflammation and cognitive impairment. Teasaponin is the major active component of tea, and has been associated with anti-inflammatory effects and improved microbiota composition. However, the potential protective effects of teasaponin, against HF diet-induced obesity and its associated alteration of gut microbiota, inflammation and cognitive decline have not been studied. In this study, obesity was induced in C57BL/6 J male mice by feeding a HF diet for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with oral teasaponin (0.5%) mixed in HF diet for a further 6 weeks. Teasaponin treatment prevented the HF diet-induced recognition memory impairment and improved neuroinflammation, gliosis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficits in the hippocampus. Furthermore, teasaponin attenuated the HF diet-induced endotoxemia, pro-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in the colon and gut microbiota alterations. Teasaponin also improved glucose tolerance and reduced body weight gain in HF diet-induced obese mice. The behavioral and neurochemical improvements suggest that teasaponin could limit unfavorable gut microbiota alterations and cognitive decline in HF diet-induced obesity.

  8. HIV-Induced Epigenetic Alterations in Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Enass A; Ji, Hong; Shata, Mohamed Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a member of the Retroviridae family, is a positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus. HIV, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2 In HIV-infected cells the single stranded viral RNA genome is reverse transcribed and the double-stranded viral DNA integrates into the cellular DNA, forming a provirus. The proviral HIV genome is controlled by the host epigenetic regulatory machinery. Cellular epigenetic regulators control HIV latency and reactivation by affecting the chromatin state in the vicinity of the viral promoter located to the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. In turn, distinct HIV proteins affect the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of the host cells. HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells in vitro upregulated DNMT activity and induced hypermethylation of distinct cellular promoters. In contrast, in the colon mucosa and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients demethylation of the FOXP3 promoter was observed, possibly due to the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. For a curative therapy of HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients, a combination of antiretroviral drugs with epigenetic modifying compounds have been suggested for the reactivation of latent HIV-1 genomes. These epigenetic drugs include histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), histone methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTI), histone demethylase inhibitors, and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTI).

  9. Nicotine-induced molecular alterations are modulated by GABAB receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andres P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Aon, Amira J; Höcht, Christian; Acosta, Gabriela B; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

    2017-04-17

    It has been demonstrated that GABAB receptors modulate nicotine (NIC) reward effect; nevertheless, the mechanism implicated is not well known. In this regard, we evaluated the involvement of GABAB receptors on the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with the rewarding effects induced by NIC in mice, from a pharmacological and genetic approach. NIC-induced rewarding properties (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, sc) were evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. CPP has three phases: preconditioning, conditioning and postconditioning. GABAB receptor antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg; intraperitoneally, ip) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (3 mg/kg; ip) was injected before NIC during the conditioning phase. GABAB1 knockout (GABAB1 KO) mice received NIC during the conditioning phase. Vehicle and wild-type controls were employed. Neurochemical (dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites), biochemical (nicotinic receptor α4β2, α4β2nAChRs) and molecular (c-Fos) alterations induced by NIC were analyzed after the postconditioning phase by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), receptor-ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in nucleus accumbens (Acb), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). NIC induced rewarding effects in the CPP paradigm and increased dopamine levels in Acb and PFC, α4β2nAChRs density in VTA and c-Fos expression in Acb shell (AcbSh), VTA and PFC. We showed that behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations induced by NIC were prevented by baclofen. However, in 2-hydroxysaclofen pretreated and GABAB1 KO mice, these alterations were potentiated, suggesting that GABAB receptor activity is necessary to control alterations induced by NIC-induced rewarding effects. Therefore, the present findings provided important contributions to the mechanisms implicated in NIC-induced rewarding effects. © 2017 Society for the

  10. Reactivity of copper-α-synuclein peptide complexes relevant to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dell'Acqua, Simone; Pirota, Valentina; Anzani, Cecilia; Rocco, Michela M; Nicolis, Stefania; Valensin, Daniela; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal α-synuclein (αSyn) deposits in the brain. Alterations in metal homeostasis and metal-induced oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the aggregation of αSyn and, consequently, in the pathogenesis of PD. We have therefore investigated the capability of copper-αSyn6 and copper-αSyn15 peptide complexes, with the 1-6 and 1-15 terminal fragments of the protein, to promote redox reactions that can be harmful to other cellular components. The pseudo-tyrosinase activity of copper-αSyn complexes against catecholic (di-tert-butylcatechol (DTBCH2), 4-methylcatechol (4-MC)) and phenolic (phenol) substrates is lower compared to that of free copper(II). In particular, the rates (kcat) of DTBCH2 catalytic oxidation are 0.030 s(-1) and 0.009 s(-1) for the reaction promoted by free copper(II) and [Cu(2+)-αSyn15], respectively. On the other hand, HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of solutions of αSyn15 incubated with copper(II) and 4-MC showed that αSyn is competitively oxidized with remarkable formation of sulfoxide at Met1 and Met5 residues. Moreover, the sulfoxidation of methionine residues, which is related to the aggregation of αSyn, also occurs on peptides not directly bound to copper, indicating that external αSyn can also be oxidized by copper. Therefore, this study strengthens the hypothesis that copper plays an important role in oxidative damage of αSyn which is proposed to be strongly related to the etiology of PD.

  11. Chronic cola drinking induces metabolic and cardiac alterations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Losada, Matilde Otero; Llambí, Hernán Gómez; Grana, Daniel R; Suárez, Daniel; Azzato, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of chronic drinking of cola beverages on metabolic and echocardiographic parameters in rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups and allowed to drink regular cola (C), diet cola (L), or tap water (W) ad libitum during 6 mo. After this period, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized. The remaining rats drank tap water ad libitum for an additional 6 mo and were then sacrificed. Rat weight, food, and beverage consumption were measured regularly. Biochemical, echocardiographic and systolic blood pressure data were obtained at baseline, and at 6 mo (treatment) and 12 mo (washout). A complete histopathology study was performed after sacrifice. RESULTS: After 6 mo, C rats had increased body weight (+7%, P < 0.01), increased liquid consumption (+69%, P < 0.001), and decreased food intake (-31%, P < 0.001). C rats showed mild hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Normoglycemia (+69%, P < 0.01) and sustained hypertriglyceridemia (+69%, P < 0.01) were observed in C after washout. Both cola beverages induced an increase in left ventricular diastolic diameter (C: +9%, L: +7%, P < 0.05 vs W) and volumes (diastolic C: +26%, L: +22%, P < 0.01 vs W; systolic C: +24%, L: +24%, P < 0.05 vs W) and reduction of relative posterior wall thickness (C: -8%, L: -10%, P < 0.05 vs W). Cardiac output tended to increase (C: +25%, P < 0.05 vs W; L: +17%, not significant vs W). Heart rate was not affected. Pathology findings were scarce, related to aging rather than treatment. CONCLUSION: This experimental model may prove useful to investigate the consequences of high consumption of soft drinks. PMID:21526048

  12. A novel autophagy modulator 6-Bio ameliorates SNCA/α-synuclein toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, S. N.; Chavalmane, Aravinda K.; DJ, Vidyadhara; Yarreiphang, Haorei; Rai, Shashank; Paul, Abhik; Clement, James P.; Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Manjithaya, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parkinson disease (PD) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative movement disorder with unmet therapeutic intervention. We have identified a small molecule autophagy modulator, 6-Bio that shows clearance of toxic SNCA/α-synuclein (a protein implicated in synucleopathies) aggregates in yeast and mammalian cell lines. 6-Bio induces autophagy and dramatically enhances autolysosome formation resulting in SNCA degradation. Importantly, neuroprotective function of 6-Bio as envisaged by immunohistology and behavior analyses in a preclinical model of PD where it induces autophagy in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of mice midbrain to clear toxic protein aggregates suggesting that it could be a potential therapeutic candidate for protein conformational disorders. PMID:28350199

  13. High-content analysis of α-synuclein aggregation and cell death in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Francesca; Deleersnijder, Angélique; Van den Haute, Chris; Munck, Sebastian; Pottel, Hans; Michiels, Annelies; Debyser, Zeger; Gerard, Melanie; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2016-03-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) aggregates represent a key feature of Parkinson's disease, but the exact relationship between α-SYN aggregation and neurodegeneration remains incompletely understood. Therefore, the availability of a cellular assay that allows medium-throughput analysis of α-SYN-linked pathology will be of great value for studying the aggregation process and for advancing α-SYN-based therapies. Here we describe a high-content neuronal cell assay that simultaneously measures oxidative stress-induced α-SYN aggregation and apoptosis. We optimized an automated and reproducible assay to quantify both α-SYN aggregation and cell death in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Quantification of α-SYN aggregates in cells has typically relied on manual imaging and counting or cell-free assays, which are time consuming and do not allow a concurrent analysis of cell viability. Our high-content analysis method for quantification of α-SYN aggregation allows simultaneous measurements of multiple cell parameters at a single-cell level in a fast, objective and automated manner. The presented analysis approach offers a rapid, objective and multiparametric approach for the screening of compounds and genes that might alter α-SYN aggregation and/or toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Methamphetamine alters occludin expression via NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative insult and intact caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. This study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:21435178

  15. Methamphetamine alters occludin expression via NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative insult and intact caveolae.

    PubMed

    Park, Minseon; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse with neurotoxic and vascular effects that may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, potential sources of METH-induced generation of ROS are not fully understood. This study is focused on the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) in METH-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced a time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of NOX subunit p47, followed by its binding with gp91 and p22, and the formation of an active NOX complex. An increase in NOX activity was associated with elevated production of ROS, alterations of occludin levels and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. Inhibition of NOX by NSC 23766 attenuated METH-induced ROS generation, changes in occludin protein levels and monocyte migration. Because an active NOX complex is localized to caveolae, we next evaluated the role of caveolae in METH-mediated toxicity to brain endothelial cells. Treatment with METH induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and caveolin-1 protein. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity or caveolin-1 silencing protected against METH-induced alterations of occludin levels. These findings indicate an important role of NOX and functional caveolae in METH-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells that contribute to the subsequent alterations of occludin levels and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Glia and alpha-synuclein in neurodegeneration: A complex interaction.

    PubMed

    Brück, Dominik; Wenning, Gregor K; Stefanova, Nadia; Fellner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    α-Synucleinopathies (ASP) comprise adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) that are characterized by α-synuclein (AS) aggregates in neurons or glia. PD and DLB feature neuronal AS-positive inclusions termed Lewy bodies (LB) whereas glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs, Papp-Lantos bodies) are recognized as the defining hallmark of MSA. Furthermore, AS-positive cytoplasmic aggregates may also be seen in astroglial cells of PD/DLB and MSA brains. The glial AS-inclusions appear to trigger reduced trophic support resulting in neuronal loss. Moreover, microgliosis and astrogliosis can be found throughout the neurodegenerative brain and both are key players in the initiation and progression of ASP. In this review, we will highlight AS-dependent alterations of glial function and their impact on neuronal vulnerability thereby providing a detailed summary on the multifaceted role of glia in ASP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Curcumin Modulates α-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In human beings, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with the oligomerization and amyloid formation of α-synuclein (α-Syn). The polyphenolic Asian food ingredient curcumin has proven to be effective against a wide range of human diseases including cancers and neurological disorders. While curcumin has been shown to significantly reduce cell toxicity of α-Syn aggregates, its mechanism of action remains unexplored. Here, using a series of biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that curcumin reduces toxicity by binding to preformed oligomers and fibrils and altering their hydrophobic surface exposure. Further, our fluorescence and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) data indicate that curcumin does not bind to monomeric α-Syn but binds specifically to oligomeric intermediates. The degree of curcumin binding correlates with the extent of α-Syn oligomerization, suggesting that the ordered structure of protein is required for effective curcumin binding. The acceleration of aggregation by curcumin may decrease the population of toxic oligomeric intermediates of α-Syn. Collectively; our results suggest that curcumin and related polyphenolic compounds can be pursued as candidate drug targets for treatment of PD and other neurological diseases. PMID:23509976

  18. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Carlos AT; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance. PMID:23487552

  19. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos At; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance.

  20. Analysis of expression pathways alterations of Arabidopsis thaliana induced by a Necrosis- and Ethylene-inducing protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Castro, Mauro A. A.; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Pereira, Gonçalo A. G.; Mombach, José C. M.

    2009-10-01

    A major goal in post-genomic biology is the description of physiological functions in terms of gene pathway behavior. In this work, we present the first investigation of expression alterations in ninety-three pathways representing physiological functions of the plant A. thaliana induced by a P. parasitica elicitor (NLPpp) using microarray data publicly available at the AtGenExpress database. Using a novel statistical analysis developed to detect pathway alterations, we identified the gene pathways, hereby called groups of functionally associated genes (defined according to the TAIR/Gene Ontology and other databases), that are significantly altered in response to the elicitor. Instead of looking at individual gene responses, our analysis allowed a detailed characterization of the time ordering of pathways alterations in response to the NLPpp, their physiological implications and specificity. We also observed the activation of genes associated with vesicle trafficking and ROS production implying the initiation of the senescence of the wounded plant tissue.

  1. Transmission of Soluble and Insoluble α-Synuclein to Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Daryl R.; Delenclos, Marion; Baine, AnnMarie T.; DeTure, Michael; Murray, Melissa E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    The neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which include Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and Lewy body disease, are characterized by the presence of abundant neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These disorders remain incurable and a greater understanding of the pathologic processes is needed for effective treatment strategies to be developed. Recent data suggest that pathogenic misfolding of the presynaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), and subsequent aggregation and accumulation is fundamental to the disease process. It is hypothesized that the misfolded isoform is able to induce misfolding of normal endogenous α-syn, much like what occurs in the prion diseases. Recent work highlighting the seeding effect of pathogenic α-syn has largely focused on the detergent-insoluble species of the protein. In this study we performed intracerebral inoculations of the sarkosyl-insoluble or sarkosyl-soluble fractions of human Lewy body disease brain homogenate and show that both fractions induce CNS pathology in mice at 4 months post-injection. Disease-associated deposits accumulated both near and distal to the site of the injection suggesting a cell-to-cell spread via recruitment of α-syn. These results provide further insight into the prion-like mechanisms of α-syn and suggest that disease-associated α-syn is not homogenous within a single patient but might exist in both soluble and insoluble isoforms. PMID:26574670

  2. Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ninkina, Natalia N.; Gandhi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded α-synuclein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, knowledge about a physiological role for the native, unfolded α-synuclein is limited. Using brains of mice lacking α-, β-, and γ-synuclein, we report that extracellular monomeric α-synuclein enters neurons and localizes to mitochondria, interacts with ATP synthase subunit α, and modulates ATP synthase function. Using a combination of biochemical, live-cell imaging and mitochondrial respiration analysis, we found that brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice are uncoupled, as characterized by increased mitochondrial respiration and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, synuclein deficiency results in reduced ATP synthase efficiency and lower ATP levels. Exogenous application of low unfolded α-synuclein concentrations is able to increase the ATP synthase activity that rescues the mitochondrial phenotypes observed in synuclein deficiency. Overall, the data suggest that α-synuclein is a previously unrecognized physiological regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetics through its ability to interact with ATP synthase and increase its efficiency. This may be of particular importance in times of stress or PD mutations leading to energy depletion and neuronal cell toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Misfolded α-synuclein aggregations in the form of Lewy bodies have been shown to be a pathological hallmark in histological staining of Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. It is known that misfolded α-synuclein is a key driver in PD pathogenesis, but the physiological role of unfolded monomeric α-synuclein remains unclear. Using neuronal cocultures and isolated brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice and monomeric α-synuclein, this current study shows that α-synuclein in its unfolded monomeric form improves ATP synthase efficiency and mitochondrial function. The ability of monomeric α-synuclein to enhance

  3. Vulnerability of conditional NCAM-deficient mice to develop stress-induced behavioral alterations.

    PubMed

    Bisaz, Reto; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies in rodents showed that chronic stress induces structural and functional alterations in several brain regions, including shrinkage of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, which are accompanied by cognitive and emotional disturbances. Reduced expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) following chronic stress has been proposed to be crucially involved in neuronal retraction and behavioral alterations. Since NCAM gene polymorphisms and altered expression of alternatively spliced NCAM isoforms have been associated with bipolar depression and schizophrenia in humans, we hypothesized that reduced expression of NCAM renders individuals more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of stress on behavior. Here, we specifically questioned whether mice in which the NCAM gene is inactivated in the forebrain by cre-recombinase under the control of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II promoter (conditional NCAM-deficient mice), display increased vulnerability to stress. We assessed the evolving of depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning and memory impairments following a subchronic stress protocol (2 weeks) that does not result in behavioral dysfunction, nor in altered NCAM expression, in wild-type mice. Indeed, while no behavioral alterations were detected in wild-type littermates after subchronic stress, conditional NCAM-deficient mice showed increased immobility in the tail suspension test and deficits in reversal spatial learning in the water maze. These findings indicate that diminished NCAM expression might be a critical vulnerability factor for the development of behavioral alterations by stress and further support a functional involvement of NCAM in stress-induced cognitive and emotional disturbances.

  4. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Altered SRY Genomic Binding During Gonadal Sex Determination.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K; Bhandari, Ramji K; Haque, M Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric E

    2015-12-01

    A critical transcription factor required for mammalian male sex determination is SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome). The expression of SRY in precursor Sertoli cells is one of the initial events in testis development. The current study was designed to determine the impact of environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance on SRY binding during gonadal sex determination in the male. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin and vehicle control (DMSO) exposed gestating females (F0 generation) during gonadal sex determination promoted the transgenerational inheritance of differential DNA methylation in sperm of the F3 generation (great grand-offspring). The fetal gonads in F3 generation males were used to identify potential alterations in SRY binding sites in the developing Sertoli cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with an SRY antibody followed by genome-wide promoter tiling array (ChIP-Chip) was used to identify alterations in SRY binding. A total of 81 adjacent oligonucleotide sites and 173 single oligo SRY binding sites were identified to be altered transgenerationally in the Sertoli cell vinclozolin lineage F3 generation males. Observations demonstrate the majority of the previously identified normal SRY binding sites were not altered and the altered SRY binding sites were novel and new additional sites. The chromosomal locations, gene associations and potentially modified cellular pathways were investigated. In summary, environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of germline epimutations appears to alter the cellular differentiation and development of the precursor Sertoli cell SRY binding during gonadal sex determination that influence the developmental origins of adult onset testis disease.

  5. Enteropathogenic E. coli-induced barrier function alteration is not a consequence of host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Weflen, Andrew; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Roxas, Jennifer L.; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that perturbs intestinal epithelial function. Many of the alterations in the host cells are mediated by effector molecules that are secreted directly into epithelial cells by the EPEC type III secretion system. The secreted effector molecule EspF plays a key role in redistributing tight junction proteins and altering epithelial barrier function. EspF has also been shown to localize to mitochondria and trigger membrane depolarization and eventual host cell death. The relationship, if any, between EspF-induced host cell death and epithelial barrier disruption is presently not known. Site-directed mutation of leucine 16 (L16E) of EspF impairs both mitochondrial localization and consequent host cell death. Although the mutation lies within a region critical for type III secretion, EspF(L16E) is secreted efficiently from EPEC. Despite its inability to promote cell death, EspF(L16E) was not impaired for tight junction alteration or barrier disruption. Consistent with this, the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH, despite reducing EPEC-induced host cell death, had no effect on infection-mediated barrier function alteration. Thus EPEC alters the epithelial barrier independent of its ability to induce host cell death. PMID:18356531

  6. alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrerova, N; Petrucelli, L; Farrer, M; Mehta, N; Choi, P; Hardy, J; Wolozin, B

    1999-07-15

    alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in alpha-synuclein cause some cases of familial PD (Polymeropoulos et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 1998). In addition, many neurodegenerative diseases show accumulation of alpha-synuclein in dystrophic neurites and in Lewy bodies (Spillantini et al., 1998). Here, we show that alpha-synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins, which are a family of ubiquitous cytoplasmic chaperones. Regions of alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 proteins share over 40% homology. In addition, alpha-synuclein binds to 14-3-3 proteins, as well as some proteins known to associate with 14-3-3, including protein kinase C, BAD, and extracellular regulated kinase, but not Raf-1. We also show that overexpression of alpha-synuclein inhibits protein kinase C activity. The association of alpha-synuclein with BAD and inhibition of protein kinase C suggests that increased expression of alpha-synuclein could be harmful. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein is toxic, and overexpression of alpha-synuclein containing the A53T or A30P mutations exhibits even greater toxicity. The activity and binding profile of alpha-synuclein suggests that it might act as a protein chaperone and that accumulation of alpha-synuclein could contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. RNA Interference of Human α-Synuclein in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Cho; Miller, Adam; Lins, Livia C. R. F.; Han, Sang-Woo; Keiser, Megan S.; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein is postulated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aggregates of α-synuclein contribute to neurodegeneration and cell death in humans and in mouse models of PD. Here, we use virally mediated RNA interference to knockdown human α-synuclein in mice. We used an siRNA design algorithm to identify eight siRNA sequences with minimal off-targeting potential. One RNA-interference sequence (miSyn4) showed maximal protein knockdown potential in vitro. We then designed AAV vectors expressing miSyn4 and injected them into the mouse substantia nigra. miSyn4 was robustly expressed and did not detectably change dopamine neurons, glial proliferation, or mouse behavior. We then injected AAV2-miSyn4 into Thy1-hSNCA mice over expressing α-synuclein and found decreased human α-synuclein (hSNCA) in both midbrain and cortex. In separate mice, co-injection of AAV2-hSNCA and AAV2-miSyn4 demonstrated decreased hSNCA expression and rescue of hSNCA-mediated behavioral deficits. These data suggest that virally mediated RNA interference can knockdown hSNCA in vivo, which could be helpful for future therapies targeting human α-synuclein. PMID:28197125

  8. Reducing synuclein accumulation improves neuronal survival after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Fogerson, Stephanie M.; van Brummen, Alexandra J.; Busch, David J.; Allen, Scott R.; Roychaudhuri, Robin; Banks, Susan M. L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Morgan, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells. We report here that spinal cord injury caused a select subset of giant reticulospinal neurons to accumulate synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein best known for its atypical aggregation and causal role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s and other diseases. Post-injury synuclein accumulation took the form of punctate aggregates throughout the somata and occurred selectively in dying neurons, but not in those that survived. In contrast, another synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, did not accumulate in response to injury. We further show that the post-injury synuclein accumulation was greatly attenuated after single dose application of either the “molecular tweezer” inhibitor, CLR01, or a translation-blocking synuclein morpholino. Consequently, reduction of synuclein accumulation not only improved neuronal survival, but also increased the number of axons in the spinal cord proximal and distal to the lesion. This study is the first to reveal that reducing synuclein accumulation is a novel strategy for improving neuronal survival after spinal cord injury. PMID:26854933

  9. Glycation potentiates α-synuclein-associated neurodegeneration in synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Vicente Miranda, Hugo; Szego, Éva M; Oliveira, Luís M A; Breda, Carlo; Darendelioglu, Ekrem; de Oliveira, Rita M; Ferreira, Diana G; Gomes, Marcos A; Rott, Ruth; Oliveira, Márcia; Munari, Francesca; Enguita, Francisco J; Simões, Tânia; Rodrigues, Eva F; Heinrich, Michael; Martins, Ivo C; Zamolo, Irina; Riess, Olaf; Cordeiro, Carlos; Ponces-Freire, Ana; Lashuel, Hilal A; Santos, Nuno C; Lopes, Luisa V; Xiang, Wei; Jovin, Thomas M; Penque, Deborah; Engelender, Simone; Zweckstetter, Markus; Klucken, Jochen; Giorgini, Flaviano; Quintas, Alexandre; Outeiro, Tiago F

    2017-04-10

    α-Synuclein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark in Parkinson's disease and in several other neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. The toxic properties of α-synuclein are conserved from yeast to man, but the precise underpinnings of the cellular pathologies associated are still elusive, complicating the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Combining molecular genetics with target-based approaches, we established that glycation, an unavoidable age-associated post-translational modification, enhanced α-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo, in Drosophila and in mice. Glycation affected primarily the N-terminal region of α-synuclein, reducing membrane binding, impaired the clearance of α-synuclein, and promoted the accumulation of toxic oligomers that impaired neuronal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, using glycation inhibitors, we demonstrated that normal clearance of α-synuclein was re-established, aggregation was reduced, and motor phenotypes in Drosophila were alleviated. Altogether, our study demonstrates glycation constitutes a novel drug target that can be explored in synucleinopathies as well as in other neurodegenerative conditions.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Structural Changes of Parkinson's Alpha-Synuclein Reveal the Role of Pre-Existing Oligomers in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrillization

    PubMed Central

    Ariesandi, Winny; Chang, Chi-Fon; Chen, Tseng-Erh; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils of α-synuclein are the main constituent of Lewy bodies deposited in substantial nigra of Parkinson's disease brains. α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein lacking compact secondary and tertiary structures. To enhance the understanding of its structure and function relationship, we utilized temperature treatment to study α-synuclein conformational changes and the subsequent effects. We found that after 1 hr of high temperature pretreatment, >80°C, α-synuclein fibrillization was significantly inhibited. However, the temperature melting coupled with circular dichroism spectra showed that α-synuclein was fully reversible and the NMR studies showed no observable structural changes of α-synuclein after 95°C treatment. By using cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation, rare amount of pre-existing α-synuclein oligomers were found to decrease after the high temperature treatment. In addition, a small portion of C-terminal truncation of α-synuclein also occurred. The reduction of pre-existing oligomers of α-synuclein may contribute to less seeding effect that retards the kinetics of amyloid fibrillization. Overall, our results showed that the pre-existing oligomeric species is a key factor contributing to α-synuclein fibrillization. Our results facilitate the understanding of α-synuclein fibrillization. PMID:23349712

  11. A hyperbranched dopamine-containing PEG-based polymer for the inhibition of α-synuclein fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Leonid; Newland, Ben; Zhang, Hong; Rosser, Anne; Werner, Carsten; Uversky, Vladimir N; Wang, Wenxin

    2016-01-22

    Aggregation of α-synuclein is believed to play an important role in Parkinson's disease and in other neurodegenerative maladies. Small molecule inhibitors of this process are among the most promising drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases. Dendrimers have also been studied for anti-fibrillation applications but they can be difficult and expensive to synthetize. Here we show that RAFT polymerization can be used to produce a hyperbranched polyethylene glycol structure via a one-pot reaction. This polymer included a dopamine moiety, a known inhibitor of α-synuclein fibril formation. Dopamine within the polymer structure was capable of aggregation inhibition, although not to the same degree as free dopamine. This result opens up new avenues for the use of controlled radical polymerizations as a means of preparing hyperbranched polymers for anti-fibrillation activity, but shows that the incorporation of functional groups from known small molecules within polymers may alter their biological activity.

  12. Time-Restricted Feeding Shifts the Skin Circadian Clock and Alters UVB-Induced DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; van Spyk, Elyse; Liu, Qiang; Geyfman, Mikhail; Salmans, Michael L; Kumar, Vivek; Ihler, Alexander; Li, Ning; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2017-08-01

    The epidermis is a highly regenerative barrier protecting organisms from environmental insults, including UV radiation, the main cause of skin cancer and skin aging. Here, we show that time-restricted feeding (RF) shifts the phase and alters the amplitude of the skin circadian clock and affects the expression of approximately 10% of the skin transcriptome. Furthermore, a large number of skin-expressed genes are acutely regulated by food intake. Although the circadian clock is required for daily rhythms in DNA synthesis in epidermal progenitor cells, RF-induced shifts in clock phase do not alter the phase of DNA synthesis. However, RF alters both diurnal sensitivity to UVB-induced DNA damage and expression of the key DNA repair gene, Xpa. Together, our findings indicate regulation of skin function by time of feeding and emphasize a link between circadian rhythm, food intake, and skin health. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ALTERED RA SIGNALING IN THE GENESIS OF ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered RA Signaling in the Genesis of Ethanol-Induced Limb Defects

    Johnson CS(1), Sulik KK(1,2) Hunter, ES III(3)
    (1) Dept of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-Chapel Hill (2) Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, UNC-CH (3) NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC

    Administr...

  14. Outcome of Children with Hyperventilation-Induced High-Amplitude Rhythmic Slow Activity with Altered Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Rittey, Christopher D. C.; Kandler, Rosalind H.; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation-induced high-amplitude rhythmic slow activity with altered awareness (HIHARS) is increasingly being identified in children and is thought to be an age-related non-epileptic electrographic phenomenon. We retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome in 15 children (six males, nine females) with HIHARS (mean age 7y, SD 1y 11mo;…

  15. ALTERED RA SIGNALING IN THE GENESIS OF ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered RA Signaling in the Genesis of Ethanol-Induced Limb Defects

    Johnson CS(1), Sulik KK(1,2) Hunter, ES III(3)
    (1) Dept of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-Chapel Hill (2) Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, UNC-CH (3) NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC

    Administr...

  16. Outcome of Children with Hyperventilation-Induced High-Amplitude Rhythmic Slow Activity with Altered Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Rittey, Christopher D. C.; Kandler, Rosalind H.; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation-induced high-amplitude rhythmic slow activity with altered awareness (HIHARS) is increasingly being identified in children and is thought to be an age-related non-epileptic electrographic phenomenon. We retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome in 15 children (six males, nine females) with HIHARS (mean age 7y, SD 1y 11mo;…

  17. Alpha-synuclein structure, functions, and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Emamzadeh, Fatemeh Nouri

    2016-01-01

    At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention. Here, α-syn is reviewed in details. PMID:27904575

  18. Parkinson disease: α-synuclein mutational screening and new clinical insight into the p.E46K mutation.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Márcia M G; Rodrigues, Fabíola C; Leite, Marco Antônio A; Campos Júnior, Mário; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Nicaretta, Denise H; Pereira, João S; Silva, Delson José; Della Coletta, Marcus V; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe R; Abreu, Gabriella M; Dos Santos, Jussara M; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia B

    2015-06-01

    Amongst Parkinson's disease-causing genetic factors, missense mutations and genomic multiplications in the gene encoding α-synuclein are well established causes of the disease, although genetic data in populations with a high degree of admixture, such as the Brazilian one, are still scarce. In this study, we conducted a molecular screening of α-synuclein point mutations and copy number variation in the largest cohort of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 549) and also in twelve Portuguese and one Bolivian immigrants. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes or saliva, and the mutational screening was performed by quantitative and qualitative real-time PCR. The only alteration identified was the p.E46K mutation in a 60-year-old man, born in Bolivia, with a familial history of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. This is the second family ever reported, in which this rare pathogenic mutation is segregating. The same mutation was firstly described ten years ago in a Spanish family with a neurodegenerative syndrome combining parkinsonism, dementia and visual hallucinations. The clinical condition of our proband reveals a less aggressive phenotype than previously described and reinforces that marked phenotypic heterogeneity is common among patients with Parkinson's disease, even among those carriers sharing the same mutation. Our findings add new insight into the preexisting information about α-synuclein p.E46K, improving our understanding about the endophenotypes associated to this mutation and corroborate that missense alterations and multiplications in α-synuclein are uncommon among Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigenetic alteration to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling in Raf-induced senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Mai; Mano, Yasunobu; Anai, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Shogo; Fukuyo, Masaki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate epigenomic and gene expression alterations during cellular senescence induced by oncogenic Raf. METHODS: Cellular senescence was induced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by infecting retrovirus to express oncogenic Raf (RafV600E). RNA was collected from RafV600E cells as well as MEFs without infection and MEFs with mock infection, and a genome-wide gene expression analysis was performed using microarray. The epigenomic status for active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3 histone marks was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for RafV600E cells on day 7 and for MEFs without infection. These data for Raf-induced senescence were compared with data for Ras-induced senescence that were obtained in our previous study. Gene knockdown and overexpression were done by retrovirus infection. RESULTS: Although the expression of some genes including secreted factors was specifically altered in either Ras- or Raf-induced senescence, many genes showed similar alteration pattern in Raf- and Ras-induced senescence. A total of 841 commonly upregulated 841 genes and 573 commonly downregulated genes showed a significant enrichment of genes related to signal and secreted proteins, suggesting the importance of alterations in secreted factors. Bmp2, a secreted protein to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling, was highly upregulated with gain of H3K4me3 and loss of H3K27me3 during Raf-induced senescence, as previously detected in Ras-induced senescence, and the knockdown of Bmp2 by shRNA lead to escape from Raf-induced senescence. Bmp2-Smad inhibitor Smad6 was strongly repressed with H3K4me3 loss in Raf-induced senescence, as detected in Ras-induced senescence, and senescence was also bypassed by Smad6 induction in Raf-activated cells. Different from Ras-induced senescence, however, gain of H3K27me3 did not occur in the Smad6 promoter region during Raf-induced senescence. When comparing genome-wide alteration between Ras- and Raf-induced senescence, genes

  20. Utility of Dexrazoxane for the Attenuation of Epirubicin-Induced Genetic Alterations in Mouse Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheikh F.; Ansaria, Mushtaq A.; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M.; Bakheet, Saleh A.

    2016-01-01

    Dexrazoxane has been approved to treat anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy and extravasation. However, the effect of dexrazoxane on epirubicin-induced genetic alterations in germ cells has not yet been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dexrazoxane modulates epirubicin-induced genetic damage in the germ cells of male mice. Our results show that dexrazoxane was not genotoxic at the tested doses. Furthermore, it protected mouse germ cells against epirubicin-induced genetic alterations as detected by the reduction in disomic and diploid sperm, spermatogonial chromosomal aberrations, and abnormal sperm heads. The attenuating effect of dexrazoxane was greater at higher dose, indicating a dose-dependent effect. Moreover, sperm motility and count were ameliorated by dexrazoxane pretreatment. Epirubicin induced marked biochemical changes characteristic of oxidative DNA damage including elevated 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine levels and reduction in reduced glutathione. Pretreatment of mice with dexrazoxane before epirubicin challenge restored these altered endpoints. We conclude that dexrazoxane may efficiently mitigate the epirubicin insult in male germ cells, and prevent the enhanced risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes and associated health risks. Thus, pretreating patients with dexrazoxane prior to epirubicin may efficiently preserve not only sperm quality but also prevent the transmission of genetic damage to future generations. PMID:27690233

  1. Curcumin prevents cisplatin-induced renal alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamic.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Domínguez, Bibiana; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; García-Arroyo, Fernando E; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Tapia, Edilia; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2017-09-01

    Cisplatin is widely used as chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diverse types of cancer, however, acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important side effect of this treatment. Diverse mechanisms have been involved in cisplatin-induced AKI, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. On the other hand, curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Previous studies have shown that curcumin protects against the cisplatin-induced AKI; however, it is unknown whether curcumin can reduce alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamic in this model. It was found that curcumin prevents cisplatin-induced: (a) AKI and (b) alterations in the following mitochondrial parameters: bioenergetics, ultrastructure, hydrogen peroxide production and dynamic. In fact, curcumin prevented the increase of mitochondrial fission 1 protein (FIS1), the decrease of optic atrophy 1 protein (OPA1) and the decrease of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial dynamic regulator as well as the increase in the mitophagy associated proteins parkin and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1). In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin in cisplatin-induced AKI was associated with the prevention of the alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, ultrastructure, redox balance, dynamic, and SIRT3 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular ageing of alpha- and Beta-synucleins: protein damage and repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Cass, Simon; Wayne, Declan; Bolt, Edward L; Ray, David E; Carter, Wayne G

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal α-synuclein aggregates are hallmarks of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Alpha synuclein and β-synucleins are susceptible to post-translational modification as isoaspartate protein damage, which is regulated in vivo by the action of the repair enzyme protein L-isoaspartyl O-methyltransferase (PIMT). We aged in vitro native α-synuclein, the α-synuclein familial mutants A30P and A53T that give rise to Parkinsonian phenotypes, and β-synuclein, at physiological pH and temperature for a time course of up to 20 days. Resolution of native α-synuclein and β-synuclein by two dimensional techniques showed the accumulation of a number of post-translationally modified forms of both proteins. The levels of isoaspartate formed over the 20 day time course were quantified by exogenous methylation with PIMT using S-Adenosyl-L-[(3)H-methyl]methionine as a methyl donor, and liquid scintillation counting of liberated (3)H-methanol. All α-synuclein proteins accumulated isoaspartate at ∼1% of molecules/day, ∼20 times faster than for β-synuclein. This disparity between rates of isoaspartate was confirmed by exogenous methylation of synucleins by PIMT, protein resolution by one-dimensional denaturing gel electrophoresis, and visualisation of (3)H-methyl esters by autoradiography. Protein silver staining and autoradiography also revealed that α-synucleins accumulated stable oligomers that were resistant to denaturing conditions, and which also contained isoaspartate. Co-incubation of approximately equimolar β-synuclein with α-synuclein resulted in a significant reduction of isoaspartate formed in all α-synucleins after 20 days of ageing. Co-incubated α- and β-synucleins, or α, or β synucleins alone, were resolved by non-denaturing size exclusion chromatography and all formed oligomers of ∼57.5 kDa; consistent with tetramerization. Direct association of α-synuclein with β-synuclein in column fractions or from in vitro ageing co-incubations was

  3. Evaluation of the synuclein-y (SNCG) gene as a PPARy target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synuclein-gamma is highly expressed in both adipocytes and peripheral nervous system (PNS) somatosensory neurons. Its mRNA is induced during adipogenesis, increased in obese human white adipose tissue (WAT), may be coordinately regulated with leptin, and is decreased following treatment of murine 3T...

  4. Synergistic effects of ferritin and propolis in modulation of beryllium induced toxicogenic alterations.

    PubMed

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika

    2008-09-01

    Synergistic therapeutic potential of ferritin (5mg/kg, i.p.) and propolis (honeybee hive product; 200mg/kg, p.o.) was analyzed to encounter the beryllium induced biochemical and ultra morphological alterations. Female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate (1mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 28 days followed by treatment of above mentioned therapeutic agents either individually or in combination for five consecutive days. Exposure to beryllium increased its concentration in serum, liver and kidney and significantly altered the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymes, microsomal lipid peroxidation and microsomal proteins. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, protein, creatinine and urea in serum as well as hemoglobin and blood glucose level; activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, total protein contents, glycogen contents, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level in liver and kidney were significantly altered after beryllium administration. Beryllium exposure severely altered ultramorphology of liver and kidney that proved its toxic consequences at cellular level. Ferritin in combination with propolis dramatically reversed the alterations of these variables towards control in a synergistic manner concluding its beneficial effects over monotherapy in attenuating beryllium induced systemic toxicity.

  5. A single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Carmina; Piedrafita, Blanca; Serra, Miguel A; del Olmo, Juan A; Rodrigo, José M; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease is associated with poor prognosis. This could be due to the induction by the transient episode of hepatic encephalopathy of long-lasting alterations making patients more susceptible. We show that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction. The content of the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase dependent on cAMP (PKA-RI) is increased in erythrocytes from cirrhotic patients. This increase is reproduced in rats with portacaval anastomosis and in rats with hyperammonemia without liver failure, suggesting that hyperammonemia is responsible for increased PKA-RI in patients. We analyzed whether there is a correlation between ammonia levels and PKA-RI content in patients. All cirrhotic patients had increased content of PKA-RI. Some of them showed normal ammonia levels but had suffered previous hyperammonemia episodes. This suggested that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia could induce the long-lasting increase in PKA-RI. To assess this, we injected normal rats with ammonia and blood was taken at different times. Ammonia returned to basal levels at 2 h. However, PKA-RI was significantly increased in blood cells from rats injected with ammonia 3 wk after injection. In conclusion, it is shown that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction both in blood and brain. These alterations may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy.

  6. Altered autophagic flux enhances inflammatory responses during inflammation-induced preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Varkha; Jaiswal, Mukesh K.; Mallers, Timothy; Katara, Gajendra K.; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D.; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-01-01

    Cellular organelles and proteins are degraded and recycled through autophagy, a process during which vesicles known as autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes. Altered autophagy occurs in various diseases, but its role in preterm labor (PTL) is unknown. We investigated the role of autophagic flux in two mouse models of PTL compared to controls: 1) inflammation-induced PTL (IPTL), induced by toll-like receptor agonists; and 2) non-inflammation (hormonally)-induced PTL (NIPTL). We demonstrate that the autophagy related genes Atg4c and Atg7 (involved in the lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) B-I to the autophagosome-associated form, LC3B-II) decrease significantly in uterus and placenta during IPTL but not NIPTL. Autophagic flux is altered in IPTL, as shown by the accumulation of LC3B paralogues and diminishment of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1, LAMP-2 and the a2 isoform of V-ATPase (a2V, an enzyme involved in lysosome acidification). These alterations in autophagy are associated with increased activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in both uterus and placenta. Similar changes are seen in macrophages exposed to TLR ligands and are enhanced with blockade of a2V. These novel findings represent the first evidence of an association between altered autophagic flux and hyper-inflammation and labor in IPTL. PMID:25797357

  7. Helminth-induced alterations of the gut microbiota exacerbate bacterial colitis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Su, L; Li, Y; Long, S R; Chang, J; Zhang, W; Walker, W A; Xavier, R J; Cherayil, B J; Shi, H N

    2017-03-29

    Infection with the intestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates the colitis caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium. To clarify the underlying mechanism, we analyzed fecal microbiota composition of control and helminth-infected mice and evaluated the functional role of compositional differences by microbiota transplantation experiments. Our results showed that infection of Balb/c mice with H. polygyrus resulted in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, characterized by a marked increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreases in Firmicutes and Lactobacillales. Recipients of the gut microbiota from helminth-infected wide-type, but not STAT6-deficient, Balb/c donors had increased fecal pathogen shedding and significant worsening of Citrobacter-induced colitis compared to recipients of microbiota from control donors. Recipients of helminth-altered microbiota also displayed increased regulatory T cells and IL-10 expression. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and neutralization of IL-10 in recipients of helminth-altered microbiota led to reduced stool C. rodentium numbers and attenuated colitis. These results indicate that alteration of the gut microbiota is a significant contributor to the H. polygyrus-induced exacerbation of C. rodentium colitis. The helminth-induced alteration of the microbiota is Th2-dependent and acts by promoting regulatory T cells that suppress protective responses to bacterial enteropathogens.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 29 March 2017 doi:10.1038/mi.2017.20.

  8. Altered autophagic flux enhances inflammatory responses during inflammation-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Mallers, Timothy; Katara, Gajendra K; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-03-23

    Cellular organelles and proteins are degraded and recycled through autophagy, a process during which vesicles known as autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes. Altered autophagy occurs in various diseases, but its role in preterm labor (PTL) is unknown. We investigated the role of autophagic flux in two mouse models of PTL compared to controls: 1) inflammation-induced PTL (IPTL), induced by toll-like receptor agonists; and 2) non-inflammation (hormonally)-induced PTL (NIPTL). We demonstrate that the autophagy related genes Atg4c and Atg7 (involved in the lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) B-I to the autophagosome-associated form, LC3B-II) decrease significantly in uterus and placenta during IPTL but not NIPTL. Autophagic flux is altered in IPTL, as shown by the accumulation of LC3B paralogues and diminishment of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1, LAMP-2 and the a2 isoform of V-ATPase (a2V, an enzyme involved in lysosome acidification). These alterations in autophagy are associated with increased activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in both uterus and placenta. Similar changes are seen in macrophages exposed to TLR ligands and are enhanced with blockade of a2V. These novel findings represent the first evidence of an association between altered autophagic flux and hyper-inflammation and labor in IPTL.

  9. Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Laura; Madiona, Karine; Melki, Ronald

    2016-04-14

    The deposition of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) in neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of synucleinopathies. α-syn populates a variety of assemblies ranging from prefibrillar oligomeric species to fibrils whose specific contribution to neurodegeneration is still unclear. Here, we compare the specific structural and biological properties of distinct soluble prefibrillar α-syn oligomers formed either spontaneously or in the presence of dopamine and glutaraldehyde. We show that both on-fibrillar assembly pathway and distinct dopamine-mediated and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked α-syn oligomers are only slightly effective in perturbing cell membrane integrity and inducing cytotoxicity, while mature fibrils exhibit the highest toxicity. In contrast to low-molecular weight and unstable oligomers, large stable α-syn oligomers seed the aggregation of soluble α-syn within reporter cells although to a lesser extent than mature α-syn fibrils. These oligomers appear elongated in shape. Our findings suggest that α-syn oligomers represent a continuum of species ranging from unstable low molecular weight particles to mature fibrils via stable elongated oligomers composed of more than 15 α-syn monomers that possess seeding capacity.

  10. Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Laura; Madiona, Karine; Melki, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) in neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of synucleinopathies. α-syn populates a variety of assemblies ranging from prefibrillar oligomeric species to fibrils whose specific contribution to neurodegeneration is still unclear. Here, we compare the specific structural and biological properties of distinct soluble prefibrillar α-syn oligomers formed either spontaneously or in the presence of dopamine and glutaraldehyde. We show that both on-fibrillar assembly pathway and distinct dopamine-mediated and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked α-syn oligomers are only slightly effective in perturbing cell membrane integrity and inducing cytotoxicity, while mature fibrils exhibit the highest toxicity. In contrast to low-molecular weight and unstable oligomers, large stable α-syn oligomers seed the aggregation of soluble α-syn within reporter cells although to a lesser extent than mature α-syn fibrils. These oligomers appear elongated in shape. Our findings suggest that α-syn oligomers represent a continuum of species ranging from unstable low molecular weight particles to mature fibrils via stable elongated oligomers composed of more than 15 α-syn monomers that possess seeding capacity. PMID:27075649

  11. Interactions between Calcium and Alpha-Synuclein in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rcom-H’cheo-Gauthier, Alex; Goodwin, Jacob; Pountney, Dean L.

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease and some atypical Parkinson’s syndromes, aggregation of the α-synuclein protein (α-syn) has been linked to neurodegeneration. Many triggers for pathological α-syn aggregation have been identified, including port-translational modifications, oxidative stress and raised metal ions, such as Ca2+. Recently, it has been found using cell culture models that transient increases of intracellular Ca2+ induce cytoplasmic α-syn aggregates. Ca2+-dependent α-syn aggregation could be blocked by the Ca2+ buffering agent, BAPTA-AM, or by the Ca2+ channel blocker, Trimethadione. Furthermore, a greater proportion of cells positive for aggregates occurred when both raised Ca2+ and oxidative stress were combined, indicating that Ca2+ and oxidative stress cooperatively promote α-syn aggregation. Current on-going work using a unilateral mouse lesion model of Parkinson’s disease shows a greater proportion of calbindin-positive neurons survive the lesion, with intracellular α-syn aggregates almost exclusively occurring in calbindin-negative neurons. These and other recent findings are reviewed in the context of neurodegenerative pathologies and suggest an association between raised Ca2+, α-syn aggregation and neurotoxicity. PMID:25256602

  12. Calcium: Alpha-Synuclein Interactions in Alpha-Synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Alexandre N.; Osborne, Samantha L.; Meedeniya, Adrian C. B.; Pountney, Dean L.

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), is the key etiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other alpha-synucleinopathies, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Various triggers for pathological α-syn aggregation have been elucidated, including post-translational modifications, oxidative stress, and binding of metal ions, such as calcium. Raised neuronal calcium levels in PD may occur due to mitochondrial dysfunction and/or may relate to calcium channel dysregulation or the reduced expression of the neuronal calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k. Recent results on human tissue and a mouse oxidative stress model show that neuronal calbindin-D28k expression excludes α-syn inclusion bodies. Previously, cell culture model studies have shown that transient increases of intracellular free Ca(II), such as by opening of the voltage-gated plasma calcium channels, could induce cytoplasmic aggregates of α-syn. Raised intracellular free calcium and oxidative stress also act cooperatively to promote α-syn aggregation. The association between raised neuronal calcium, α-syn aggregation, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity is reviewed in the context of neurodegenerative α-syn disease and potential mechanism-based therapies. PMID:28066161

  13. Crowding-Induced Structural Alterations of Random-Loop Chromosome Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Soo; Backman, Vadim; Szleifer, Igal

    2011-04-01

    We investigate structural alterations of random-loop polymers due to changes in the crowding condition, as a model to study environmental effects on the structure of chromosome subcompartments. The polymer structure is changed in a nonmonotonic fashion with an increasing density of crowders: condensed at small volume fractions; decondensed at high crowding volume fractions. The nonmonotonic behavior is a manifestation of the nontrivial distance dependence of the depletion interactions. We also show that crowding-induced structural alterations affect the access of binding proteins to the surface of polymer segments and are distinguished from structural changes due to the increased number of specific polymer loops.

  14. Pathogenic Mechanisms Involved in the Hematological Alterations of Arenavirus-induced Hemorrhagic Fevers

    PubMed Central

    Schattner, Mirta; Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Pozner, Roberto G.; Gómez, Ricardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:23337384

  15. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the hematological alterations of arenavirus-induced hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Mirta; Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Pozner, Roberto G; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2013-01-21

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.

  16. DNA damage response induces structural alterations in histone H3–H4

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yudai; Fujii, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Matsuo, Koichi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Yokoya, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation circular-dichroism spectroscopy was used to reveal that the DNA damage response induces a decrement of α-helix and an increment of β-strand contents of histone H3–H4 extracted from X-ray–irradiated human HeLa cells. The trend of the structural alteration was qualitatively opposite to that of our previously reported results for histone H2A–H2B. These results strongly suggest that histones share roles in DNA damage responses, particularly in DNA repair processes and chromatin remodeling, via a specific structural alteration of each histone. PMID:27672100

  17. α-Synuclein as CSF and Blood Biomarker of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kasuga, Kensaku; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Ikeuchi, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common subtype of dementia in the elderly. DLB is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, both of which are composed of α-synuclein. Although α-synuclein was initially considered to be an exclusively intracellular protein, it has been found to be secreted into biological fluids. α-Synuclein in biological fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood has been discussed as a potential biomarker of DLB and α-synuclein-related disorders, because α-synuclein is characteristically accumulated in the brain of patients with these disorders. The α-synuclein level in CSF has been examined by several investigators, and the majority of studies have shown a reduction in CSF α-synuclein level in DLB and α-synuclein-related disorders. Discrepant findings of studies of plasma α-synuclein level in patients with DLB have been reported. Because the level of α-synuclein stored in red blood cells is considerably high, blood contamination and haemolysis during sample collection and processing should be considered as a confounding factor for quantification of α-synuclein. Here, the recent progress in the studies of α-synuclein as a biomarker of DLB and their potential clinical applications are reviewed. PMID:23056991

  18. Synthetic alpha-synuclein fibrils cause mitochondrial impairment and selective dopamine neurodegeneration in part via iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Victor; Hu, Xiaoping; Luk, Kelvin C; Sanders, Laurie H; Lee, Virginia M; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) are hallmarks of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Exogenous addition of preformed α-syn fibrils (PFFs) into primary hippocampal neurons induced α-syn aggregation and accumulation. Likewise, intrastriatal inoculation of PFFs into mice and non-human primates generates Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites associated with PD-like neurodegeneration. Herein, we investigate the putative effects of synthetic human PFFs on cultured rat ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. A time- and dose-dependent accumulation of α-syn was observed following PFFs exposure that also underwent phosphorylation at serine 129. PFFs treatment decreased the expression levels of synaptic proteins, caused alterations in axonal transport-related proteins, and increased H2AX Ser139 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial impairment (including modulation of mitochondrial dynamics-associated protein content), enhanced oxidative stress, and an inflammatory response were also detected in our experimental paradigm. In attempt to unravel a potential molecular mechanism of PFFs neurotoxicity, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was blocked; a significant decline in protein nitration levels and protection against PFFs-induced DA neuron death were observed. Combined exposure to PFFs and rotenone resulted in an additive toxicity. Strikingly, many of the harmful effects found were more prominent in DA rather than non-DA neurons, suggestive of higher susceptibility to degenerate. These findings provide new insights into the role of α-syn in the pathogenesis of PD and could represent a novel and valuable model to study DA-related neurodegeneration.

  19. An Overview on the Role of α -Synuclein in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease from Pathogenesis to Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Javed, Hayate; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating and progressive movement disorder characterized by symptoms of muscles rigidity, tremor, postural instability and slow physical movements. Biochemically, PD is characterized by lack of dopamine production and its action due to loss of dopaminergic neurons and neuropathologically by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of presynaptic neuronal protein, α-synuclein (α-syn). It is believed that alteration in α-syn homeostasis leads to increased accumulation and aggregation of α-syn in Lewy body. Based on the important role of α-syn from pathogenesis to therapeutics, the recent researches are mainly focused on deciphering the critical role of α-syn at advanced level. Being a major protein in Lewy body that has a key role in pathogenesis of PD, several model systems including immortalized cell lines (SH-SY5Y), primary neuronal cultures, yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae), drosophila (fruit flies), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and rodents are being employed to understand the PD pathogenesis and treatment. In order to study the etiopathogensis and develop novel therapeutic target for α -syn aggregation, majority of investigators rely on toxin (rotenone, 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine, 6-hydroxydopamine, paraquat)-induced animal models of PD as a tool for basic research. Whereas, cell and tissue based models are mostly utilized to elucidate the mechanistic and molecular pathways underlying the α -syn induced toxicity and therapeutic approaches in PD. Gene modified mouse models based on α-syn expression are fascinating for modeling familial PD and toxin induced models provide a suitable approach for sporadic PD. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary and a critical review of the involvement of α-syn in various in vitro and in vivo models of PD based on use of neurotoxins as well as genetic modifications.

  20. Altered integrity and decreased expression of hepatocyte tight junctions in rifampicin-induced cholestasis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Zhang Cheng; Wang Hua; Xu Juan; Duan Zihao; Zhang Ying; Yu Tao; Wei Wei; Xu Dexiang Xu Jianming

    2009-10-01

    Rifampicin is a well-known hepatotoxicant, but little is known about the mechanism of rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and localization of hepatocyte tight junctions in rifampicin-induced cholestasis in mice. Cholestasis was induced by administration of rifampicin (200 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days or treatment with a single dose of rifampicin (200 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. The expression of mRNA for hepatic zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, occludin and claudin-1 was determined using RT-PCR. Localization of ZO-1 and occludin was detected using immunofluorescence. Results showed that there was an 82-fold increase in the conjugated bilirubin in serum in rifampicin-treated mice. In addition, an 8-fold increase in total bile acid in serum was observed after a seven-day administration of rifampicin. The integrity of hepatocyte ZO-1 and occludin was altered by a seven-day administration of rifampicin. Importantly, the integrity and intensity of hepatocyte tight junctions were altered as early as 30 min after a single dose of rifampicin. The expression of hepatic ZO-1 and ZO-2 mRNA was significantly decreased, beginning as early as 30 min and remaining a lower level 12 h after a single dose of rifampicin. Taken together, these results suggest that the altered integrity and internalization of hepatocyte tight junctions are associated with rifampicin-induced cholestasis.

  1. Alteration of liver glycopatterns during cirrhosis and tumor progression induced by HBV.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yannan; Zhong, Yaogang; Ma, Tianran; Wu, Fei; Wu, Haoxiang; Yu, Hanjie; Huang, Chen; Li, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced liver cirrhosis. Structural changes in the glycans of serum and tissue proteins are reliable indicators of liver damage. However, little is known about the alteration of liver glycopatterns during cirrhosis and tumor progression induced by HBV infection. This study compared the differential expression of liver glycopatterns in 7 sets of normal pericarcinomatous tissues (PCTs), cirrhotic, and tumor tissues from patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC induced by HBV using lectin microarrays. Fluorescence-based lectin histochemistry and lectin blotting were further utilized to validate and assess the expression and distribution of certain glycans in 9 sets of corresponding liver tissue sections. Eight lectins (e.g., Jacalin and AAL) revealed significant difference in cirrhotic tissues versus PCTs. Eleven lectins (e.g., EEL and SJA) showed significant alteration during cirrhotic and tumor progression. The expression of Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal (EEL) and fucosyltransferase 1 was mainly increasing in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during PCTs-cirrhotic-tumor tissues progression, while the expression of T antigen (ACA and PNA) was decreased sharply in cytoplasm of tumor hepatocytes. Understanding the precision alteration of liver glycopatterns related to the development of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and tumor induced by HBV infection may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of chronic liver diseases and develop new antineoplastic therapeutic strategies.

  2. Alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress alters brain mitochondrial membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Kavitha, Godugu; Saradamma, Bulle; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes numerous biochemical and biophysical changes in the central nervous system, in which mitochondria is the primary organelle affected. In the present study, we hypothesized that alcohol alters the mitochondrial membrane properties and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Alcohol-induced hypoxia further enhances these effects. Administration of alcohol to rats significantly increased the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation with decreased SOD2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased, while nitric oxide (NO) levels and expression of iNOS and nNOS in brain cortex were increased. In addition, alcohol augmented HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression in the brain cortex. Results from this study showed that alcohol administration to rats decreased mitochondrial complex I, III, IV activities, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and cardiolipin content with increased anisotropic value. Cardiolipin regulates numerous enzyme activities, especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. In the present study, decreased cardiolipin could be ascribed to ROS/RNS-induced damage. In conclusion, alcohol-induced ROS/RNS is responsible for the altered mitochondrial membrane properties, and alcohol-induced hypoxia further enhance these alterations, which ultimately leads to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Pioglitazone in adult rats reverses immediate postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory alterations.

    PubMed

    Boullu-Ciocca, S; Tassistro, V; Dutour, A; Grino, M

    2015-12-01

    Immediate postnatal overfeeding in rats, obtained by reducing the litter size, results in early-onset obesity. Such experimental paradigm programs overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased adipose glucocorticoid metabolism [up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)], and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) in adulthood. We studied the effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, treatment on the above-mentioned overfeeding-induced alterations. Nine-month-old rats normofed or overfed during the immediate postnatal period were given pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone stimulated weight gain and induced a redistribution of adipose tissue toward epididymal location with enhanced plasma adiponectin. Treatment normalized postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic alterations (increased fasting insulinemia and free fatty acids) and mesenteric overexpression of GR, 11β-HSD11, CD 68, and proinflammatory cytokines mRNAs, including plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1. Mesenteric GR mRNA levels correlated positively with mesenteric proinflammatory cytokines mRNA concentrations. In vitro incubation of MAT obtained from overfed rats demonstrated that pioglitazone induced a down-regulation of GR gene expression and normalized glucocorticoid-induced stimulation of 11β-HSD1 and plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 mRNAs. Our data show for the first time that the metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory alterations induced by early-onset postnatal obesity can be reversed by pioglitazone at the adulthood. They demonstrate that pioglitazone, in addition to its well-established effect on adipose tissue redistribution and adiponectin secretion, reverses programing-induced adipose GR, 11β-HSD1, and proinflammatory cytokines overexpression, possibly through a GR-dependent mechanism.

  4. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine-induced

  5. Phenobarbital induces alterations in the proteome of hepatocytes and mesenchymal cells of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Klepeisz, Philip; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Pichlbauer, Melanie; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Gerner, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Preceding studies on the mode of action of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGCs) have concentrated on alterations induced in hepatocytes (HCs). A potential role of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) in NGC-driven hepatocarcinogenesis has been largely neglected so far. The aim of this study is to characterize NGC-induced alterations in the proteome profiles of HCs as well as NPCs. We chose the prototypic NGC phenobarbital (PB) which was applied to male rats for a period of 14 days. The livers of PB-treated rats were perfused by collagenase and the cell suspensions obtained were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate HCs from NPCs. In addition, HCs and NPC isolated from untreated animals were treated with PB in vitro. Proteome profiling was done by CHIP-HPLC and ion trap mass spectrometry. Proteome analyses of the in vivo experiments showed many of the PB effects previously described in HCs by other methods, e.g. induction of phase I and phase II drug metabolising enzymes. In NPCs proteins related to inflammation and immune regulation such as PAI-1 and S100-A10, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 and to cell migration such as kinesin-1 heavy chain, myosin regulatory light chain RLC-A and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 were found to be induced, indicating major PB effects on these cells. Remarkably, in vitro treatment of HCs and NPCs with PB hardly reproduced the proteome alterations observed in vivo, indicating differences of NGC induced responses of cells at culture conditions compared to the intact organism. To conclude, the present study clearly demonstrated that PB induces proteome alterations not only in HCs but also in NPCs. Thus, any profound molecular understanding on the mode of action of NGCs has to consider effects on cells of the hepatic mesenchyme.

  6. Phenobarbital Induces Alterations in the Proteome of Hepatocytes and Mesenchymal Cells of Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Klepeisz, Philip; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Pichlbauer, Melanie; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Gerner, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Preceding studies on the mode of action of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGCs) have concentrated on alterations induced in hepatocytes (HCs). A potential role of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) in NGC-driven hepatocarcinogenesis has been largely neglected so far. The aim of this study is to characterize NGC-induced alterations in the proteome profiles of HCs as well as NPCs. We chose the prototypic NGC phenobarbital (PB) which was applied to male rats for a period of 14 days. The livers of PB-treated rats were perfused by collagenase and the cell suspensions obtained were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate HCs from NPCs. In addition, HCs and NPC isolated from untreated animals were treated with PB in vitro. Proteome profiling was done by CHIP-HPLC and ion trap mass spectrometry. Proteome analyses of the in vivo experiments showed many of the PB effects previously described in HCs by other methods, e.g. induction of phase I and phase II drug metabolising enzymes. In NPCs proteins related to inflammation and immune regulation such as PAI-1 and S100-A10, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 and to cell migration such as kinesin-1 heavy chain, myosin regulatory light chain RLC-A and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 were found to be induced, indicating major PB effects on these cells. Remarkably, in vitro treatment of HCs and NPCs with PB hardly reproduced the proteome alterations observed in vivo, indicating differences of NGC induced responses of cells at culture conditions compared to the intact organism. To conclude, the present study clearly demonstrated that PB induces proteome alterations not only in HCs but also in NPCs. Thus, any profound molecular understanding on the mode of action of NGCs has to consider effects on cells of the hepatic mesenchyme. PMID:24204595

  7. Binding of Abeta to alpha- and beta-synucleins: identification of segments in alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor that bind Abeta and NAC.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P H; Hojrup, P; Hager, H; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, L; Olesen, O F; Gliemann, J; Jakes, R

    1997-01-01

    NAC, a 35-residue peptide derived from the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor, is tightly associated with Abeta fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid, and alpha-synuclein has recently been shown to bind Abeta in vitro. We have studied the interaction between Abeta and synucleins, aiming at determining segments in alpha-synuclein that can account for the binding, as well as identifying a possible interaction between Abeta and the beta-type synuclein. We report that Abeta binds to native and recombinant alpha-synuclein, and to beta-synuclein in an SDS-sensitive interaction (IC50 approx. 20 microM), as determined by chemical cross-linking and solid-phase binding assays. alpha-Synuclein and beta-synuclein were found to stimulate Abeta-aggregation in vitro to the same extent. The synucleins also displayed Abeta-inhibitable binding of NAC and they were capable of forming dimers. Using proteolytic fragmentation of alpha-synuclein and cross-linking to 125I-Abeta, we identified two consecutive binding domains (residues 1-56 and 57-97) by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis, and a synthetic peptide comprising residues 32-57 possessed Abeta-binding activity. To test further the possible significance in pathology, alpha-synuclein was biotinylated and shown to bind specifically to amyloid plaques in a brain with Alzheimer's disease. It is proposed that the multiple Abeta-binding sites in alpha-synuclein are involved in the development of amyloid plaques. PMID:9163350

  8. Proteinase K-resistant alpha-synuclein is deposited in presynapses in human Lewy body disease and A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tanji, Kunikazu; Mori, Fumiaki; Mimura, Junsei; Itoh, Ken; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2010-08-01

    Abnormally modified alpha-synuclein is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease and the other alpha-synucleinopathies. Since proteinase K (PK) treatment is known to enhance the immunoreactivity of abnormal alpha-synuclein, we immunohistochemically examined the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human mutant A53T alpha-synuclein using this retrieval method. PK treatment abolished the immunoreactivity of alpha-synuclein in abnormal inclusions as well as of endogenous alpha-synuclein in Tg mice, whereas PK-resistant alpha-synuclein was found in the presynaptic nerve terminals, especially in the hippocampus and temporal cortex. In human Lewy body disease, PK-resistant alpha-synuclein was deposited in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, as well as in the presynapses in distinct brain regions, including the hippocampus, temporal cortex and substantia nigra. Biochemical analysis revealed that PK-resistant alpha-synuclein was detected in the presynaptic fraction in Tg mice and human Lewy body disease. Although PK-resistant alpha-synuclein was found in the presynapse in Tg mice even at 1 w