Michels, Chesney; Goyal, Prem; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; Brombacher, Frank
Infections with pinworms are common in rodent animal facilities. In this study, we show the consequence of an outbreak in a transgenic barrier facility of infection by Syphacia obvelata, a murine pinworm gastrointestinal nematode. Immune responses were defined in experimental infection studies with BALB/c mice. Infection with S. obvelata induced a transient Th2-type immune response with elevated interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 cytokine production and parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). In contrast, BALB/c mice deficient in IL-13, IL-4/13, or the IL-4 receptor alpha chain showed chronic disease, with a >100-fold higher parasite burden, increased gamma interferon production, parasite-specific IgG2b, and a default Th2 response. Interestingly, infected IL-4-/- BALB/c mice showed only slightly elevated parasite burdens compared to the control mice, suggesting that IL-13 plays the dominant role in the control of S. obvelata. The influence that pinworm infection has on the allergic response to a dietary antigen was found to be important. Helminth-infected mice immunized against ovalbumin (Ova) elicited more severe anaphylactic shock with reduced Ova-specific IL-4 and IL-5 than did noninfected controls, demonstrating that S. obvelata infection is able to influence nonrelated laboratory experiments. The latter outcome highlights the importance of maintaining mice for use as experimental models under pinworm-free conditions.
Parel, Joan Dee C; Galula, Jedhan U; Ooi, Hong-Kean
To differentiate the morphologically similar pinworms of the common laboratory rodents, such as Syphacia obvelata and Syphacia muris, we amplified and sequenced the region spanning the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S gene, and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA followed by designing of species-specific primers for future use in the identification of the worms. It was observed that S. obvelata, S. muris and Aspiculuris tetraptera can be differentiated from each other based on their rDNA sequences. This is the first report of the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 of the rDNA of the three aforementioned rodent pinworm species. The use of restriction endonucleases, AluI or RsaI, further allowed the delineation of the three species. Moreover, we also constructed species-specific primers that were designed for unique regions of the ITS-2 of the three species. This approach allowed their specific identification with no amplicons being amplified from heterogenous DNA samples, and sequencing confirmed the identity of the sequences amplified. Thus, the use of these specific primers along with PCR-RFLP can serve as useful tools for the identification of pinworms in rats, mice, and wild rodents.
Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.
Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.
Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in
Feldman, Sanford H; Bowman, Susan G
Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata). They determined DNA sequences for these complexes and carried out phylogenetic analysis. Using this information, the authors developed real-time molecular beacon assays for pinworm detection, comparing the new diagnostic approach with traditional methods such as perianal tape testing, fecal flotation and direct examination of intestinal content.
Gogoi, Shyamalima; Yadav, Arun K.
Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S. obvelata (Nematoda) and H. diminuta (Cestoda) in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram of feces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of the extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5 ± 0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57 ± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% worm load reduction of H. diminuta in rats. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of C. bonducella against these parasites. PMID:27757275
... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pinworms KidsHealth > For Kids > Pinworms A A A What's ... to stay worm-free, read on! What Are Pinworms? Pinworms are a type of little worm that ...
Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines. ... Pinworms are the most common worm infection in the United States. They are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to ...
Pinworms are small parasites that can live in the colon and rectum. You get them when you swallow their eggs. The eggs hatch inside your intestines. While you sleep, the female pinworms leave the intestines through the anus and lay eggs on nearby skin. Pinworms ...
DEWI, Kartika; HASEGAWA, Hideo; FITRIANA, Yuli Sulistya; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko
The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434
... length. While the infected person sleeps, female pinworms lay thousands of eggs in the folds of skin ... Female pinworms move to the anal area to lay their eggs, which often results in anal itching. ...
... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...
... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...
... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...
Effler, J Camille; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Erwin, Julie G; Cartner, Samuel C; Schoeb, Trenton R
Though pinworm infestation remains common in laboratory rodent colonies, there is little information regarding current practices for pinworm detection and their relative efficacy. The authors surveyed research institutions to find out the prevalence of pinworm infestations and the detection methods they used. They also tested mice and rats from colonies that were known to be infested with Syphacia sp. and compared the following detection methods: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, fecal concentration, cecal content examination, cecal flotation and histological examination. Though the different methods yielded comparable efficacy overall, the authors recommend using more than one type of test to increase detection potential.
... the area around the rectum. There, they will lay new pinworm eggs, which trigger itching around the ... move to the area around the rectum to lay their eggs. In girls, pinworm infection can spread ...
Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.
Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091
Huerkamp, Michael J; Benjamin, Kimberly A; Webb, Sonji K; Pullium, Jennifer K
The pinworm Syphacia muris was eradicated from rats after treatment with fenbendazole-medicated chow (150 ppm) and without environmental decontamination for > 54 months. However, this regimen was successful only when the treatment was delivered and efficacy monitoring was done by personnel of the institutional animal resources program. The same pinworm elimination program failed 7 to 24 months after the cessation of treatment in a satellite colony in which animal care, including provision of medicated diet and sample collection for efficacy monitoring, was provided by research personnel. A failure to uniformly deliver adequate therapeutic doses or reinoculation of rats with pinworm eggs from the contaminated environment could not be excluded as causes of the failure. However, there were risk factors, and animal care practices unique to the satellite colony that may have facilitated the re-emergence of pinworms. These risk factors included hand-washing of cages, storage of contact bedding in areas that were not vermin-proof, and animal care provided by personnel having contact with rodents of pet-store origin.
Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R
The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group.
A case of enterobiasis in pregnancy that presented as copious nocturnal vaginal discharge is reported. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite infecting humans. Transmission can be fecal-oral or via fomites, and recently arrived immigrants from developing countries and individuals who live in households with young children are particularly at risk. Pinworms are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract but can also enter the vagina and bladder. Patients typically present with nocturnal anal itching, and diagnosis can be made by clinical history. Treatment includes an antihelminthic agent for the patient and members of the household as well as home hygiene measures to prevent transmission.
Plachý, V; Litvinec, A; Langrová, I; Horáková, B; Sloup, V; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Čadková, Z; Borkovcová, M
This study was carried out to investigate how pinworm infection in rats affects nutrient digestibility in the hosts. Twenty-four male outbred Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of 12 rats each. The rats from the first group (GI) were kept in cages with bedding containing pinworm eggs, and the second (control) group (GII) were kept in a separate room in clean, uncontaminated filter-top cages. The animals were put into individual metabolic cages later. Metabolic trials lasted five days and records of animal weight, food ingestion, and faecal weight were taken daily. Based on laboratory analysis of the feed and faecal nutrient content, digestibility values were determined. On day 15 of the experiment, the animals were euthanized. Although Syphacia muris were found in all rats from the GI group, animals exhibited no clinical signs. In our experiment, S. muris infection reduced the overall digestibility of all measured nutrients (P < 0.01). The most significant differences in digestibility were observed in the case of crude fibre and mineral matter (P < 0.01).
Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R
The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.
Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I; Lachout, J; Vadlejch, J
Pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida) are common contaminants in most laboratory rodent colonies. The aim of the study was to monitor the transmission of Syphacia muris eggs in laboratory rat breeding facilities. Dust in a breeding room was investigated using special grids (free fallout, or through the help suction chamber). Furthermore, the ventilation system, breeding cages and the hands of the laboratory technical staff were examined. In the case of free fallout, the percentage of positive grids increased slightly over time: from 5.5% (after 24 h) to 8.2% (72 h). Similar values were also found when using the suction chamber (7.6%). Many more pinworm eggs were found in samples collected every second month from suction holes of the ventilation system (28.7%). One-half of the samples taken from the breeding cages (before washing) exhibited pinworm eggs (50.8%). Examination of the hands of technical staff showed positive detection in 37.9% of cases. In this study, certain transmission factors (dust, unclean cages and technicians) were proved to be significant in the distribution of pinworm infection in laboratory rodent facilities.
Ignatova, Simone; Ekstedt, Mattias
We here report a case of a young man who presented to his general practitioner with diarrhea. Inflammatory bowel disease was suspected and a colonoscopy showed aphthous lesions suggestive of Crohns' disease but biopsies revealed eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. When treated for this parasite, his symptoms were alleviated and a followup colonoscopy revealed a normal colon and distal ileum. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite worldwide and has been attributed with many different presentations and pathologies. It is therefore necessary to maintain vigilance, even in high-income countries, in order to diagnose patients with one of the many atypical presentations of pinworms. PMID:23555063
Samkari, Ayman; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Wilson, Kathy; Weiner, Leonard B; Domachowske, Joseph B
Pinworm infection is a very common diagnosis in young children that is not always confirmed through laboratory evaluation before empiric therapy is prescribed. This article describes a toddler who was treated several times for pinworms because small white worms were seen in her perianal area. Laboratory analysis of parasite material found in her diaper later confirmed a diagnosis of dipylidiasis. Because the signs of dipylidiasis and pinworm infection overlap and the treatments for these parasitic infections are different, the laboratory should clinically confirm suspected persistent or recurrent pinworms.
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...
Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa
Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini.
Pethleart, Aree; Saichua, Prasert; Rhongbutsri, Pochong; Leelawongtawon, Ratree; Aree, Kalaya; Tiengtip, Rattana; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Nateeworanart, Saengchai; Taylor, W R J
We studied the prevalence and risk factors for pinworm infection in children attending the kindergarten of Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand, using the Scotch-tape technique. Slides were examined by a standard light microscope; 20% of negative slides were reexamined for quality control. Symptoms and risk factor data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Three hundred thirty children age 3 to 6 years old were sampled (males=159). Sixty-five (19.7%) had symptoms consistent with pinworm infection. No pinworm eggs were detected. Most parents (73%) had a good socioeconomic status and 64% were university graduates. Pinworm infection may be uncommon in urban Thailand.
Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming
In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong.
Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi
The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms.
Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Sianto, Luciana; Chame, Marcia; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto
We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas.
Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.
Keen, Richard; Macinnis, Mika; Guilhardi, Paulo; Chamberland, Karen; Church, Russell
Pinworm infection in rodent laboratories is common and often treated with fenbendazole, which is effective and has a low toxicity level. However, very little is known about the behavioral effects of the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of fenbendazole on rats tested by using various conditioning and timing procedures. These behavioral effects were examined both between animals (i.e., control versus medicated treatments) and within animals (baseline-treatment-baseline design). Fenbendazole reduced the detection of pinworm eggs, and it had no significant behavioral effects across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., from overall response rates to response patterns to interresponse intervals). All behavioral differences (e.g., discrimination ratios) were a result of task variables. These results suggest that behavioral studies are unlikely to be influenced by fenbendazole treatment given before or during a study.
Dufour, Benjamin; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lepetz, Sébastien; Le Bailly, Matthieu
This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods. The role of European migrations from 1492 (Christopher Columbus) is discussed to explain the transfer of the horse pinworm from the Old World to the Americas. The absence of any record of this parasite before ca. 2500 ybp in Eurasia could be explained by parasite ecology, unfavorable sampling and scarcity of horse archeological remains. For the Americas, the absence of horse for long periods can be an additional explanation for the absence of the parasite.
Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...
Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D
Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980
Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L
Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification.
Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D
Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.
Felt, S A; White, C E
The purpose of this project was to determine if the detection of pinworm infections in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae) could be improved by performing perianal tape testing at specific times of the day and/or by performing repeated sampling. Eight Aotus known to be infected with pinworms were sampled at four selected time points (06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hours) over the course of a 3-week period. Samples were examined microscopically and oxyurid eggs were quantified. Results revealed no significant differences in time points, but did indicate that repeated sampling significantly improved pinworm egg detection. Results also determined that Aotus housed with an infected cage mate are at an approximately 14-times greater risk of being infected than animals housed without an infected cage mate. Lastly, results indicated no significant difference between peripheral eosinophil and basophil numbers from infected and clean animals.
Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L; Morand, S
Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam.nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton & Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin & Tenora 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud & Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo & Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis & Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachyteles arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter & Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to
Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E
Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive
Phylogenetic relationships between pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising the critically endangered orang-utan, according to the characterisation of molecular genomic and mitochondrial markers.
Foitová, Ivona; Civáňová, Kristína; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu
Pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) include 52 species parasitising primates throughout the world. In the present study, we performed the first ever molecular analysis to investigate the phylogenetic position of recently described pinworms parasitising the Sumatran orang-utan. The phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial CO1 and chromosomal 18S rDNA and ITS1 regions could support the independent status of several Nematoda species. Our molecular data clearly suggest that Enterobius (Colobenterobius) buckleyi and Lemuricola (Protenterobius) pongoi together with Pongobius hugoti form separate clades among other studied species, which significantly supports the hypothesis of recently described new species parasitising the orang-utan (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus). The phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene variability showed possible close relationships between L. (Protenterobius) pongoi and P. hugoti; thus, we can assume that these species could have initially diverged in sympatry from a common ancestor.
Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Two new species of Trypanoxyuris are described from the intestine of free-ranging howler monkeys in Mexico, Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus n. sp. from the mantled howler Alouatta palliata, and Trypanoxyuris pigrae n. sp. from the black howler Alouatta pigra. An integrative taxonomic approach is followed, where conspicuous morphological traits and phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences are used to test the validity of the two new species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S rRNA genes were used for evolutionary analyses, with the concatenated dataset of all three genes used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The two new species of pinworms from howler monkeys were morphologically distinct and formed reciprocally monophyletic lineages in molecular phylogenetic trees. The three species from howler monkeys, T. multilabiatus n. sp., T. pigrae n. sp., and Trypanoxyuris minutus, formed a monophyletic group with high bootstrap and posterior probability support values. Phylogenetic patterns inferred from sequence data support the hypothesis of a close evolutionary association between these primate hosts and their pinworm parasites. The results suggest that the diversity of pinworm parasites from Neotropical primates might be underestimated.
Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth
The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.
Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth
The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... hand washing and routine household cleaning (including frequent changing of underwear, and washing everyone's pajamas and bed ...
Tomobe, Koji; Fujii, Hajime; Sun, Buxiang; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Aruoma, Okezie I
Oligonol is produced from the oligomerization of polyphenols (typically proanthocyanidin from a variety of fruits such as lychees, grapes, apples, persimmons, etc.) and contains catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins. The ability of Oligonol to affect infection-dependent eye inflammation, locomotion and longevity in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) (a model of senescence acceleration and geriatric disorders with increased oxidative stress and neuronal deficit) was investigated. Oligonol (60mg/kg) significantly modulated the extent of inflammation scores in the eye of SAMP8 mice. Examination of the mice indicated infection with mouse hepatitis virus and pinworm (Syphacia obvelata) in both males and females and with the intestinal protozoa (trichomonad) in males. A comparison of the two groups (using log-rank test) and the difference in the mean life span between groups (using Student's t-test) indicated significant differences in survival (p=0.043) and the mean life span (p=0.033) in male SAMP8 mice. Oligonol increased the mean life span and this was statistically significant. In the open-field locomotive test, the 7-week-old SAMP8 mice crossed more than 40 partitioned lines in 1min. At 48-week-old control untreated male SAMP8 crossed 2 lines. The Oligonol-treated 48-week-old male SAMP8 mice crossed 17 lines however. The improved locomotive activity was statistically significant even after 36weeks in the Oligonol-treated male SAMP8 but this was not the case throughout the time course of the study in the Oligonol-treated female SAMP8. Thus Oligonol treatment to SAMP8 mice modulated the severity of infection-dependent inflammation, prolonged life-span and significantly improved locomotive activity indicating potential benefit to aging-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. This presents potential for further research to define infection-dependent inflammation associated with degenerative conditions and the
Jex, A R; Schneider, M A; Rose, H A; Cribb, T H
We report 21 thelastomatoid species parasitizing 31 described and 5 undescribed geoscapheine and panesthiine cockroaches, representing all but 1 of the known species of these subfamilies in Australia. The nematodes have 3 distinct patterns of host distribution: dominant, moderate and rare. The 4 dominant species, Cordonicola gibsoni, Leidynemella fusiformis, Travassosinema jaidenae and Aoruroides queenslandensis, are highly prevalent, found in nearly all host species examined, and broadly distributed. The 8 moderate species have lower prevalences but are still widely distributed. Many of these species are more common in one host subfamily than the other. The remaining 9 rare species have highly restricted host and geographical distributions. Six of the 21 species are exclusive to geoscapheines, 5 to panesthiines and 10 are shared. These patterns suggest that most of the reported thelastomatoid species are generalists rather than specialists, that host-specificity within this group is low and that co-evolutionary speciation has had little, if any, impact on structuring the thelastomatoid fauna of Australian burrowing cockroaches. In a broader context, this study provides the first comprehensive examination of the role of coevolutionary speciation and host specificity in regulating the distribution of pinworms in arthropods.
de Amorin, A; Borba, H R; Carauta, J P; Lopes, D; Kaplan, M A
The latex of some species of Ficus (Moraceae) has been traditionally used as vermifuge in Central and South America. It has been accepted that anthelmintic activity is due to a proteolytic fraction called ficin. In the present study, the anthelmintic activity of the latex of Ficus insipida Willd. and Ficus carica L. has been investigated in NIH mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Vampirolepis nana. The latex of F. insipida, administered by intragastric route in doses of 4 ml/kg/day during three consecutive days, were effective in the removal of 38.6% of the total number of S. obvelata, being inexpressive in the removal of A. tetraptera (8.4%) and segments of V. nana (6.3%). The latex of F. carica, administered in doses of 3 ml/kg/day, during three consecutive days, was effective in the removal of S. obvelata (41.7%) and it did not produce significant elimination of A. tetraptera (2.6%) and V. nana (8.3%). The observed high acute toxicity with hemorrhagic enteritis, in addition to a weak anthelmintic efficacy, do not recommend the use of these lattices in traditional medicine.
Roberts, KJ; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R
Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur. PMID:22943320
Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman
This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%).
Wiese, Elena; Maurer, Simone; Steige, Gisela; Saaler-Reinhardt, Sigrid; Lecher, Bernd; Ott, Sibylle; Reifenberg, Kurt
In 2000, the authors found endemic infections of mouse hepatitis virus, minute virus of mice, Syphacia obvelata, and Myobia musculi among mice in a large barrier facility at the University of Mainz. To eliminate the infections, they subdivided the facility into two distinct hygiene units. However, architectural constraints made it impossible to completely separate the HVAC systems of both hygiene units and to establish adequate personnel locks. To compensate for these suboptimal barrier conditions of the two newly established units, the authors replaced the open-top caging and open-servicing system with filter-top cages that were manipulated in cage-changing stations. The authors then depopulated the two units in series, independently eliminating the contaminated mice and restocking the units with SPF animals. In spite of the high infection pressure and the suboptimal barrier conditions, the authors had only a single case of recontamination.
Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D
Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening. PMID:26632784
Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali
Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health. PMID:25653780
Hajipour, Nasser; Imani Baran, Aabbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Banan Khojasteh, Seyed Mehdi; Sheikhzade Hesari, Farzam; Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Arjmand, Jafar
Gastrointestinal parasites are among the most common parasitic infections found in stray cats, which might act potential helminthic parasites to domestic cats. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray cats in the city of Azarshahr, which is located in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 necropsied stray cats, trapped and collected from different geographic regions of Azarshahr. From a total 50 stray cats examined, 15 (30 %) were female and 35 (70 %) were male. Overall 47 cats (94 %) were identified as infected with at least one of the endoparasites. The prevalence of parasites found were: Taenia taeniaeformis (60 %), Dipylidium caninum (58 %), Taenia hydatigera (24 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (78 %), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (14 %), Toxascaris leonina (30 %), Toxocara cati (78 %), Physaloptera praeputialis (10 %), and Syphacia obvelata (10 %). Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in AzarShahr region. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be taken and preventive methods should be applied.
Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R
Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.
Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.
Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1α. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1α agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes. PMID:25003333
Patsantara, G G; Piperaki, E-T; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Kanariou, M G
Previous studies have suggested an immunomodulatory and even protective role for Enterobius vermicularis, the least pathogenic human intestinal helminth. Here, in a study using haematological and serological parameters, we tested a total of 215 children from central Greece, with a mean age of 8.39, of whom 105 (48.84%) were infected with E. vermicularis and 110 (51.16%) were matched healthy controls. In particular, we analysed eosinophil counts (EO), serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total and specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the ECP/EO ratio. The atopic status and the potential occurrence of clinically expressed allergic diseases were both taken into account. Eosinophils, ECP and IgE were found to be higher in infected than in uninfected children, indicating a type-2 immune response activation during infection. Atopic infected children exhibited higher IgE levels compared to non-atopic ones. EO and ECP were found to be lower in atopic children who had a history of allergic disease than in those with no such history. The type-2 oriented immune response elicited against E. vermicularis could contribute to a balanced activation of the immune system in the examined children. Interestingly, although the atopic children showed a stronger activation, they did not exhibit any symptoms and, moreover, there seemed to be some indication of immunosuppression in those children with a positive history of allergic disease.
Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B
In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface.
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... an antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is ... repeated after 2 weeks for pinworm infections. For hookworm infections, pyrantel usually is taken once a day ...
... of the product contains a consumer package insert which includes the following information: (a) A... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in...
... of the product contains a consumer package insert which includes the following information: (a) A... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in...
... of the product contains a consumer package insert which includes the following information: (a) A... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in...
Trichinosis Ascariasis Giardiasis Tapeworm Hookworm Pinworm 255 Migraine All Cases 256 Hemorrhoidal Disease All Cases 258 Severe Hypertension 259...Diarrheal Disease Severe 1 253 Helminthic Disease Including Trichinosis Ascariasis Giardiasis Tapeworm Hookworm Pinworm 1 258 Severe Hypertension 1 275
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Shimalov, V V
The result of helminthological examination of 5 red squirrels in Belorussian Polesie during 2003-2012 is presented. Two species of helminths were found: Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803) larvae and Syphacia thompsoni Price, 1928. The red squirrel for the first time established as host of cestode T. martis. The nematode S. thompsoni registered as Syphacia sp. in this region between 1985 and 2000.
Horne, P D
The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.
Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri
The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of
Chernyshenko, A I; Pliushcheva, G L; Romanenko, N A; Rodilina, V D; Leksikova, L V
The use of an improved complex of sanitary and health-promoting measures for children from 2 schools revealed that their infestation with pinworms among first-eleventh-form pupils from a boarding school was 42.6%, the above measures covering simultaneously them all with their subsequent repetition every 6 months allowed all the children to be free from pinworms. At school 8, the random use of these measures could reduce pinworm infestation to 4% of the children covered with health-promoting measures.
Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment.
Schou-Jensen, Katrine; Antipina, Elena Nikolaevna; Brisling, Steffen Kirstein; Azawi, Nessn
A nine-year-old girl was admitted to the paediatric ward due to fever and lower abdomen pain through a day. Acute laparoscopic exploration showed a large necrotic perforation at the distal end of the appendix. During the appendectomy multiple small, live Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) were observed. The patient was admitted for three days of observation and received relevant treatment with intravenous antibiotics and antihelminthic treatment. The histology showed numerous pinworms in the lumen of the appendix and invasion of the pinworms of the submucosal layer and the wall of the appendix.
... or wool) Dry skin Hives Insect bites and stings Parasites such as pinworm , body lice , head lice , ... the skin will help you identify any bites, stings, rashes, dry skin, or irritation. Have the itching ...
... is used to treat pinworm, whipworm, roundworm, and hookworm infections. Mebendazole is in a class of medications ... Emverm) is used to treat whipworm, roundworm, and hookworm it is usually taken twice a day, in ...
... edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do not... age, or mares in the last month of pregnancy. Trichlorfon is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do...
Chen, Jian; Chen, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ming-Zhai; Chen, Hua-Fang; Lin, Min-Zhen; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guo, Zhi-Nan
The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes was 6.37% in Xiamen City, 2008, and among which the infection rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and pinworm were 5.97%, 0.29%, 0.09% and 20.13%, respectively. The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes outside the island and that of pinworm in children were still high.
Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Kurt, Ozgür; Kilimcioğlu, Ali A; Ok, Ulgen Z
The role of Enterobius vermicularis in the transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis has been evaluated in two groups of patients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of Celal Bayar University: one group with E. vermicularis infection (n=187, Pinworm Group), and the other with D. fragilis infection (n=126, Dientamoeba Group). The presence of the other parasite, pinworm or Dientamoeba, was investigated with the microscopic examination of cellophane tape and stool samples for three consecutive days. In the Pinworm Group, 9.6% of the patients were found to be coinfected with D. fragilis, while 25.4% of the patients in the Dientamoeba Group were found to be coinfected with pinworms. The coincidence rates of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis, higher than the prevalence of each parasite in similar populations, suggest a common relation between these two parasites, possibly in entering the human body. E. vermicularis infection was found to be significantly more common in younger children (p<0.001), indicating that younger children may also be at higher risk for D. fragilis infection. These findings also raise the question of whether the unrelated symptoms of the pinworm infected patients such as abdominal pain and diarrhea may actually be due to overlooked Dientamoeba infections.
Weinstock, Joel V.
Summary Childhood infections with some helminths have been reported to reduce the risk of acquiring some immune-mediated diseases like sensitization to allergens, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Denmark keeps a medical registry that collects data on disease prevalence and medication use throughout the country. Mebendazole frequently is used to treat pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection. In this population-based analysis of a cohort of 924,749 children, prescriptions for Mebendazole were used as a surrogate marker for pinworm infection. Children who received this medication were compared to children who did not, for the frequency of asthma, type I diabetes, juvenile arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. It was found that Mebendazole use, and by inference pinworm infection, did not appear to reduce the risk for acquiring any of these immune-mediated diseases. PMID:23429450
Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun
To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851
Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun
To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea.
Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina
Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further
Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A
In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated.
Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G
The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient.
Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A
Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.
Smales, L R
Helminths, 3 cestode and 8 nematode species, including 2 new genera, 5 new species, and 1 putative new species, of nematode were collected from the digestive tracts of 23 Lorentzimys nouhuysi (Murinae; Hydromyini) from Papua New Guinea. Odilia wauensis n. sp. (Heligmonellidae) most closely resembles Odilia mallomyos Hasegawa and Syafruddin, 1994, but differs from this species in the detail of the synlophe ridges, the length and tip shape of the spicules, the absence of a gubernaculum, and the size of the eggs. Papuastrongylus kishinamiae n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Herpetostrongylidae in the form of the synlophe and spicules, the lack of a gubernaculum, and in being monodelphic. Syphacia lorentzimyos n. sp. and Syphacia mamelonitenuis n. sp. (Oxyuridae) differ from all other species in having a circular cephalic plate and from each other in that S. mamelonitenuis lacks lateral alae. Lorentzicola woolleyae n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Oxyuridae (Syphaciini) in having the peribuccal wall with denticles, a simple esophagus, and males with 3 mamelons of the Syphacia type. The helminth assemblage of L. nouhuysi did not resemble that of any other hydromyin rodent from the region studied thus far.
Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Morrow, Johnica J
Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence of 5.3%. Detailed analyses of these data defined several trends. First, preagricultural sites less frequently show evidence of infection compared to agricultural populations. This is especially clear in the data from North America, but is also evident in the data from South America. Second, there is an apparent relationship between the commonality of pinworms in coprolites and the manner of constructing villages. These analyses show that ancient parasitism has substantial value in documenting the range of human behaviors that influence parasitic infections.
Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Dajil, Saleh
We report a 20-year-old man who presented with abdominal discomfort for 2 months. Colonoscopy showed skip areas with ulceration, resembling Crohn's disease. Biopsies showed chronic inflammation and a non-necrotizing granuloma. An adult pinworm was found in the lumen from an uninvolved segment. The patient responded to mebendazole.
Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.
... roundworms (Parascaris). (ii) It is administered as a single dose at 0.57 gram of pyrantel tartrate per 100... be slaughtered for food purposes. (2) Swine: (i) For the removal and control of large roundworms...., Triodontophorus), pinworms (Oxyuris), and large roundworms (Parascaris). (ii) It is administered as a single...
Bower, Wilma; And Others
Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…
Reinhard, Karl J.; Araújo, Adauto; Morrow, Johnica J.
Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence of 5.3%. Detailed analyses of these data defined several trends. First, preagricultural sites less frequently show evidence of infection compared to agricultural populations. This is especially clear in the data from North America, but is also evident in the data from South America. Second, there is an apparent relationship between the commonality of pinworms in coprolites and the manner of constructing villages. These analyses show that ancient parasitism has substantial value in documenting the range of human behaviors that influence parasitic infections. PMID:27853116
Sleator, Esther K.
Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…
Ito, Megumi; Itagaki, Tadashi
Wild rodents (58 Apodemus speciosus, 29 A. argenteus and 7 Microtus montebelli) were surveyed for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, from October to December 1995 and from April to October 1996. Two trematodes (Echinostoma macrorchis, Plagiorchis muris), 4 or more cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Raillietina coreensis, Cladothyridium spp., Cysticercus fasciolaris), 12 nematodes (Carolinensis minutus, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides kurilensis, H. protobullosus, H. speciosus, Heterakis spumosa, Rhabditis (Pelodera) orbitalis, Rictularia cristata, Syphacia emileromani, S. frederici, S. montana, Trichuris sp.) and 3 protozoans (Giardia sp., Trichomonas sp., Trypanosoma sp.) were identified. The two species of Apodemus were similar to each other, but they were extremely different from M. montebelli in parasite fauna.
Fan, P C
From 1995 to 1997, we carried out extensive surveys of Enterobius vermicularis infection among school children in Taiwan and offshore islands. Among 6,315 children at 80 schools in 21 towns and districts of 8 counties tested, an overall infection rate was 11%. The pre-school children had the highest rate of 14%. These findings indicate that pinworm infection remains highly prevalent in Taiwan and offshore islands. Moreover, in this paper, the results from the studies conducted by parasitologists of Taiwan in the past 43 (1955-1997) years were reviewed. This information included epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy, and control methods, may provide some useful suggestions on the prevention of pinworm infection specialists and agencies concerned with the control of this disease.
Allen, Luke Nelson; Tsai, Alice Yi-Chien
A teenage girl was admitted to the paediatric assessment unit with non-specific abdominal pain that gradually localised to the right iliac fossa (RIF). She remained systemically well; investigations including blood tests, urine sample and abdominal ultrasound were inconclusive. Surgical opinion was sought and the decision was made to perform a diagnostic laparoscopy due to the ongoing pain. Laparoscopy showed no evidence of any significant pathology, and appendicectomy was performed following the routine practice. Numerous pinworms came out while the appendix was resected. The RIF pain resolved and the patient made a full post-operative recovery. A stat dose of mebendazole and amoxicillin were given and the immediate family was also treated. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) causes significant morbidity worldwide and has a high prevalence among children in the UK. It can be easily treated and prompt recognition based on clinical symptoms can potentially prevent unnecessary surgery.
Conga, D F; Giese, E G; Serra-Freire, N M; Bowler, M; Mayor, P
Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas, 1928) (Primates: Pitheciidae), a subspecies endemic to the Peruvian Amazon, occurs in patchy and sometimes isolated populations in north-eastern Peru and is in a vulnerable situation, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. This rareness and remote distribution means that, until now, parasitical studies have been limited. Based on optical and scanning electron microscopy of specimens of both sexes, we report two new species of Trypanoxyuris pinworms occurring in the large intestine of the Peruvian red uakari, namely Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) cacajao and Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) ucayalii. Both species showed a distinct morphology of the lips and cephalic structure. Sexual dimorphism in the lateral alae was observed in both male and the female worms, with ventral ornamentation being shown in the oesophageal teeth. The finding of these new pinworm species highlights the possibility of discovering other species.
Ondič, Ondrej; Neubauer, Ludvík; Sosna, Bohuslav
Extraintestinal oxyuriasis, in our experience with three affected women of fertile age, presented itself as a solitary fibrotic nodular lesion, with a varying location. The sites of location were: parietal peritoneum, serous surface of the uterus and wall of the uterine tube. The size of the nodules was 5 to 10 mm. Histologically, the lesions were hypocellular fibrotic nodules with a variable amount of neutrophils and amorphous eosinophilic material in the center, harbouring eggs of the parasite and remnants of pinworm cuticle. All three lesions were asymptomatic, only being discovered incidentally during the operations for unrelated conditions. Their peroperative recovery by a surgeon did not alter the course of surgery. These findings document the ability of pinworms to migrate into the abdominal cavity via the female genital tract.
Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla
The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications.
Hugot, J P; Reinhard, K J; Gardner, S L; Morand, S
The co-evolutionary pathway seems to be the most plausible hypothesis for the explanation of the origin of human pinworms. Of the two modes of transmission of oxyurids among humans which have been documented, the direct oral/anal route is also observed in other Primates and seems to have been favoured by selection. As indirect air-borne transmission has also been shown for human enterobiasis, the question of "How this alternative to the standard transmission method could have arisen" is examined. The results of comparative studies of prevalence of Enterobius in human coprolites, in villages of Neolithic age of the arid west of North America, show that a higher prevalence of pinworms is correlated with the lower total amount of air-exchange in caves relative to other structures. The air-borne route of transmission of pinworms among humans is interpreted as an innovation in the human/Enterobius pair. This mode of transfer could have been favoured during the time when humans changed their behaviour from a hunting-gathering to a more sedentary existence, initially associated with cave habitats.
Parasites found from the feces of Bornean orangutans in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, with a redescription of Pongobius hugoti and the description of a new species of Pongobius (Nematoda: Oxyuridae).
Kuze, Noko; Kanamori, Tomoko; Malim, Titol Peter; Bernard, Henry; Zamma, Koichiro; Kooriyama, Takanori; Morimoto, Azusa; Hasegawa, Hideo
In order to obtain basic data on parasitic infections of Bornean orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus morio (Owen, 1837), in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, fecal examinations were conducted. Based on a total of 73 fecal samples from 25 individuals, cysts of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba spp., and Chilomastix mesnili, cysts and trophozoites of Balantidium coli, and eggs of Trichuris sp. or spp., unknown strongylid(s), Strongyloides fuelleborni, and an unknown oxyurid, plus a rhabditoid larva of Strongyloides sp., were found. Mature and immature worms of Pongobius hugoti Baruš et al., 2007 and Pongobius foitovae n. sp. (Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) were recovered from fecal debris and described. Pongobius foitovae is readily distinguished from P. hugoti by having a much longer esophageal corpus, a longer and distally hooked spicule in males, and a more posteriorly positioned vulva in female. Presence of plural species of non- Enterobius pinworms is a remarkable feature of the orangutan-pinworm relationship, which may reflect speciation process of the orangutans, host switching, and coevolution by pinworms.
Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew
Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462
Soliman, Maha F M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Zalat, Samy M
The objective of this work was to study gastrointestinal nematode community infecting Acomys dimidiatus in different wadis of St. Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Fieldwork was conducted in three Wadis over a 4 weeks period during April-May, 2003 in St. Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Faecal samples from 47 spiny mice were analysed for gastrointestinal nematode community. The nematodes community consisted of four genera Dentostomella spp., Syphacia spp., Aspicularis spp. and Spirurids species. The overall prevalence of infection was 55.3 %. A significant difference in prevalence was found per wadis. Wadi Toffaha showed the highest diversity when compared to other Wadis. Mean species richness was higher in Wadi Tlah (0.87) when compared to other Wadis. Syphacia spp. was frequently found coexisting with other nematodes. A significant interaction was found between both site and co-infection for Aspicularis spp. The spatial stability of nematode community was discussed compared to other related studies. In terms of similarity, the nematode community from Wadi Toffaha was closest to Wadi Tlah. In conclusion, this study showed that there is spatial variation in the distribution of nematode community. Possible factors affecting the stability of parasite community were discussed and further studies are needed.
Pisanu, Benoît; Lebailleux, Lise; Chapuis, Jean-Louis
A lack of newly acquired species partly explains why introduced host species have poor specific parasite diversity. The intestinal helminth community from two native Murid host species, wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus [Murinae] (n=40), bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus [Arvicolinae] (n=42), and an introduced Sciurid, the Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus (n=42), dominant in the rodent communities, was studied from three woody areas in the Ile-de-France region. Native gastrointestinal helminth fauna from mice and voles was formed by 12 taxa: ten nematodes, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Aonchotheca annulosa, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides glareoli, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Mastophorus muris, Syphacia frederici, Syphacia stroma, Trichuris muris, a Cestode and a Trematode. Two helminth taxa were imported by chipmunks from eastern Asia: Brevistriata skrjabini and Strongyloides callosciureus. Only A. annulosa was transferred to chipmunks from the native small rodent community. None of the 82 native murids harbored chipmunk helminths. The developmental ability of helminth according to host phylogenetic relatedness was the main driving force explaining the species composition of the helminth community between these sympatric native and introduced hosts.
Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna
Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin.
Warren, Ralph E.
Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807
Iturbe-Morgado, José Carlos; Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Lira-Guerrero, Georgina; Fernández, Jesús A; Acosta, Roxana
As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the helminth parasites of rodents in Mexico, 85 specimens of 2 families of rodents were collected from the Mexican Plateau: Cricetidae ( Neotoma sp., Neotoma leucodon , Onychomys arenicola , Peromyscus sp., Peromyscus eremicus , and Reithrodontomys sp.) and Heteromyidae ( Chaetodipus sp., Chaetodipus eremicus , Chaetodipus hispidus , Dipodomys merriami , Dipodomys ordii , Dipodomys ornatus, Dipodomys spectabilis , Liomys irroratus , Perognathus sp., and Perognathus flavus ). A total of 13 taxa of helminths were found: Heteromyoxyuris longejector, Heteromyoxyuris otomii, Heteromyoxyuris sp., Onchocercidae gen. sp. 1 and sp. 2, Physalopteridae gen. sp., Protospirura dipodomis, Pterygodermatites dipodomis, Subulura sp., Syphacia sp., Trichuris dipodomis, Vexillata liomyos, and Vexillata armande. The highest species richness was recorded in D. merriami (7 taxa). This study is the first report of nematodes from O. arenicola (Physalopteridae gen. sp.) and C. eremicus (H. longejector) and for V. liomyos from D. merriami . All reports of these species of nematodes represent new collection localities in Mexico.
Smales, L R
Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids.
Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke
Background Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus). Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats. PMID
The Weidu District, Yanling County and Yuzhou City were selected in Xuchang City for investigation of the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in 2012, in accordance with the National Monitoring Program for Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (2011 Revised Edition). Kato-Katz technique was used to detect soil- transmitted nematodes in feces of residents over 3 years old, and the cellophane tape peri-anal swab method was used to detect pinworm eggs in children between 3-12 years. A total of 2 991 fecal samples were examined. The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was 4.3%(128/2 991), decreased by 63.0% and 55.1% when compared with that in 2010 (11.6%) and that in Henan Province in 2004 (9.5%) respectively. The infection rates of roundworms, whipworms, hookworms and pinworms were 3.7%(110/2 991), 0.3%(9/2 991) , 0.1%(3/2 991) , and 0.2% ( 6/2 991) , respectively, all showing mild intensity of infection. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was highest in farmers (5.5%, 113/2 059), followed by children (3.1%, 3/98).
St Georgiev, V
Enterobius vermicularis (syn. Oxyurus vermicularis), also known as pinworm or seatworm, is the causative agent of human enterobiasis (oxyuriasis). The disease is more prevalent in temperate regions and is facilitated by factors such as overcrowding in schools and family groupings, as well as inadequate personal and community hygiene. Although the infection is more likely to occur in lower socioeconomic groups, enterobiasis has been reported to affect virtually every level of the general population and especially children. In the great majority of cases, enterobiasis is asymptomatic. One common symptom is intense pruritus ani that in some patients can lead to insomnia, restlessness and irritability. Scratching may cause skin irritation, and in more serious cases, eczematous dermatitis, haemorrhage or secondary bacterial infections. Ectopic migration of E. vermicularis often results in pinworm infestation of the female genital tract often causing granulomas of the uterus, ovary and the fallopian tubes and pelvic peritoneum. Anthelmintic therapies for enterobiasis are successful and include mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel pamoate. Mass medication of affected groups reduced symptoms rapidly, progressively and in a cost-effective way.
Wang, L-C; Hwang, K-P; Chen, E-R
Pinworm infection remains prevalent in children in many parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of this infection in schoolchildren in Taiwan after the termination of the 15-year population-based control project in 2001. Our results showed that 2.4% of 118 190 children in 385 primary schools were found to have enterobiasis by two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. The prevalences were significantly different in the 25 counties/cities surveyed (0.6-6.6%). A significantly higher prevalence was found in boys (2.6%) than in girls (2.2%) and the prevalence decreased by grade from 3.8% in grade 1 to 1.0% in grade 6. In the primary schools, 9.1% had positive rates 10%. In addition, pinworm infection was found to be significantly associated with the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and sanitary conditions of the children. The results indicate that the overall prevalence of enterobiasis remains at a low level after the control programme was transferred to the local governments.
Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki
Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7% similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific.
Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara
Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research.
Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D
The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future.
Vleeschouwers, W; Hofman, Ph; Gillardin, J P; Meert, V; Van Slycke, S
A 17-year-old female patient presented with the clinical features of an acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic exploration a macroscopically normal appendix was found. Since there were no intra-abdominal abnormalities found, the appendix was resected. Anatomopathology demonstrated Enterobius vermicularis, a pinworm infecting only humans, and mostly living in the caecum. This parasite is responsible for possibly the most common helminthic infection in the developed world. Its role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis is controversial, but more recent studies indicate a stronger association between enterobiasis and appendicitis. Often, enterobius mimics appendicitis by obstructing the lumen of the appendix, thereby causing appendiceal colic. This case report stresses the importance of microscopic examination of all appendectomy resection specimens. In case of enterobius infestation, systemic therapy of patient and family is necessary.
Isik, Burak; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karadag, Nese; Kahraman, Latif; Sogutlu, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Sezai; Kirimlioglu, Vedat
The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Enterobius vermicularis in the appendices of the adult population and a possible relationship between E. vermicularis and acute appendicitis. E. vermicularis was identified in 18 (2%) of 890 patients. Six hundred sixty-five operations were performed for presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and E. vermicularis was found in 12 (2%) patients. The histopathological examination revealed acute inflammatory cells in four cases (33%). Three of these four specimens included luminal ova and one E. vermicularis. Histopathological examination of six cases revealed E. vermicularis in 225 incidental appendectomies with no evidence of either acute or chronic inflammatory cells. This study suggests a relationship between the presence of E. vermicularis ova and acute inflammation, but the presence of the pinworm in the lumen of the appendix is coincidental. On the other hand E. vermicularis in the appendix lumen can cause symptoms of acute appendicitis.
The study presents the results of a research on the frequency of infection with Enterobius vermicularis in different urban and rural human populations, conducted by Zoology Department of Podlaska Academy in Siedlce between 1998 and 2006. Since 2001, samples from one examinee were collected seven times. On the basis of the seven tests, a table of the frequency of infection and the efficiency of its detection was presented. The study indicates the populations in which all the infected were detected earlier than after the seventh test. It also presents the results of family infection examination (there were two groups of the examined: A--only children, B--children as well as parents): out of 125 families 47 (37.6%) were infected. The author concluded that the method of taking pinworm samples should be standardized to the Graham method with the samples collected on seven consecutive days, and that whole families should be examined wherever one person is detected to be infected.
Núñez, F A; Hernández, M; Finlay, C M
Pinworm infection was prospectively studied during one year in 469 children attending three day care centers. Each child was examined at six months intervals using up to three perianal swabs with adhesive tape. Those found infected were treated with mebendazole. At the beginning of the study we found a prevalence of 28% that dropped to 13% and 12% in the following study periods. The reinfection rate was twice the incidence rate in both study periods. We also found a small percentage (10%) of the children reinfected in most or all study periods. There was a high correlation between reinfection and perianal itching. Our results add further knowledge to the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in day care centers.
Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo
Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated.
Furnée, Edgar J B; Spoto, Clothaire; de Graaf, Melanie J; Smakman, Niels
A 68-year-old man diagnosed with cT3N2 adenocarcinoma of the rectum presented with a synchronous solitary liver metastasis on CT scan. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started to downstage the primary tumour. Resection of the rectal tumour followed 3 months after the last radiotherapy session and primary resection of the isolated liver lesion was performed in the intervening period. Histopathological assessment of the liver lesion, however, showed no malignancy, but did reveal a necrotic infection due to Enterobius vermicularis. This parasite is frequently found in the intestines, but only rarely infects the liver. The patient was subsequently treated with the anthelmintic drug mebendazole 100 mg once a week for 2 weeks. Histopathological assessment of the rectal specimen showed complete regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without evidence of remaining E. vermicularis, suggesting pinworm eradication. The patient recovered promptly after both surgical procedures.
Leszczynski, Jori; Wallace, Michelle; Tackett, Jamie; Jiron, Ursula; Collins, Jan; Warder, Char; Richardson, Laura; Bell, Lorraine; Russell, Carolyn
Handling a rodent disease outbreak in a facility can be a challenge. After the University of Colorado Denver Office of Laboratory Animal Resources enhanced its sentinel monitoring program, > 90% of the animal colonies housed in a vivarium at the Anschutz Medical Campus (with an area of 50,000 net ft(2)), serving the labs of > 250 principal investigators, tested positive for multiple infective agents including mouse parvovirus, fur mites, pinworms and epizootic diarrhea of infant mice. The authors detail the process by which they planned and executed a shutdown and a decontamination of the facility, which involved the rederivation or cryopreservation of > 400 unique genetically modified mouse lines. The authors discuss the aspects of the project that were successful as well as those that could have been improved.
Ramp, A A; Hall, C; Orian, J M
Parasitic infections are a concern in animal facilities, in view of their influence on physiological processes and the immune status of animals. Pinworms are effectively controlled with the anthelminthic fenbendazole (FBZ, [5-(phenylthio)-1H-benzamidazol-2-yl]carbamic acid methyl ester; C(15)H(13)N(3)O(2)S); however, questions remain as to whether prolonged FBZ exposure alters the disease course in specific experimental models, such as those pertaining to the immune system. We report that a three-month regimen of FBZ-medicated feed severely affected the onset and disease severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease that mimics multiple sclerosis. Differences were recorded between mouse strains used. Our data suggest that where the use of FBZ is mandatory, its full effect should be verified on the particular EAE variant adopted by the laboratory.
Rinaldi, Laura; Russo, Tamara; Schioppi, Mariangela; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe
The present paper reports a study on the in vivo diagnosis and egg excretion rhythm of the pinworm Passalurus ambiguus in domesticated rabbits. Three copromicroscopic techniques were compared: the cellophane tape test, the McMaster technique, and the FLOTAC technique. Out of the 51 New Zealand White rabbit does examined, 42 (82.3%) resulted positive when examined with the FLOTAC technique, 39 (76.5%) with the cellophane tape test, and 29 (56.9%) with the McMaster technique. The agreement between the FLOTAC technique and the cellophane tape test was almost perfect (greater than 0.8); only moderate were the agreements (0.4) between the FLOTAC and the McMaster techniques and between the McMaster technique and the cellophane tape test. The results showed that the FLOTAC technique can be used for the quali-quantitative coprological diagnosis of P. ambiguus in rabbits due to its great sensitivity, as already shown for parasites of other animal species. The circadian rhythm of egg excretion by P. ambiguus was studied utilizing 42 individually caged rabbit does; fecal samples were collected from each cage every 6 h, i.e., at 6:00-12:00 hours, 12:00-18:00 hours, 18:00-24:00 hours, and 24:00-6:00 hours, and were analyzed by the FLOTAC technique. A circadian rhythm of P. ambiguus egg excretion was found, with significant lower values at 6:00-12:00 hours. In conclusion, the present study showed that the FLOTAC technique is the best copromicroscopic method for assessing P. ambiguus prevalence and intensity in rabbits and that the afternoon and evening hours are the best times for fecal sampling to perform the pinworm diagnosis.
Hugot, Jean Pierre; Feliu, Carlos; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Ribas, Alexis
A new Oxyurid genus and species are described in a rodent recently discovered in Lao PDR: Laonastes aenigmamus which happens to be the single survivor of the Diatomyidae, a family considered to be extinct since the Miocene. The morphological characters of the new parasite species allow classifying it within the Syphaciinae Railliet, 1916, a subfamily whose members are exclusively parasites of Lagomorpha and Rodents. Male Syphaciinae have developed several types of ventral cuticular ornamentation used to firmly grip the female during mating. The ornamental characters observed in the new species include a finger like appendix, which, until now, has not been described in the subfamily. The originality of this apparatus justifies the creation of a new genus and a new species for the pinworm parasite of Laonastes. Using morphological characters, the new species is analyzed phylogenetically to describe its affinities with representatives of the main groups distinguished within the Syphaciinae. The phylogenetic study produces a cladogram similar to the phylogeny recently proposed for the hosts of the subfamily and in agreement with a close association of the Diatomyidae with the Ctenodactylidae. Such a phenomenon of cophylogeny is interpreted as the result of the existence of a strict specificity between the Syphaciinae and their respective hosts, due to the very close adaptation of their life cycle with the behaviors of their hosts. In Lagomorpha and Rodents, caecotrophy and grooming activities allow a direct transmission of the parasite eggs and favor successive self-infestations, increasing the chances for the parasite to maintain itself in the same host species but decreasing the probability of host switching. The resulting high host specificity allowed the Syphaciinae to out-compete other pinworms and maintain themselves in their specific host over millions of years.
Franke, Deanna D H; Shirwan, Haval
Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common, highly efficacious broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat and limit rodent pinworm infections. However, the effect of its prophylactic use on the immune response of rodents is largely undefined. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model commonly used to study type 1 diabetes (T1D). Parasitic infections will inhibit diabetes development in NOD mice; thus, in the presence of contamination, prophylactic treatment with anthelmintics must be considered to maintain experimental research. Herein, we investigated the prophylactic use of FBZ in NOD mice to determine its effect on the incidence and onset of diabetes, lymphocyte sub-populations and T cell proliferative responses. NOD mice were separated into control and treatment groups. The treatment group received a diet containing FBZ. Animals were monitored for the incidence and onset of T1D. At matched time points, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were killed and splenic lymphocytes analyzed for various cell sub-populations and mitogen-induced proliferative responses using flow cytometry. Treated and control mice were monitored >23 weeks with no detectable effects on the incidence or onset of diabetes. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in lymphocyte sub-populations and mitogen-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) proliferative responses between control and treatment groups. These results suggest that prophylactic FBZ treatment does not significantly alter the incidence or onset of diabetes in NOD mice. The prophylactic use of FBZ, therefore, presents a viable approach for the prevention of pinworm infection in precious experimental animals with substantial scientific and economic benefits.
Haswell-Elkins, M R; Elkins, D B; Manjula, K; Michael, E; Anderson, R M
The distribution and abundance of Enterobius vermicularis in a fishing community in South India, as determined by counting worms expelled following mass anthelmintic chemotherapy, was examined in samples of patients stratified by age, sex and family grouping. The results of a worm expulsion study in January 1984 are compared with those of a second expulsion programme in November 1984, following an 11-month period of reinfection. The prevalence of Enterobius infection was consistently high in all age groups of both males and females. A comparison of the overall prevalence and intensity of infection in the January and November surveys revealed significant increases in both the percent infected and the mean number of worms harboured in November relative to the initial level. No significant trends in the intensity of Enterobius according to host age or sex were detected in either survey. The frequency distribution of Enterobius was found to be highly aggregated in the population as a whole and within age groups. At both sampling dates, the most heavily infected 25% of the community harboured over 90% of the total pinworms recovered. There was a significant pattern within most age groups for individuals to re-acquire worm burdens of a similar magnitude to their initial pre-treatment burdens. Heavy infections were found to be associated with household. A selective or targetted approach to treatment of heavily infected individuals or households is likely to be an efficient means of reducing parasite abundance on a community-wide basis. It must be stressed, however, that treatment must be applied at frequent intervals in order to achieve a long-term reduction in pinworm abundance and to avoid the possibility of increasing the intensity of infection, as was observed in this community.
Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M
Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems.
Lutermann, Heike; Medger, Katarina; Junker, Kerstin
The endoparasite fauna of the spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus) was studied for the first time from April 2007 until April 2009 in a population from the Limpopo Province of South Africa. In a total of 129 mice examined, only 6 endoparasite taxa were found, 2 nematode species (Syphacia minuta, Monanema joopi), 1 genus of cestodes ( Rodentolepis spp.), and unidentified hymenolepidid fragments. In addition, 1 pentastomid species (Armillifer grandis) as well as unidentified porocephalid specimens were recovered. The overall prevalence was low, at 15.5%, and only 1 individual harbored more than 1 parasite species. With 12.4% prevalence, S. minuta was the most prevalent parasite. Its prevalence and abundance were significantly higher during the dry and cooler season than during the wet and warm season, while a female-biased burden was observed during the wet season only. For the remaining parasite species, low prevalence prevented meaningful statistical analyses. The observed parasite species richness, prevalence, and abundance for A. spinosissimus were low compared to values reported for other Acomys spp. This may be linked to the lack of anthropogenic influences in the study population as well as the small size of A. spinosissimus .
Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung
A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed.
Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R
The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.
Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald
Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans.
Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C
The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5).
Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P
The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).
ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom
Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855
Skírnisson, K; Eydal, M; Gunnarsson, E; Hersteinsson, P
Forty-four of 50 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Iceland harbored 15 species of intestinal parasites, including Protozoa: Eimeria sp. or Isospora sp. (in 4%); Trematoda: Cryptocotyle lingua (24%), Plagiorchis elegans (4%), Brachylaemus sp. (12%), Tristriata sp. (10%), and Spelotrema sp. (8%); Cestoda: Mesocestoides canislagopodis (72%), Schistocephalus solidus (2%), and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (4%); Nematoda: Toxascaris leonina (50%), Toxocara canis (2%), Uncinaria stenocephala (4%), and eggs of the lung worm Capillaria aerophila (6%); and Acanthocephala: Polymorphus meyeri (8%) and Corynosoma hadweni (2%). Only four of the species previously had been recorded in Iceland. Eleven species are new records in Iceland and six appear to be new host records. Two additional nematodes, Stegophorus stercorarii and Syphacia sp., probably were ingested accidentally with the prey. Foxes from coastal habitats harbored 14 parasitic species while only five species were found in foxes from inland habitats. Arctic foxes from coastal habitats generally had higher helminth burdens and harbored more parasitic species per fox than foxes from inland habitats.
Nursyazana, M T; Mohdzain, S N; Jeffery, J
A study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of Carey Island was carried out from June to December 2010. A total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on Carey Island. Four rat species were identified namely, Rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), Rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), Rattus argentiventer (16%) and Rattus norvegicus (12.3%). Low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ecto and 8 endoparasites species recorded. The ectoparasites recovered fell under 3 broad groups, namely mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Listrophoroides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), lice (Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica) and tick (Ixodes granulatus) while endoparasites recovered were cestodes (Taenia taeniaformis and Hymenolepis diminuta) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, Mastophorus muris, Heterakis spumosa, Hepatojarakus malayae and Syphacia muris). The rat population was observed harbouring more than one parasite species. Analysis of data also showed neither intrinsic (host age, host sex) nor extrinsic (season) factors influenced the macroparasites community structure.
Behnke, J M; Barnard, C J; Mason, N; Harris, P D; Sherif, N E; Zalat, S; Gilbert, F S
Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus, inhabiting the wadis close to St Katherine in the mountains of the Sinai peninsula, were trapped and their helminth parasites were studied. Sixty one mice provided faeces for analysis and 27 were killed and autopsied. Six species of helminths were recorded (the spirurid nematodes, Protospirura muricola (74.1%) and Mastophorus muris (11.1%), the oxyuroid nematodes, Dentostomella kuntzi (59.3%), Aspiculuris africana (3.7%), and Syphacia minuta (3.7%) and the hymenolepidid cestode Rodentolepis negevi (18.5%)). The spirurids were the dominant species present, accounting for up to 0.87% of total host body weight. Analysis of worm weights and lengths suggested that transmission had been taking place in the months preceding our study. No sex difference in the prevalence or abundance of spirurids was detected. Significant differences were identified in the abundance of total nematode burdens and the mean helminth species richness between the three wadis which provided multiple captures of mice. There was also a marked effect of host age on both parameters. A highly significant positive correlation between spirurid egg counts and total worm biomass indicated that non-invasive techniques based on egg counts could be used to quantify worm burdens and when this technique was applied to a larger sample size (n = 61), a significant difference between sites but no host sex or age effects were detected for spirurid faecal egg counts. The data suggest that there are differences between helminth component communities infecting spiny mice in different neighbouring wadis, a hypothesis which will be explored further through our continuing studies in the Sinai.
Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans
Bharathi, K; Anuradha, S; Chandrasekar, VC Ajay; Thirunarayanan, R
Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal nematode worldwide. Enterobius rarely causes a symptomatic disease. We report here an unusual case of a 60-year old man who came with a polypoidal growth in the anal canal increasing in size for past 20 years. He had pain and intense itching over the mass. The differential diagnosis of squamous papilloma, fibroma and foreign body granuloma were considered. The mass lesion was excised surgically and sent to the pathology laboratory. The mass turned out to be an “E. vermicularis worm granuloma” by histopathologic examination. Thus, timely reporting and surgical resection of such lesion is necessary to prevent further complications. This case is reported here for the unusual presentation of pinworm as a pseudoneoplasm in the anal canal. Incidence of these cases reflected the poor personal hygiene and improper disposal of human excreta in the rural areas. We insist that health education is the only way to control the spread of helminthic infections that causes a heavy disease burden to our country. PMID:23767020
Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun
Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea. PMID:23468007
Torp-Pedersen, A.; Jimenez-Solem, E.; Andersen, J. T.; Broedbaek, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Poulsen, H. E.
Purpose. Families with children are frequently exposed to pinworm infection and treatment involves the whole family. Information on consequences of exposure during, pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to pyrvinium and mebendazole before, during, and after pregnancy in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods. From nationwide administrative registers, we identified 718, 900 births in Denmark between January 1997 and December 2007 as well as maternal prescription data of anthelmintics and maternal characteristics. Redemption of a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole was used to identify exposure. Results. 4715 women redeemed a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole during pregnancy; 1606 for pyrvinium, 2575 for mebendazole, and 534 for both drugs. Having >2 children compared to having no previous children was associated with exposure to pyrvinium (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 5.8–8.7) and mebendazole (OR: 20.8, 95% CI: 17.3–24.9). Conclusion. 4715 pregnant women redeemed a prescription for either mebendazole or pyrvinium. We believe the exposure to be even higher since pyrvinium is also sold over-the-counter. Limited information on birth outcomes is available at present time, and considering the number of exposed pregnancies, we recommend that studies are to be undertaken to assess the safety of pyrvinium and mebendazole during pregnancy. PMID:23028209
Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun; Yu, Hak Sun
Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.
Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H
Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411
Bentzel, David E; Lescano, Andrés G; Lucas, Carmen; Bacon, David J
Infections of Trypanoxyuris spp. pinworms in Aotus nancymae and other New World primates are typically subclinical, but infection during experimental use could confound interpretation of experimental data. Further, Trypanoxyuris species are highly infective, and rapid diagnosis is important to prevent an outbreak in the animal colony. This study sought to determine whether a fecal flotation technique was sensitive enough to replace the perianal tape test for diagnosis of Trypanoxyuris spp., thereby reducing stress to the animal and sample collection time. On days 0 and 3, we collected fecal samples from 45 animals confirmed to be infected with Trypanoxyuris spp. by perianal tape testing. Fecal samples were evaluated by both a commercial analysis system and by sucrose flotation with centrifugation. For both detection methods, no significant difference in sensitivity was detected between tests conducted on day 0 versus day 3. The sensitivity of repeated commercial tests was 80%, significantly higher than the 60% for sucrose flotation. The commercial test was significantly more sensitive than sucrose flotation, indicating that the commercial system was a better method for detecting Trypanoxyuris spp. However, sensitivity of only 80% confers a considerable risk of false negatives, thereby potentially delaying treatment and further contributing to environmental contamination. In our opinion, neither method of fecal analysis was a suitable replacement for the perianal tape test to diagnose Trypanoxyuris spp. in owl monkeys.
McGuire, Jessica L; Miller, Elizabeth A; Norton, Terry M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Spratt, Jeffrey S; Yabsley, Michael J
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the USA, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in Georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. Samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and Cryptosporidium by direct immunofluorescence assay and ProSpecT rapid assay. A total of 99 tortoises (85, range 0-100%) was infected with pinworms (Alaeuris spp.), 47 (40, 0-86%) with cestodes (Oochorstica sp.), 34 (41, 0-74%) with Chapiniella spp., 2 (3, 0-33%) with Eimeria paynei, and a single tortoise each with a capillarid and ascarid (1%). On the island, Entamoeba was detected in one tortoise (2%) while Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in eight (17%). In conclusion, at least eight species of parasites were detected including Cryptosporidium, a possible pathogen of tortoises. Interestingly, we detected spatial variation in the distribution of several parasites among populations suggesting additional work should be conducted across a gradient of tortoise densities, land use, and habitat characteristics.
Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113
Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.
Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.
Goodroe, Anna E; Baxter, Victoria K; Watson, Julie
Aspiculuris tetraptera continues to be a problem in rodent vivaria, in part due to difficulties in parasite detection. Although PCR testing is highly sensitive, it is expensive and does not always provide immediate results. Consequently, many institutions rely on passive fecal flotation as a quick inhouse exam for diagnosing A. tetraptera infections. To increase the sensitivity of this test, we examined multiple parameters to determine the optimal test protocol. A 30-min soaking period prior to fecal flotation for 15 min allowed fecal pellets to soften and facilitated efficient egg isolation. We also evaluated the effect of time of day, sample size, age, sex, and housing status on egg isolation. No evidence of cyclical egg shedding was found, and although larger fecal sample sizes did not result in more eggs isolated, their use reduced the incidence of false-negative exams. The most eggs were isolated from 8- and 12-wk-old mice, and as mice aged, the number of eggs isolated declined. Overall, neither sex nor housing status influenced the number of eggs isolated. Finally, examination of multiple diagnostic tests (fecal flotation exam, direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, and fecal PCR) revealed that no single test was definitive, thus indicating that multiple tests might be required to successfully screen mice with low pinworm burdens. These findings provide guidance regarding sample selection, collection, and processing to efficiently detect A. tetraptera.
Schilliger, Lionel; Mentré, Véronique; Marschang, Rachel E; Nicolier, Alexandra; Richter, Barbara
A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout. A PCR confirmed the diagnosis of adenovirosis. Sequencing showed that the PCR product was 100% identical to the corresponding portion of the agamid adenovirus 1 genome. A PCR for the detection of Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi was positive. Partial sequencing revealed 100% identity to an E. cuniculi-like organism previously found in bearded dragons. In cases where environmental factors such as poor hygiene or stress can be excluded, the presence of opportunistic pathogens in high numbers can be due to a systemic (viral) infection with temporary immunosuppression.
Gao, Ping; Dang, Chi V; Watson, Julie
Diet containing the anthelminthic fenbendazole is used often to treat rodent pinworm infections because it is easy to use and has few reported adverse effects on research. However, during fenbendazole treatment at our institution, an established human lymphoma xenograft model in C.B-17/Icr-prkdcscid/Crl (SCID) mice failed to grow. Further investigation revealed that the fenbendazole had been incorporated into a sterilizable diet supplemented with additional vitamins to compensate for loss during autoclaving, but the diet had not been autoclaved. To assess the role of fenbendazole and supplementary vitamins on tumor suppression, 20 vendor-supplied 4-wk-old SCID mice were assigned to 4 treatment groups: standard diet, diet plus fenbendazole, diet plus vitamins, and diet plus both vitamins and fenbendazole. Diet treatment was initiated 2 wk before subcutaneous flank implantation with 3 x 107 lymphoma cells. Tumor size was measured by caliper at 4-d intervals until the largest tumors reached a calculated volume of 1500 mm3. Neither diet supplemented with vitamins alone nor fenbendazole alone caused altered tumor growth as compared with that of controls. However, the group supplemented with both vitamins and fenbendazole exhibited significant inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism for this synergy is unknown and deserves further investigation. Fenbendazole should be used with caution during tumor studies because it may interact with other treatments and confound research results.
Cai, Yeping; Zhou, Jiansheng; Webb, Dianne C
Mouse models have provided a significant insight into the role of T-helper (Th) 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in regulating eosinophilia and other key features of asthma. However, the validity of these models can be compromised by inadvertent infection of experimental mouse colonies with pathogens such as oxyurid parasites (pinworms). While the benzimidazole derivative, fenbendazole (FBZ), is commonly used to treat such outbreaks, the effects of FBZ on mouse models of Th2 disease are largely unknown. In this investigation, we show that mice fed FBZ-supplemented food during the in utero and post-weaning period developed attenuated lung eosinophilia, antigen-specific IgG1 and Th2 cytokine responses in a model of asthma. Treatment of the mediastinal lymph node cells from allergic mice with FBZ in vitro attenuated cell proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production and expression of the early lymphocyte activation marker, CD69 on CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells. In addition, eosinophilia and Th2 responses remained attenuated after a 4-week withholding period in allergic mice treated preweaning with FBZ. Thus, FBZ modulates the amplitude of Th2 responses both in vivo and in vitro.
Cray, Carolyn; Villar, David; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H
Fenbendazole (FBZ) is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Although data in nonrodent species indicate possible effects of fenbendazole on the bone marrow and lymphocyte proliferation and function, little has been reported regarding possible effects on the rodent immune system. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a therapeutic regimen of FBZ on immune parameters in BALB/c mice. Both 9-wk on-off and 5-wk continuous medicated feed protocols were assessed. No significant differences between normal and FBZ diet treated mice were observed in the following parameters: complete blood count, blood chemistry, quantitation of major T and B cell markers in spleen, quantitation of T cell markers in the thymus, spleen cell proliferation to T and B cell mitogens, bone marrow colony-forming cell assays, skin graft rejection, and primary and secondary humoral immune responses. These data indicate that FBZ treatment does not affect many standard broad measures of immune function.
Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H
Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice.
Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H
This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ.
Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek
The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.
Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W
During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI.
Johnson, Eugene H; Windsor, Jeffrey J; Clark, C Graham
Ever since its first description in 1918, Dientamoeba fragilis has struggled to gain recognition as a significant pathogen. There is little justification for this neglect, however, since there exists a growing body of case reports from numerous countries around the world that have linked this protozoal parasite to clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and anorexia. A number of studies have even incriminated D. fragilis as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic colitis, and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Although D. fragilis is most commonly identified using permanently stained fecal smears, recent advances in culturing techniques are simplifying as well as improving the ability of investigators to detect this organism. However, there are limitations in the use of cultures since they cannot be performed on fecal samples that have been fixed. Significant progress has been made in the biological classification of this organism, which originally was described as an ameba. Analyses of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have clearly demonstrated its close relationship to Histomonas, and it is now known to be a trichomonad. How the organism is transmitted remains a mystery, although there is some evidence that D. fragilis might be transmitted via the ova of the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Also, it remains to be answered whether the two distinct genotypes of D. fragilis recently identified represent organisms with differing virulence.
Goodroe, Anna E; Baxter, Victoria K; Watson, Julie
Aspiculuris tetraptera continues to be a problem in rodent vivaria, in part due to difficulties in parasite detection. Although PCR testing is highly sensitive, it is expensive and does not always provide immediate results. Consequently, many institutions rely on passive fecal flotation as a quick inhouse exam for diagnosing A. tetraptera infections. To increase the sensitivity of this test, we examined multiple parameters to determine the optimal test protocol. A 30-min soaking period prior to fecal flotation for 15 min allowed fecal pellets to soften and facilitated efficient egg isolation. We also evaluated the effect of time of day, sample size, age, sex, and housing status on egg isolation. No evidence of cyclical egg shedding was found, and although larger fecal sample sizes did not result in more eggs isolated, their use reduced the incidence of false-negative exams. The most eggs were isolated from 8- and 12-wk-old mice, and as mice aged, the number of eggs isolated declined. Overall, neither sex nor housing status influenced the number of eggs isolated. Finally, examination of multiple diagnostic tests (fecal flotation exam, direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, and fecal PCR) revealed that no single test was definitive, thus indicating that multiple tests might be required to successfully screen mice with low pinworm burdens. These findings provide guidance regarding sample selection, collection, and processing to efficiently detect A. tetraptera. PMID:27657708
van de Ven, E. M. E.; Hooijmans, C. R.
Purpose This systematic review was conducted to gain insight into the efficacy of transmission of infectious agents to colony sentinels by soiled bedding transfer based on publications studying this subject in mice and rats. This information is essential to establish recommendations for the design of health monitoring programs which use sentinels to determine the microbiological status of laboratory animal colonies. Results Fifteen original articles retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and CAB abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The design of the studies varied substantially per infectious agent with regard to dose of soiled bedding, exposure time, and sentinel strains used. Conclusion With our conservative criteria for effectiveness, soiled bedding transfer appeared to be effective for MHV, MPV, TMEV, Helicobacter spp., and fur mite infections and ineffective for Sendai virus. For other infectious agents, such as MNV, EDIM, MVM, SDAV, Clostridium piliforme, and pinworms, too few data were available to be able to draw robust conclusions on the efficacy of soiled bedding transfer. Recommendation The identified evidence only pertains to a portion of the infectious organisms included in the FELASA 2014 guidelines. As many animal facilities design their health monitoring program according to these recommendations, additional studies are warranted to draw comprehensive conclusions on the effective transmission of the infectious agents listed in these guidelines by soiled bedding transfer. PMID:27518654
Behnke, J M; Harris, P D; Bajer, A; Barnard, C J; Sherif, N; Cliffe, L; Hurst, J; Lamb, M; Rhodes, A; James, M; Clifford, S; Gilbert, F S; Zalat, S
We compared helminth communities in spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from 4 wadis in the arid montane region of the southern Sinai in Egypt, in a 4-week period in late summer. Total helminth species richness was 14 (8 nematodes, 5 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) with 94% of mice carrying at least 1 species and an overall mean species richness of 1.85. The most prevalent parasites were Protospirura muricola (47.8 %) and Dentostomella kuntzi (46.3%). One larval cestode, Joyeuxiella rossicum, represents a new host record. The helminth community was dominated by intestinal nematodes (88.7%) of which 58.2% were arthropod-transmitted heteroxenic species. At the component community level, 70% of the worms were recovered from mice in just two wadis (Gharaba and Tlah) and 48.6 % of intestinal nematodes were from Wadi Gharaba. Although only 7 species of helminths were recorded from Wadi Gharaba, this site gave the highest Berger-Parker dominance index because of P. muricola. P. muricola was also dominant in Wadi El Arbaein whilst Syphacia minuta was the dominant species in Wadis Gebal and Tlah. At the infracommunity level, mean species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity were highest in Wadi Tlah and lowest in Wadi Gebal, and the former was age dependent. Whilst mice from different wadis differed in the nematodes that were most common, those from Wadi Gharaba carried the highest mean number of worms/mouse. The abundance of P. muricola in particular varied markedly between sites: Wadi Gharaba was distinct as the site showing the highest mean worm burden whereas mice from Wadi Gebal were uninfected. None of the directly transmitted oxyuroid nematodes showed significant variation in abundance between wadis, or host sex or age classes. Overall, the single extrinsic factor in the study, site of capture, was more important than the intrinsic factors in explaining variation in helminth communities in the region. We conclude that in the high mountains of southern Sinai, each
Dancesco, Paul; Abeu, Jérôme; Akakpo, Claude; Iamandi, Ileana; Kacou, Emmanuel; Quenou, Francois; Keusse-Assi, Jacob
The goal was to develop a complex medical, hygienic, sanitary and educational plan for control and prevention of intestinal parasitic infections in the rural areas in Ivory Coast. In a village situated at the border of the Ebrié lagoon, 416 persons were examined: 371 children, of which 343 were school and preschool children, aged 4 to 15 years (195 boys and 148 girls), 28 young children aged 6 months to 3 years, and a group of 45 adults. The parasitologic exams included perianal swabs (Graham's method), stool examination using saline solution, iodized solution (Lugol) and preparation Kato-Miura's method in thick layer. Parasitic intensity was done for helminths and worm burden have been carried after specific treatment of roundworms. Hygienic conditions as environment, school, dwelling and personal hygiene, eating habits, drinking water sanitation, garbage disposal, toilets, reproduction areas of hematophagous and mechanical vectors etc. have recorded. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 84.8% in children (with 76.7 % polyparasites) and 29.0 % in adults. The results pointed out a hyperendemic zone. Parasitic infectious transmitted from person to person was frequent among children: 37.3% pinworms in school children, 30.3% amoeba cysts and 30.3% flagellate. Infections transmitted by soil were predominant, with 62.1 % roundworms (78.6 % in children aged 7 to 10 years) presenting an important parasitic intensity and worm burden. The parasitoses transmitted as larvae were frequent, only Strongyloides stercoralis being most frequent parasite in adults compared to children. A feasible plan of control the intestinal parasites has been established in collaboration with the local hospital, village leaders and health workers. Short-term measures have been carefully chosen, targeting especially the schools, teachers and health workers. The first health education measure concerns the hand cleanliness at home and at schools. It was suggested that a bucket of water be
Grove, Kristina A; Smith, Peter C; Booth, Carmen J; Compton, Susan R
Detection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) and other murine pathogens in research colonies is dependent on the transmissibility of the agents and the sensitivity of sentinels to those agents. Transmissibility is based on several agent-dependent properties including mode of transmission, infectivity, and environmental stability, whereas host susceptibility can vary according to mouse age, strain, and sex. In this study, 4-wk-old, 12-wk-old, and aged Swiss Webster female sentinel mice were compared for their ability to detect infectious agents by using a standardized health surveillance program, to determine whether sentinels should be replaced more frequently to improve the efficiency of detection of infectious agents within a murine colony. Both experimentally and naturally infected mice were used to transmit MPV and other infectious agents from index mice to sentinels. First, Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV, and transmission to 4-, 12-, and 24-wk-old contact and soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. Second, mice naturally infected with 9 infectious agents were obtained from 2 local pet stores, and transmission to 4-wk-old contact sentinels and 4-, 12-, and 44-wk-old soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. For agents that were transmitted via soiled bedding (MPV, mouse hepatitis virus, murine norovirus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and pinworms), transmission did not differ in regard to the age of the sentinels. In conclusion, susceptibility to several infectious agents did not differ according to sentinel age in a health-surveillance protocol that used mice older than 12 wk. PMID:23294885
Gadad, Bharathi S; Daher, João P L; Hutchinson, Eric K; Brayton, Cory F; Dawson, Ted M; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Watson, Julie
Pinworms are highly contagious parasites of laboratory rodents that often are treated with fenbendazole. To our knowledge, the effect of fenbendazole at therapeutic dosages on behavioral tests in mice has not been evaluated. Here we studied 6-wk-old male C57BL/6N mice. We compared the behavior of control mice (fed regular diet) with 3 groups of mice treated with dietary fenbendazole. Treatment groups were 4 wk of fenbendazole, 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk of regular diet, and 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk of fenbendazole. At the end of dietary treatment all groups were tested by open field for central, peripheral and vertical activity; elevated plus maze for anxiety; and rotarod for motor ability and then evaluated by clinical pathology and selected histopathology. Treated and control groups showed no differences in open field or elevated plus maze testing, histopathology, or clinical pathology. However mice treated for 4 wk with fenbendazole or 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk regular diet stayed on the rotarod for shorter periods than did controls, and mice treated with 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk fenbendazole showed a trend toward shorter rotarod times. In light of this study, we suggest that open field and elevated plus maze testing is unlikely to be affected by 4 wk fenbendazole treatment in male C57BL/6 mice; however, behavioral tests of motor ability such as rotarod tests may be affected during and for at least 2 wk after fenbendazole treatment. PMID:21205447
Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wierzbowska, Izabela; Basiaga, Marta; Nosal, Paweł; Niedbała, Piotr
The aim of the study, conducted in the years 2011-2013, was to determine the level of gastrointestinal parasites infection in New Zealand White rabbits, kept at the Experimental Station of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. The study showed rabbits protozoan infection with the genus Eimeria, belonging - based on the sporulation method - to the following species: E. magna, E. media, E. perforans, E. stiedae and E. irresidua. The highest prevalence of infection, as well as the intensity of oocysts output (OPG - oocysts per gram of faeces), was noted for E. magna and E. media - respectively 31.4 % (19477.3 OPG), and 40.0 % (14256.07 OPG). The infection of rabbits with Eimeria spp. differed significantly between years. With regard to oocysts output, the level of infection was strongly connected with the age of rabbits, being higher in young animals. However, the range of infection was highest among adults. Among nematodes, Passalurus ambiguus pinworm was regularly found (prevalence reached 21.9%), other species - Trichuris leporis, and Graphidium strigosum were rarely noted. The overall infection with nematodes did not differ between years. Similarly, as in the case of Eimeria older individuals were more often infected by nematodes. We observed some trends in parasite oocysts/eggs output; the protozoan oocysts were recorded more often in faecal samples collected in the evenings, whereas the nematodes eggs occurred frequently in the mornings. This situation may be related to the phenomenon of coprophagy occurring in the mammals of Lagomorpha order. The results of the study indicate that especially coccidiosis constitute permanently throughout the years an important problem in the rabbitry examined.
Gadad, Bharathi S; Daher, João P L; Hutchinson, Eric K; Brayton, Cory F; Dawson, Ted M; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Watson, Julie
Pinworms are highly contagious parasites of laboratory rodents that often are treated with fenbendazole. To our knowledge, the effect of fenbendazole at therapeutic dosages on behavioral tests in mice has not been evaluated. Here we studied 6-wk-old male C57BL/6N mice. We compared the behavior of control mice (fed regular diet) with 3 groups of mice treated with dietary fenbendazole. Treatment groups were 4 wk of fenbendazole, 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk of regular diet, and 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk of fenbendazole. At the end of dietary treatment all groups were tested by open field for central, peripheral and vertical activity; elevated plus maze for anxiety; and rotarod for motor ability and then evaluated by clinical pathology and selected histopathology. Treated and control groups showed no differences in open field or elevated plus maze testing, histopathology, or clinical pathology. However mice treated for 4 wk with fenbendazole or 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk regular diet stayed on the rotarod for shorter periods than did controls, and mice treated with 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk fenbendazole showed a trend toward shorter rotarod times. In light of this study, we suggest that open field and elevated plus maze testing is unlikely to be affected by 4 wk fenbendazole treatment in male C57BL/6 mice; however, behavioral tests of motor ability such as rotarod tests may be affected during and for at least 2 wk after fenbendazole treatment.
Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B
Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.
Marx, M B
the family pet. Humans appear to be highly resistant to the infection, given the high frequency of flea infestation on dogs and cats and the relative rarity of human disease. Pinworms of animal hosts are not transmissible to humans. Humans become an accidental host of dirofilaria when bitten by an infected mosquito, although the microfilaria will not mature to the adult form in humans. Radio-opaque coin-type lung lesions can be noted on radiographs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)