Science.gov

Sample records for syringe calibration factors

  1. Syringe calibration factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator for selected medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Woods, M J

    2003-01-01

    Before a radiopharmaceutical is administered to a patient, its activity needs to be accurately assayed. This is normally done via a radionuclide calibrator, using a glass vial as the calibration device. The radionuclide is then transferred to a syringe and it is now becoming common practice to re-measure the syringe and use this value as the activity administered to the patient. Due to elemental composition and geometrical differences, etc. between the glass vial and the syringe, the calibration factors are different for the two containers and this can lead to an incorrect activity being given to the patient unless a correction is applied for these differences. To reduce the uncertainty on syringe measurements, syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator have been derived by NPL for several medically important radionuclides. It was found that the differences between the calibration factors for the syringes and glass vials depend on the energies of the photon emissions from the decay of the radionuclides; the lower the energy, the greater the difference. As expected, large differences were observed for 125I (70%) and only small differences for 131I. However, for radionuclides such as 99mTc and 67Ga, differences of up to 30% have been observed. This work has shown the need for the use of specifically derived syringe calibration factors as well as highlighting the complexity of the problem with regard to syringe types, procurement, etc.

  2. NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator. Syringe calibration factors for radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Baker, M; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Although these radionuclides are normally measured initially in a standard glass vial, an aliquot of the solution is then usually withdrawn into a syringe prior to the administration. Both for general quality assurance good practice and for additional guarantees for patient safety, a confirmatory measurement of the syringe is almost obligatory Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. A variety of syringes typically used in hospital administrations, and covering a range of volumes and manufacturers, were obtained. The results obtained were compared to those for glass vials and show the large errors that can be produced by ignoring these differences in container format.

  3. Calibration of pneumotachographs using a calibrated syringe.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongquan; Turner, Martin J; Yem, Johnny S; Baker, A Barry

    2003-08-01

    Pneumotachograph require frequent calibration. Constant-flow methods allow polynomial calibration curves to be derived but are time consuming. The iterative syringe stroke technique is moderately efficient but results in discontinuous conductance arrays. This study investigated the derivation of first-, second-, and third-order polynomial calibration curves from 6 to 50 strokes of a calibration syringe. We used multiple linear regression to derive first-, second-, and third-order polynomial coefficients from two sets of 6-50 syringe strokes. In part A, peak flows did not exceed the specified linear range of the pneumotachograph, whereas flows in part B peaked at 160% of the maximum linear range. Conductance arrays were derived from the same data sets by using a published algorithm. Volume errors of the calibration strokes and of separate sets of 70 validation strokes (part A) and 140 validation strokes (part B) were calculated by using the polynomials and conductance arrays. Second- and third-order polynomials derived from 10 calibration strokes achieved volume variability equal to or better than conductance arrays derived from 50 strokes. We found that evaluation of conductance arrays using the calibration syringe strokes yields falsely low volume variances. We conclude that accurate polynomial curves can be derived from as few as 10 syringe strokes, and the new polynomial calibration method is substantially more time efficient than previously published conductance methods.

  4. Neighborhood History as a Factor Shaping Syringe Distribution Networks Among Drug Users at a U.S. Syringe Exchange1

    PubMed Central

    Braine, Naomi; Acker, Caroline; Goldblatt, Cullen; Yi, Huso; Friedman, Samuel; DesJarlais, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the US, high-visibility drug markets are concentrated in neighborhoods with few economic opportunities, while drug buyers/users are widely dispersed. A study of Pittsburgh Syringe Exchange participants provides data on travel between and network linkages across neighborhoods with different levels of drug activity. There are distinct racial patterns to syringe distribution activity within networks and across neighborhoods. Pittsburgh’s history suggests these patterns emerge from historical patterns of social and economic development. Study data demonstrate the ability of IDUs to form long term social ties across racial and geographic boundaries and use them to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:19578475

  5. Targeted release of transcription factors for cell reprogramming by a natural micro-syringe.

    PubMed

    Berthoin, Lionel; Toussaint, Bertrand; Garban, Frédéric; Le Gouellec, Audrey; Caulier, Benjamin; Polack, Benoît; Laurin, David

    2016-11-20

    Ectopic expression of defined transcription factors (TFs) for cell fate handling has proven high potential interest in reprogramming differentiated cells, in particular for regenerative medicine, ontogenesis study and cell based modelling. Pluripotency or transdifferentiation induction as TF mediated differentiation is commonly produced by transfer of genetic information with safety concerns. The direct delivery of proteins could represent a safer alternative but still needs significant advances to be efficient. We have successfully developed the direct delivery of proteins by an attenuated bacterium with a type 3 secretion system that does not require challenging and laborious steps for production and purification of recombinant molecules. Here we show that this natural micro-syringe is able to inject TFs to primary human fibroblasts and cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. The signal sequence for vectorization of the TF Oct4 has no effect on DNA binding to its nucleic target. As soon as one hour after injection, vectorized TFs are detectable in the nucleus. The injection process is not associated with toxicity and the bacteria can be completely removed from cell cultures. A three days targeted release of Oct4 or Sox2 embryonic TFs results in the induction of the core pluripotency genes expression in fibroblasts and CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. This micro-syringe vectorization represents a new strategy for TF delivery and has potential applications for cell fate reprogramming.

  6. Syringe confiscation as an HIV risk factor: the public health implications of arbitrary policing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beletsky, Leo; Lozada, Remedios; Gaines, Tommi; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-04-01

    Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) face elevated risk for HIV/STIs and constitute a key population for public health prevention. Through direct and indirect pathways including human rights violations, policing practices like syringe confiscation can compound FSW-IDU health risk and facilitate the spread of disease. We studied correlates of experiencing syringe confiscation among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where formal policy allows for syringes to be available over the counter without a prescription, but police practices are often at odds with the law. FSW-IDUs reporting recent syringe sharing and unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez were administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of syringe confiscation. Among 624 respondent FSW-IDUs, prevalence of syringe confiscation in the last 6 months was 48%. The following factors were positively associated with syringe confiscation: testing positive for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-5.80), reporting sexual abuse by police (aOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 6.58-24.72), engaging in groin injection (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.93), injecting in public (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.14-2.36), and obtaining syringes from pharmacies (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23). Higher education level was negatively associated with syringe confiscation (aOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) as was frequent injection with clients within the last month (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.94). This analysis adds to the body of evidence linking unauthorized law enforcement actions targeting high-risk groups with HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Using a public health lens to conceptualize abuse as a structural risk factor, we advocate for multi-prong prevention, systematic monitoring, and evidence-based intervention response to deleterious police practices.

  7. Syringe sociology.

    PubMed

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself.

  8. Social and Political Factors Predicting the Presence of Syringe Exchange Programs in 96 US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tempalski, Barbara; Flom, Peter L.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Judith J.; McKnight, Courtney; Friedman, Risa

    2007-01-01

    Community activism can be important in shaping public health policies. For example, political pressure and direct action from grassroots activists have been central to the formation of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States. We explored why SEPs are present in some localities but not others, hypothesizing that programs are unevenly distributed across geographic areas as a result of political, socioeconomic, and organizational characteristics of localities, including needs, resources, and local opposition. We examined the effects of these factors on whether SEPs were present in different US metropolitan statistical areas in 2000. Predictors of the presence of an SEP included percentage of the population with a college education, the existence of local AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) chapters, and the percentage of men who have sex with men in the population. Need was not a predictor. PMID:17267732

  9. SWIR calibration of Spectralon reflectance factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit radiometric calibrations. BRF measurements are required throughout the reflected-solar spectrum from the ultraviolet through the shortwave infrared. Spectralon diffusers are commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries. The Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCaL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is a secondary calibration facility with reflectance measurements traceable to those made by the Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For more than two decades, the DCaL has provided numerous NASA projects with BRF data in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and the Near InfraRed (NIR) spectral regions. Presented in this paper are measurements of BRF from 1475 nm to 1625 nm obtained using an indium gallium arsenide detector and a tunable coherent light source. The sample was a 50.8 mm (2 in) diameter, 99% white Spectralon target. The BRF results are discussed and compared to empirically generated data from a model based on NIST certified values of 6°directional-hemispherical spectral reflectance factors from 900 nm to 2500 nm. Employing a new NIST capability for measuring bidirectional reflectance using a cooled, extended InGaAs detector, BRF calibration measurements of the same sample were also made using NIST's STARR from 1475 nm to 1625 nm at an incident angle of 0° and at viewing angle of 45°. The total combined uncertainty for BRF in this ShortWave Infrared (SWIR) range is less than 1%. This measurement capability will evolve into a BRF calibration service in SWIR region in support of NASA remote sensing missions.

  10. Bidirectional Reflectance Factors used in Lidar Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haner, David A.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1998-01-01

    Many atmospheric remote sensing applications of infrared lidar systems require that the backscatter signal be radiometrically calibrated. These systems are usually monostatic, consequently the reflected radiance from hard targets used in calibration will include the diffuse and the retroreflectance characteristics of the material. Radiometers which are part of orbiting sensors frequently contain onboard calibration subsystems. The onboard calibrator often utilizes onboard reflectance panels which are deployed at particular orbital locations to use the reflected sun light to calibrate the radiometers. To meet the need for correlative calibration of these remote sensing techniques a physically derived model could be used to extend the angular range and to improve the angular resolution of the measured reflectance properties of the calibration materials. A modified version of the B. Hake and E. Wells model has been adapted and will be described.

  11. Spatial access to sterile syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors: a longitudinal multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah; Des Jarlais, Don; Ross, Zev; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Friedman, Samuel R

    2012-08-01

    Despite the 2010 repeal of the ban on spending federal monies to fund syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the U.S.A., these interventions--and specifically SEP site locations--remain controversial. To further inform discussions about the location of SEP sites, this longitudinal multilevel study investigates the relationship between spatial access to sterile syringes distributed by SEPs in New York City (NYC) United Hospital Fund (UHF) districts and injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors over time (1995-2006). Annual measures of spatial access to syringes in each UHF district (N = 42) were created using data on SEP site locations and site-specific syringe distribution data. Individual-level data on unsterile injecting among injectors (N = 4,067) living in these districts, and on individual-level covariates, were drawn from the Risk Factors study, an ongoing cross-sectional study of NYC drug users. We used multilevel models to explore the relationship of district-level access to syringes to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe in >75% of injection events in the past 6 months, and to test whether this relationship varied by district-level arrest rates (per 1,000 residents) for drug and drug paraphernalia possession. The relationship between district-level access to syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe depended on district-level arrest rates. In districts with low baseline arrest rates, better syringe access was associated with a decline in the odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 0.95). In districts with no baseline syringe access, higher arrest rates were associated with increased odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 1.02) When both interventions were present, arrest rates eroded the protective effects of spatial access to syringes. Spatial access to syringes in small geographic areas appears to reduce the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among local

  12. Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Lozada, Remedios M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Cruz, Michelle F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Case, Patricia; Burris, Scott; Pu, Minya; Frost, Simon D. W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Miller, Cari; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To identify factors associated with receptive syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) and elucidate the association between syringe possession arrests and syringe sharing. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Mexican border cities of Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Participants IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 206) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were ≥18 years and had injected illicit drugs in the past month. Measurements An interviewer-administered survey was used to collect quantitative data on socio-demographic, behavioral and contextual characteristics, including self-reported syringe sharing and arrests for syringe possession. Associations with receptive syringe sharing were investigated using logistic regression with RDS adjustment. Findings Overall, 48% of participants reported ever being arrested for carrying an unused/sterile syringe, even though syringe purchase and possession is legal in Mexico. Arrest for possessing unused/sterile syringes was associated independently with receptive syringe sharing [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 3.35], as was injecting in a shooting gallery (AOR = 3.60; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.87), injecting in the street (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.54) and injecting methamphetamine (AOR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.41, 5.47) or cocaine (AOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.36). More than half of participants (57%) had been arrested for possessing a used syringe; in a second model, arrest for used syringe possession was also associated independently with receptive sharing (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.76, 4.69). Conclusions We documented high levels of syringe-related arrests in two Mexican–US border cities and an independent association between these arrests and risky injection practices. Public health collaborations with law enforcement to modify the risk environment in which drug use occurs are essential to facilitate safer injection

  13. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  14. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  15. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  16. Automated application of calibration factors on telemetered data

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.; Voss, T.J.; Yio, J.J.

    1993-04-26

    A long standing problem in telemetry post processing is the application of correct calibration factors to telemetered data generated on a system which has had a history of hardware changes. These calibration problems become most exacerbated when old test data is being examined and there is uncertainty as to hardware configuration at the time of the test. In this paper a mechanism for introducing a high degree of reliability in the application of calibration factors is described in an implementation done for Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3).

  17. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  18. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1986-01-01

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  19. Transthoracic needle biopsy. What size syringe?

    PubMed

    Yankelevitz, D F; Hayt, D; Henschke, C I

    1995-01-01

    Using a vacuum gauge we demonstrated that with less effort, the identical vacuum can be obtained using a 10-cc syringe as opposed to a 50-cc syringe. We recommend using a 20 cc syringe during transthoracic needle aspiration since the syringe is easier to handle and still allows sufficient vacuum to be developed, even if a small amount of air enters the syringe.

  20. Auto-disable syringes for immunization: issues in technology transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J. S.; Milstien, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself. PMID:10680248

  1. Kr-81m calibration factor for the npl ionisation chamber.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lena; Stroak, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A general method has been developed for the measurement of the activity concentration of 81mKr gas. Due to its short half-life, 13.1s, this gas has to be eluted from a 81Rb/81mKr generator. The 81Rb parent has a half-life of about 4.6 h. The calibration was done in two steps: firstly, a gamma-ray spectrometer was calibrated using 51Cr and 139Ce sources, nuclides with gamma-ray energies bracketing that of 81mKr (190.5 keV). The measurement geometry was equivalent to that of the 81mKr measurement; the sources were inserted into two collimated PTFE tubes in front of the gamma-ray detector. Secondly, a calibration factor for the NPL radionuclide calibrator was determined with a specially designed ionisation chamber insert. The 81mKr gas passed in front of the gamma-ray detector in PTFE tubing before and after entering the ionisation chamber. The calibration factor for 81mKr in the radionuclide calibrator with this geometry was independent of the gas flow rate within determined limits. The analytical calculations of the activity determination, uncertainties and measurement criteria are discussed.

  2. Monte Carlo calculations of calibration and geometry correction factors of a radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Olsovcová, Veronika; Havelka, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The activity of radioactive pharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine is usually determined using well-type high-pressure ionization chambers. For the Bqmeter chamber (Consortium BQM, Czech Republic) a Monte Carlo model was created using the MCNP4C2 code. Basic chamber characteristics for two sample containers of various geometry (a vial and an ampoule) were calculated and compared with measurements. As the pharmaceuticals are often measured in various syringes, the chamber response for samples in syringes was also studied.

  3. jasonSWIR Calibration of Spectralon Reflectance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Cooksey, Cahterine; Ding, Leibo; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit radiometric calibrations. BRF measurements are required throughout the reflected-solar spectrum from the ultraviolet through the shortwave infrared. Spectralon diffusers are commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries. The Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCaL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is a secondary calibration facility with reflectance measurements traceable to those made by the Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For more than two decades, the DCaL has provided numerous NASA projects with BRF data in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and the Near infraRed (NIR) spectral regions. Presented in this paper are measurements of BRF from 1475nm to 1625nm obtained using an indium gallium arsenide detector and a tunable coherent light source. The sample was a 2 inch diameter, 99% white Spectralon target. The BRF results are discussed and compared to empirically generated data from a model based on NIST certified values of 6deg directional/hemispherical spectral reflectance factors from 900nm to 2500nm. Employing a new NIST capability for measuring bidirectional reflectance using a cooled, extended InGaAs detector, BRF calibration measurements of the same sample were also made using NIST's STARR from 1475nm to 1625nm at an incident angle of 0deg and at viewing angles of 40deg, 45deg, and 50deg. The total combined uncertainty for BRF in this ShortWave Infrared (SWIR) range is less than 1%. This measurement capability will evolve into a BRF calibration service in SWIR region in support of NASA remote sensing missions. Keywords: BRF, BRDF, Calibration, Spectralon, Reflectance, Remote Sensing.

  4. Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, G. T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

  5. Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

  6. The syringe gap: an assessment of sterile syringe need and acquisition among syringe exchange program participants in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Daliah I; Paone, Denise; Siegler, Anne; Karpati, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Programmatic data from New York City syringe exchange programs suggest that many clients visit the programs infrequently and take few syringes per transaction, while separate survey data from individuals using these programs indicate that frequent injecting – at least daily – is common. Together, these data suggest a possible "syringe gap" between the number of injections performed by users and the number of syringes they are receiving from programs for those injections. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of 478 injecting drug users in New York City at syringe exchange programs to determine whether program syringe coverage was adequate to support safer injecting practices in this group. Results Respondents reported injecting a median of 60 times per month, visiting the syringe exchange program a median of 4 times per month, and obtaining a median of 10 syringes per transaction; more than one in four reported reusing syringes. Fifty-four percent of participants reported receiving fewer syringes than their number of injections per month. Receiving an inadequate number of syringes was more frequently reported by younger and homeless injectors, and by those who reported public injecting in the past month. Conclusion To improve syringe coverage and reduce syringe sharing, programs should target younger and homeless drug users, adopt non-restrictive syringe uptake policies, and establish better relationships with law enforcement and homeless services. The potential for safe injecting facilities should be explored, to address the prevalence of public injecting and resolve the 'syringe gap' for injecting drug users. PMID:19138414

  7. Development of syringe pump assisted headspace sampler.

    PubMed

    Go, Un Jeong; Eom, In-Yong

    2014-09-26

    This report describes a new platform for headspace sampling technique, i.e. a syringe pump assisted headspace sampler (SPHS). The stand type pump's syringe itself was used as a sealed sample vial and a needle trap device (NTD) was adopted as a miniaturized sorbent tube. The NTD was directly used to inject trapped VOCs into a gas chromatograph. The proposed sampler was designed to take a whole headspace volume instead of a portion of it so as to enhance easily the extraction efficiency. The performance of the SPHS-NTD system was evaluated and compared with the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a static headspace (HS) sampling technique. Calibration curves were obtained for aqueous TEX (toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene) solutions in the concentration range of ∼0.1-45 ng/mL. The calculated limit of detections (LOD, S/N=3) for TEX were 0.13 ng/mL or less. This SPHS-NTD was successfully applied to analyze aqueous TEX in river water samples and showed highly good recovery ranged from 97.2% to 105.8% for all tested VOCs.

  8. Individual and neighborhood-level factors associated with non-prescription counseling in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Alexis V; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D; White, Kellee; Stern, Rachel J; Amesty, Silvia; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of frequent non-prescription in-pharmacy counseling. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 130 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) in New York City. Participants 477 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owner/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Frequent counseling on medical conditions, health insurance, and other products. Results Technicians were less likely than pharmacists to provide frequent counseling on medical conditions or health insurance. In terms of neighborhood-level characteristics, pharmacies in areas of high employment disability were less likely to provide frequent health insurance counseling and pharmacies in areas with higher deprivation were more likely to provide counseling on other products. Conclusion ESAP pharmacy staff is a frequent source of non-prescription counseling for their patients/customers in disadvantaged neighborhoods of NYC. These findings suggest that ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing relevant counseling services to injection drug using syringe customers and warrants further investigation. PMID:20833615

  9. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... syringe is a device intended to inject anesthetic agents subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The device... cartridge) containing anesthetic is placed. After attaching a needle to the syringe body and activating...

  14. A flute syringe for vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, R F; Grand, M G

    1980-11-01

    We have devised a method whereby an inexpensive, disposable tuberculin syringe may be used as a flute syringe with retrograde flushing capability. This syringe is particularly useful in vitreous surgery and alleviates problems that occur with commercially available instruments of this type.

  15. The effect on syringe performance of fluid storage and repeated use: implications for syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Capes, D F; Herring, D; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; McDonald, C

    1996-01-01

    Syringe stiction has been reported to cause syringe pump malfunction, hence the effect on syringe performance of syringe use and the formulations used in the syringe were investigated. The force required for syringe plunger motion (at 2.5 mm min-1), when filled with soybean oil emulsion (SBOE) and with water, and the extraction of silicone oil from syringes by these fluids, were measured for Primo, Talus and Terumo 10 mL, and Terumo 50 mL syringes. The breakloose, average extrusion and maximum force required to maintain plunger motion increased after storage of SBOE for 7 days in all syringes tested (p < 0.05). The storage of water increased the breakloose force of all syringes, but only increased the maximum force of Talus syringes, and both the average extrusion and maximum forces of Terumo 10 mL syringes. The mechanism for this is most likely swelling of the elastomer of the piston due to sorption of fluid. The force was found to increase logarithmically with repeated syringe use. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the silicone oil content of syringe extractions. Three extractions were performed: repeated flushing, vigorous washing, and storage for 7 days with occasional agitation. Up to 69.4% of the silicone oil present in the syringes was extracted with both water and SBOE when they were stored or washed. In contrast to water, SBOE also extracted the lubricant when the syringe was filled and flushed immediately. If syringes are refilled, stored filled before use, or used over a prolonged period, particularly with a SBOE formulation, syringe striction may occur during infusion with a syringe pump.

  16. Ear syringing: minimising the risks.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-05-01

    The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.

  17. Does knowledge about bloodborne pathogens influence the reuse of medical injection syringes among women in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Mahmood, Bushra; Imran Khan, M

    2014-01-01

    Injections with re-used syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Pakistan. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) to describe the distribution of injections administered with newly opened syringes and assessed the association of knowledge about bloodborne pathogens with syringe reuse in Pakistan. In the PDHS, women aged 12-49 years were enrolled through a multistage stratified cluster-sampling strategy across Pakistan. Approximately 10,000 women were interviewed to collect information regarding receiving injections, the use of syringes taken out of new unopened packages for their last injections, and knowledge regarding the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HBV and HCV through the re-use of syringes and transfusion of unscreened blood. Of the 5126/10,023 women who provided information concerning their last injection, 4342 (86%) received this injection with a new syringe taken out of an unopened package. The proportion of injections received with a new syringe increased with the education level, wealth, HIV knowledge and knowledge about HCV/HBV transmission through the re-use of syringes. In the multivariable model, respondents in the 4th (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.0) and 5th (AOR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5) wealth quintiles, with some education (AOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9), those in the 4th quartile of the HIV knowledge score (AOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.0), and those with the knowledge that a new syringe protects against HCV/HBV and HIV (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.5) were more likely to receive injections with a newly opened syringe. The patients' knowledge regarding the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is an important factor in receiving injections with a new syringe.

  18. Who purchases nonprescription syringes? Characterizing customers of the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP).

    PubMed

    Battles, Haven B; Rowe, Kirsten A; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Klein, Susan J; Tesoriero, James M

    2009-11-01

    This study represents the first attempt in the USA to survey pharmacy nonprescription syringe customers at their point of purchase. We surveyed 62 individuals purchasing nonprescription syringes in seven pharmacies located in NYC and Albany, NY, USA. Three quarters of respondents purchased for illicit use, and 36% purchased for medical use, with differences found by race and gender. Half got their syringes from pharmacies "most of the time." Half had ever been refused a syringe purchase in a NYS pharmacy, with men, Blacks, and Hispanics reporting higher levels of refusals than women or whites. Two thirds reported syringe reuse but very few reported sharing. While approximately one quarter safely obtained and disposed of syringes "most of the time," two thirds used both safe and unsafe methods. Pharmacy-based syringe access programs are essential in areas not served by syringe exchanges.

  19. Don't Throw Away Syringes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a variety of laboratory experiments including carbon dioxide reduction, animal respiration, atmospheric pressure determination, and others, that can be performed using discarded syringes. (GS)

  20. ULTIMA: Magnetic Field Dependence of the Calibration Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbs, Johannes; Bunkov, Yuriy M.; Collin, Eddy; Godfrin, Henri; Suvorova, Olga; Winkelmann, Clemens B.

    2008-05-01

    ULTIMA is a project which proposes to use superfluid 3He as a sensitive medium for direct dark matter search. In this paper we report on new, detailed calibrations of our bolometric cells as a function of the magnetic field. An influence on the order of 20% on the peak height after an energy deposition is observed for magnetic fields up to 330 mT. Simultaneous measurements of neutron capture and heater events, releasing both a well defined energy, show that the effect is similar for both, and that it is possible to maintain a good calibration by an appropriate correction.

  1. The association of syringe type and syringe cleaning with HCV infection among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Mitchell, Mary M; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2009-03-01

    We assessed whether syringe type, syringe cleaning and distributive syringe sharing were associated with self-reported and laboratory-confirmed HCV infection among Hungarian IDUs. Injecting drug users (N=215) were recruited from non-treatment settings in Budapest, Hungary between October 2005 and December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models identified correlates of self-report of being HCV infected and testing positive for HCV. While 37% tested positive for HCV, 14% of the total (39% of those who tested positive) self-reported being HCV infected. Using any two-piece syringes was significantly associated with self-reported HCV infection, while distributive syringe sharing was not associated with self-report of being HCV infected. Engaging in receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes but always cleaning before reuse was not associated with testing HCV positive, while any receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes and not always cleaning before reuse was significantly associated with testing HCV positive. Sharing cookers and squirting drugs from one syringe into another syringe were not associated with testing HCV positive. The high percent of those HCV infected who did not know they were infected highlights the need to provide better access to confidential testing and counseling services. Counseling should emphasize secondary prevention of HCV among HCV infected IDUs. Our findings also indicate that syringe type and syringe cleaning practices may play a role in HCV transmission. Ethnographic research should identify the reasons why IDUs may use two-piece syringes and suggest means to reduce their use. Thorough cleaning of one-piece syringes when sterile syringes are unavailable may be an efficient way to reduce the risk of HCV infection.

  2. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  3. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers ( Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

    1991-03-01

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations.

  4. The effects of syringe plunger design on drug delivery during vertical displacement of syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Fischer, J; Neff, T; Baenziger, O

    2000-11-01

    Fluid delivery from four types of commercially available 50-ml syringes was measured using an electronic balance at an infusion rate of 1 ml.h(-1). Retrograde aspiration volume and zero-drug delivery time were recorded after lowering the syringe pump by 50 cm. Syringe compliance was calculated from the volume of bolus released after occlusion at 100 mmHg. Zero-drug delivery times differed significantly between syringes, ranging from [mean (SD)] 3.26 (0.40) min to 6.38 (0.56) min (F = 55.5, d.f. = 3/20, p < 0.0001). Syringe compliance correlated well with aspiration volume (Pearson r(2) = 0.92, p < 0.001) and zero-drug delivery time (r(2) = 0.90, p < 0.001). Syringe design affected the internal syringe compliance. All syringes were associated with potentially relevant zero-drug delivery times after moderate vertical displacement. To minimise this risk, vertical displacement of syringe pumps delivering highly vasoactive drugs should be avoided.

  5. Direct calibration in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo conversion factor: validation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V; Butler, Duncan J

    2015-01-21

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a (60)Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6 MV, 0.51% at 10 MV and 0.46% for the 18 MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18 MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1σ of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4-1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method.

  6. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Singer, Merrill; Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; Marshall, Patricia; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) can reduce HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) but their use may depend heavily on contextual factors such as local syringe policies. The frequency and predictors of transitioning over time to and from direct, indirect, and non-use of SEPs are unknown. We sought, over one year, to: (1) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance typologies; (2) identify factors associated with (a) change in typology, and (b) becoming and maintaining direct SEP use; and (3) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance before and after changes in policy designed to increase access. Using data collected from 583 IDUs participating in a three-city cohort study of SEPs, we conducted a latent transition analysis and multinomial regressions. Three typologies were detected: Direct SEP users, Indirect SEP users and Isolated IDUs. Transitions to direct SEP use were most prevalent. Factors associated with becoming or maintaining direct SEP use were female sex, Latino ethnicity, fewer injections per syringe, homelessness, recruitment city, injecting speedballs (cocaine and heroin), and police contact involving drug paraphernalia possession. Similar factors influenced transitions in the syringe policy change analysis. Policy change cities experienced an increase in Indirect SEP users (43% to 51%) with little increased direct use (29% to 31%). We found that, over time, IDUs tended to become Direct SEP users. Policies improving syringe availability influenced SEP use by increasing secondary syringe exchange. Interactions with police around drug paraphernalia may encourage SEP use for some IDUs and may provide opportunities for other health interventions. PMID:20537814

  8. Microbial contamination potential of solutions in prefilled disposable syringes used with a syringe pump.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, F P; Baptista, R J; Newton, D W; Augustine, S C

    1986-01-01

    The sterility of trypticase soy broth (TSB) that was frozen and thawed in disposable plastic syringes and infused via syringe pump was studied to determine whether ambient air or personnel-transferred contaminants compromised the sterility of the solution. Samples of TSB (10, 20, 30 mL) were prepared aseptically in syringes of three different brands--150 samples for each volume (50 for each manufacturer). The syringes were placed in zip-lock bags, stored for 24 hours at -15 to -20 degrees C, and thawed for three hours. Both positive and negative controls were used. For the test samples, infusion sets were connected to the syringes under aseptic conditions, and the solution was infused via syringe pump in ambient air into polyvinyl chloride minibags before incubation. The remaining samples were prepared in the same manner as the test solutions except that they were intentionally challenged with Bacillus subtilis introduced distal to the plunger. All samples were inspected visually for turbidity after a 14-day incubation period. There was no growth in any of the test infusion samples or in samples that were intentionally contaminated. The negative controls showed no growth; all of the positive controls showed growth. The sterility of solutions frozen in disposable plastic syringes does not appear to be compromised by touch contamination of the plunger shaft or by airborne microorganisms settling on the infusion system.

  9. Tumescent and syringe liposculpture: a logical partnership.

    PubMed

    Hunstad, J P

    1995-01-01

    Liposuction has been traditionally performed under general anesthesia. Standard instrumentation for the procedure has included blunt-tipped suction cannulae connected to an electric vacuum pump by noncollapsible tubing. A subcutaneous injection of Lidocaine with Epinephrine is routinely employed to minimize blood loss during the procedure. This infiltration has been described as the "wet technique," but it is not a method to supplant general anesthesia. The tumescent technique, a method of infusing very large volumes of dilute lidocaine with epinephrine solutions, has been advocated as a satisfactory means for providing conscious anesthesia for liposuction procedures, avoiding the need for general anesthesia. The syringe technique employs blunt-tipped suction cannulae connected to a syringe. Drawing back the syringe plunger generates the negative pressures needed to remove fat during liposuction and replaces the electric vacuum pump and connecting tubing traditionally used for this procedure. This study evaluates the combined tumescent and syringe techniques for liposuction. One hundred consecutive patients were treated with the tumescent technique as the sole means of anesthesia and the syringe technique as the sole means of performing liposuction. A modified tumescent formula is presented. A comparison of liposuction aspirates using this modified tumescent technique is compared and contrasted to liposuction aspirates obtained using the "dry technique" and the "wet technique." A historical review of the syringe technique and its perceived attributes is also presented. Technical descriptions of the tumescent infusion method, tumescent fluid formulation, and suggested patient sedation and monitoring is presented. Photographic documentation of patients who underwent the combined tumescent and syringe liposculpture treating various body areas is shown. A critical analysis of the limitations of this combined technique is also described noting added time requirements

  10. Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging

    PubMed Central

    Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development. PMID:23071944

  11. Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

  12. The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

  13. 21 CFR 880.6960 - Irrigating syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrigating syringe. 880.6960 Section 880.6960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous...

  14. Open-Source Syringe Pump Library

    PubMed Central

    Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J.; Anzalone, Gerald C.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications. PMID:25229451

  15. Effect of Legal Status of Pharmacy Syringe Sales on Syringe Purchases by Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco and San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Saira S.; Armenta, Richard; Evans, Jennifer L.; Yu, Michelle; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Page, Kimberly; Davidson, Peter; Garfein, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing blood-contaminated syringes is the main risk factor for acquiring and transmitting blood-borne infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To reduce this risk, in 2005, California enacted legislation allowing local health jurisdictions to legalize non-prescription syringe sales after approving a disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). With San Francisco approving a DPDP immediately and San Diego never approving one, we compared PWID across cities for their use of pharmacies PWID to obtain syringes. PWID age 18–30 years old were recruited into separate studies in San Francisco (n=243) and San Diego (n=338) between 2008 and 2011. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare the proportions of PWID who obtained syringes from pharmacies by city while controlling for socio-demographics, injection practices and other risk behaviors. Overall, most PWID were white (71%), male (63%), and between the ages of 18–25 years (55%). Compared to San Francisco, a smaller proportion of PWID in San Diego had bought syringes from pharmacies in the prior three months (16.9% vs. 49.8%; p<0.001), which remained statistically significant after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors (adjusted odds ratio=4.45, 95% confidence interval: 2.98, 6.65). Use of pharmacies to obtain syringes was greater where it was legal to do so. Public health policy can influence HIV and hepatitis C associated risk among PWID; however, implementation of these policies is crucial for the benefits to be realized. PMID:26252980

  16. A technical study of TLD beta calibration factor for exposures to depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; McMahan, K.L.; Souleyrette, M.L.; Bogard, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The beta calibration factor for converting light output (on reading a thermoluminescent dosimeter) to shallow dose equivalent has been reexamined through theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The results support the previously determined value for contact with a depleted uranium slab but indicate that for many actual workplace situations, the contact value may be overly conservative.

  17. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

    2013-04-01

    The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment.

  18. [The effect of air within the infusion syringe on drug delivery of syringe pump infusion systems] .

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Fischer, J; Neff, T; Bänziger, O; Weiss, M

    2000-12-01

    Application of highly concentrated short-acting vasoactive drugs in the critically ill patient requires precisely working syringe pump systems for continuous intravenous drug delivery. We performed a bench study to investigate the consequences of small amounts of air entrapped within a 50-ml infusion syringe. In particular we studied the effect of entrapped air on drug delivery after moderate vertical displacement of the pump by 50 cm (e.g. in preparation for transport) and the effect on the time required to trigger the pressure alarm after occlusion of the infusion line. At a flow rate of 1 ml/h, lowering the syringe pump prolonged the zero-drug delivery time from (mean +/- SD) 4.1 +/- 0.8 min (without air) to 6.2 +/- 0.9 (with 1 ml air) and to 13.1 +/- 0.9 min (with 2 ml of air, p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Entrapping of 2 ml of air within the syringe resulted in a 2.6-fold prolongation of the occlusion alarm time after accidental occlusion of the infusion line and a 3-fold increase of the resulting infusion bolus after occlusion. Enclosed air within infusion syringes considerably affects the syringe compliance. It increases the susceptibility of constant drug delivery to vertical displacement of syringe pumps and impairs the occlusion alarm function. Therefore, any air in syringe of infusion pump systems should be carefully removed. To avoid infusion boluses of short-acting vasoactive drugs after accidental occlusions, the occluded infusion line should be released to ambient pressure first.

  19. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  20. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  1. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  2. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  3. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  4. A Bayesian procedure for evaluating the frequency of calibration factor updates in highway safety manual (HSM) applications.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) presents statistical models to quantitatively estimate an agency's safety performance. The models were developed using data from only a few U.S. states. To account for the effects of the local attributes and temporal factors on crash occurrence, agencies are required to calibrate the HSM-default models for crash predictions. The manual suggests updating calibration factors every two to three years, or preferably on an annual basis. Given that the calibration process involves substantial time, effort, and resources, a comprehensive analysis of the required calibration factor update frequency is valuable to the agencies. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to evaluate the HSM's recommendation and determine the required frequency of calibration factor updates. A robust Bayesian estimation procedure is used to assess the variation between calibration factors computed annually, biennially, and triennially using data collected from over 2400 miles of segments and over 700 intersections on urban and suburban facilities in Florida. Bayesian model yields a posterior distribution of the model parameters that give credible information to infer whether the difference between calibration factors computed at specified intervals is credibly different from the null value which represents unaltered calibration factors between the comparison years or in other words, zero difference. The concept of the null value is extended to include the range of values that are practically equivalent to zero. Bayesian inference shows that calibration factors based on total crash frequency are required to be updated every two years in cases where the variations between calibration factors are not greater than 0.01. When the variations are between 0.01 and 0.05, calibration factors based on total crash frequency could be updated every three years.

  5. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-08

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

  6. A questionnaire survey on operability of syringe pumps for prefilled syringes.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Murata, Tomohiko; Saitoh, Keiichiro; Ajimi, Junko

    2010-09-20

    Some types of syringe pumps currently available for use of prefilled syringes (PFS) require setting for syringe size which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. We conducted a questionnaire survey for 10 nurses at the emergency critical care center of this hospital on the operating procedures of two different types of syringe pump (i.e., from turning on the power to PFS setting, PFS mounting, flow rate setting, and start of drug infusion), in terms of (1) manipulation time, (2) accuracy of task performance, and (3) operability. The syringe pumps used were: type A, TE-331S0N (Terumo Corporation), and type B, CSP-100S (Daiken Medical Co., Ltd.). The PFS product used was Inovan Injection 0.3% Syringe (dopamine hydrochloride injection; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd.). Type A required no mode setting for exclusive use of PFS, while mode setting for exclusive use of PFS is mandatory for type B. The task process from turning on the power to drug infusion start comprised 5 and 13 steps for type A and B, respectively. Manipulation time was significantly shorter with type A, compared to type B. As for accuracy of task performance, 90% of nurses performed manipulations accurately with type A; whereas with type B, 90% of nurses were close to failing or actually failed to follow the procedures appropriately, and only 10% followed accurately. Thus, type A proved superior in 4 of the 5 points of issue except "easy to set flow rate". In conclusion, the results indicate the importance of standardizing the syringe size and other specifications through the cooperation of pharmaceutical companies and medical device manufacturers to cope with the future spread of PFS.

  7. Comparative evaluation of endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe in obturation of primary teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Mallayya C.; Srivastava, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare four methods of root canal obturation in primary teeth using conventional radiography. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 root canals of primary molars were prepared and obturated with zinc oxide eugenol. Obturation methods compared were endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe. The root canal obturations were evaluated by conventional radiography for the length of obturation and presence of voids. The obtained data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results showed significant differences between the four groups for the length of obturation (P < 0.05). The endodontic pressure syringe showed the best results (98.5% optimal fillings) and jiffy tube showed the poor results (37.5% optimal fillings) for the length of obturation. The insulin syringe (79.2% optimal fillings) and local anesthetic syringe (66.7% optimal fillings) showed acceptable results for the length of root canal obturation. However, minor voids were present in all the four techniques used. Conclusions: Endodontic pressure syringe produced the best results in terms of length of obturation and controlling paste extrusion from the apical foramen. However, insulin syringe and local anesthetic syringe can be used as effective alternative methods. PMID:27433062

  8. Access to syringes for HIV prevention for injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia: syringe purchase test study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Russia is concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). This is especially true for St. Petersburg where high HIV incidence persists among the city’s estimated 80,000 IDUs. Although sterile syringes are legally available, access for IDUs may be hampered. To explore the feasibility of using pharmacies to expand syringe access and provide other prevention services to IDUs, we investigated the current access to sterile syringes at the pharmacies and the correlation between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence in St. Petersburg. Methods 965 pharmacies citywide were mapped, classified by ownership type, and the association between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence at the district level was tested. We selected two districts among the 18 districts – one central and one peripheral – that represented two major types of city districts and contacted all operating pharmacies by phone to inquire if they stocked syringes and obtained details about their stock. Qualitative interviews with 26 IDUs provided data regarding syringe access in pharmacies and were used to formulate hypotheses for the pharmacy syringe purchase test wherein research staff attempted to purchase syringes in all pharmacies in the two districts. Results No correlation was found between the density of pharmacies and HIV prevalence at the district level. Of 108 operating pharmacies, 38 (35%) did not sell syringes of the types used by IDUs; of these, half stocked but refused to sell syringes to research staff, and the other half did not stock syringes at all. Overall 70 (65%) of the pharmacies did sell syringes; of these, 49 pharmacies sold single syringes without any restrictions and 21 offered packages of ten. Conclusions Trainings for pharmacists need to be conducted to reduce negative attitudes towards IDUs and increase pharmacists’ willingness to sell syringes. At a structural level, access to safe injection supplies for IDUs could be increased by including syringes

  9. Calibrator for microflow delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinozzi, Franco; Bini, Fabiano; Cappa, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating the fluid flow rate down to 3×10-2ml/h is proposed, based on the volumetric pump working principle. Constant flow rate is assured by means of the constant speed at which the plunger of a laboratory syringe is moved. To test effectiveness of the system, a flow sensor, composed by a differential pressure transducer and a needle was calibrated and afterward utilized for characterizing a clinical drug infusion device. The proposed apparatus showed a full scale (FS) uncertainty approximately equal to 3.5% over a range of 6 ml/h. The calibration range starts at 3×10-2ml/h with a 1 ml syringe and at 3×10-3ml/h with a 0.1 ml syringe. The minimum detectable signal (evaluated at 6 dB SNR) was equal to about 1.4×10-2ml/h by using a syringe of 1 ml. The outcomes of the adopted procedure allowed a characterization of the performance of an infusion pump, without the need of the usual but somewhat cumbersome gravimetric calibration standard. Moreover, some issues about the expected resolution and uncertainty, depending on the characteristics of the system, is also reported.

  10. Innovative self-calibration method for accelerometer scale factor of the missile-borne RINS with fiber optic gyro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lei; Liu, Zengjun; Zhang, Yiming

    2016-09-19

    The calibration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a key technique to improve the preciseness of the inertial navigation system (INS) for missile, especially for the calibration of accelerometer scale factor. Traditional calibration method is generally based on the high accuracy turntable, however, it leads to expensive costs and the calibration results are not suitable to the actual operating environment. In the wake of developments in multi-axis rotational INS (RINS) with optical inertial sensors, self-calibration is utilized as an effective way to calibrate IMU on missile and the calibration results are more accurate in practical application. However, the introduction of multi-axis RINS causes additional calibration errors, including non-orthogonality errors of mechanical processing and non-horizontal errors of operating environment, it means that the multi-axis gimbals could not be regarded as a high accuracy turntable. As for its application on missiles, in this paper, after analyzing the relationship between the calibration error of accelerometer scale factor and non-orthogonality and non-horizontal angles, an innovative calibration procedure using the signals of fiber optic gyro and photoelectric encoder is proposed. The laboratory and vehicle experiment results validate the theory and prove that the proposed method relaxes the orthogonality requirement of rotation axes and eliminates the strict application condition of the system.

  11. HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

  12. Drug injectors and the cleaning of needles and syringes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R A

    2000-03-01

    When people share needles and syringes they risk transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Cleaning needles and syringes can help to reduce, although not eliminate, these risks. This article begins by engaging with some of the literature on the cleaning of needles and syringes. Drawing on qualitative research conducted with drug injectors in England, the article then goes on to explore drug injectors' perceptions and experiences of cleaning needles and syringes inside and outside prison. The article concludes by highlighting the implications for future research and policy making. Ultimately there should be a stronger policy response to reduce the risks associated with sharing needles and syringes inside prison, which should include the piloting of prison needle and syringe exchange schemes.

  13. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  14. Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

    2014-11-15

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

  15. Thinking ethically about needle and syringe programs.

    PubMed

    Kleinig, John

    2006-01-01

    Accepting-for the sake of argument-our current legal policies concerning heroin use and its users, what ethical questions are raised for needle and syringe program (NSPs)? Do they weaken drug laws, send the wrong message or obscure the right message, do little to eliminate the harm of drugs, detract from alternatives, and/or constitute a counsel of despair? I suggest that in the absence of established better alternatives, NSPs constitute a morally acceptable and in some cases even desirable option despite the continued criminalization of injecting drug use. Yet they must be conceived and administered in ways that do not reinforce prevailing social prejudices.

  16. Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service.

    PubMed

    Nutbrown, R F; Duane, S; Shipley, D R; Thomas, R A S

    2002-02-07

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co gamma-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co y-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1sigma uncertainty). The best fit

  17. Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

    2014-12-01

    Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration.

  18. Applications of spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for cross-calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. However, an integrated global observation framework requires an understanding of how land surface processes are seen differently by various sensors. This is particularly true for sensors acquiring data in spectral bands whose relative spectral responses (RSRs) are not similar and thus may produce different results while observing the same target. The intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by RSR mismatches can be compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of the two sensors. The motivation of this work comes from the need to compensate the spectral response differences of multispectral sensors in order to provide a more accurate cross-calibration between the sensors. In this paper, radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors was performed using near-simultaneous observations over the Libya 4 pseudoinvariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The RSR differences of the analogous ETM+ and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances between the two sensors over their lifetimes. The average percent differences in the long-term trends ranged from $-$5% to $+$6%. The RSR compensated ETM+ TOA reflectance (ETM+$^{ast}$) measurements were then found to agree with MODIS TOA reflectance to within 5% for all bands when Earth Observing-1 Hy- erion hyperspectral data were used to produce the SBAFs. These differences were later

  19. Access to sterile syringes in Maine: pharmacy practice after the 1993 repeal of the syringe prescription law.

    PubMed

    Case, P; Beckett, G A; Jones, T S

    1998-01-01

    In October 1993, the Maine legislature repealed the prescription law regulating the sale of syringes. The new law allowed but did not require licensed pharmacists to dispense syringes without a prescription to anyone 18 years of age or older. From November 1995 to January 1996, we conducted a telephone survey of 208 Maine pharmacists to evaluate the sale of syringes with and without a prescription and to assess pharmacists' willingness to sell syringes without a prescription. We found that 94% of pharmacists were willing, in all cases or at the discretion of the pharmacist, to sell syringes without a prescription. However, when asked specifically about willingness to sell syringes without a prescription to suspected injection drug users (IDUs) > or =18 years of age, 47% were willing, 40% were not willing, and 13% did not know or declined to answer. Pharmacists reported other requirements for the purchase of syringes without a prescription, such as the requirement for the customer to provide a reasonable justification for the purchase. In all, there were 31 (15%) pharmacists in the sample willing to sell syringes to without a prescription with no additional requirements for purchase to suspected IDUs as permitted by law. There were few negative incidents reported involving IDUs and the sale of syringes without a prescription since amendment of the law. Although sales of syringes without a prescription were reported, the numbers sold fell short of the estimated number of syringes required for IDUs in Maine to use a new syringe for every injection. Despite the change in the prescription law intended to increase access to syringes, the data suggest barriers such as drug paraphernalia laws and pharmacy policies may prevent IDUs from purchasing syringes and contribute to ongoing transmission of HIV. Amendment of the drug paraphernalia and syringe possession laws, clarification of the legitimate medical purpose of access to sterile syringes for IDUs, and offering

  20. Syringe Disposal among Injection Drug Users in Harlem and the Bronx during the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles M.; Deren, Sherry; Fuller, Crystal M.; Blaney, Shannon; McMahon, James M.; Tortu, Stephanie; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Vlahov, David

    2007-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2001, New York State enacted the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP), allowing syringes to be sold in pharmacies without a prescription or dispensed through doctors, hospitals, and clinics to adults. A concern in the assessment of ESAP is its effects on syringe disposal practices. Syringe use data regarding…

  1. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  6. Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C. M.; Sutanto, A.; Suradana, I. G.

    1999-01-01

    Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety. PMID:10063658

  7. Socio-Economic Status Determines Risk of Receptive Syringe Sharing Behaviors among Iranian Drug Injectors; A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6 months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n = 434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6 months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6 months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.50–10.94), and were single (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them. PMID:25852577

  8. Prediction of sun protection factors by calculation of transmissions with a calibrated step film model.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of in vitro sun protection factors (SPFs) are a common way of assessing sunscreen formulations at the stage of screening. The aim of the present investigation is to provide an alternative tool for the estimation of SPF values using a calculation based on the UV spectroscopic properties of the individual UV absorbers. As with in vitro measurements, the crucial step is to work out realistic values of transmissions of UV light through a film of the sunscreen formulation in the important spectral range between 290 and 400 nm. Once these transmissions are given, the SPF can be calculated. Since the human skin is an inhomogeneous substrate, a step film model for the calculation of such transmissions had been proposed by J.J. O'Neill. The step film geometry in this model is a function of two parameters that characterize the fraction of the thin and thick parts of the film and their difference in thickness. The transmissions and therefore the SPF are sensitive functions of the step film parameters. In order to use the model for the prediction of realistic SPF values, the step film parameters are calibrated using three sunscreen standard formulations with well-known in vivo SPF. A satisfactory correlation of in vivo SPF values and SPF values calculated with the calibrated step film model using an additional 36 different sunscreen formulations (in vivo SPF values between 3 and 36) is demonstrated.

  9. Reversal of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity by cinnamic and syringic acids in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sheng-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Yen, Hsiu-Fang; Lee, Yi-Ju; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol was used to induce acute hepatotoxicity in mice. Effects of cinnamic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA) post-intake for hepatic recovery from alcoholic injury was investigated. Ethanol treated mice were supplied by CA or SA at 40 or 80 mg/kg BW/day for 5 days. Results showed that ethanol stimulated protein expression of CYP2E1, p47(phox), gp91(phox), cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor kappa B in liver. CA or SA post-intake restricted hepatic expression of these molecules. Ethanol suppressed nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) expression, and CA or SA enhanced Nrf2 expression in cytosolic and nuclear fractions. Ethanol increased the release of reactive oxygen species, oxidized glutathione, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric acid and prostaglandin E2. CA or SA lowered hepatic production of these oxidative and inflammatory factors. Histological data revealed that ethanol administration caused obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration, and CA or SA post-intake improved hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that cinnamic acid and syringic acid are potent nutraceutical agents for acute alcoholic liver disease therapy. However, potential additive or synergistic benefits of cinnamic and syringic acids against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity need to be investigated.

  10. SU-E-T-98: An Analysis of TG-51 Electron Beam Calibration Correction Factor Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P; Alvarez, P; Taylor, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Kry, S; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze the uncertainty of the TG-51 electron beam calibration correction factors for farmer type ion chambers currently used by institutions visited by IROC Houston. Methods: TG-51 calibration data were collected from 181 institutions visited by IROC Houston physicists for 1174 and 197 distinct electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta accelerators, respectively. Data collected and analyzed included ion chamber make and model, nominal energy, N{sub D,w}, I{sub 50}, R{sub 50}, k’R{sub 50}, d{sub ref}, P{sub gr} and pdd(d{sub ref}). k’R{sub 50} data for parallel plate chambers were excluded from the analysis. Results: Unlike photon beams, electron nominal energy is a poor indicator of the actual energy as evidenced by the range of R{sub 50} values for each electron beam energy (6–22MeV). The large range in R{sub 50} values resulted k’R{sub 50} values with a small standard deviation but large range between maximum value used and minimum value (0.001–0.029) used for a specific Varian nominal energy. Varian data showed more variability in k’R{sub 50} values than the Elekta data (0.001–0.014). Using the observed range of R{sub 50} values, the maximum spread in k’R{sub 50} values was determined by IROC Houston and compared to the spread of k’R{sub 50} values used in the community. For Elekta linacs the spreads were equivalent, but for Varian energies of 6 to 16MeV, the community spread was 2 to 6 times larger. Community P{sub gr} values had a much larger range of values for 6 and 9 MeV values than predicted. The range in Varian pdd(d{sub ref} ) used by the community for low energies was large, (1.4–4.9 percent), when it should have been very close to unity. Exradin, PTW Roos and PTW farmer chambers N{sub D,w} values showed the largest spread, ≥11 percent. Conclusion: While the vast majority of electron beam calibration correction factors used are accurate, there is a surprising spread in some of the values used.

  11. Hypertensive Crisis During Norepinephrine Syringe Exchange: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Roland A; Knape, Johannes T A; Egberts, Toine C G; Timmerman, Annemoon M D E

    2017-04-01

    A 67-year critically ill patient suffered from a hypertensive crisis (200 mm Hg) because of a norepinephrine overdose. The overdose occurred when the clinician exchanged an almost-empty syringe and the syringe pump repeatedly reported an error. We hypothesized that an object between the plunger and the syringe driver may have caused the exertion of too much force on the syringe. Testing this hypothesis in vitro showed significant peak dosing errors (up to +572%) but moderate overdose (0.07 mL, +225%) if a clamp was used on the intravenous infusion line and a large overdose (0.8 mL, +2700%) if no clamp was used. Clamping and awareness are advised.

  12. Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

    2010-01-01

    Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others’ efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs. PMID:20405227

  13. Non-prescription syringe sales in California: a qualitative examination of practices among 12 local health jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Valerie J; Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

    2010-07-01

    Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others' efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

  14. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  15. Placing the Dynamics of Syringe Exchange Programs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon the broader health, social, and political geography literature this paper outlines a framework for considering place-based processes through which syringe exchange availability may be understood. It is argued that the geographic distribution of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States is linked to the social and political conditions of particular localities through three place characteristics: (1) structural constraints; (2) social and spatial distancing of injection drug users; and (3) localized action. Although SEPs remain a controversial issue and face ongoing obstacles from the government, law enforcement and local communities, they continue to operate through the efforts of grassroots organizations and local activists. Action on this issue occurs locally, and the characteristics of place-based factors will affect whether particular areas adopt SEPs. PMID:16797217

  16. An investigation of factors influencing the calibration of 5-hole probes for 3-D flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, R. G.; Hodson, H. P.

    1992-06-01

    The effects of Reynolds number, Mach number and turbulence on the calibrations of commonly used types of 5-hole probe are discussed. The majority of the probes were calibrated at the exit from a transonic nozzle over a range of Reynolds numbers at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers. Additional information relating to the flow structure were obtained from a large scale, low speed wind tunnel. The results confirmed the existence of two distinct Reynolds number effects. Flow separation around the probe head affects the calibrations at relatively low Reynolds numbers while changes in the detailed structure of the flow around the sensing holes affects the calibrations even when the probe is nulled. Compressibility is shown to have little influence upon the general behavior of these probes in terms of Reynolds number sensitivity but turbulence can effect the reliability of probe calibrations at typical test Reynolds numbers.

  17. An investigation into factors affecting electron density calibration for a megavoltage cone-beam CT system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jessica; Holloway, Lois C; Quinn, Alexandra; Fielding, Andrew

    2012-09-06

    There is a growing interest in the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) data for radiotherapy treatment planning. To calculate accurate dose distributions, knowledge of the electron density (ED) of the tissues being irradiated is required. In the case of MV CBCT, it is necessary to determine a calibration-relating CT number to ED, utilizing the photon beam produced for MV CBCT. A number of different parameters can affect this calibration. This study was undertaken on the Siemens MV CBCT system, MVision, to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on the reconstructed CT pixel value to ED calibration: the number of monitor units (MUs) used (5, 8, 15 and 60 MUs), the image reconstruction filter (head and neck, and pelvis), reconstruction matrix size (256 by 256 and 512 by 512), and the addition of extra solid water surrounding the ED phantom. A Gammex electron density CT phantom containing EDs from 0.292 to 1.707 was imaged under each of these conditions. The linear relationship between MV CBCT pixel value and ED was demonstrated for all MU settings and over the range of EDs. Changes in MU number did not dramatically alter the MV CBCT ED calibration. The use of different reconstruction filters was found to affect the MV CBCT ED calibration, as was the addition of solid water surrounding the phantom. Dose distributions from treatment plans calculated with simulated image data from a 15 MU head and neck reconstruction filter MV CBCT image and a MV CBCT ED calibration curve from the image data parameters and a 15 MU pelvis reconstruction filter showed small and clinically insignificant differences. Thus, the use of a single MV CBCT ED calibration curve is unlikely to result in any clinical differences. However, to ensure minimal uncertainties in dose reporting, MV CBCT ED calibration measurements could be carried out using parameter-specific calibration measurements.

  18. Rapid discrimination and determination of antibiotics drugs in plastic syringes using near infrared spectroscopy with chemometric analysis: Application to amoxicillin and penicillin.

    PubMed

    Lê, Laetitia Minh Mai; Eveleigh, Luc; Hasnaoui, Ikram; Prognon, Patrice; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette; Caudron, Eric

    2017-02-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined to chemometric analysis to discriminate and quantify three antibiotics by direct measurement in plastic syringes.Solutions of benzylpenicillin (PENI), amoxicillin (AMOX) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMOX/CLAV) were analyzed at therapeutic concentrations in glass vials and plastic syringes with NIR spectrometer by direct measurement. Chemometric analysis using partial least squares regression and discriminative analysis was conducted to develop qualitative and quantitative calibration models. Discrimination of the three antibiotics was optimal for concentrated solutions with 100% of accuracy. For quantitative analysis, the three antibiotics furnished a linear response (R²>0.9994) for concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 g/mL for AMOX, 0.1 to 1.0 MUI/mL for PENI and 0.005 to 0.05 g/mL for AMOX/CLAV with excellent repeatability (maximum 1.3%) and intermediate precision (maximum of 3.2%). Based on proposed models, 94.4% of analyzed AMOX syringes, 80.0% of AMOX/CLAV syringes and 85.7% of PENI syringes were compliant with a relative error including the limit of ± 15%.NIRS as rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive analytical method represents a potentially powerful tool to further develop for securing the drug administration circuit of healthcare institutions to ensure that patients receive the correct product at the right dose.

  19. Automatic In-Syringe Dispersive Microsolid Phase Extraction Using Magnetic Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Maya, Fernando; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2015-08-04

    A novel automatic strategy for the use of micro- and nanomaterials as sorbents for dispersive microsolid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) based on the lab-in-syringe concept is reported. Using the developed technique, the implementation of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for automatic solid-phase extraction has been achieved for the first time. A hybrid material based on submicrometric MOF crystals containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles was prepared and retained in the surface of a miniature magnetic bar. The magnetic bar was placed inside the syringe of an automatic bidirectional syringe pump, enabling dispersion and subsequent magnetic retrieval of the MOF hybrid material by automatic activation/deactivation of magnetic stirring. Using malachite green (MG) as a model adsorption analyte, a limit of detection of 0.012 mg/L and a linear working range of 0.04-2 mg/L were obtained for a sample volume equal to the syringe volume (5 mL). MG preconcentration was linear up to a volume of 40 mL, obtaining an enrichment factor of 120. The analysis throughput is 18 h(-1), and up to 3000 extractions/g of material can be performed. Recoveries ranging between 95 and 107% were obtained for the analysis of MG in different types of water and trout fish samples. The developed automatic D-μ-SPE technique is a safe alternative for the use of small-sized materials for sample preparation and is readily implementable to other magnetic materials independent of their size and shape and can be easily hyphenated to the majority of detectors and separation techniques.

  20. Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option?

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Nelson, C.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, many poorer countries have chosen to use disposable instead of sterilizable syringes. Unfortunately, the infrastructure and management systems that are vital if disposables are to be used safely do not exist. WHO estimates that up to 30% of injections administered are unsafe. The traditional sterilizable syringe had many disadvantages, some of which have been minimized through better design and the use of modern materials; others have been overcome because staff are able to demonstrate that they have performed safely. For example, the time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicator has enabled staff to demonstrate that a sterilizing cycle has been successfully completed. Health facility staff must be able to sterilize equipment, and the sterilizable syringe remains the least costly means of administering an injection. Data from countries that have acceptable systems for processing clinical waste indicate that safe and environmentally acceptable disposal, destruction and final containment cost nearly as much as the original cost of a disposable syringe. By careful supervision of staff behaviour and good management, some countries have demonstrated that they are able to administer safe injections with sterilizable syringes at a price they can afford. PMID:10593029

  1. Novel reduced pressure-balance syringe for chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Windom, Bret C; Bruno, Thomas J

    2010-11-19

    When withdrawing a fluid sample (for additional chromatographic analyses) from an apparatus operated at a reduced pressure, a typical syringe proves to be ineffective (even if it is equipped with a gas tight plunger). It simply does not create enough pressure differential to remove a fluid sample from a reduced pressure environment. We encountered such a situation as part of efforts to extend the operation of the advanced distillation curve protocol to reduced pressures. The problem was solved by the development of a pressure balance syringe that allows reliable and precise sampling from an apparatus operating at sub-ambient pressures. This new device uses an external vacuum source to evacuate a syringe barrel, allowing a user to withdraw fluid samples from environments with pressures as low as 0.5kPa. To demonstrate the operation of the newly developed device, distillate analyses were performed on two fluids at low pressure: a predefined validation mixture, and a commercial soy based biodiesel fuel. The pressure balance syringe was used successfully for sampling in both cases. The use of the pressure balance syringe is not limited to reduced pressure distillations; indeed it can be used for a variety of applications in which chemical/compositional analyses are desired on a fluid contained in a reduced pressure environment.

  2. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21609471

  3. Clean switch: the case for prison needle and syringe programs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    In Canada and in many other countries, prisons have become incubators for the transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates of HIV and HCV prevalence in Canadian prisons are at least 10 and 20 times, respectively, the reported prevalence in the population as a whole--and prevalence rates have been reported to be significantly higher for people who inject drugs. Although people who inject drugs may inject less frequently while incarcerated, the risks of injection drug use are amplified because of the scarcity of sterile syringes and the sharing of injecting equipment in prison. Making sterile injection equipment available to people in prison is an important response to evidence of the risk of HIV and HCV transmission through sharing syringes to inject drugs. In this article, Sandra Chu explains why the government is obligated under international human rights standards and Canadian correctional and constitutional law to provide prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs).

  4. Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High – A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form (‘shirka’), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania. PMID:20798543

  5. An Improved Syringe Agroinfiltration Protocol to Enhance Transformation Efficiency by Combinative Use of 5-Azacytidine, Ascorbate Acid and Tween-20.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huimin; Tan, Zilong; Wen, Xuejing; Wang, Yucheng

    2017-02-14

    Syringe infiltration is an important transient transformation method that is widely used in many molecular studies. Owing to the wide use of syringe agroinfiltration, it is important and necessary to improve its transformation efficiency. Here, we studied the factors influencing the transformation efficiency of syringe agroinfiltration. The pCAMBIA1301 was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves for investigation. The effects of 5-azacytidine (AzaC), Ascorbate acid (ASC) and Tween-20 on transformation were studied. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and GUS activity were respectively measured to determine the transformation efficiency. AzaC, ASC and Tween-20 all significantly affected the transformation efficiency of agroinfiltration, and the optimal concentrations of AzaC, ASC and Tween-20 for the transgene expression were identified. Our results showed that 20 μM AzaC, 0.56 mM ASC and 0.03% (v/v) Tween-20 is the optimal concentration that could significantly improve the transformation efficiency of agroinfiltration. Furthermore, a combined supplement of 20 μM AzaC, 0.56 mM ASC and 0.03% Tween-20 improves the expression of transgene better than any one factor alone, increasing the transgene expression by more than 6-fold. Thus, an optimized syringe agroinfiltration was developed here, which might be a powerful method in transient transformation analysis.

  6. An Improved Syringe Agroinfiltration Protocol to Enhance Transformation Efficiency by Combinative Use of 5-Azacytidine, Ascorbate Acid and Tween-20

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huimin; Tan, Zilong; Wen, Xuejing; Wang, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Syringe infiltration is an important transient transformation method that is widely used in many molecular studies. Owing to the wide use of syringe agroinfiltration, it is important and necessary to improve its transformation efficiency. Here, we studied the factors influencing the transformation efficiency of syringe agroinfiltration. The pCAMBIA1301 was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves for investigation. The effects of 5-azacytidine (AzaC), Ascorbate acid (ASC) and Tween-20 on transformation were studied. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and GUS activity were respectively measured to determine the transformation efficiency. AzaC, ASC and Tween-20 all significantly affected the transformation efficiency of agroinfiltration, and the optimal concentrations of AzaC, ASC and Tween-20 for the transgene expression were identified. Our results showed that 20 μM AzaC, 0.56 mM ASC and 0.03% (v/v) Tween-20 is the optimal concentration that could significantly improve the transformation efficiency of agroinfiltration. Furthermore, a combined supplement of 20 μM AzaC, 0.56 mM ASC and 0.03% Tween-20 improves the expression of transgene better than any one factor alone, increasing the transgene expression by more than 6-fold. Thus, an optimized syringe agroinfiltration was developed here, which might be a powerful method in transient transformation analysis. PMID:28216553

  7. Volumetric Lattice Boltzmann Simulation for Fluid dynamics and Turbulence in Practical Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Everton; Deep, Debanjan; Yu, Huidan (Whitney)

    2012-11-01

    We conduct numerical experiments to study fluid dynamics and turbulence in syringes using volumetric lattice Boltzmann method (VLBM) that is developed for dealing with arbitrary moving boundaries. Several common used medical syringes are used to predict the efficiency and safety of syringes experiencing low flow infusion rates. It is found that smaller size syringes reach a steady flow rate much sooner than larger ones, which are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. The relation between the syringe size and its steady flow rate is revealed. At low flow rates, corner vortices are observed. We explore conditions that lead to turbulent flow aiming to aid safer syringe application in nursing practices.

  8. Development of a syringe pump assisted dynamic headspace sampling technique for needle trap device.

    PubMed

    Eom, In-Yong; Niri, Vadoud H; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-07-04

    This paper describes a new approach that combines needle trap devices (NTDs) with a dynamic headspace sampling technique (purge and trap) using a bidirectional syringe pump. The needle trap device is a 22-G stainless steel needle 3.5-in. long packed with divinylbenzene sorbent particles. The same sized needle, without packing, was used for purging purposes. We chose an aqueous mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) and developed a sequential purge and trap (SPNT) method, in which sampling (trapping) and purging cycles were performed sequentially by the use of syringe pump with different distribution channels. In this technique, a certain volume (1 mL) of headspace was sequentially sampled using the needle trap; afterwards, the same volume of air was purged into the solution at a high flow rate. The proposed technique showed an effective extraction compared to the continuous purge and trap technique, with a minimal dilution effect. Method evaluation was also performed by obtaining the calibration graphs for aqueous BTEX solutions in the concentration range of 1-250 ng/mL. The developed technique was compared to the headspace solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of aqueous BTEX samples. Detection limits as low as 1 ng/mL were obtained for BTEX by NTD-SPNT.

  9. Investigation of factors affecting the heater wire method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshock, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a transient method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples. The system consisted of a 10 mil diameter standard thermocouple (Pt, Pt-13% Rh) and an 0.8 mil diameter chromel-alumel thermocouple attached to a 20 mil diameter electrically heated platinum wire. The calibration procedure consisted of electrically heating the wire to approximately 2500 F within about a seven-second period in an environment approximating atmospheric conditions at 120,000 feet. Rapid periodic readout of the standard and fine wire thermocouple signals permitted a comparison of the two temperature indications. An analysis was performed which indicated that the temperature distortion at the heater wire produced by the thermocouple junctions appears to be of negligible magnitude. Consequently, the calibration technique appears to be basically sound, although several practical changes which appear desirable are presented and discussed. Additional investigation is warranted to evaluate radiation effects and transient response characteristics.

  10. A clinical comparison of pain perception and extent of area anesthetized by Wand® and a traditional syringe

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Meet; Shivaswamy, Sumanth; Jain, Sanjay; Tambwekar, Sonal

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the contemporary dental practice, alleviation of pain is the most important factor to ameliorate patient's condition and to gain one's confidence towards the skills of the operator. Such confidence aids to the ultimate success of the treatment procedures. Aims and Objectives: This study compares the pain response of a group of 10 subjects to the Wand® with the response to traditional syringe injections and also compares the extent of the area anesthetized. Materials and Methods: 10 subjects were selected for the study and 20 injections were given contralaterally to them, 10 with Wand®, and rest with the traditional aspirating syringe. Each subject received 2 injections on the palate, Left side with Wand® (test) and Right side with Traditional syringe (control). All injections were given by the same investigator without the use of topical anesthetic spray/gel. Pain perception levels were recorded with a visual analogue scale. Also the extent of area anesthetized with a single palatal injection was assessed by probing. Results: The results showed injections with the syringe were more painful than injections with the Wand® in 2 of 10 subjects. Also the extent of the area anesthetized by both the techniques was similar except in 2 patients. Conclusion: The Wand® results in less painful injections; however, mean ratings of pain for both the groups, were mostly below the annoying level of pain. Also, the areas covered by the anesthetic effect of both the injections were comparatively similar. PMID:23055586

  11. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  12. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  13. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  14. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  15. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  16. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  17. Note: On the wavelength dependence of the intensity calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectrometer determined with profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.; Morita, S.; Dong, C. F.; Goto, M.; Maezawa, H.; Miyauchi, H.

    2015-06-15

    The absolute calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic instrument which has recently been determined from absolute radiation profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum has been investigated by comparing the calculated diffraction efficiency of grating. An overall tendency of the wavelength dependence of the calibration factor from 40 Å to 500 Å can be reproduced by that of the grating efficiency, especially the agreement between the measured calibration factor and the calculated grating efficiency has been found to be fairly good for the wavelength range 200 Å-500 Å.

  18. Improvement and calibration of a SSNT personal dosemeter and study of importance of albedo factor for dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Torkzadeh, F; Taheri, M

    2007-01-01

    The Neutriran albedo neutron dosemeter has been improved and calibrated for neutron personal dosimetry. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to calculate the thermal neutrons backscattered from the body (albedo factor). Backscattering from the wall, ceiling and floor in calibration room was considered also via simulation by MCNP4C. A semi automated counting system applying a high-resolution scanner was used for counting of tracks. An 241Am source was used to produce similar alpha particles from 10B (n,alpha)7Li reaction for the optimisation of scanner parameters to distinguish and separate the tracks in SSNTD, which lead to a better distinction between etched alpha tracks and, consequently, a higher linear region of dose characteristic.

  19. Disinfection of syringes contaminated with hepatitis C virus by rinsing with household products.

    PubMed

    Binka, Mawuena; Paintsil, Elijah; Patel, Amisha; Lindenbach, Brett D; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is associated with the sharing of injection paraphernalia. People who inject drugs often "disinfect" used syringes with household products when new syringes are unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of these products in disinfecting HCV-contaminated syringes. Methods.  A genotype-2a reporter virus assay was used to assess HCV infectivity in syringes postrinsing. Hepatitis C virus-contaminated 1 mL insulin syringes with fixed needles and 1 mL tuberculin syringes with detachable needles were rinsed with water, Clorox bleach, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, isopropanol, Lysol, or Dawn Ultra at different concentrations. Syringes were either immediately tested for viable virus or stored at 4°C, 22°C, and 37°C for up to 21 days before viral infectivity was determined. Results.  Most products tested reduced HCV infectivity to undetectable levels in insulin syringes. Bleach eliminated HCV infectivity in both syringes. Other disinfectants produced virus recovery ranging from high (5% ethanol, 77% ± 12% HCV-positive syringes) to low (1:800 Dawn Ultra, 7% ± 7% positive syringes) in tuberculin syringes. Conclusions.  Household disinfectants tested were more effective in fixed-needle syringes (low residual volume) than in syringes with detachable needles (high residual volume). Bleach was the most effective disinfectant after 1 rinse, whereas other diluted household products required multiple rinses to eliminate HCV. Rinsing with water, 5% ethanol (as in beer), and 20% ethanol (as in fortified wine) was ineffective and should be avoided. Our data suggest that rinsing of syringes with household disinfectants may be an effective tool in preventing HCV transmission in PWID when done properly.

  20. Prediction of sun protection factors and UVA parameters of sunscreens by using a calibrated step film model.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Bernd; Mongiat, Sébastien; Quass, Katja; Deshayes, Cyrille

    2004-07-01

    At the stage of screening of new sun protection formulations, quick and inexpensive methods for estimation of the ultraviolet (UV) screening performance are highly desirable. It has been shown recently that apart from measurements of sun protection factors in vitro, calculations using a calibrated step film model are also a possibility. In the present investigation, further evidence for the usefulness of the step film model in terms of prediction of the sun protection factor is shown. In addition, it is demonstrated that parameters, which characterize the protection in the UVA range such as the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength can be calculated in good accordance with experimental data. Although with less accuracy, the estimation of UVA protection factors is also possible, if the photodegradation some filters undergo upon irradiation is taken into consideration.

  1. Fluctuations in syringe-pump infusions: association with blood pressure variations in infants.

    PubMed

    Capes, D F; Dunster, K R; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; Colditz, P B; McDonald, C

    1995-08-01

    Flow continuity of two brands of syringe pumps and four brands of syringes was studied as a possible cause of hemodynamic fluctuations observed in neonates. Cyclical fluctuations were observed in the blood pressure of 14 neonates receiving dopamine infusions by syringe pump at flow rates from 0.2 to 1 mL/hr. Atom 235 and IVAC 770 pumps and various sizes of Terumo, Becton Dickinson, Omnifix, and IVAC syringes were evaluated. Flow continuity was assessed by using a gravimetric technique. The force needed to initiate and maintain syringe plunger motion was also measured. Noncontinuous flow was encountered most commonly with Terumo syringes, which delivered boluses at regular intervals at flow rates up to 5 mL/hr. The interval was dependent on flow rate and was similar to the time between the blood pressure fluctuations observed clinically. The syringe plunger force exhibited regular fluctuations indicative of the plunger sticking, and simultaneous measurement of flow established a direct temporal relationship with boluses. The other syringes tested did not exhibit such fluctuations. No differences were found between the two syringe pumps. Syringe plunger sticking, resulting in intermittent boluses and potential blood pressure fluctuations, may occur at low flow rates and with certain syringe brands. This appeared to be the cause of hemodynamic fluctuations in neonates receiving dopamine infusions.

  2. Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma: report of a case with histologic findings.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Brooke T; Prakash, Amy; Fenske, Neil A; Messina, Jane L

    2006-05-01

    Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma is a rare acquired condition characterized by painful symmetric swelling and hypopigmentation of the palms and lateral fingers, which develops after brief exposure to water. Histopathologic examination suggests that an aberration in the eccrine sweat gland apparatus may be the underlying cause of this condition. The "hand-in-the-bucket sign," in which patients arrive in their physician's office with their hand in a bucket of water to more readily demonstrate their lesions, is such a common presentation that it almost can be regarded as pathognomonic. All 12 cases reported to date have been in young females. We report a case of aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma in a male with unique histologic findings.

  3. Correlates of lending needles/syringes among HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret; Purcell, David W; Latkin, Carl A; Malow, Robert; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H

    2007-11-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined the correlates of lending needles/syringes with HIV-negative and unknown status injection partners. HIV-positive IDUs (N=738) from 4 cities in the United States who reported injection drug use with other IDUs in the past 3 months participated in an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. Eighteen percent of study participants self-reported having lent their needles to HIV-negative or unknown status injection partners. Multivariate analyses showed that 6 variables were significantly associated with this high-risk injecting practice. Older IDUs, high school graduates, and those reporting more supportive peer norms for safer drug use were less likely to lend needles/syringes. Admission to a hospital for drug treatment in the past 6 months, having injected with >1 person in the past 3 months, and having more psychiatric symptoms were all associated with more risk. These findings underscore the need for a continued prevention focus on HIV-positive IDUs that recognizes the combination of drug use, mental health factors, and social factors that might affect this high-risk injecting practice, which could be associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission.

  4. Intrinsic Efficiency Calibration Considering Geometric Factors in Gamma-ray Computed Tomography for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Li

    2015-07-01

    In radioactive waste assay with gamma-ray computed tomography, calibration for intrinsic efficiency of the system is important to the reconstruction of radioactivity distribution. Due to the geometric characteristics of the system, the non-uniformity of intrinsic efficiency for gamma-rays with different incident positions and directions are often un-negligible. Intrinsic efficiency curves versus geometric parameters of incident gamma-ray are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation, and two intrinsic efficiency models are suggested to characterize the intrinsic efficiency determined by relative source-detector position and system geometry in the system matrix. Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to compare the different intrinsic efficiency models. Better reconstruction results of radioactivity distribution are achieved by both suggested models than by the uniform intrinsic efficiency model. And compared to model based on detector position, model based on point response increases reconstruction accuracy as well as complexity and time of calculation. (authors)

  5. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  6. Semi-quantitative and simulation analyses of effects of γ rays on determination of calibration factors of PET scanners with point-like (22)Na sources.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Oda, Keiichi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Hideo; Yamada, Takahiro

    2011-09-21

    The uncertainty of radioactivity concentrations measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scanners ultimately depends on the uncertainty of the calibration factors. A new practical calibration scheme using point-like (22)Na radioactive sources has been developed. The purpose of this study is to theoretically investigate the effects of the associated 1.275 MeV γ rays on the calibration factors. The physical processes affecting the coincidence data were categorized in order to derive approximate semi-quantitative formulae. Assuming the design parameters of some typical commercial PET scanners, the effects of the γ rays as relative deviations in the calibration factors were evaluated by semi-quantitative formulae and a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative deviations in the calibration factors were less than 4%, depending on the details of the PET scanners. The event losses due to rejecting multiple coincidence events of scattered γ rays had the strongest effect. The results from the semi-quantitative formulae and the Monte Carlo simulation were consistent and were useful in understanding the underlying mechanisms. The deviations are considered small enough to correct on the basis of precise Monte Carlo simulation. This study thus offers an important theoretical basis for the validity of the calibration method using point-like (22)Na radioactive sources.

  7. SU-E-T-491: Importance of Energy Dependent Protons Per MU Calibration Factors in IMPT Dose Calculations Using Monte Carlo Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Randeniya, S; Mirkovic, D; Titt, U; Guan, F; Mohan, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), energy dependent, protons per monitor unit (MU) calibration factors are important parameters that determine absolute dose values from energy deposition data obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of MC-computed absolute dose distributions to the protons/MU calibration factors in IMPT. Methods: A “verification plan” (i.e., treatment beams applied individually to water phantom) of a head and neck patient plan was calculated using MC technique. The patient plan had three beams; one posterior-anterior (PA); two anterior oblique. Dose prescription was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. Of the total MUs, 58% was delivered in PA beam, 25% and 17% in other two. Energy deposition data obtained from the MC simulation were converted to Gy using energy dependent protons/MU calibrations factors obtained from two methods. First method is based on experimental measurements and MC simulations. Second is based on hand calculations, based on how many ion pairs were produced per proton in the dose monitor and how many ion pairs is equal to 1 MU (vendor recommended method). Dose distributions obtained from method one was compared with those from method two. Results: Average difference of 8% in protons/MU calibration factors between method one and two converted into 27 % difference in absolute dose values for PA beam; although dose distributions preserved the shape of 3D dose distribution qualitatively, they were different quantitatively. For two oblique beams, significant difference in absolute dose was not observed. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that protons/MU calibration factors can have a significant impact on absolute dose values in IMPT depending on the fraction of MUs delivered. When number of MUs increases the effect due to the calibration factors amplify. In determining protons/MU calibration factors, experimental method should be preferred in MC dose calculations

  8. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. II. Application to nine Cepheids with HST/FGS parallax measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The distance to pulsating stars is classically estimated using the parallax-of-pulsation (PoP) method, which combines spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements and angular diameter (AD) estimates to derive the distance of the star. A particularly important application of this method is the determination of Cepheid distances in view of the calibration of their distance scale. However, the conversion of radial to pulsational velocities in the PoP method relies on a poorly calibrated parameter, the projection factor (p-factor). Aims: We aim to measure empirically the value of the p-factors of a homogeneous sample of nine bright Galactic Cepheids for which trigonometric parallaxes were measured with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance Sensor. Methods: We use the SPIPS algorithm, a robust implementation of the PoP method that combines photometry, interferometry, and radial velocity measurements in a global modeling of the pulsation of the star. We obtained new interferometric angular diameter measurements using the PIONIER instrument at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), completed by data from the literature. Using the known distance as an input, we derive the value of the p-factor of the nine stars of our sample and study its dependence with the pulsation period. Results: We find the following p-factors: p = 1.20 ± 0.12 for RT Aur, p = 1.48 ± 0.18 for T Vul, p = 1.14 ± 0.10 for FF Aql, p = 1.31 ± 0.19 for Y Sgr, p = 1.39 ± 0.09 for X Sgr, p = 1.35 ± 0.13 for W Sgr, p = 1.36 ± 0.08 for β Dor, p = 1.41 ± 0.10 for ζ Gem, and p = 1.23 ± 0.12 for ℓ Car. Conclusions: The values of the p-factors that we obtain are consistently close to p = 1.324 ± 0.024. We observe some dispersion around this average value, but the observed distribution is statistically consistent with a constant value of the p-factor as a function of the pulsation period (χ2 = 0.669). The error budget of our determination of the p-factor values is

  9. Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Ralaivao, Josoa S.; Rakotonandrasana, Alexander; Carnell, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and coverage benefits of auto-disable (AD) syringes, weighed against the financial and logis- tical costs, and to create appropriate health policies in Madagascar. METHODS: Fifteen clinics in Madagascar, trained to use AD syringes, were randomized to implement an AD syringe only, mixed (AD syringes used only on non-routine immunization days), or sterilizable syringe only (control) programme. During a five-week period, data on administered vaccinations were collected, interviews were conducted, and observations were recorded. FINDINGS: The use of AD syringes improved coverage rates by significantly increasing the percentage of vaccines administered on non-routine immunization days (AD-only 4.3%, mixed 5.7%, control 1.1% (P<0.05)). AD-only clinics eliminated sterilization sessions for vaccinations, whereas mixed clinics reduced the number of sterilization sessions by 64%. AD syringes were five times more expensive than sterilizable syringes, which increased AD-only and mixed clinics' projected annual injection costs by 365% and 22%, respectively. However, introducing AD syringes for all vaccinations would only increase the national immunization budget by 2%. CONCLUSION: The use of AD syringes improved vaccination coverage rates by providing ready-to-use sterile syringes on non-routine immunization days and decreasing the number of sterilization sessions, thereby improving injection safety. The mixed programme was the most beneficial approach to phasing in AD syringes and diminishing logistical complications, and it had minimal costs. AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. PMID:14576886

  10. Nonprescription Syringe Sales: A Missed Opportunity for HIV Prevention in California

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Rudolph, Abby E.; Case, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is an HIV prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacists to sell up to 30 syringes without a prescription. Objective We assessed SB41 implementation in two inland California counties where prevalence of injection drug use is among the highest in the nation. Design Syringe purchase trial. Setting Fresno and Kern counties, California. Participants All retail pharmacies (N=248). Main outcome measure Successful or unsuccessful syringe purchase attempt. Results Only 52 (21.0%) syringe purchase attempts were successful. The proportion of successful attempts did not vary by county or by data collector ethnicity. The most common reasons for unsuccessful syringe purchase attempts were prescription requirements (45.7%), the requested syringe size was not available (10.7%), and the pharmacy did not sell syringes (9.7%). In addition, some syringe purchase attempts (4.1%) were unsuccessful because the data collector was asked to purchase more syringes than allowed by law. Although 80% and 78% of Fresno and Kern residents, respectively, live within a 5-minute drive of a retail pharmacy, less than half live within a 5-minute drive of a pharmacy that sold syringes. Conclusion SB41 has not resulted in broad pharmacy-based syringe access in California's inland counties, where a disproportionate number of HIV/AIDS cases are associated with injection drug use. Additional steps by legislative bodies, regulatory agencies, and professional organizations are needed to actively engage pharmacies in expanding nonprescription syringe sales to reduce HIV transmission among IDUs. PMID:25575149

  11. Greater drug injecting risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV infection in a city where syringe exchange and pharmacy syringe distribution are illegal.

    PubMed

    Neaigus, Alan; Zhao, Mingfang; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Cisek, Linda; Friedman, Samuel R; Baxter, Robert C

    2008-05-01

    Comparing drug-injecting risk between cities that differ in the legality of sterile syringe distribution for injection drug use provides a natural experiment to assess the efficacy of legalizing sterile syringe distribution as a structural intervention to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other parenterally transmitted infections among injection drug users (IDUs). This study compares the parenteral risk for HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection among IDUs in Newark, NJ, USA, where syringe distribution programs were illegal during the period when data were collected, and New York City (NYC) where they were legal. IDUs were nontreatment recruited, 2004-2006, serotested, and interviewed about syringe sources and injecting risk behaviors (prior 30 days). In multivariate logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for city differences are estimated controlling for potential city confounders. IDUs in Newark (n = 214) vs. NYC (n = 312) were more likely to test seropositive for HIV (26% vs. 5%; AOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.6, 6.1), antibody to the HBV core antigen (70% vs. 27%; AOR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.8, 6.9), and antibody to HCV (82% vs. 53%; AOR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 4.9), were less likely to obtain syringes from syringe exchange programs or pharmacies (AOR = 0.004; 95% CI = 0.001, 0.01), and were more likely to obtain syringes from street sellers (AOR = 74.0; 95% CI = 29.9, 183.2), to inject with another IDU's used syringe (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1, 5.0), to reuse syringes (AOR = 2.99; 95% CI = 1.63, 5.50), and to not always inject once only with a new, sterile syringe that had been sealed in a wrapper (AOR = 5.4; 95% CI = 2.9, 10.3). In localities where sterile syringe distribution is illegal, IDUs are more likely to obtain syringes from unsafe sources and to engage in injecting risk behaviors. Legalizing and rapidly implementing sterile syringe distribution programs are critical for reducing parenterally

  12. The legal strategies used in operating syringe exchange programs in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Burris, S; Finucane, D; Gallagher, H; Grace, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to identify the strategies used by syringe exchange programs to establish their legality. METHODS. Statutes, court decisions, published studies of exchange programs, and news stories were reviewed, and telephone interviews were conducted with syringe exchange personnel. RESULTS. Twenty-seven exchanges have been authorized by amendments to or judicial interpretations of state drug laws or by administrative action under such laws, or operate in a state that has no laws regulating needles. At least 13 programs operate under claims of legality based on local interpretations of state law, principally public health law. The remaining syringe exchanges operate without a claim of legality. CONCLUSIONS. The deployment of syringe exchanges has been hindered by concerns about their legal status. This study shows that the applicability of drug laws to syringe exchange is open to dispute, and that local public health authorities may under some circumstances rely on their own legal authority to fund or operate syringe exchange programs. PMID:8712281

  13. SUMS calibration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

  14. [Measurement of peak correction factor of Farmer chamber for calibration of flattening filter free (FFF) clinical photon beams].

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Farmer-type ionization chambers are considered the most reliable detectors and for this reason they are most frequently used for the calibration of photon beams of medical linear accelerators. Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of linear accelerators have recently started to be used in radiotherapy. The dose profile of FFF beams is peaked in the center of the field and the dose distribution will be inhomogeneous along the axis of the 2.3 cm long measuring volume of the Farmer chamber. The peaked radiation field will result in volume averaging effects in the large Farmer chamber, therefore this chamber will underestimate the true central axis dose. Our objective was to determine the value of the peak correction factor (Kp) of Farmer-type chamber with measurements to avoid the underestimation of the central axis dose during the calibration of FFF radiation fields. Measurements were made with 6 MV and 10 MV flattened (6X and 10X) and FFF beams (6XFFF and 10XFFF) of a Varian TrueBeam medical linear accelerator in a solid water phantom at 10 cm depth. The source surface distance (SSD) was 100 cm, the field size was 10×10 cm and the dose rate was always 400 MU/min during the measurements. We delivered 100 MU in each measurement and the absorbed dose to water was calculated according to the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetry protocol. The measured signals of the ionization chambers were always corrected for the ion recombination loss. The ion recombination correction factors (Kr) were determined with the two-voltage method separately for the used ion chambers and for flattened and unflattened beams. First, we measured the dose to water with PTW TM30012 Farmer chamber in 6XFFF and 6X beams, then calculated the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams (R6,Farmer). Immediately after this we repeated the above measurements with PTW TM31010 Semiflex chamber and determined the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams again (R6,Semiflex). The length of the sensitive volume of the Semiflex

  15. Premature failure of battery-powered syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Tatman, A; Brunner, H; Stokes, M

    1996-11-01

    Failure of battery-powered equipment during the interhospital transfer of patients is potentially life threatening. The time to failure of 60 fully-charged identical syringe pumps (20 from each batch purchased in 1992, 1994 and 1995) was measured. Older pumps were associated with less predictable charge capacity, with 40% of the 1992 pumps failing within 60 min. The premature failure of these pumps is most likely due to poor battery care. It is unsafe to assume that a fully-charged, battery-powered pump will continue to function throughout a long transfer. The routine carriage of spare pumps or a backup power supply is recommended.

  16. Stability of Cefazolin Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes and Polyvinylchloride Minibags

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cefazolin is a semisynthetic penicillin derivative with a narrow spectrum of activity covering some gram-positive organisms and a few gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Objective: To determine the physical and chemical stability of cefazolin sodium reconstituted with sterile water for injection and stored in polypropylene syringes or diluted with either 5% dextrose in water (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) and stored in polyvinylchloride (PVC) minibags. Methods: Reconstituted solutions of cefazolin (100 or 200 mg/mL) were packaged in polypropylene syringes. More dilute solutions (20 or 40 mg/mL) were prepared in D5W or NS and packaged in PVC minibags. For each concentration–diluent–container combination, 3 containers were designated for each day of analysis (days 7, 14, 21, and 30). Containers were stored under refrigeration (5°C) with protection from light until the designated day of analysis, at which time one 5-mL sample was collected from each the designated container. The designated containers were then stored at room temperature (21°C to 25°C) with exposure to light for an additional 72 h, and additional samples were drawn. The samples were assayed using a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The colour and clarity of the solutions, as well as their pH, were also monitored on each sampling day. Results: All samples remained clear for the duration of the study; they had a slight yellow colour that darkened over time, and there was an increase in pH. Solutions diluted with sterile water for injection and stored in polypropylene syringes retained at least 94.5% of the initial concentration after 30 days of refrigerated storage and at least 92.1% after an additional 72 h at room temperature with exposure to light. Samples diluted in D5W or NS and stored in PVC minibags retained at least 95.8% of the initial concentration after 30 days of refrigerated storage and at least 91.8% after an

  17. Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Satariano, N.; Cora, S.

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of dose to water and dose to detector has been used to calculate the correction factors needed for dose calibration and output factor measurements on the CyberKnife system. Reference field ionization chambers simulated were the PTW 30006, Exradin A12, and NE 2571 Farmer chambers, and small volume chambers PTW 31014 and 31010. Correction factors for Farmer chambers were found to be 0.7%-0.9% larger than those determined from TRS-398 due mainly to the dose gradient across the chamber cavity. For one microchamber where comparison was possible, the factor was 0.5% lower than TRS-398 which is consistent with previous MC simulations of flattening filter free Linacs. Output factor detectors simulated were diode models PTW 60008, 60012, 60017, 60018, Sun Nuclear edge detector, air-filled microchambers Exradin A16 and PTW 31014, and liquid-filled microchamber PTW 31018 microLion. Factors were generated for both fixed and iris collimators. The resulting correction factors differ from unity by up to +11% for air-filled microchambers and -6% for diodes at the smallest field size (5 mm), and tend towards unity with increasing field size (correction factor magnitude <1% for all detectors at field sizes >15 mm). Output factor measurements performed using these detectors with fixed and iris collimators on two different CyberKnife systems showed initial differences between detectors of >15% at 5 mm field size. After correction the measurements on each unit agreed within ˜1.5% at the smallest field size. This paper provides a complete set of correction factors needed to apply a new small field dosimetry formalism to both collimator types on the CyberKnife system using a range of commonly used detectors.

  18. Impact of Sterilization Method on Protein Aggregation and Particle Formation in Polymer-Based Syringes.

    PubMed

    Kiminami, Hideaki; Krueger, Aaron B; Abe, Yoshihiko; Yoshino, Keisuke; Carpenter, John F

    2017-04-01

    The effects of sterilization methods on the storage stability of erythropoietin (EPO) in polymer-based syringes were assessed by quantifying protein oxidation, aggregation, and particle formation. Micro-particle counting and size exclusion chromatography coupled with a multi-angle light scattering detector demonstrated much lower levels of protein particles and aggregates for EPO stored for 12 weeks in steam-sterilized than in radiation (Rad)-sterilized syringes. Intermediate levels of damage were observed for EPO stored in ethylene oxide-sterilized syringes. HPLC analysis documented that the Rad-sterilized syringes caused increased oxidation of the protein during storage. In contrast, in the steam- and ethylene oxide-sterilized syringes EPO oxidation did not change. Analysis with electron spin resonance revealed that only Rad-sterilized syringes formed radicals in the syringe body, which persisted over the 12-week storage period. These results demonstrated that Rad-sterilization generated radicals in the syringes which in turn caused increased EPO oxidation, particle formation, and protein aggregation. Therefore, steam sterilization was shown to be a preferable sterilization method for the polymer-based syringe system when using biopharmaceutical drugs highly sensitive to oxidation, and particle formation and aggregation.

  19. Adherence to hepatitis B virus vaccination at syringe exchange sites.

    PubMed

    Altice, Frederick L; Bruce, Robert D; Walton, Mary R; Buitrago, Marta I

    2005-03-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, they often do not receive preventive vaccination. IDUs who use mobile health care services linked to a syringe exchange program in New Haven were routinely screened for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis. Individuals without prior exposure to HBV were offered three-part vaccination series. Of the 212 IDUs screened for HBV infection, 134 (63%) were eligible (negative for HBV surface and core anti-bodies) for vaccination and 10 (4.7%) had evidence of chronic HBV infection. Compared to those with previous exposure to HBV, vaccine-eligible patients were significantly more likely to be younger and use heroin and less likely to be black, home-less, daily injectors, and cocaine users. Of the 134 vaccine-eligible subjects, 103 (77%) and 89 (66%) completed two and three vaccinations, respectively. Correlates of completing all three vaccinations included older age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07), injecting daily (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.36-6.73), and being homeless (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.14-12.27). These results suggest that IDUs remain at high risk for acquiring HBV infection. Programs that link health care to a syringe exchange program are effective ways to provide preventive health care services to IDUs, particularly HBV vaccination. Trust engendered by and mutual respect afforded by such programs result in repeated encounters by active IDUs over time.

  20. Reliability based calibration of partial safety factors for design of free pipeline spans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronold, K.O.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Tura, F.; Bryndum, M.B.; Smed, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates how a structural reliability method can be applied as a rational means to analyze free spans of submarine pipelines with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and to establish partial safety factors for design of such free spans against this failure mode. It is important to note that the described procedure shall be considered as an illustration of a structural reliability methodology, and that the results do not represent a set of final design recommendations. A scope of design cases, consisting of a number of available site-specific pipeline spans, is established and is assumed representative for the future occurrence of submarine pipeline spans. Probabilistic models for the wave and current loading and its transfer to stresses in the pipe wall of a pipeline span is established together with a stochastic representation of the material resistance. The event of failure in ultimate loading is considered as based on a limit state which is reached when the maximum stress over the design life of the pipeline exceeds the yield strength of the pipe material. The yielding limit state is considered an ultimate limit state (ULS).

  1. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose

    PubMed Central

    CHAVES, Fernanda Oliveira; de FARIAS, Natália Coelho; MEDEIROS, Luciano Marcelo de Mello; ALONSO, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; DI HIPÓLITO, Vinicius; D'ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Material and Methods: Specimens (8x2x2 mm) were obtained according to the factors: I) Composites (3M ESPE): Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II) Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III) Energy dose: 24 J/cm2 and 48 J/cm2. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S) and flexural modulus (E) were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures. PMID:25075673

  2. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications.

  3. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  4. Survival of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 after rinsing injection syringes with different cleaning solutions.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Nadia; Crowe, Michelle; Tolstov, Yanis; Heimer, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Bleaching of syringes has been advocated to prevent HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs). Several reports indicate that IDUs use household products to disinfect syringes instead of bleach. To test their disinfection efficacy, we performed syringe-rinsing simulations with a range of agents used by IDUs trying to disinfect their syringes. No viable HIV-1 was recovered from syringes rinsed with bleach diluted 1:10. Bleach stored at 37 degrees C and rubbing alcohol performed better than water and the other liquids tested, but less well than bleach 1:10. Rinsing syringes with the other liquids was similar to rinsing with water alone. Increasing the rinsing volume did not always increase the effect of rinsing, but the addition of a second rinse consistently increased rinsing efficacy. Bleaching remains the most effective disinfectant among those tested. It is important that IDUs learn the proper techniques for bleach storage and syringe decontamination. Other household products are not effective disinfectants and should be avoided. Because access to sterile syringes may be restricted by laws, public policy, and police practices, bleach retains its importance in the control of the HIV-1 epidemic among IDUs.

  5. Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling.

  6. Effects of Syringe Material and Silicone Oil Lubrication on the Stability of Pharmaceutical Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:527–535, 2015 PMID:25256796

  7. Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

  8. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs) must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV. PMID:20047690

  9. Pharmacy access to syringes among injecting drug users: follow-up findings from Hartford, Connecticut.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Baer, H A; Scott, G; Horowitz, S; Weinstein, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To break the link between drug use and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in 1992 the state of Connecticut rescinded a 14-year ban on pharmacy sales of syringes without a physician's prescription. In 1993, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evaluated the impact of the new legislation on access to syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and found an initial pattern of expanded access. However, it also found that some pharmacies, after negative experiences with IDU customers, reverted to requiring a prescription. This chapter reports findings from a four-year follow-up study of current IDU access to over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy syringes in Hartford, Connecticut. METHODS: Through structured interviews, brief telephone interviews, and mailed surveys, data on nonprescription syringe sale practices were collected on 27 pharmacies, including 18 of the 21 pharmacies in Hartford and none from pharmacies in contiguous towns, during June and July 1997. Interview data on pharmacy syringe purchase from two sample of IDUs, a group of out-of-treatment injectors recruited through street outreach, and a sample of users of the Hartford Needle Exchange Program, also are reported. RESULTS: The study found that, while market trends as well as negative experiences have further limited pharmacy availability of nonprescription syringes, pharmacies remain an important source of sterile syringes for IDUs. However, the distribution of access in not even; in some areas of the city it is much easier to purchase nonprescription syringes than in other. All of the seven pharmacies located on the north end of Hartford reported that they had a policy of selling OTC syringes, whereas only six (54.5%) of the II pharmacies located on the south end have such a policy. Overt racial discrimination was not found to be a barrier to OTC access to syringes. CONCLUSIONS: To further decrease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk among IDUs, there is a need for

  10. Syringe-pump-induced fluctuation in all-aqueous microfluidic system implications for flow rate accuracy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zida; Mak, Sze Yi; Sauret, Alban; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-02-21

    We report a new method to display the minute fluctuations induced by syringe pumps on microfluidic flows by using a liquid-liquid system with an ultralow interfacial tension. We demonstrate that the stepper motor inside the pump is a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows by comparing the frequencies of the ripples observed at the interface to that of the pulsation of the stepper motor. We also quantify the fluctuations induced at different flow rates, using syringes of different diameters, and using different syringe pumps with different advancing distances per step. Our work provides a way to predict the frequency of the fluctuation that the driving syringe pump induces on a microfluidic system and suggests that syringe pumps can be a source of fluctuations in microfluidic flows, thus contributing to the polydispersity of the resulting droplets.

  11. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  12. Pre-filled syringes: a review of the history, manufacturing and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Gregory; Rogers, J Aaron; Miller, Reagan L

    2015-01-01

    Pre-filled syringes are convenient devices for the delivery of parenteral medications. They are small which makes them easy to carry and are dependable for delivering a precise dose of medication. These and many other reasons are leading to their growth in the pharmaceutical market. There are a number of review articles that describe the advantages and disadvantages of pre-filled syringes. However, there are few journal articles that present information on their manufacturing and challenges. The intent of this review article is to provide information on the history of the pre-filled syringe, methods of their manufacture, methods of filling syringes as a drug product and to examine the types of syringes available. This type of knowledge can familiarize the formulation scientist with the choices available and their possible challenges.

  13. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  14. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  15. A simple pore water hydrogen diffusion syringe sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an important intermediate product and electron donor in microbial metabolism. Concentrations of dissolved H 2 are often diagnostic of the predominant terminal electron-accepting processes in ground water systems or aquatic sediments. H2 concentrations are routinely measured in ground water monitoring wells but are rarely measured in saturated aquatic sediments due to a lack of simple and practical sampling methods. This report describes the design and development (including laboratory and field testing) of a simple, syringe-based H 2 sampler in (1) saturated, riparian sediments, (2) surface water bed sediments, and (3) packed intervals of a fractured bedrock borehole that are inaccessible by standard pumped methods. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  16. SAR calibration technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

  17. Strong composition-dependent variation of MCs + calibration factors in TiO x and GeO x ( x ≤ 2) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnaser, Hubert; Le, Yongkang; Su, Weifeng

    2006-07-01

    The emission of MCs + secondary ions (M designates the analyte species) from TiO x (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 2) and GeO x (0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) films under Cs + bombardment was examined. The relative calibration factors of OCs +/TiCs + and OCs +/GeCs + were determined and were found to depend pronouncedly on the O/Ti and O/Ge atomic concentration ratios. Specifically, with increasing oxygen content OCs + ions form much more efficiently (as compared to TiCs + or GeCs + ions), an enhancement amounting to more than a factor of 10 for the highest oxygen concentrations. Concurrently, the formation of TiOCs + or GeOCs + ions increases drastically. For both oxide systems, an empirical relation for the oxygen-concentration dependence of the relative calibration factors could be established.

  18. Consequences of syringe size sensor malfunction in a modern infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Derrick, J L; Ho, A M H; Cho, A M W

    2003-02-01

    Prompted by an actual case of potentially life-threatening infusion pump malfunction, we investigated the effects of wire breakage(s) within the syringe size sensor circuit in a Graseby 3400 infusion pump. The circuit wires within the sensor were systematically broken. The syringe sizes recognised by the sabotaged circuit and the actual sizes of syringes inserted into the pump were compared. Thirty-eight per cent of the possible wire breakages resulted in a smaller syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too fast, and 38% of the possiblewire breakage resulted in a larger syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too slow. The volume delivered for each different size of Terumo syringe as a function of distance travelled by the plunger was measured. The errors ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 times that of the expected rate. Only 1.3% of the possible wire breakage(s) were recognised as errors by the pump. The infusion rates were not affected in 22.5% of the cases. Wire breakage within the syringe size sensor in infusion pumps is yet another potential source of infusion error, with important safety implications.

  19. Development and calibration of a standard for the protein content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor products.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Rao, Chunming; Tao, Lei; Han, Chunmei; Shi, Xinchang; Wang, Lan; Fan, Wenhong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-03-01

    This collaborative study characterizes a homogeneous standard for the protein content determination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) products with traceability of the measurement. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the average protein content of G-CSF bulk as 2.505 mg/ml (95% C.I: 2.467-2.543 mg/ml, GCV 4.0%). Using G-CSF bulk as a traceability benchmark, the protein content of the final freeze-dried standard using reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) was 215.4 μg protein per ampoule (95% C.I: 212.407-218.486 μg/ampoule, GCV 3.4%). A comparative study showed that there was no difference between using Filgrastim CRS (European Pharmacopeia G-CSF reference standard) and freeze-dried homogeneous standard when quantifying G-CSF protein content by RP-HPLC (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in the G-CSF protein content obtained using a serum albumin standard by Lowry assay and a G-CSF standard with RP-HPLC. Therefore, use of RP-HPLC with a freeze-dried homogeneous standard would eliminate the systematic errors introduced when using a serum albumin standard because of the differences in protein composition between the standard and the sample. It would also be helpful to use this method to compare the quality of G-CSF biosimilar products in situations where the protein content has been calibrated using various standards.

  20. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments.

  1. Laccase-catalysed iodide oxidation in presence of methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kulys, Juozas; Bratkovskaja, Irina; Vidziunaite, Regina

    2005-10-05

    The kinetics of potassium triiodide (KI(3)) formation during fungal laccase action was investigated in presence of methyl syringate (MS). The recombinant forms of Polyporus pinsitus (rPpL), Myceliophthora thermophila (rMtL), Coprinus cinereus (rCcL), and Rhizoctonia solani (rRsL) laccases were used. The triiodide formation rate reached 6.1, 5.5, 6.0, and 2.1 microM/min at saturated rPpL, rCcL, rRsL, and rMtL concentration, respectively, in acetate buffer solution pH 5.5 and in presence of 10 microM of MS and 1 mM of potassium iodide. The triiodide formation rate increased if pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The scheme of laccase-catalysed iodide oxidation includes stadium of MS interaction with oxidized laccase with concomitant production of MS(ox). The reaction of MS(ox) with iodide produced triiodide. The turnover number of MS was 93 and 44 at pH 5.5 for rPpL and rMtL, respectively. The scheme also contained a stadium of reversible reduction of laccase active centre with the mediator explaining the different saturation rate of triiodide production. The fitting kinetic data revealed that the reversibility of the reaction increased for laccases containing lower redox potential of copper type I.

  2. Uterine aspiration using the Karman cannula and syringe.

    PubMed

    Ekwempu, C C

    1990-01-01

    A research project took place at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) in Zaria, Nigeria, between April 1987 and May 1988 to determine the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) procedure using the Karman cannula in an outpatient facility without anesthesia to manage incomplete abortions and to determine the suitability of endometrial biopsy specimens obtained with MVA. All patients who arrived in the daytime for evacuation and all patients requiring endometrial biopsy were included in the study. 375 cases were recorded; there were 272 endometrial biopsies, 89 nonseptic abortions, 10 missed abortions, and 4 septic abortions. These subjects were interviewed for their history, treated with MVA, observed, given the contraceptive of their choice, and then discharged. The mean duration of the procedure was 3.5 minutes, with evacuation taking as long as 5-7 minutes and endometrial biopsies taking approximately 1 minute or less. Most patients spent 10-15 minutes in the hospital before discharge; no patient required hospitalization. There were very few complications (n = 6), none of them serious. Over 98% of the endometrial biopsy specimens were deemed suitable. Fewer than 5% of the patients had mild to moderate discomfort, usually during the endometrial biopsy procedures; the evacuations were virtually without discomfort. The author concluded that MVA using the Karman cannula and syringe is effective, safe, reliable, convenient, and economical for use in an outpatient setting. In addition, this procedure reduced the waiting list for dilation and curettage procedures.

  3. Plastic-Syringe Induced Silicone Contamination in Organic Photvoltaic Fabrication: Implications for Small-Volume Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, John A.; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Chen, Yuqing; Anderegg, James; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-05-15

    Herein, the implications of silicone contamination found in solution-processed conjugated polymer solar cells are explored. Similar to a previous work based on molecular cells, we find this contamination as a result of the use of plastic syringes during fabrication. However, in contrast to the molecular case, we find that glass-syringe fabricated devices give superior performance than plastic-syringe fabricated devices in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based cells. We find that the unintentional silicone addition alters the solution’s wettability, which translates to a thinner, less absorbent film on spinning. With many groups studying the effects of small-volume additives, this work should be closely considered as many of these additives may also directly alter the solutions’ wettability, or the amount of silicone dissolved off the plastic syringes, or both. Thereby, film thickness, which generally is not reported in detail, can vary significantly from device to device.

  4. Plastic-syringe induced silicone contamination in organic photovoltaic fabrication: implications for small-volume additives.

    PubMed

    Carr, John A; Nalwa, Kanwar S; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Chen, Yuqing; Anderegg, James; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-06-27

    Herein, the implications of silicone contamination found in solution-processed conjugated polymer solar cells are explored. Similar to a previous work based on molecular cells, we find this contamination as a result of the use of plastic syringes during fabrication. However, in contrast to the molecular case, we find that glass-syringe fabricated devices give superior performance than plastic-syringe fabricated devices in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based cells. We find that the unintentional silicone addition alters the solution's wettability, which translates to a thinner, less absorbent film on spinning. With many groups studying the effects of small-volume additives, this work should be closely considered as many of these additives may also directly alter the solutions' wettability, or the amount of silicone dissolved off the plastic syringes, or both. Thereby, film thickness, which generally is not reported in detail, can vary significantly from device to device.

  5. Calibration factors for determination of relativistic particle induced fission rates in natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Zhuk, Igor; Potapenko, A.; Kievets, M.; Krivopustov, M. I.

    2012-02-01

    Calibration factors w, for determination of fission rate in metallic foils of natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au were determined for foils in contact with synthetic mica track detectors. Proton-induced fission at proton energies of 0.7 GeV and 1.5 GeV were used. Using our experimental results as well as those of the other authors, w for different foil-mica systems were determined. Two methods were used to calculate w, relative to the calibration factor for uranium-mica system, which has been obtained in a standard neutron field of energy 14.7 MeV. One of these methods requires the knowledge of the mean range of the fission fragments in the foils of interest and other method needs information on the values of the fission cross-sections at the required energies as well as the density of the tracks recorded in the track detectors in contact with the foil surfaces. The obtained w-values were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and good agreements were found. It is shown that a calibration factor obtained at low energy neutron induced fissions in uranium isotopes deviates only by less than 10% from those obtained at relativistic proton induced fissions.

  6. Standardisation of (90)Y and determination of calibration factors for (90)Y microspheres (resin) for the NPL secondary ionisation chamber and a Capintec CRC-25R.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Kelley M; Fenwick, Andrew J; Arinc, Arzu; Johansson, Lena C

    2016-03-01

    The use of (90)Y resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres® microspheres) in Nuclear Medicine has dramatically increased in recent years due to its favourable outcome in the treatment of liver cancer and liver metastases (Rajekar et al., 2011). The measurement of administered activity before and residual activity after treatment in radionuclide calibrators is required to determine total activity delivered to the patient. In comparison with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) where administered doses are often know to within ±5%, the actual administered activity in nuclear medicine procedures may only be known to within ±20% and subsequent dose calculations can result in even larger uncertainties (Fenwick et al., 2009). It is a well-recognised issue that ion chambers are instruments that are sensitive to the measurement geometry and matrix of a source, in particular for pure beta or low energy (<100keV) x-ray emitters (Gadd et al., 2006). This paper presents new calibration factors for NPL secondary standard ionisation chamber system (Vinten 671) and a Capintec CRC-25R radionuclide calibrator along with a discussion of the measurement problems associated with this radionuclide and matrix. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard system for this measurement matrix will enable NPL to provide standards for the Nuclear Medicine community and consequently increase the measurement capability.

  7. Using human rights law to advocate for syringe exchange programs in European prisons.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick

    2006-12-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights can be used to advocate for the provision of syringe exchange programs in prisons, says Rick Lines in this article, which is based on a presentation at an abstract-driven session at the conference. The author outlines the arguments that states might use to avoid having to implement syringe exchange programs, and counters these arguments with reference to human rights law and jurisprudence.

  8. In-syringe dispersive solid phase extraction: a novel format for electrospun fiber based microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-Tian; He, Xiao-Mei; Cai, Bao-Dong; Wang, Han; Ding, Jun; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-12-07

    A novel in-syringe dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) system using electrospun silica fibers as adsorbents has been developed in the current work. A few milligrams of electrospun silica fibers were incubated in sample solution in the barrel of a syringe for microextraction assisted by vortex. Due to the benefit of dispersion and the high mass transfer rate of the sub-microscale electrospun silica fibers, the extraction equilibrium was achieved in a very short time (less than 1 min). Moreover, thanks to the long fibrous properties of electrospun fibers, the separation of the adsorbent from sample solution was easily achieved by pushing out the sample solution which therefore simplified the sample pretreatment procedure. Besides, the analytical throughput was largely increased by using a multi-syringe plate to perform the extraction experiment. The performance of the in-syringe dSPE device was evaluated by extraction of endogenous cytokinins from plant tissue samples based on the hydrophilic interaction. Six endogenous cytokinins in 20 mg of Oryza sativa L. (O. sativa) leaves were successfully determined under optimized conditions using in-syringe dSPE combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results demonstrated that the in-syringe dSPE method was a rapid and high-throughput strategy for the extraction of target compounds, which has great potential in microscale sample pretreatment using electrospun fibers.

  9. Syringe Exchange in the United States: A National Level Economic Evaluation of Hypothetical Increases in Investment

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Holtgrave, David R.

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether increasing investment in needle/syringe exchange programs (NSPs) in the US would be cost-effective for HIV prevention, we modeled HIV incidence in hypothetical cases with higher NSP syringe supply than current levels, and estimated number of infections averted, cost per infection averted, treatment costs saved, and financial return on investment. We modified Pinkerton’s model, which was an adaptation of Kaplan’s simplified needle circulation theory model, to compare different syringe supply levels, account for syringes from non-NSP sources, and reflect reduction in syringe sharing and contamination. With an annual $10 to $50 million funding increase, 194–816 HIV infections would be averted (cost per infection averted $51,601– $61,302). Contrasted with HIV treatment cost savings alone, the rate of financial return on investment would be 7.58–6.38. Main and sensitivity analyses strongly suggest that it would be cost-saving for the US to invest in syringe exchange expansion. PMID:24824043

  10. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes.

  11. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    PubMed

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  12. Single-drop microextraction followed by in-syringe derivatization and GC-MS detection for the determination of parabens in water and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mirmahdieh, Shiva

    2009-04-01

    A single-drop microextraction (SDME) method followed by in-syringe derivatization and GC-MS determination has been developed for analysis of five parabens, including methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl and n-butyl paraben in water samples and cosmetic products. N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide (BSA) was used as derivatization reagent. Derivatization reaction was performed inside the syringe barrel using 0.4 microL of BSA. Parameters that affect the derivatization yield such as temperature and time of the reaction were studied. In addition, experimental SDME parameters such as selection of organic solvent, addition of salt, extraction time and extraction temperature were investigated and optimized. The RSD of the method for aqueous samples varied from 8.1 to 13%. The LODs ranged from 0.001 (n-butyl paraben) to 0.015 (methyl paraben) microg/L, and the enrichment factors were between 23 and 150.

  13. Chemicals eluting from disposable plastic syringes and syringe filters alter neurite growth, axogenesis and the microtubule cytoskeleton in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tet Woo; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Bôas, Silas G; Montgomery, Johanna M; Birch, Nigel P

    2015-04-01

    Cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons are often used to study neuronal cell biology. We report that the development of these neurons is strongly affected by chemicals leaching from commonly used disposable medical-grade syringes and syringe filters. Contamination of culture medium by bioactive substance(s) from syringes and filters occurred with multiple manufacturing lots and filter types under normal use conditions and resulted in changes to neurite growth, axon formation and the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. The effects on neuronal morphology were concentration dependent and significant effects were detected even after substantial dilution of the contaminated medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed many chemicals eluting from the syringes and filters. Three of these chemicals (stearic acid, palmitic acid and 1,2-ethanediol monoacetate) were tested but showed no effects on neurite growth. Similar changes in neuronal morphology were seen with high concentrations of bisphenol A and dibutyl phthalate, two hormonally active plasticisers. Although no such compounds were detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, unknown plasticisers in leachates may affect neurites. This is the first study to show that leachates from laboratory consumables can alter the growth of cultured hippocampal neurons. We highlight important considerations to ensure leachate contamination does not compromise cell biology experiments.

  14. Syringe Access, Syringe Sharing, and Police Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs in New York City: A Community-Level Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, Leo; Heller, Daliah; Jenness, Samuel M.; Neaigus, Alan; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila; Hagan, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Background Injection drug user (IDU) experience and perceptions of police practices may alter syringe exchange program (SEP) use or influence risky behaviour. Previously, no community-level data had been collected to identify the prevalence or correlates of police encounters reported by IDUs in the United States. Methods New York City IDUs recruited through respondent-driven sampling were asked about past-year police encounters and risk behaviours, as part of the National HIV Behavioural Surveillance study. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression. Results A majority (52%) of respondents (n=514) reported being stopped by police officers; 10% reported syringe confiscation. In multivariate modelling, IDUs reporting police stops were less likely to use SEPs consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.40–0.89), and IDUs who had syringes confiscated may have been more likely to share syringes (AOR=1.76; 95% CI=0.90–3.44), though the finding did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Findings suggest that police encounters may influence consistent SEP use. The frequency of IDU-police encounters highlights the importance of including contextual and structural measures in infectious disease risk surveillance, and the need to develop approaches harmonizing structural policing and public health. PMID:23916801

  15. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E.; Werb, Dan; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. Objectives We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Methods Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older, who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Results Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]:1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR:1.84; 95% CI:1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR:1.64; 95%CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95%CI:1.01-3.15). Conclusion Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico. PMID:25695145

  16. One-step in-syringe ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Marta; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2009-09-11

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proved to be a powerful tool for the rapid sample treatment of liquid samples providing at the same time high enrichment factors and extraction recoveries. A new, simple and easy to handle one step in-syringe set-up for DLLME is presented and critically discussed in this paper. The novel approach avoids the centrifugation step, typically off-line and time consuming, opening-up a new horizon on DLLME automation. The suitability of the proposal is evaluated by means of the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urine by liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection. In the presented approach an ionic liquid is used as extractant. The target drugs can be determined in urine within the concentration range 0.02-10 microg mL(-1), allowing their determination at therapeutic and toxic levels. Limits of detection were in the range from 8.3 ng mL(-1) (indomethacin) to 32 ng mL(-1) (ketoprofen). The repeatability of the proposed method expressed as RSD (n=5) varied between 2.5% (for ketoprofen) and 8.6% (for indomethacin).

  17. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  18. Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed by recent studies demonstrating the central role of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) on HIV transmission, interventions to employ HIV antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) are underway. To optimize these efforts, evidence is needed to identify factors associated with both non-suppressed VL and HIV risk behaviours. Thus, we sought to assess the possible role played by exposure to correctional facilities on VL non-suppression and used syringe lending among HIV-seropositive people who use injection drugs (PWID). Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, a community-recruited prospective cohort. We used longitudinal multivariate mixed-effects analyses to estimate the relationship between incarceration and plasma HIV-1 RNA > 500 copies/mL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-exposed active PWID and, during periods of non-suppression, the relationship between incarceration and used syringe lending. Results Between May 1996 and March 2012, 657 ART-exposed PWID were recruited. Incarceration was independently associated with higher odds of VL non-suppression (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.54, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.10, 2.16). In a separate multivariate model restricted to periods of VL non-suppression, incarceration was independently associated with lending used syringes (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.18). Conclusions The current findings demonstrate that incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active PWID with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Our results provide a possible pathway for the commonly observed association between incarceration and increased risk of HIV transmission. Our results suggest that alternatives to incarceration of non-violent PWID and evidence-based combination HIV prevention interventions for PWID within correctional facilities are urgently needed. PMID:24289651

  19. Determination of elemental impurities in leachate solutions from syringes using sector field ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, K; Catry, C; Vanhaecke, F

    2013-04-15

    Prefilled syringes are of increasing importance on the drug product market. Drug products supplied in prefilled syringes have to comply with guidelines on elemental impurity limit concentrations. Elemental impurities may be introduced through any reagents or catalysts used or any product contact surface. This work addresses the determination of elemental impurities leaching from three types of glass syringe container-closure systems supplied by two leading manufacturers. Leachate solutions of every type of syringe were analyzed for Na, Al, Si, W and the 16 elements listed in draft USP chapter 232, which were selected on grounds of toxicity. Elemental impurity concentrations were determined using sector field ICP-mass spectrometry. Significant concentrations of Na and Si were found in all leachate solutions, up to 1200 and 4500μgL(-1), respectively. In addition, also Al, As and W were leached out of syringes from one manufacturer in variable amounts, giving rise to average concentrations (std. dev., n=6) of 400 (120), 0.55 (0.08) and 230 (220)μgL(-1), respectively. So far, no exceeding of limit concentrations was observed.

  20. Stability of Two Concentrations of Heparin Sodium Prefilled in CADD-Micro* Pump Syringes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; McLaury, H J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of two concentrations (1000 units/mL and 40,000 units/mL) of heparin sodium when individually prefilled in CADD-Micro pump syringes (Sims Deltec, Inc., St Paul MN) and stored at near-body (30 deg C) temperature for extended periods of time, up to 30 days. Three syringes were prepared for each sample period and each concentration. Following aseptic filling, the syringes were capped and stored under controlled temperatures for the duration of the study. The contents of each of three syringes per sample set were expelled individually into screw-cap, glass sample vials at designated sample times. Samples were immediately stored at -70 deg C until the time of analysis. The results of the study indicate that, when prefilled in CADD-Micro pump polypropylene syringes and maintained at 30 deg C for up to 30 days, both concentrations of heparin sodium studied retained greater thatn 95% of the intact drug.

  1. A syringe-sharing model for the spread of HIV: application to Omsk, Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, Marc; Leonenko, Vasiliy N; Mara, Thierry A

    2015-10-21

    A system of two differential equations is used to model the transmission dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus between 'persons who inject drugs' (PWIDs) and their syringes. Our vector-borne disease model hinges on a metaphorical urn from which PWIDs draw syringes at random which may or may not be infected and may or may not result in one of the two agents becoming infected. The model's parameters are estimated with data mostly from the city of Omsk in Western Siberia. A linear trend in PWID prevalence in Omsk could only be fitted by considering a time-dependent version of the model captured through a secular decrease in the probability that PWIDs decide to share a syringe. A global sensitivity analysis is performed with 14 parameters considered random variables in order to assess their impact on average numbers infected over a 50-year projection. With obvious intervention implications the drug injection rate and the probability of syringe-cleansing are the only parameters whose coefficients of correlations with numbers of infected PWIDs and infected syringes have an absolute value close to or larger than 0.40.

  2. Stability of micafungin sodium solutions at different concentrations in glass bottles and syringes.

    PubMed

    Briot, Thomas; Vrignaud, Sandy; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2015-08-15

    Micafungin is a costly treatment and packaging of 50 mg or 100 mg bottles only are available, while doses lower than 5 mg and 20 mg are often necessary in neonates and paediatrics patients, respectively. The stability of micafungin sodium in polypropylene syringes and glass bottles was studied at different concentrations. Solutions of micafungin diluted with NaCl 0.9% were prepared in glass bottles (20 and 10 mg/mL) or syringes (1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and stored at 25 °C, 60% humidity (RH), in the dark (ICH conditions). Solutions were also exposed to heat (70 °C) or alkaline solution (NaOH) in order to force degradation. Samples were analysed at days 1, 5, 8 (for bottles) and also 15 (for syringes) after the preparation and assayed in triplicate. Stability was studied using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Syringes stored at 25 °C retained over 90% of their initial concentration over the study period. Temperature and alkaline conditions had significant effect on the stability of micafungin, leading to apparition of degradation products. Moreover, sub visible particles were in the specification of the European Pharmacopeia along 15 days. To conclude, micafungin diluted in NaCl 0.9% and stored in polypropylene syringes was chemically stable for at least 15 days at 25 °C in the dark.

  3. Impact of the angular dependence of the SNPP VIIRS solar diffuser BRDF degradation factor on the radiometric calibration of the reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs) primarily by observing an onboard solar diffuser (SD). The SD optical scattering property is measured by a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Once on orbit, the BRDF degrades over time and the degradation factor is determined by an onboard solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) which observes the Sun and the sunlit SD at almost the same time. We showed in a previous SPIE paper that the BRDF degradation factor is angle dependent. Consequently, due to that the SDSM and the VIIRS telescope SD views have very different angles, applying the BRDF degradation factor determined from the SDSM without any adjustments to the VIIRS RSB calibration can result in large systematic errors. In addition, the BRDF angular dependence impacts the determination of the SD screen transmittance viewed by both the SDSM detectors and the VIIRS telescope. We first use yaw maneuver data to determine the product of the SD attenuation screen transmittance and the BRDF at the initial time (when the BRDF just started to degrade) viewed by the VIIRS telescope, removing the impact of the SD BRDF degradation factor angular dependence over satellite orbits. By attributing the large bumps observed in the initially computed VIIRS detector gains for the M1-M4 bands to the angular dependence of the BRDF degradation factor and matching the computed VIIRS detector gains from the SD and the lunar observations, we find the relation between the BRDF degradation factors in the VIIRS telescope and SDSM SD view directions.

  4. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with semi-automated in-syringe back extraction as a new approach for the sample preparation of ionizable organic compounds prior to liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Melwanki, Mahaveer B; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2008-07-11

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by a newly designed semi-automated in-syringe back extraction technique has been developed as an extraction methodology for the extraction of polar organic compounds prior to liquid chromatography (LC) measurement. The method is based on the formation of tiny droplets of the extractant in the sample solution using water-immiscible organic solvent (extractant) dissolved in a water-miscible organic dispersive solvent. Extraction of the analytes from aqueous sample into the dispersed organic droplets took place. The extracting organic phase was separated by centrifuging and the sedimented phase was withdrawn into a syringe. Then in-syringe back extraction was utilized to extract the analytes into an aqueous solution prior to LC analysis. Clenbuterol (CB), a basic organic compound used as a model, was extracted from a basified aqueous sample using 25 microL tetrachloroethylene (TCE, extraction solvent) dissolved in 500 microL acetone (as a dispersive solvent). After separation of the organic extracting phase by centrifuging, CB enriched in TCE phase was back extracted into 10 microL of 1% aqueous formic acid (FA) within the syringe. Back extraction was facilitated by repeatedly moving the plunger back and forth within the barrel of syringe, assisted by a syringe pump. Due to the plunger movement, a thin organic film is formed on the inner layer of the syringe that comes in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. Here, CB, a basic analyte, will be protonated and back extracted into FA. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, viz., choice of extraction and dispersive solvent, salt effect, speed of syringe pump, back extraction time period, effect of concentration of base and acid, were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, precision, linearity (correlation coefficient, r(2)=0.9966 over the concentration range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) CB), detection limit (4.9 ng mL(-1)), enrichment factor (175), relative

  5. Training students to use syringe pumps: an experimental comparison of e-learning and classroom training.

    PubMed

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Kolb, Lorenz; Korb, Maximilian O; Mengelkamp, Christoph; Held, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The inadequate use of syringe pumps can jeopardize patient safety, and syringe pump trainings are conducted to manage this risk. A critical step in this risk management process is the learning success of trainees. In the present paper, we compared an e-learning approach with standard classroom training in learning success effectives, trainees' opinion on the trainings, and investigated the relation between technological affinity and learning success. The results showed that e-learning was as effective as classroom training but nursing students' confidence in using the pump and satisfaction with the training was decreased for e-learning compared with classroom training. We discuss the results in context of the nursing e-learning literature. Finally, we discuss the literature for risk identification, risk analysis, risk treatment, and risk monitoring and control in the context of syringe pump training and add the lessons learned from the evaluated e-learning program.

  6. Negotiating access: Social barriers to purchasing syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Peter J.; Lozada, Remedios; Rosen, Perth C.; Macias, Armando; Gallardo, Manuel; Pollini, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background One common public health response to the emergence of HIV has been the provision of sterile syringes to people who inject drugs. In Mexico specialized syringe exchanges are rare, and the sale of needles through pharmacies is often the only way people who inject drugs can obtain sterile syringes. However, people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico report considerable social barriers to successfully purchasing syringes at pharmacies. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009 we conducted seven in-depth focus groups with 47 people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus group transcripts were analysed using a descriptive and thematic approach rooted in grounded theory. Results We found that injectors offered a number of explanations for why pharmacies were reluctant to sell them syringes, including fear of police; attitudes toward drug use; fear of stereotypical drug user behaviour such as petty theft, violence, or distressing behaviour; and related fears that an obvious drug using clientèle would drive away other customers. Injectors described a range of ways of attempting to re-frame or negotiate interactions with pharmacy staff so that these and related concerns were ameliorated. These included tactics as simple as borrowing cleaner clothing, through to strategies for becoming ‘known’ to pharmacy staff as an individual rather than as a member of a stigmatized group. Conclusion Increasing the ability of pharmacy staff and people who inject drugs to successfully negotiate syringe sales are highly desirable. Interventions designed to improve this likelihood need to capitalize on existing solutions developed ad-hoc by people who inject drugs and pharmacy staff, and should focus on broadening the range of ‘identities’ which pharmacy staff are able to accept as legitimate customers. Approaches to achieve this end might include sensitizing pharmacy staff to the needs of people who inject drugs; facilitating individual drug users meeting individual

  7. The Biomechanics and Optimization of the Needle-Syringe System for Injecting Triamcinolone Acetonide into Keloids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Injecting triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into a keloid is physically challenging due to the density of keloids. The purpose was to investigate the effects of various syringe and needle combinations on the injection force to determine the most ergonomic combination. Materials and Methods. A load cell was used to generate and measure the injection force. Phase 1: the injection force of 5 common syringes was measured by injecting water into air. The syringe that required the lowest injection force was evaluated with various needle gauges (25, 27, and 30 G) and lengths (16, 25, and 38 mm) by injecting TA (40 mg/mL) into air. The needle-syringe combination with the lowest injection force (CLIF) was deemed the most ergonomic combination. Phase 2: comparisons between the CLIF and a standard combination (SC) were performed by injecting TA into air and tap water into a keloid specimen. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and independent t-test were used. Results. Increasing the syringe caliber, injection speed, and needle gauge and length significantly increased the injection force (p value < 0.001). The SC required a maximum force of 40.0 N to inject water into keloid, compared to 25.0 N for the CLIF. Injecting TA into keloid using the SC would require an injection force that was 103.5% of the maximum force female thumbs could exert compared to 64.8% for the CLIF. ICC values were greater than 0.4. Conclusions. The 1 mL polycarbonate syringe with a 25 G, 16 mm needle (CLIF) was the most ergonomic combination. The SC required a substantial injection force, which may represent a physical challenge for female thumbs. PMID:27843936

  8. Cements containing syringic acid esters -- o-ethoxybenzoic acid and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Brauer, G M; Stansbury, J W

    1984-02-01

    Fissure caries is reduced when syringic acid is incorporated into a cariogenic diet of rats. It was therefore of interest to synthesize n-hexyl and 2-ethylhexyl syringate and to evaluate the properties of cements with these compounds as ingredients. Liquids containing the esters dissolved in o-ethoxybenzoic acid (EBA) - when mixed with powders made up from zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, and hydrogenated rosin - hardened in from four to nine min. Properties of the cements were determined, when possible, according to ANSI/ADA specification tests. Depending on the powder-liquid ratio employed, we obtained compositions with varying physical properties desirable for different dental applications. The syringate cements, compared with the commonly used ZOE materials, have improved compressive and tensile strength, lower water solubility, do not inhibit polymerization, and are compatible with acrylic monomers. These cements pass, and mostly greatly exceed, the requirements for ZOE-type restorative materials. They also bond significantly to resins, composites, and non-precious metals. The bond strength is somewhat less than that of n-hexyl vanillate-EBA cement, but greatly exceeds the adhesion to various substrates of ZOE luting agents. Cements containing n-hexyl syringate were somewhat brittle. Best results were obtained with liquid compositions containing 5% 2-ethylhexyl syringate, 7% n-hexyl vanillate, and 88% EBA, which yielded non-brittle materials. These cements, because of the syringate ingredient, may possess caries-reducing properties. Thus, perhaps in conjunction with fluoride additives, they would be useful as insulating bases, pulp capping agents, root canal sealers, soft tissue packs, or intermediate restoratives.

  9. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature or in iced water and blood gas analysis was performed at baseline and after 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. RESULTS--In the first 10 minutes measured PaO2 in plastic syringes at room temperature fell by an average of 1.21 kPa/min; placing the sample on ice reduced the rate of PaO2 decline to 0.19 kPa/min. The rate of fall of PaO2 in glass at room temperature was 0.49 kPa/min. The changes in PaCO2 were less dramatic and at room temperature averaged increases of 0.47 kPa for plastic syringes and 0.71 kPa for glass syringes over the entire two hour period. These changes in gas tension for plastic syringes would lead to an overestimation of pulmonary shunt measured by the 100% oxygen technique of 0.6% for each minute left at room temperature before analysis. CONCLUSIONS--Glass syringes are superior to plastic syringes in preserving samples with a high PaO2, and prompt and adequate cooling of such samples is essential for accurate blood gas analysis. PMID:8016801

  10. Fluorescent quantification of terazosin hydrochloride content in human plasma and tablets using second-order calibration based on both parallel factor analysis and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hai-Long; OuYang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-09-14

    Two second-order calibration methods based on the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) method, have been utilized for the direct determination of terazosin hydrochloride (THD) in human plasma samples, coupled with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the two algorithms combing with the standard addition procedures have been applied for the determination of terazosin hydrochloride in tablets and the results were validated by the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. These second-order calibrations all adequately exploited the second-order advantages. For human plasma samples, the average recoveries by the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms with the factor number of 2 (N=2) were 100.4+/-2.7% and 99.2+/-2.4%, respectively. The accuracy of two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) tests and t-test. It was found that both algorithms could give accurate results, and only the performance of APTLD was slightly better than that of PARAFAC. Figures of merit, such as sensitivity (SEN), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) were also calculated to compare the performances of the two strategies. For tablets, the average concentrations of THD in tablet were 63.5 and 63.2 ng mL(-1) by using the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by t-test and both algorithms could give accurate results, too.

  11. Calibration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Balogh, Andre; Coffey, Victoria; Dichter, Bronislaw K.; Kasprzak, Wayne T.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Lennartsson, Walter; McFadden, James P.

    Calibration and characterization of particle instruments with supporting flight electronics is necessary for the correct interpretation of the returned data. Generally speaking, the instrument will always return a measurement value (typically in form of a digital number), for example a count rate, for the measurement of an external quantity, which could be an ambient neutral gas density, an ion composition (species measured and amount), or electron density. The returned values are used then to derive parameters associated with the distribution such as temperature, bulk flow speed, differential energy flux and others. With the calibration of the instrument the direct relationship between the external quantity and the returned measurement value has to be established so that the data recorded during flight can be correctly interpreted. While calibration and characterization of an instrument are usually done in ground-based laboratories prior to integration of the instrument in the spacecraft, it can also be done in space.

  12. Clinical comparison of pain perception rates between computerized local anesthesia and conventional syringe in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    San Martin-Lopez, Alma Luz; Garrigos-Esparza, Luis David; Torre-Delgadillo, Gabriela; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio; Hernandez-Sierra, Juan Francisco; de Pozos-Guillen, Amaury Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain perception rates in pediatric patients by comparing computerized injection device and traditional injection procedure. In a clinical trial, by using a crossover design, sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive, in consecutive sessions, dental anesthetic techniques with either traditional or computerized device. Visual Analogue Scale qualification and heart rate monitoring as physiologic indicator of pain response were used for the evaluation. Results showed that traditional syringe injections were more painful than computerized injection device (p < 0.001). Results suggested that computerized injection device reduces pain perception compared to the traditional syringe during the dental anesthetic management.

  13. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  14. Radio-iodination of neurotrophins and their delivery in vivo: advantages of membrane filtration and the use of disposable syringes.

    PubMed

    von Bartheld, C S

    1998-02-20

    This paper reports two simple improvements for the radio-iodination of neurotrophins and their delivery in vivo. (1) Neurotrophins can be effectively separated from free iodide by using membrane filtration devices. Seven methods for the separation of free iodide are compared, including dialysis, gel filtration, and membrane filtration. Membrane filtration of the iodinated protein has several important advantages over dialysis or gel filtration. These include the precise control over the final concentration; excellent recovery of the neurotrophin; easy and inexpensive procedure; performance of the entire procedure in a fume hood; and reduced volume of radioactive waste. (2) Disposable, inexpensive syringes are suitable for the delivery of small volumes of radio-iodinated or non-radioactive neurotrophins. Plastic disposable insulin syringes are compared with Hamilton syringes. The ejection volume of the disposable syringes is surprisingly reliable in the dose range 2-15 microl. Their in vivo performance was tested by injections in the eyes of chick embryos in ovo. The amounts remaining in the eye varied significantly less with the disposable syringes. Leakage into the surrounding eye-muscles after intraocular injection was significantly more frequent with Hamilton syringes than with the disposable syringes. Thus, disposable syringes can be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for drug delivery of 2-15 microl volumes.

  15. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…

  16. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  17. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  18. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different

  19. Residual Injection Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and the Evaluation of Syringe Exchange Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Braine, Naomi; Yi, Huso; Turner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relationships between residual risk behavior (risk behavior among persons participating in effective HIV prevention programs) and HIV infection. Structured interviews and HIV tests were obtained from participants in six large U.S. syringe exchange programs. Program characteristics were obtained through interviews with the…

  20. An introduction to the Micrel Micropump MP Daily portable syringe driver.

    PubMed

    Groves, Karen E

    2003-11-01

    In this article the author describes the Micrel Micropump MP Daily (MP Daily) portable syringe driver. This follows the author's experience of a 4-month pilot of the device by an inpatient palliative care unit. Portable syringe drivers are commonly used to deliver continuous subcutaneous infusions in palliative care situations. Those in current use are not without problems and serious adverse events have occasionally been reported, mainly resulting from confusion between models. The MP Daily syringe driver addresses some of these issues while remaining small, lightweight and inexpensive, with a long battery life and fitting into the pocket of a shirt of pyjama jacket. Improvements over current models include an on/off button, the absence of facilities to set a zero rate or change the rate once the syringe driver is running, and the absence of a boost button. In addition, there are improved alarms, a message display system and a configuration menu. Although confusion remains a problem, and the ideal has not yet been reached, the MP Daily goes some considerable way towards reducing risks and opportunities for human error.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse and syringe sharing among people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William; Ti, Lianping; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the impact of sexual abuse on HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (IDU) has not been thoroughly characterized. We therefore sought to identify whether childhood sexual abuse was associated with syringe sharing among a sample of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. We assessed sexual abuse among two cohorts of IDUs via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and syringe sharing. In total, 1380 IDU were included in the study, and 426 (30.9%) IDU reported childhood sexual abuse. Syringe sharing (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.28–2.60) remained independently associated with childhood sexual abuse after adjustment for potential confounders. Given that a history of childhood sexual abuse appears to be elevated among IDU who engage in HIV risk behaviors (i.e., syringe sharing), HIV prevention efforts should include efforts to address historical trauma in this population. PMID:25428283

  2. [Analysis and thinking on the post marketing quality of the disposable sterilized syringe].

    PubMed

    Li, Jingli; Yang, Wanjuan; Hao, Qing; Ji, Yuan; Zhu, Bijun

    2012-11-01

    By scattered-sampling testing the disposable sterilized syringe according to legal inspection and explorative research methods of vitro cytotoxicity and easy oxide etc. testing, this article comprehensively evaluated and analyzed the product quality and found the potential risk. The results will help to improve the work process and product quality.

  3. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  4. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Brenda E.; Chittenden, Sarah J.; Murray, Iain S.; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J.; Gear, Jonathan I.; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an 131I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration. PMID:28187040

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27.5009 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  6. Sharing of Needles and Syringes among Men Who Inject Drugs: HIV Risk in Northwest Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Pasa, M. Kamal; Alom, Kazi Robiul; Bashri, Zubaida; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injection drug use is prevalent in northwestern Bangladesh. We sought to explore the context of needle/syringe sharing among persons who inject drugs (PWID), examining risk exposures to blood-borne infections like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis in a region where these dual epidemics are likely to expand. Methods We used a qualitative research approach to learn about injection practices, conducting 60 in-depth interviews among PWID. We then conducted 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) that generated a checklist of salient issues, and followed up with personal observations of typical days at the drug-use venues. Content and interpretative frameworks were used to analyze qualitative information and socio-demographic information, using SPSS software. Results We found that needle/syringe-sharing behaviours were integrated into the overall social and cultural lives of drug users. Sharing behaviours were an central component of PWID social organization. Sharing was perceived as an inherent element within reciprocal relationships, and sharing was tied to beliefs about drug effects, economic adversity, and harassment due to their drug user status. Carrying used needles/syringes to drug-use venues was deemed essential since user-unfriendly needle-syringe distribution schedules of harm reduction programmes made it difficult to access clean needles/syringes in off-hours. PWID had low self-esteem. Unequal power relationships were reported between the field workers of harm reduction programmes and PWID. Field workers expressed anti-PWID bias and judgmental attitudes, and also had had misconceptions about HIV and hepatitis transmission. PWID were especially disturbed that no assistance was forthcoming from risk reduction programme staff when drug users manifested withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion Interventions must take social context into account when scaling up programmes in diverse settings. The social organization of PWID include values that

  7. In-syringe extraction using dissolvable layered double hydroxide-polymer sponges templated from hierarchically porous coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Milad; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Herein we report the use of cobalt porous coordination polymers (PCP) as intermediates to prepare advanced extraction media based on layered double hydroxides (LDH) supported on melamine polymer foam. The obtained dissolvable Ni-Co LDH composite sponges can be molded and used as sorbent for the in-syringe solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phenolic acids from fruit juices. The proposed sorbent is obtained due to the surfactant-assisted self-assembly of Co(II)/imidazolate PCPs on commercially available melamine foam, followed by the in situ conversion of the PCP into the final dissolvable LDH coating. Advantageous features for SPE are obtained by using PCPs with hierarchical porosity (HPCPs). The LDH-sponge prepared using intermediate HPCPs (HLDH-sponge) is placed in the headspace of a glass syringe, enabling flow-through extraction followed by analyte elution by the dissolution of the LDH coating in acidic conditions. Three phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid) were extracted and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Using a 5mL sample volume, the obtained detection limits were 0.15-0.35μgL(-1). The proposed method for the preparation of HLDH-sponges showed a good reproducibility as observed from the intra- and inter-day RSD's, which were <10% for all analytes. The batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different batches of HLDH-sponges was 10.6-11.2%. Enrichment factors of 15-21 were obtained. The HLDH-sponges were applied satisfactorily to the determination of phenolic acids in natural and commercial fruit juices, obtaining relative recoveries among 89.7-95.3%.

  8. SNLS calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a massive imaging survey, conducted between 2003 and 2008, with the MegaCam instrument, mounted on the CFHT-3.6-m telescope. With a 1 degree wide focal plane, made of 36 2048 × 4612 sensors totalling 340 megapixels, MegaCam was at the time the largest imager on the sky. The Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) uses the cadenced observations of the 4 deg2 wide "DEEP" layer of the CFHTLS to search and follow-up Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and study the acceleration of the cosmic expansion. The reduction and calibration of the CFHTLS/SNLS datasets has posed a series of challenges. In what follows, we give a brief account of the photometric calibration work that has been performed on the SNLS data over the last decade.

  9. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Robert W; Harrell, David B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG) with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose

  10. Stability of ceftazidime (with arginine) stored in plastic syringes at three temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nahata, M C; Morosco, R S; Fox, J L

    1992-12-01

    The stability of ceftazidime (with arginine) stored in plastic syringes at three temperatures was studied. Ceftazidime (with arginine) was reconstituted with sterile water for injection to a concentration of 100 mg/mL and transferred to plastic syringes. Syringes were stored at 22 degrees C for 24 hours; at 4 degrees C for 7 or 10 days, then at 22 degrees C for 24 hours; or at -20 degrees C for 91 days, then at 22 degrees C for 24 hours or at 4 degrees C for seven days followed by 22 degrees C for 24 hours. Ceftazidime concentration was measured at various times by using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. At each sampling time, each syringe was visually inspected and the pH of each solution was measured. Mean ceftazidime concentration remained > 90% of initial concentration at all storage conditions. Although during storage the color of the solutions changed from light straw to dark yellow and the pH decreased, no precipitate was visually detected and no peaks for degradation products appeared on the chromatograms. Ceftazidime 100 mg/mL (with arginine) in sterile water for injection was stable when stored in plastic syringes for up to 24 hours at 22 degrees C, for 10 days at 4 degrees C followed by up to 24 hours at 22 degrees C, and for 91 days at -20 degrees C followed by up to 24 hours at 22 degrees C or by 7 days at 4 degrees C and up to 24 hours at 22 degrees C.

  11. Development of biotechnology products in pre-filled syringes: technical considerations and approaches.

    PubMed

    Badkar, Advait; Wolf, Amanda; Bohack, Leigh; Kolhe, Parag

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) product development case study is presented to address some of the issues faced during developing a pre-filled syringe (PFS) product for a biotherapeutic. In particular, issues involving incompatibility with silicone oil and a stability-based approach for selection of PFS barrel and tip cap components have been discussed. Silicone spiking studies followed by exposure to agitation stress or accelerated temperature conditions were used to check for incompatibilities of the mAb with silicone oil, a necessary product contact material in PFS. In addition, screening studies to compare various closure materials as well as syringe barrel processing methods were used to select the optimum closure materials as well as the correct syringe processing method. Results indicate that the model mAb formulation used was sensitive to high levels of silicone oil especially under accelerated temperature conditions resulting in formation of protein-silicone particles in the solution for samples that were spiked with the silicone oil. Agitation stress did not have any significant impact on the quality attributes tested. Samples stored in syringe barrels that were processed with sprayed-on silicone had higher levels of subvisible particles as compared to those that were processed with the baked-on process. The tip cap comparability study resulted in one tip cap material having superior compatibility among the three that were tested. The quality attribute that was most impacted by the tip cap materials was mAb oxidation. An approach for evaluation of primary packaging components during the development of pre-filled syringe presentations for biotechnology-based compounds has been highlighted.

  12. g factors of the lowest (5/2)+ and (7/2)+ states in 197Au and calibration of the transient magnetic field in Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Loewenich, K.; Pavan, P.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Zannoni, R.; de Poli, M.

    1986-05-01

    The angular precessions of the lowest (5/2)+ and (7/2)+ states in 197Au have been measured employing the transient field method. The 197Au nuclei, Coulomb-excited by a 180 MeV 63Cu beam, traversed the Gd foil with velocities between 5v0 and 2v0 (v0=c/137). We have obtained the values g((5/2)+)=0.21(2) and g((7/2)+)=0.15(2), which are consistent with the predictions of the particle-core weak-coupling model. The field has been calibrated with the Chalk River parametrization, which has been checked using the known g factors of the lowest 2+ states in 184W, 186W, 194Pt, and 196Pt as probes.

  13. Safety, effectiveness and ease of use of a non-reusable syringe in a developing country immunization programme.

    PubMed Central

    Steinglass, R.; Boyd, D.; Grabowsky, M.; Laghari, A. G.; Khan, M. A.; Qavi, A.; Evans, P.

    1995-01-01

    Unsterile needles and syringes may transmit blood-borne infectious agents such as HIV and hepatitis B virus. The emergence of these diseases as major public health concerns and the risk of nosocomial transmission has heightened interest in the development of single-use injection devices. WHO and UNICEF embarked on a programme to develop and introduce these devices in 1987. We report on a field trial in Karachi, Pakistan, of the SoloShot (SS) plastic disposable syringe, which has a metal clip in the syringe barrel to prevent second-time withdrawal of the plunger. A conventional disposable syringe (CS) was used as a comparison. We observed 48 vaccinators giving 2400 injections with the SS and 1440 with the CS; 98.7% of SS performed as designed. The average volume required per delivered dose was comparable for the two syringes and was delivered more quickly with SS. Training and experience had a small but statistically significant effect on several aspects of SS use. Vaccinators who indicated a syringe preference preferred SS on 7 out of 9 indicators. SS is safe and effective in preventing reuse and is easier and quicker to use than the CS. Vaccinators require little, if any, special training. It could directly replace disposable syringes in expanded programmes on immunization (EPI) in countries where use of unsterile disposable devices occurs or when sterilization is not practical. PMID:7704926

  14. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  15. Buffered Lidocaine Hydrochloride Solution With and Without Epinephrine: Stability in Polypropylene Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Pascuet, Elena; Donnelly, Ronald F; Garceau, Danielle; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pain associated with infiltrating the skin with lidocaine can be reduced by buffering the solution with sodium bicarbonate. Objectives: To determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of lidocaine hydrochloride solution buffered with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, with and without epinephrine, packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at 5°C with protection from light. Methods: Lidocaine solutions (1% and 2%), with and without epinephrine 1:100 000, were diluted 10:1 with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, packaged in 3-mL polypropylene syringes, and stored at 5°C (range 3°C to 8°C). On each of days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28, the contents of 3 syringes for each solution of lidocaine combined with epinephrine were collected separately in glass vials and frozen at −70°C for subsequent analysis. In addition, on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the contents of 3 syringes for each lidocaine solution without epinephrine were collected separately in glass vials and frozen at −70°C for subsequent analysis. Chemical stability was determined with a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Changes in colour, clarity, and pH were used to determine physical compatibility of the solutions. Results: All buffered lidocaine solutions containing epinephrine (1:100 000) retained at least 93.3% of the original concentration of epinephrine and 97.5% of the lidocaine concentration for 7 days when stored at 5°C with protection from light. In contrast, the epinephrine-free solutions retained at least 94.7% of the initial concentration of lidocaine for the duration of the study (28 days). All samples remained clear, colourless, and free of precipitate throughout the study, and there were no significant changes in pH. Conclusion: Extemporaneously prepared buffered lidocaine (1% and 2%) packaged in polypropylene syringes remained stable for up to 28 days when properly refrigerated with protection from light. A 7-day expiry

  16. Field calibration of multi-scattering correction factor for aethalometer aerosol absorption coefficient during CAPMEX Campaign, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C.; Park, R.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Filter-based instrument, such as aethalometer, is being widely used to measure equivalent black carbon(EBC) mass concentration and aerosol absorption coefficient(AAC). However, many other previous studies have poited that AAC and its aerosol absorption angstrom exponent(AAE) are strongly affected by the multi-scattering correction factor(C) when we retrieve AAC from aethalometer EBC mass concentration measurement(Weingartner et al., 2003; Arnott et al., 2005; Schmid et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2010). We determined the C value using the method given in Weingartner et al. (2003) by comparing 7-wavelngth aethalometer (AE-31, Magee sci.) to 3-wavelength Photo-Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3, DMT) at Gosan climate observatory, Korea(GCO) during Cheju ABC plume-asian monsoon experiment(CAPMEX) campaign(August and September, 2008). In this study, C was estimated to be 4.04 ± 1.68 at 532 nm and AAC retrieved with this value was decreased as approximately 100% as than that retrieved with soot case value from Weingartner et al (2003). We compared the AAC determined from aethalomter measurements to that from collocated Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measurements from January 2012 to December 2013 at GCO and found good agreement in both AAC and AAE. This result suggests the determination of site-specific C is crucially needed when we calculate AAC from aethalometer measurements.

  17. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  18. Photocatalytic ozonation of phenolic wastewaters: Syringic acid, tyrosol and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Olga; Fernandez, Lidia A; Carbajo, Maria; Beltran, Fernando; Rivas, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic ozonation of a mixture of 3 phenols (gallic acid, tyrosol and syringic acid) has been conducted under different operating conditions. The individual adsorption of the phenol type compounds onto titanium dioxide (photocatalyst) has been first evaluated. Equilibrium conditions are attained in less than an hour while the isotherm curves reveal that adsorption intensity increases in order: syringic acid < tyrosol < gallic acid. When the photocatalytic ozonation is applied, an optimum in titanium dioxide concentration is experienced (1.5 g L(-1)). Direct comparison of the photocatalytic ozonation to other less sophisticated oxidation systems (i.e., single ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photo-ozonation, etc.) indicates a higher efficiency of the former in terms of ozone uptake.

  19. Diffusion of the D.A.R.E and Syringe Exchange Programs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Sloboda, Zili; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; McKnight, Courtney; Braine, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    We examined the diffusion of the D.A.R.E program to reduce use of illicit drugs among school-aged children and youths and the diffusion of syringe exchange programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users. The D.A.R.E program was diffused widely in the United States despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness; there has been limited diffusion of syringe exchange in the United States, despite extensive scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Multiple possible associations between diffusion and evidence of effectiveness exist, from widespread diffusion without evidence of effectiveness to limited diffusion with strong evidence of effectiveness. The decision theory concepts of framing and loss aversion may be useful for further research on the diffusion of public health innovations. PMID:16809601

  20. Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Brendan; Gong, Max; Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

    2012-11-01

    In this talk, an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump with a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface is presented. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining. Pump performance is experimentally demonstrated and the behavior is subsequently modeled with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. The device provides precisely controlled pumping rates and high volume throughput without any electrical power requirements.

  1. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  2. The Impact of Legalizing Syringe Exchange Programs on Arrests Among Injection Drug Users in California

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Kral, Alex H.

    2007-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2000 allowed syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in California to operate legally if local jurisdictions declare a local HIV public health emergency. Nonetheless, even in locales where SEPs are legal, the possession of drug paraphernalia, including syringes, remained illegal. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the legal status of SEPs and individual arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 2001 to 2003. Using data from three annual cross-sections (2001-03) of IDUs attending 24 SEPs in 16 California counties (N = 1,578), we found that overall, 14% of IDUs in our sample reported arrest or citation for paraphernalia in the 6 months before the interview. Further analysis found that 17% of IDUs attending a legal SEP (defined at the county level) reported arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia compared to 10% of IDUs attending an illegal SEP (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 2.3] for IDUs attending legal SEPs compared to IDUs attending illegal SEPs, after controlling for race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, illegal income, injection of amphetamines, years of injection drug use, frequency of SEP use, and number of needles received at last visit. IDUs attending SEPs with legal status may be more visible to police, and hence, more subject to arrest or citation for paraphernalia. These findings suggest that legislative efforts to decriminalize the operation of SEPs without concurrent decriminalization of syringe possession may result in higher odds of arrest among SEP clients, with potentially deleterious implications for the health and well-being of IDUs. More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained. PMID:17265133

  3. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  4. Taking a Bite out of Malaria: Controlled Human Malaria Infection by Needle and Syringe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Taking a Bite out of Malaria : Controlled Human Malaria ...American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Editorial Taking a Bite out of Malaria : Controlled Human Malaria Infection by Needle and Syringe Judith E...organism malaria vaccine, regardless of whether the parasite is attenuated by radiation, genetic modification, or concurrent chemoprophy- laxis. The whole

  5. Low-cost feedback-controlled syringe pressure pumps for microfluidics applications.

    PubMed

    Lake, John R; Heyde, Keith C; Ruder, Warren C

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics are widely used in research ranging from bioengineering and biomedical disciplines to chemistry and nanotechnology. As such, there are a large number of options for the devices used to drive and control flow through microfluidic channels. Commercially available syringe pumps are probably the most commonly used instruments for this purpose, but are relatively high-cost and have inherent limitations due to their flow profiles when they are run open-loop. Here, we present a low-cost ($110) syringe pressure pump that uses feedback control to regulate the pressure into microfluidic chips. Using an open-source microcontroller board (Arduino), we demonstrate an easily operated and programmable syringe pump that can be run using either a PID or bang-bang control method. Through feedback control of the pressure at the inlets of two microfluidic geometries, we have shown stability of our device to within ±1% of the set point using a PID control method and within ±5% of the set point using a bang-bang control method with response times of less than 1 second. This device offers a low-cost option to drive and control well-regulated pressure-driven flow through microfluidic chips.

  6. Low-cost feedback-controlled syringe pressure pumps for microfluidics applications

    PubMed Central

    Lake, John R.; Heyde, Keith C.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics are widely used in research ranging from bioengineering and biomedical disciplines to chemistry and nanotechnology. As such, there are a large number of options for the devices used to drive and control flow through microfluidic channels. Commercially available syringe pumps are probably the most commonly used instruments for this purpose, but are relatively high-cost and have inherent limitations due to their flow profiles when they are run open-loop. Here, we present a low-cost ($110) syringe pressure pump that uses feedback control to regulate the pressure into microfluidic chips. Using an open-source microcontroller board (Arduino), we demonstrate an easily operated and programmable syringe pump that can be run using either a PID or bang-bang control method. Through feedback control of the pressure at the inlets of two microfluidic geometries, we have shown stability of our device to within ±1% of the set point using a PID control method and within ±5% of the set point using a bang-bang control method with response times of less than 1 second. This device offers a low-cost option to drive and control well-regulated pressure-driven flow through microfluidic chips. PMID:28369134

  7. Survey of syringe and needle safety among student registered nurse anesthetists: are we making any progress?

    PubMed

    Ford, Kelli

    2013-02-01

    Anesthesia providers serve a vital role in preventing the transmission of disease by following safe injection practices, yet violations of these standards have occurred. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of unsafe injection practices that exist among student anesthesia providers. An online survey containing 8 yes-no questions that assessed injection practices as outlined by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists was sent to student registered nurse anesthetists with at least 3 months' clinical experience. Three hundred twenty-five students completed the survey. Results showed that 14 (approximately 4%) have administered medications from the same syringe to multiple patients, 59 (18%) have reused a needle on the same patient, 266 (82%) have refilled used syringes, and 2 (0.6%) have reused infusion sets for more than 1 patient. Furthermore, 71 (22%) have reused a syringe or needle to withdraw medication from a multidose vial, and 160 (49%) have reentered a single-use medication vial to prepare doses for multiple patients. Students also were asked to report their experiences with nurse anesthetists who engaged in these practices. The results demonstrate that additional education on injection safety must take place to improve practice, increase patient safety, and reduce healthcare costs.

  8. Antimicrobial Effect of Ozone Made by KP Syringe of High-Frequency Ozone Generator

    PubMed Central

    Prebeg, Domagoj; Katunarić, Marina; Budimir, Ana; Šegović, Sanja; Anić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of ozone on suspension of three different bacteria inoculated in prepared canals of extracted human teeth. Material and methods Ozone was produced by special KP syringe of high frequency ozone generator Ozonytron (Biozonix, München, Germany) from aspirated atmospheric air by dielectric barrier discharge and applied through the tip of the syringe to the prepared root canal. The microorganisms used were Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results However, none of the methods was 100% effective against the three bacterial types in suspension. Application of ozone significantly decreased the absolute count of microorganisms (89.3%), as well as the count of each type of bacteria separately (Staphylococcus aureus 94.0%; Staphylococcus epidermidis 88.6% and Enterococcus faecalis 79.7%). Ozone generated by KP syringe was statistically more effective compared to NaOCl as positive control, for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Conclusion The absolute count of Enterococcus faecalis was statistically decreased without a statistically significant difference between the tested group and positive control, respectively. Among the three types of bacteria in suspension, KP probe had the lowest antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:27789911

  9. Surfactant Effects on Particle Generation in Antibody Formulations in Pre-filled Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Alana; McUmber, Aaron C.; Nguyen, Bao H.; Lewus, Rachael; Schwartz, Daniel K.; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation and particle formation have been observed when protein solutions contact hydrophobic interfaces, and it has been suggested that this undesirable phenomenon may be initiated by interfacial adsorption and subsequent gelation of the protein. The addition of surfactants, such as polysorbate 20, to protein formulations has been proposed as a way to reduce protein adsorption at silicone oil-water interfaces and mitigate the production of aggregates and particles. In an accelerated stability study, monoclonal antibody formulations containing varying concentrations of polysorbate 20 were incubated and agitated in pre-filled glass syringes (PFS), exposing the protein to silicone oil-water interfaces at the siliconized syringe walls, air-water interfaces, and agitation stress. Following agitation in siliconized syringes that contained an air bubble, lower particle concentrations were measured in the surfactant-containing antibody formulations than in surfactant-free formulations. Polysorbate 20 reduced particle formation when added at concentrations above or below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The ability of polysorbate 20 to decrease particle generation in PFS corresponded with its ability to inhibit gelation of the adsorbed protein layer, which was assessed by measuring the interfacial diffusion of individual antibody molecules at the silicone oil-water interface using total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with single-molecule tracking. PMID:26413998

  10. Comparison of bulb syringe, pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael S; Moghadamian, Eric S; Yin, Li-Yan; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

    2012-07-01

    Surgical-site infection is a common form of noscomial infection that can occur in fractures following internal fixation. Treatment of these infections has traditionally included preserving stable implants via debridement and antibiotic administration while the fracture is healing. Recent evidence indicated that this algorithm results in less-than-optimal rates of fracture union and infection eradication.The premise for this study is that bacterial removal from fracture implants using the Versajet Hydrosurgery System (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) method is better compared with the bulb syringe and pressurized pulsatile lavage methods. Thirty-two stainless steel, 4-hole, nonlocking, 3.5-mm fracture plates were incubated with Staphylococus aureus and divided into 4 groups. Eight plates in each group underwent irrigation with 1 L of saline using a bulb syringe lavage, pressurized pulsatile lavage, or the Versajet Hydrosurgery System method. Eight plates underwent no irrigation method and served as a control group. The residual bacterial loads following irrigation were quantitatively cultured. Each of the experimental groups had significantly reduced levels of bacteria adherent to the plate following irrigation compared with the control group (P=.0002). Furthermore, the Versajet Hydrosurgery System was most the effective at bacterial removal, followed by the pressurized pulsatile and bulb syringe lavage techniques (P=.0002 to P=.0012, respectively).Novel approaches to eradicate bacteria from implants, such as hydrosurgery technology, while maintaining rigid stability of healing fracture, may improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Unintended purge during the start-up process of a syringe pump: report of a case presented with vascular collapse.

    PubMed

    Farbood, Arash; Kazemi, Asif Parviz; Akbari, Kamal

    2010-12-01

    The case of a 50 year-old woman who developed a sudden decrease in arterial pressure while she was being prepared for surgery for a fractured lumbar spine in the prone position, is reported. She was receiving propofol, remifentanil, and sodium nitroprusside via three syringe pumps through an intravenous cannula at the dorsum of her left hand. The cause of the vascular collapse was the purge of the syringe pumps during the self-check process.

  12. In-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in honey.

    PubMed

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-07-01

    A simple and fast method namely in-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues (e.g. imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) in honey. The experimental parameters affected the extraction efficiency, including kind and concentration of salt, kind of disperser solvent and its volume, kind of extraction solvent and its volume, shooting times and extraction time were investigated. The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of two syringes. Therefore, rapid dispersion and mass transfer processes was created between phases, and thus affects the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The optimum extraction conditions were 10.00 mL of aqueous sample, 10% (w/v) Na2SO4, 1-octanol (100µL) as an extraction solvent, shooting 4 times and extraction time 2min. No disperser solvent and centrifugation step was necessary. Linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-3000 ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The high enrichment factor of the target analytes was 100 fold and low limit of detection (0.25-0.50 ngmL(-1)) could be obtained. This proposed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of neonicotinoid residues in honey, and good recoveries in the range of 96.93-107.70% were obtained.

  13. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina

    2016-05-02

    This poster presents the development, implementation, and operation of the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL) Longwave (LW) system at the Southern Great Plains Radiometric Calibration Facility for the calibration of pyrgeometers that provide traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group.

  14. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  15. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  16. Spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside with p-coumaric, vanillic and syringic acids.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Naim; De Simone, Bruna Clara; Quartarolo, Angelo Domenico; Russo, Nino

    2013-12-15

    Anthocyanins are a natural source of pigments in plants and their processed food products have become attractive and excellent candidates to replace the synthetic colourants due to their characteristic intense colours and associated health benefits. The intermolecular copigmentation between anthocyanins and other colourless compounds has been reported to be an important way to enhance and stabilise the colour intensity of aqueous solutions. In the present work we report the equilibrium constant, stoichiometric ratio and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) related to the intermolecular copigmentation reactions of the anthocyanin malvidin 3-O-glucoside with one hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) and two O-methylated hydroxybenzoic acids (vanillic and syringic acid). Different factors which affect their interactions such as copigment concentration, pH and temperature of the medium are examined at two pH levels (pH=2.50 and 3.65) corresponding to those of the major food mediums where these reactions take place (fruit juices, wine, jams etc.).

  17. Langley method of calibrating UV filter radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusser, James; Gibson, James; Bigelow, David; Kolinski, Donald; Disterhoft, Patrick; Lantz, Kathleen; Beaubien, Arthur

    2000-02-01

    The Langley method of calibrating UV multifilter shadow band radiometers (UV-MFRSR) is explored in this paper. This method has several advantages over the traditional standard lamp calibrations: the Sun is a free, universally available, and very constant source, and nearly continual automated field calibrations can be made. Although 20 or so Langley events are required for an accurate calibration, the radiometer remains in the field during calibration. Difficulties arise as a result of changing ozone optical depth during the Langley event and the breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law over the finite filter band pass since optical depth changes rapidly with wavelength. The Langley calibration of the radiometers depends critically upon the spectral characterization of each channel and on the wavelength and absolute calibration of the extraterrestrial spectrum used. Results of Langley calibrations for two UV-MFRSRs at Mauna Loa, Hawaii were compared to calibrations using two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable lamps. The objectives of this study were to compare Langley calibration factors with those from standard lamps and to compare field-of-view effects. The two radiometers were run simultaneously: one on a Sun tracker and the other in the conventional shadow-band configuration. Both radiometers were calibrated with two secondary 1000 W lamp, and later, the spectral response functions of the channels were measured. The ratio of Langley to lamp calibration factors for the seven channels from 300 nm to 368 nm using the shadow-band configuration ranged from 0.988 to 1.070. The estimated uncertainty in accuracy of the Langley calibrations ranged from ±3.8% at 300 nm to ±2.1% at 368 nm. For all channels calibrated with Central Ultraviolet Calibration Facility (CUCF) lamps the estimated uncertainty was ±2.5% for all channels.

  18. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri holds sample syringe during SLJ experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri holds sample syringe while conducting Studies on the Effects of Microgravity on the Ultrastructure and Function of Cultured Mammalian Cells (KIDNEY CELLS). Mohri, wearing a lightweight headset, works inside the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. In the background are the NASDA Material Sciences Rack 10 with field sequential (FS) crew cabin camera attached and the SLJ end cone with a banner from Auburn University and portraits of the backup payload specialists. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  19. Primary and Secondary Analysis of Local Elected Officials’ Decisions to Support or Oppose Pharmacy Sale of Syringes in California

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Valerie J.

    2010-01-01

    Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive

  20. Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Max M.; MacDonald, Brendan D.; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump using a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining, with a total material cost of ∼0.20 USD/device. We experimentally demonstrate pump performance for both deionized (DI) water and undiluted, anticoagulated mouse whole blood, and characterize the behavior with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. In contrast to existing on-chip pumping mechanisms that typically have low volume capacity (∼5 μL) and sample volume throughput (∼1–10 μl/min), the membrane pump offers high volume capacity (up to 240 μl) and sample volume throughput (up to 125 μl/min). PMID:24143160

  1. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied.

  2. Fibre architecture and song activation rates of syringeal muscles are not lateralized in the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, A. M.; Meyers, R. A.; Cooper, B. G.; Goller, F.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird vocal organ, the syrinx, is composed of two sound generators, which are independently controlled by sets of two extrinsic and four intrinsic muscles. These muscles rank among the fastest vertebrate muscles, but the molecular and morphological foundations of this rapid physiological performance are unknown. Here we show that the four intrinsic muscles in the syrinx of male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are composed of fast oxidative and superfast fibres. Dorsal and ventral tracheobronchialis muscles contain slightly more superfast fibres relative to the number of fast oxidative fibres than dorsal and ventral syringealis muscles. This morphological difference is not reflected in the highest, burst-like activation rate of the two muscle groups during song as assessed with electromyographic recordings. No difference in fibre type ratio was found between the corresponding muscles of the left and right sound generators. Airflow and electromyographic measurements during song indicate that maximal activation rate and speed of airflow regulation do not differ between the two sound sources. Whereas the potential for high-speed muscular control exists on both sides, the two sound generators are used differentially for modulation of acoustic parameters. These results show that large numbers of superfast fibre types are present in intrinsic syringeal muscles of a songbird, providing further confirmation of rapid contraction kinetics. However, syringeal muscles are composed of two fibre types which raises questions about the neuromuscular control of this heterogeneous muscle architecture. PMID:20228343

  3. Experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) and theoretical study of alkali metal syringates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świsłocka, Renata

    2013-07-01

    In this work the influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the syringic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid) was studied. This paper presents spectroscopic vibrations (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and NMR (1H and 13C) study of the series of alkali metal syringates from lithium to cesium syringates. Characteristic shifts of band wavenumbers and changes in band intensities along the metal series were observed. Optimized geometrical structures of the studied compounds were calculated by the B3LYP method using the 6-311++G∗∗ basis set. Aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR and NMR spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristics of studied compounds.

  4. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Crowe, John B; Lanzarotta, Adam; Witkowski, Mark R; Andria, Sara E

    2015-07-01

    Suspect hypodermic needles and syringes were seized from an unlicensed individual who was allegedly injecting patients with silicone (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]) for cosmetic enhancement. Since control syringe barrels and needles often contain an interfering PDMS lubricant, a risk for false positives of foreign PDMS exists. The focus of this report was to minimize this risk and determine a quick and reliable test for the presence of blood in PDMS matrices. Using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, the risk for false-positive identification of foreign PDMS was reduced by (i) overfilling the sampling aperture to prevent spectral distortions and (ii) sampling a region of the suspect syringe/needle assembly where manufacturer-applied PDMS is not typically located. Analysis for blood indicated that the Teichman microchemical test was effective for detecting blood in the presence of PDMS. Overall, detecting PDMS established intent and detecting blood established that the needle containing the PDMS had been used for injection.

  5. Effect of air moisture content on adhesion to dentine: a comparison of dental air/water syringe tips.

    PubMed

    Lau, A; Bennani, V; Chandler, N; Hanlin, S; Lowe, B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spray pattern and air moisture content produced by single-use syringe and multiple-use syringe tips. The drying efficacy was evaluated by analyzing the spray and by detecting the presence of moisture in the air blast through the tips. Single-use tips had a more consistent spray pattern and produced a moisture-free airflow compared to the multiple-use tips. The differences were statistically significant. Adhesion to dentine between tooth preparations dried with the two tips was evaluated using a tensile test. The differences were statistically insignificant.

  6. Improved wide-angle, fisheye and omnidirectional camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Steffen; Leitloff, Jens; Hinz, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper an improved method for calibrating wide-angle, fisheye and omnidirectional imaging systems is presented. We extend the calibration procedure proposed by Scaramuzza et al. by replacing the residual function and joint refinement of all parameters. In doing so, we achieve a more stable, robust and accurate calibration (up to factor 7) and can reduce the number of necessary calibration steps from five to three. After introducing the camera model and highlighting the differences from the current calibration procedure, we perform a comprehensive performance evaluation using several data sets and show the impact of the proposed calibration procedure on the calibration results.

  7. Improving self-calibration.

    PubMed

    Enßlin, Torsten A; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

  8. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in a syringe filter for determination of triazine herbicides in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Qun; Xu, Bo; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xinghua

    2016-02-01

    A novel, cost-effective and simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method, by using a syringe connected with a nylon membrane filter as the adsorbent container, was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides from Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) samples. The selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized with the template of atrazine were employed as the adsorbents for the enrichment and purification of analytes. The extraction parameters, including the volume and type of loading solvent, the type of washing solvent and eluting solvent, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the final extracts were analyzed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Recoveries of the developed method range from 92.4% to 107.3% with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 8.2%. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.005-2.4 µg g(-1) for desmetryn, atrazine and terbumeton, and 0.005-1.5 µg g(-1) for dimethametryn and dipropetryn, with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.9995. The limits of detection (LODs) of five triazine herbicides are in the range of 0.09-0.39 ng g(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by various official organizations. Analytical results of three real Radix Paeoniae Alba samples indicate that the proposed method is cost-effective and easy-to-use than other routine pretreatment methods.

  9. Simple extraction method using syringe filter for detection of ethephon in tomatoes by negative-ion mode liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soon-Kil; Cho, Ji-Mi; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Seo, Young-Jun; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and sensitive method was developed for the extraction of ethephon from homogenized tomatoes that does not require a cleanup procedure. In a syringe filter, three distinct layers - aqueous, acetonitrile, and n-hexane - are clearly separated after storage at -80 °C for 5-10 min. A Dionex IonPac column was used to separate the analyte before detection using negative-ion mode liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The matrix effect of the tested analyte was negligibly small and the matched calibration showed a good linearity over a concentration range of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.9998. The recovery at three fortification levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) was between 82.9 and 108.6% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <5.0%. The limit of quantification (0.03 mg/kg) was lower than the maximum residue limit (3 mg/kg) set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea. From a field trial, the method developed herein was applied to calculate the decline pattern and predict the pre-harvest residue limits of ethephon in tomatoes. In conclusion, the proposed sample preparation is feasible for the detection of hydrophilic analytes in tomatoes.

  10. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

  11. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe

    PubMed Central

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

  12. Moving beyond non-engagement on regulated needle-syringe exchange programs in Australian prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mogg, Daniel; Levy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia is at a fork in the road with the possibility of a needle-syringe exchange program (NSP) to be introduced at the new prison in the ACT. However, the current situation is characterised by non-engagement from major stakeholders. We explore why informed discussion will not be enough to convince prison officers, policy makers and the wider community of the benefits of prison-based NSPs. Other methods of engagement and communication will be proposed – in that may provide avenues for "breakthrough". Methods A review of the literature on needle-syringe exchanges and harm reduction strategies within the context of prisons and prisoner health was conducted. Literature on strategies to change attitudes and move beyond intractable situations was also consulted. In addition, one author, DM, conducted a two-hour interview with an ex-prison officer. Results No studies were found which investigated the potential efficacy of interventions to modify attitudes or behaviours in the specific context of introducing an NSP into a prison. Nonetheless, several theories were identified which may explain the failure of informed discussion alone to create change in this situation and may therefore lead to suggestions for engagement and communication to move towards a resolution Discussion Cognitive-behavioural therapy highlights the importance of individual cognitions and how they shape behaviours in any change campaign. Social identity theory emphasizes changes to social processes that may open the prison officer workforce to change. Peace studies also suggests socialization strategies such as observing an established and effective prison-based needle-syringe exchange. Social marketing provides suggestions on how to sell an exchange to ensuring the benefits are framed to outweigh the costs. Conclusion Psychology, peace studies and social marketing all agree people's views must be carefully collected and analysed if people are going to be convinced to consider and

  13. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: drug-related law enforcement and access to syringe exchange programmes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C; Friedman, Samuel R

    2009-05-01

    The concept of the "risk environment"--defined as the "space ... [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission"--draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City [NYC]). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures--grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies--can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors' health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors.

  14. Characterization of syringe-pump-driven induced pressure fluctuations in elastic microchannels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Jacobi, Ian; Beck, David J; Li, Songjing; Stone, Howard A

    2015-02-21

    We study pressure and flow-rate fluctuations in microchannels, where the flow rate is supplied by a syringe pump. We demonstrate that the pressure fluctuations are induced by the flow-rate fluctuations coming from mechanical oscillations of the pump motor. Also, we provide a mathematical model of the effect of the frequency of the pump on the normalized amplitude of pressure fluctuations and introduce a dimensionless parameter incorporating pump frequency, channel geometry and mechanical properties that can be used to predict the performance of different microfluidic device configurations. The normalized amplitude of pressure fluctuations decreases as the frequency of the pump increases and the elasticity of the channel material decreases. The mathematical model is verified experimentally over a range of typical operating conditions and possible applications are discussed.

  15. Organizational Issues in the Implementation of a Hospital-Based Syringe Exchange Program

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Carmen L.; Sorensen, James L.; Grossman, Nina; Sporer, Karl A.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Little published information exists to guide health care institutions in establishing syringe exchange program (SEP) services. To address this gap, this article discusses organizational issues encountered in the implementation of a hospital-based SEP in San Francisco, California (USA). Investigators collaborated with a community organization in implementing a county hospital-based SEP. SEP services integrated into a public hospital presented unique challenges directly related to their status as a health care institution. In the course of introducing SEP services into a hospital setting as part of a clinical trial, various ethical, legal, and logistical issues were raised. Based on these experiences, this paper provides guidance on how to integrate an SEP into a traditional health care institution. PMID:20397875

  16. Insulin pens vs. vials and syringes: the pharmacist's role in individualizing therapy.

    PubMed

    Honebrink, Amy N; Peters, Chelsea R; Bright, David R

    2011-07-01

    As pharmacists strive for tighter glucose control in their patients, several considerations exist including the selection of insulin delivery administration methods. Traditionally, insulin administration using vials and syringes has been common, but insulin pens are also a viable option. Insulin pens have been shown to increase patient autonomy, which may impact adherence. Elderly patients, who may suffer from dexterity and visual impairment, have been shown to prefer insulin pens because they are easier to use. Although insulin pens are more expensive per mL, some patients may find an economic advantage with insulin pens based on copays and beyond-use dating. In long-term care settings, the additional cost of insulin pens may be offset by the reduced insulin-administration time. Pharmacists are well suited to advocate for their patients and to help select the insulin administration method that considers individual limitations and fiscal realities, and will best support the patient's disease management.

  17. 3D Printing Prototypes for Healthcare Professionals: Creating a Reciprocating Syringe.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Steven; Abdullah, Selwan; Hirsch, Jeffrey

    2017-01-30

    3D printing (additive manufacturing) has been around since 1984, but interest in the technology has increased exponentially as it has become both accessible and inexpensive. The applications of the technology in healthcare are still being explored; however, initial forays have been encouraging. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of prototyping for healthcare professionals by democratizing the process and enhancing collaboration, making it cheaper to do iterative prototyping with little or no engineering experience. This case report details the creation of a multi-lumen reciprocating syringe with 3D printing. The product has been created and tested using a variety of publicly available resources. It provides a detailed overview of the approach and the framework required to create such a medical device. However, the implications of this report are much larger than this one product, and the fundamental ideas discussed here could be used for creating customized solutions for many healthcare problems.

  18. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Kral, Alex H; Scott, Andrea; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2005-12-01

    This study examined condom attitudes, preferences, barriers, and use among a sample of 550 injection drug using clients of syringe exchange programs in California. In multivariate analyses, positive attitudes toward condoms were significantly associated with consistent condom use for vaginal, anal, and oral sex in the past six months, beyond the effects of confounding socio-demographic and HIV risk variables. Participants commonly cited partner-related barriers to condom use, such as reluctance to use condoms with steady partners (34%). Almost a quarter of the sample cited dislike of condoms (e.g., because of pleasure reduction). In addition, a third of respondents stated specific preferences regarding condom brands, sensitivity, sizes, and textures. Interventions that increase awareness about positive aspects of condom use and sexual risk from steady partners may be successful in increasing condom use among injection drug users.

  19. Patterns of sexual commerce among women at US Syringe Exchange Programs.

    PubMed

    Braine, Naomi; Desjarlais, Don C; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In the USA, the majority of research on sex work has examined the experiences of women recruited from social locations commonly referred to as the 'sex industry', such as street strolls or escort services. This paper presents data from female syringe exchange participants who had sold sex in the last 30 days. The women interviewed for this study report a much broader array of commercial transactions than found in previous US studies, including selling sex to women, paying men for sex, and considerable role fluidity between buying and selling. In addition, approximately one-third of the women report only selling sex 1 day per week or less, and appear to be more socio-economically stable than women who sell sex more often. We argue that this data suggests the existence of an array of commercial sexual transactions outside of the socially recognized sex industry, and that social location may affect condom use.

  20. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jinn P.; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy. PMID:27573062

  1. Immunochemical authentication of manuka honey using a monoclonal antibody specific to a glycoside of methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Araki, Yukako; Juri, Maki; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Nitta, Yoko; Niwa, Toshio; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-11-05

    Leptosperin, a novel glycoside of methyl syringate, is exclusively present in manuka honey derived from the Leptospermum species Leptospermum scoparium. Quantification of leptosperin might thus be applicable for authentication of honey. The concentration of leptosperin has high linearity with antibacterial activity. We established a monoclonal antibody to leptosperin and characterized the antibody in detail by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), comparing the results with those of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for validation. The antigen in manuka honey was confirmed as leptosperin by HPLC fractionation with quantitation by an ELISA. Leptosperin contents of 50 honey samples were analyzed by an established ELISA, which can handle 20 samples (duplicate) on one 96-well plate. Significant coincidence with the chemical quantitation was observed. Immunochemical quantitation of leptosperin would be an economical and facile method for the possible authentication of manuka honey, allowing many honey samples to be processed and analyzed by an ELISA simultaneously.

  2. Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas A; Gibson, Midori Z

    2003-01-01

    A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2.5 mL portion of test sample was passed through a conditioned macroporous SPE cartridge and washed with 2 mL 1% sodium bicarbonate followed by 2 mL 1% acetic acid. Patulin was eluted with 1 mL 10% ethyl acetate in ethyl ether and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of 81% acetonitrile, 9% water, and 10% 0.05M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 2.4. Recoveries averaged 92% and the relative standard deviation was 8.0% in test samples spiked with 50 ng/mL patulin. The method appears to be applicable for monitoring apple juice samples to meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance action level of 50 microg/kg in an industrial quality assurance laboratory environment.

  3. Systematic evaluation of dissolved lead sorption losses to particulate syringe filter materials.

    PubMed

    Minning, Thomas; Lytle, Darren A; Pham, Maily; Kelty, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing between soluble and particulate lead in drinking water is useful in understanding the mechanism of lead release and identifying remedial action. Typically, particulate lead is defined as the amount of lead removed by a 0.45-μm filter. Unfortunately, there is little guidance regarding selection of filter membrane material and little consideration to the possibility of the sorption of dissolved lead to the filter. The objective of this work was to examine the tendency of 0.45-μm syringe filter materials to adsorb lead. Tests were performed with water containing 40 and 24 μg/L soluble lead at pH 7 buffered with 50 mg C/L dissolved inorganic concentration (DIC). The amounts of lead sorbed greatly varied by filter, and only two filter types, polypropylene and mixed cellulose esters, performed well and are recommended. Great care must be taken in choosing a filter when filtering soluble lead and interpreting filter results.

  4. A Comparison of Response Surface Methodology and a One-Factor-At-A-Time Approach as Calibration Techniques for the Bioplume-II Simulation Model of Contaminant Biodegradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    calibrations," Water Resources Research, 30:2993- 3000 (November 1994). 85 14. Butcher, Jonathan B. and Thomas D. Gauthier. "Estimation of Residual...34 Biological Processes 3. Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technology, edited by Harry M. Freeman and P. R. Sferra , Cincinnati, Ohio: Risk Reduction...uncertainty and interaction in complex envi- ronmental models," Water Resources Research, 30:3159-3169 (November 1994). 50. Stauffer, Thomas B. and others

  5. Relative Bioavailability of a Single Dose of Belimumab Administered Subcutaneously by Prefilled Syringe or Autoinjector in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Murtaugh, Thomas; Gilbert, Jane; Barton, Matthew E.; Fire, Joseph; Groark, James; Fox, Norma Lynn; Roth, David; Gordon, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intravenous belimumab is approved for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus; subcutaneous self‐administration would enable greater patient access. This study assessed relative bioavailability, tolerability, and safety of 1 subcutaneous dose of self‐administered belimumab by healthy subjects using a single‐use autoinjector or prefilled syringe. Subjects (randomized 1:1:1:1) self‐administered belimumab 200 mg subcutaneously (abdomen or thigh) by prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Pharmacokinetics, adverse events (AEs), injection‐site pain, and administration errors were recorded. Of 81 subjects, 5 experienced administration errors and were excluded from pharmacokinetic analyses. Mean serum belimumab concentration profiles were similar for both devices, with a weak trend toward higher concentrations for thigh injection compared with abdominal injections. Maximum observed serum concentration was slightly higher with the autoinjector (27.0 vs 25.3 µg/mL) and area under the concentration–time curve slightly lower (701 vs 735 day · μg/mL), compared with the prefilled syringe. Incidence of AEs was 51% (41 of 81 subjects; headache was most common), with no serious or severe AEs. Median injection‐site pain scores were low (0 after 1 hour). Device handling was reported as acceptable by ≥95% of autoinjector users and ≥90% of prefilled syringe users for each characteristic assessed. These results support the use of either device for belimumab subcutaneous administration. PMID:27163500

  6. Subjective pain response to two anesthetic systems in dental surgery: traditional syringe vs. a computer controlled delivery system.

    PubMed

    Patini, R; Coviello, V; Raffaelli, L; Manicone, P F; Dehkhargani, S Z; Verdugo, F; Perfetti, G; D'Addona, A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate human pain perception at different phases of dental surgery using a computer controlled device, the Single Tooth Anesthesia System (STA System), versus the traditional syringe technique. One hundred healthy patients participated in this single-blind split-mouth design study. Individuals provided pain ratings at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution and tooth extraction via a numeric visual rating scale or NVRS. The anterior middle superior alveolar, or AMSA, injection was compared with traditional syringe injections in maxillary quadrants. NVRS scores for AMSA were significantly lower for the STA System when compared to traditional syringe technique at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution (p less than 0.0001) and also during tooth extractions (p=0.0002). A higher percentage of patients (23 percent) required a second injection after the traditional syringe technique. Subjects reported having less clinical pain with AMSA injection at every step of the dental surgery. The STA System combines an anesthetic pathway and controlled flow rate resulting in virtually imperceptible needle insertion and injection, and a rapid onset of profound anesthesia. NVRS scoring system facilitated patient comprehension in assessing pain value and intensity experienced. The two anesthetic delivery techniques were therapeutically equivalent for maxillary injections but AMSA/computer controlled protocol significantly minimizes subjective pain perception at needle insertion, anesthetic delivery and during tooth extraction.

  7. 78 FR 20116 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Biological Products: Technical Information to Supplement International Organization for Standardization (ISO... glass syringes that comply with the ISO 11040-4 standard when connected to devices (``connecting devices'') that comply with the ISO 594-2 standard. ] DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance at any...

  8. Methyl syringate, a low-molecular-weight phenolic ester, as an activator of the chemosensory ion channel TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jae-Ho; Ishii, Sho; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2012-12-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, nonselective cation channels and are often coexpressed in sensory neurons. Extracts of the first leaves of Kalopanax pictus Nakai (Araliaceae) have been shown to activate hTRPA1 and hTRPV1. Therefore, the effects of six commercially available chemicals (methyl syringate, coniferyl alcohol, protocatechuic acid, hederacoside C, α-hederin, and eleutheroside B) found in K. pictus were investigated on cultured cells expressing hTRPA1 and hTRPV1. Of the six compounds, methyl syringate selectively activated hTRPA1 (EC(50) = 507.4 μM), but not hTRPV1. Although methyl syringate had a higher EC(50) compared with allyl isothiocyanate (EC(50) = 7.4 μM) and cinnamaldehyde (EC(50) = 22.2 μM), the present study provides evidence that methyl syringate from K. pictus is a specific and selective activator of hTRPA1.

  9. A computer-controlled syringe driver for use during anaesthesia. A modification of the Graseby MS16A.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A T

    1986-06-01

    The requirements of a drug infusion device for use in theatre are discussed. A modification of the Graseby MS16A syringe pump and an interface circuit permitting its remote control by microcomputer are described. The pump is controlled via a standard computer interface (RS232) which makes it a unique and powerful research tool. Aspects of safety are considered.

  10. Anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary teeth using conventional syringe

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Ignacio; Soto, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental procedures in the maxilla typically require multiple injections and may inadvertently anesthetize facial structures and affect the smile line. To minimize these inconveniences and reduce the number of total injections, a relatively new injection technique has been proposed for maxillary procedures, the anterior and middle superior alveolar (AMSA) nerve block, which achieves pulpal anesthesia from the central incisor to second premolar through palatal approach with a single injection. The purpose of this article is to provide background information on the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block and demonstrate its success rates of pulpal anesthesia using the conventional syringe. Materials and Methods: Thirty Caucasian patients (16 men and 14 women) with an average age of 22 years-old, belonging to the School of Dentistry of Los Andes University, were selected. All the patients received an AMSA nerve block on one side of the maxilla using the conventional syringe, 1 ml of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100.000 was injected to all the patients. Results: The AMSA nerve block obtained a 66% anesthetic success in the second premolar, 40% in the first premolar, 60% in the canine, 23.3% in the lateral incisor, and 16.7% in the central incisor. Conclusions: Because of the unpredictable anesthetic success of the experimental teeth and variable anesthesia duration, the technique is disadvantageous for clinical application as the first choice, counting with other techniques that have greater efficacy in the maxilla. Although, anesthetizing the teeth without numbing the facial muscles may be useful in restorative dentistry. PMID:23559916

  11. Stability of Extemporaneously Compounded Dexamethasone in Glass and Plastic Bottles and Plastic Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Ensom, Mary H H; Décarie, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone is widely used to treat rheumatic and endocrine disorders and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. A palatable, alcohol-free liquid formulation, with a suitable concentration to allow reasonable administration volume, is available only via extemporaneous compounding. Objective: To evaluate the stability of dexamethasone suspensions in commercially available vehicles (Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF) in various types of containers after storage at 25°C and 4°C for up to 91 days. Methods: Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) were prepared in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF and then transferred to amber glass and plastic prescription bottles and plastic oral syringes. Suspensions in all 3 types of containers were stored at 25°C; suspensions in glass and plastic bottles were also stored at 4°C. Samples were collected weekly from each container up to 28 days and then every 2 weeks up to 91 days. The samples were analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography − ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial dexamethasone concentration. Changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation (and ease of resuspension), and pH were used to assess physical compatibility. Results: All suspensions maintained at least 96% of the original concentration for up to 91 days with storage at 25°C or at 4°C. No notable changes in colour, taste, odour, precipitation, or pH were observed over the 91-day period. Conclusion: Dexamethasone suspensions (1 mg/mL) in Oral Mix and Oral Mix SF, stored in amber glass or plastic bottles or plastic syringes at 25°C or in amber glass or plastic bottles at 4°C can be expected to remain stable for up to 91 days. PMID:25214658

  12. Syringeal Specialization of Frequency Control during Song Production in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Secora, Kristen R.; Peterson, Jennifer R.; Urbano, Catherine M.; Chung, Boah; Okanoya, Kazuo; Cooper, Brenton G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx) has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production) and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control). Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. Methodology Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. Significance These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may

  13. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  14. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  15. ORNL calibrations facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ORNL Calibrations Facility is operated by the Instrumentation Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation calibration standards for calibration of ORNL health physics instruments and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for calibration of those survey instruments and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL.

  16. Development of new portable miniaturize solid phase microextraction of silver-APDC complex using micropipette tip in-syringe system couple with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Samoon, Muhammad Kashif

    2016-02-01

    An innovative and simple miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPME) method, was developed for preconcentration and determination of silver(I) in the fresh and waste water samples. For M-SPME, a micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth (ACC) as sorbent, in a syringe system. The size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC before and after adsorption of analyte have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), was drawn into the syringe filled with ACC and dispensed manually for 2 to 10 aspirating/dispensing cycle. Then the Ag- complex sorbed on the ACC in micropipette was quantitatively eluted by drawing and dispensing of different concentrations of acids for 2 to 5 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Ag ions with modifier were injected directly into the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency, including the concentration of ligand, pH, sample volume, eluent type, concentration and volume was investigated. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by the standard addition method. Reliability of the proposed methodology was checked by the relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be < 5%. Under the optimized experimental variables, the limits of detection (LOD) and enhancement factors (EF), were obtained to be 0.86 ng L- 1 and 120, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver ions in fresh and waste water samples.

  17. SU-E-T-749: Thorough Calibration of MOSFET Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Plenkovich, D; Thomas, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of the MOSFET calibration procedure by performing the measurement several times and calculating the average value of the calibration factor for various photon and electron energies. Methods: The output of three photon and six electron beams of Varian Trilogy linear accelerator SN 5878 was calibrated. Five reinforced standard sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters were placed in the calibration jig and connected to the Reader Module. As the backscatter material was used 7 cm of Virtual Water. The MOSFET dosimeters were covered with 1.5 cm thick bolus for the regular and SRS 6 MV beams, 3 cm bolus for 15 MV beam, 1.5 cm bolus for 6 MeV electron beam, and 2 cm bolus for the electron energies of 9, 12, 15, 18, and 22 MeV. The dosimeters were exposed to 100 MU, and the calibration factor was determined using the mobileMOSFET software. To improve the accuracy of calibration, this procedure was repeated ten times and the calibration factors were averaged. Results: As the number of calibrations was increasing the variability of calibration factors of different dosimeters was decreasing. After ten calibrations, the calibration factors for all five dosimeters were within 1% of one another for all energies, except 6 MV SRS photons and 6 MeV electrons, for which the variability was 2%. Conclusions: The described process results in calibration factors which are almost independent of modality or energy. Once calibrated, the dosimeters may be used for in-vivo dosimetry or for daily verification of the beam output. Measurement of the radiation dose under bolus and scatter to the eye are examples of frequent use of calibrated MOSFET dosimeters. The calibration factor determined for full build-up is used under these circumstances. To the best of our knowledge, such thorough procedure for calibrating MOSFET dosimeters has not been reported previously. Best Medical Canada provided MOSFET dosimeters for this project.

  18. Bioequivalence of subcutaneous injections of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon(R)) by Pen-injector and syringe.

    PubMed

    Voortman, G; van de Post, J; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M

    1999-07-01

    A randomized, single-centre, cross-over study was designed to compare the bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (recFSH; Puregon(R)): (i) a dissolved cake injected by a normal syringe; and (ii) a ready-for-use solution injected using a device referred to as Puregon(R)Pen. Twenty-two healthy female volunteers underwent one of two administration sequences: Puregon(R)Pen/syringe or syringe/Puregon(R)Pen, by which they received a single subcutaneous dose of recFSH (150 IU). Endogenous gonadotrophin production had been previously suppressed using an oral contraceptive (Lyndiol(R)). Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [peak concentration (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax)] and extent [area under the curve (AUC) and clearance (CL)] of absorption were obtained from 20 subjects. After injection with both formulations, serum FSH concentrations reached a peak of 3.4 IU/l at 13 h after injection. The elimination half-life was approximately 34 h, irrespective of formulation. A difference of approximately 18% was found between serum FSH concentrations obtained using the two formulations, which was caused by differences between the anticipated and the actual volume injected with the normal syringe. After correction for injection losses by weighing the amount injected with a normal syringe, the two formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to Cmax, AUC and CL. For tmax, bioequivalence could not be proven due to high intra-subject variability and broad absorption peaks of FSH. Both methods were well tolerated, local reactions being generally mild and short-lived.

  19. The Evidence Does Not Speak for Itself: The Role of Research Evidence in Shaping Policy Change for the Implementation of Publicly Funded Syringe Exchange Programs in Three US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sean T.; Ruiz, Monica S.; O’Rourke, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background A breadth of literature exists that explores the utilization of research evidence in policy change processes. From this work, a number of studies suggest research evidence is applied to change processes by policy change stakeholders primarily through instrumental, conceptual, and/or symbolic applications, or is not used at all. Despite the expansiveness of research on policy change processes, a deficit exists in understanding the role of research evidence during change processes related to the implementation of structural interventions for HIV prevention among injection drug users (IDU). This study examined the role of research evidence in policy change processes for the implementation of publicly funded syringe exchange services in three US cities: Baltimore, MD, Philadelphia, PA, and Washington, DC. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders (N=29) from each of the study cities. Stakeholders were asked about the historical, social, political, and scientific contexts in their city during the policy change process. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes pertaining to applications of research evidence. Results In Baltimore and Philadelphia, the typological approaches (instrumental and symbolic/conceptual, respectively) to the applications of research evidence used by harm reduction proponents contributed to the momentum for securing policy change for the implementation of syringe exchange services. Applications of research evidence were less successful in DC because policymakers had differing ideas about the implications of syringe exchange program implementation and because opponents of policy change used evidence incorrectly or not at all in policy change discussions. Conclusion Typological applications of research evidence are useful for understanding policy change processes, but their efficacy falls short when sociopolitical factors complicate legislative processes. Advocates for harm reduction may

  20. Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries.

    PubMed

    Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers.

  1. Reduction of Systematic Errors in Diagnostic Receivers Through the Use of Balanced Dicke-Switching and Y-Factor Noise Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson, Trent Allison, Roger Flood, Jianxun Yan

    2009-05-01

    Receivers designed for diagnostic applications range from those having moderate sensitivity to those possessing large dynamic range. Digital receivers have a dynamic range which are a function of the number of bits represented by the ADC and subsequent processing. If some of this range is sacrificed for extreme sensitivity, noise power can then be used to perform two-point load calibrations. Since load temperatures can be precisely determined, the receiver can be quickly and accurately characterized; minute changes in system gain can then be detected, and systematic errors corrected. In addition, using receiver pairs in a balanced approach to measuring X+, X-, Y+, Y-, reduces systematic offset errors from non-identical system gains, and changes in system performance. This paper describes and demonstrates a balanced BPM-style diagnostic receiver, employing Dicke-switching to establish and maintain real-time system calibration. Benefits of such a receiver include wide bandwidth, solid absolute accuracy, improved position accuracy, and phase-sensitive measurements. System description, static and dynamic modelling, and measurement data are presented.

  2. A novel approach to Lab-In-Syringe Head-Space Single-Drop Microextraction and on-drop sensing of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Šrámková, Ivana; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-08-31

    A novel approach to the automation technique Lab-In-Syringe, also known as In-Syringe Analysis, is proposed which utilizes a secondary inlet into the syringe void, used as a size-adaptable reaction chamber, via a channel passing through the syringe piston. This innovative approach allows straightforward automation of head-space single-drop microextraction, involving accurately controlled drop formation and handling, and the possibility of on-drop analyte quantification. The syringe was used in upside-down orientation and in-syringe magnetic stirring was carried out, which allowed homogenous mixing of solutions, promotion of head-space analyte enrichment, and efficient syringe cleaning. The superior performance of the newly developed system was illustrated with the development of a sensitive method for total ammonia determination in surface waters. It is based on head-space extraction of ammonia into a single drop of bromothymol blue indicator created inside the syringe at the orifice of the syringe piston channel and on-drop sensing of the color change via fiber optics. The slope of the linear relationship between absorbance and time was used as the analytical signal. Drop formation and performance of on-drop monitoring was further studied with rhodamine B solution to give a better understanding of the system's performance. A repeatability of 6% RSD at 10 μmol L(-1) NH3, a linear range of up to 25 μmol L(-1) NH3, and a limit of detection of 1.8 μmol L(-1) NH3 were achieved. Study of interferences proved the high robustness of the method towards humic acids, high sample salinity, and the presence of detergents, thus demonstrating the method superiority compared to the state-of-the-art gas-diffusion methods. A mean analyte recovery of 101.8% was found in analyzing spiked environmental water samples.

  3. Simple Syringe Filtration Methods for Reliably Examining Dissolved and Colloidal Trace Element Distributions in Remote Field Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    Methods for obtaining reliable dissolved trace element samples frequently utilize clean labs, portable laminar flow benches, or other equipment not readily transportable to remote locations. In some cases unfiltered samples can be obtained in a remote location and transported back to a lab for filtration. However, this may not always be possible or desirable. Additionally, methods for obtaining information on colloidal composition are likewise frequently too cumbersome for remote locations as well as being time-consuming. For that reason I have examined clean methods for collecting samples filtered through 0.45 and 0.02 micron syringe filters. With this methodology, only small samples are collected (typically 15 mL). However, with the introduction of the latest generation of ICP-MS's and microflow nebulizers, sample requirements for elemental analysis are much lower than just a few years ago. Thus, a determination of a suite of first row transition elements is frequently readily obtainable with samples of less than 1 mL. To examine the "traditional" (<0.45 micron) dissolved phase, 25 mm diameter polypropylene syringe filters and all polyethylene/polypropylene syringes are utilized. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using 40 mL of approx. 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Syringes are pre-cleaned by leaching with hot 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Sample kits are packed in polyethylene bags for transport to the field. Results are similar to results obtained using 0.4 micron polycarbonate screen filters, though concentrations may differ somewhat depending on the extent of sample pre-rinsing of the filter. Using this method, a multi-year time series of dissolved metals in a remote Rocky Mountain stream has been obtained. To examine the effect of colloidal material on dissolved metal concentrations, 0.02 micron alumina syringe filters have been utilized. Other workers have previously used these filters for examining colloidal Fe distributions in lake

  4. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p < 0.05) and protein intake (β = -0.142, SE = 0.062, p < 0.05) compared to participants with low social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p < 0.05) and protein (β = 0.127, SE = 0.06, p < 0.05) compared to participants consuming a low percentage of meals at home. In the calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are

  5. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  6. Three calibration factors, applied to a rapid sweeping method, can accurately estimate Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) pupal numbers in large water-storage containers at all temperatures at which dengue virus transmission occurs.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vivas, C M E; Llinás, H; Falconar, A K I

    2007-11-01

    The ability of a simple sweeping method, coupled to calibration factors, to accurately estimate the total numbers of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) pupae in water-storage containers (20-6412-liter capacities at different water levels) throughout their main dengue virus transmission temperature range was evaluated. Using this method, one set of three calibration factors were derived that could accurately estimate the total Ae. aegypti pupae in their principal breeding sites, large water-storage containers, found throughout the world. No significant differences were obtained using the method at different altitudes (14-1630 m above sea level) that included the range of temperatures (20-30 degrees C) at which dengue virus transmission occurs in the world. In addition, no significant differences were found in the results obtained between and within the 10 different teams that applied this method; therefore, this method was extremely robust. One person could estimate the Ae. aegypti pupae in each of the large water-storage containers in only 5 min by using this method, compared with two people requiring between 45 and 90 min to collect and count the total pupae population in each of them. Because the method was both rapid to perform and did not disturb the sediment layers in these domestic water-storage containers, it was more acceptable by the residents, and, therefore, ideally suited for routine surveillance purposes and to assess the efficacy of Ae. aegypti control programs in dengue virus-endemic areas throughout the world.

  7. Improved diabetic control in adolescents using the Penject syringe for multiple insulin injections.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, E S; Betts, P R; Rowe, D J

    1986-05-01

    Eleven adolescent diabetics, aged 15.1 +/- 1.3 years (mean +/- 1SD) in poor glycaemic control (HbA1 12.0 +/- 1.5% at entry) were commenced on a four times daily insulin injection regimen using the Penject fountain-pen syringe with Initard (50:50 mixture of porcine soluble and isophane) insulin on a sliding scale. Diabetic control improved over a 3-month period, assessed by a reduction in both the mean preprandial blood glucose concentrations (10.9 +/- 3.3 mmol/l to 7.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/l) and mean glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations (12.0 +/- 1.5% to 9.5 +/- 0.9%). Further improvement was again seen in 5 patients who remained on four daily injections for an additional 3 months (mean HbA1: 9.6 +/- 0.9% to 8.4 +/- 1.0%), whereas diabetic control in 6 patients who returned to twice daily injections deteriorated (mean HbA1 rose from 9.5 +/- 1.0% to 10.6 +/- 1.6%). Multiple insulin injections using an injection pen are acceptable to adolescent diabetics and improve their control.

  8. Scotch-Yoke mechanism for a syringe pump - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramoth Kumar, M.; Akash, K.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Syringe Pump is mainly used in microfluidics, where precise flow rate is required. Precise flow rate is achieved by using minimum torque and at low speed, for such requirements a mechanism has to be constructed. The input is from a stepper motor, so a rotary to linear motion converting mechanism is required, which will work efficiently on such low torque applications. This work mainly looks into feasibility of scotch yoke rather than conventionally used crank and slider mechanism. Scotch yoke is a rotary to linear conversion mechanism. It contains mainly two parts i) a rolling scotch and ii) a sliding yoke. The yoke is driven by a pin eccentrically placed on the scotch. Since proximity of the mechanism is nearer to the source, the loss accounted is less in the case of scotch yoke. In this work both crank-slider and scotch-yoke are examined through simulation using MSC ADAMS software and the maximum velocity of that can be achieved is obtained analytically through Kinematic analysis of scotch-yoke mechanism.

  9. A portable multi-syringe flow system for spectrofluorimetric determination of iodide in seawater.

    PubMed

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Aguado, Enrique; Portugal, Lindomar A; Moreno, Daniel; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A miniaturized analyzer encompassing a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with integrated spectrofluorimetric detection and solutions propelling by a multi-syringe module is proposed. Iodide was determined through its catalytic effect on the reaction between Ce(IV) and As(III). Matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence was explored to set the excitation and emission wavelengths. A two-level full factorial design allowed to evaluate the significance of variables (Ce(IV), As(III) and H2SO4 concentrations) and their interaction effects in the experimental domain. A Doehlert Matrix was applied to identify the critical values. The optimized procedure showed a linear response from 1 to 100 μg L(-1) (S=53.7+2.61C, in which S is the net fluorescence and C is iodide concentration in μg L(-1)). Detection limit, coefficient of variation (n=6) and sampling rate were estimated at 0.3 μg L(-1), 0.8% and 20 h(-1), respectively. Recoveries within 90-117% were estimated for iodide spiked to seawater samples. The proposed procedure stands out because of the portability, robustness, and simplicity for in-field analysis of iodide in seawater.

  10. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Chen, Dan; Yi, Yanchun; Qi, Hui; Gao, Xinxin; Fang, Hua; Gu, Qiong; Wang, Ling; Gu, Lianquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA) extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC) pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC. PMID:23365598

  11. A laser syringe aimed at delivering drug into the outer layer of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, Jack J.; Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Han, Tae-hee; Hah, Jung-moo

    2012-07-01

    A desire to eliminate hypodermic needle in transdermal drug delivery may now be realized. Imaging of the skin after injection of fluorescent probe and biotin via the bio-ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 μm underneath the abdominal skin of the guinea-pig. An extensive network of cells are shown in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dose is administered by repeated injection via the laser-based microjet. Here, we show our method of laser-based microjet drug delivery is capable of breaching guinea-pig's skin tissue and then delivering controlled dose of drug to the targeted region between 10 to 400 μm underneath the outermost layer of the skin. While minimizing pain and tissue damage by reducing the injection volume to ˜100 nl per pulse and the microjet diameter of half the conventional syringe needle in 100 μm, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drug by the irradiated laser pulse is shown possible.

  12. Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiller, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids.

  13. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    PubMed

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism.

  14. Functional Evaluation and Characterization of a Newly Developed Silicone Oil-Free Prefillable Syringe System

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Keisuke; Nakamura, Koji; Yamashita, Arisa; Abe, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Kanazawa, Yukie; Funatsu, Kaori; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of a newly developed silicone oil-free (SOF) syringe system, of which the plunger stopper is coated by a novel coating technology (i-coating™), was assessed. By scanning electron microscopy observations and other analysis, it was confirmed that the plunger stopper surface was uniformly covered with the designed chemical composition. A microflow imaging analysis showed that the SOF system drastically reduced both silicone oil (SO) doplets and oil-induced aggregations in a model protein formulation, whereas a large number of subvisible particles and protein aggregations were formed when a SO system was used. Satisfactory container closure integrity (CCI) was confirmed by means of dye and microorganism penetration studies. Furthermore, no significant difference between the break loose and gliding forces was observed in the former, and stability studies revealed that the SOF system could perfectly show the aging independence in break loose force observed in the SO system. The results suggest that the introduced novel SOF system has a great potential and represents an alternative that can achieve very low subvisible particles, secure CCI, and the absence of a break loose force. In particular, no risk of SO-induced aggregation can bring additional value in the highly sensitive biotech drug market. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:1520–1528, 2014 PMID:24643749

  15. Place of Residence Moderates the Relationship Between Emotional Closeness and Syringe Sharing Among Injection Drug Using Clients of Sex Workers in the US-Mexico Border Region.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Valente, Thomas W; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rusch, Melanie; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Injection drug-using men from the US and Mexico who purchase sex in Tijuana, Mexico are at risk for transmitting HIV to their contacts in both countries via syringe sharing. We used social network methods to understand whether place of residence (US vs. Mexico) moderated the effect of emotional closeness on syringe sharing. We interviewed 199 drug-using men who reported paying/trading for sex in Tijuana, Mexico using an epidemiological and social network survey and collected samples for HIV/STI testing. Seventy-two men reported using injection drugs with 272 network contacts. Emotional closeness was strongly associated with syringe sharing in relationship where the partner lives in the US, while the relationship between emotional closeness and syringe sharing was considerably less strong in dyads where the partner lives in Mexico. Efforts to reduce HIV risk behaviors in emotionally close relationships are needed, and could benefit from tailoring to the environmental context of the relationship.

  16. Investigation by improved syringe method of effect of tampons on production in vitro of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, A C; Downs, S A

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven types of commercial tampons from five manufacturers were tested in a sealed-syringe method to determine their effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. In this improvement of the syringe method, the available air is limited to that which is contained within the sealed syringe containing the tampon. The culture medium was buffered, and blood and CO2 were included in the incubation to better simulate the vaginal environment during menstruation. Variables of tampon weight, composition, air volume, and absorbency were examined for their effect on the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Generally, with the exception of brand E, toxin production in the presence of tampons was equal to or lower than that in a sealed control syringe containing air but no tampon. PMID:2808672

  17. Place of Residence Moderates the Relationship Between Emotional Closeness and Syringe Sharing Among Injection Drug Using Clients of Sex Workers in the US-Mexico Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Valente, Thomas W.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rusch, Melanie; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Injection drug-using men from the US and Mexico who purchase sex in Tijuana, Mexico are at risk for transmitting HIV to their contacts in both countries via syringe sharing. We used social network methods to understand whether place of residence (US vs. Mexico) moderated the effect of emotional closeness on syringe sharing. We interviewed 199 drug-using men who reported paying/trading for sex in Tijuana, Mexico using an epidemiological and social network survey and collected samples for HIV/STI testing. Seventy-two men reported using injection drugs with 272 network contacts. Emotional closeness was strongly associated with syringe sharing in relationship where the partner lives in the US, while the relationship between emotional closeness and syringe sharing was considerably less strong in dyads where the partner lives in Mexico. Efforts to reduce HIV risk behaviors in emotionally close relationships are needed, and could benefit from tailoring to the environmental context of the relationship. PMID:25613593

  18. AutoSyP: A Low-Cost, Low-Power Syringe Pump for Use in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Alexa; Maynard, Kelley; Skerrett, Erica; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Dube, Queen; Oden, Z. Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the design and evaluation of AutoSyP, a low-cost, low-power syringe pump intended to deliver intravenous (IV) infusions in low-resource hospitals. A constant-force spring within the device provides mechanical energy to depress the syringe plunger. As a result, the device can run on rechargeable battery power for 66 hours, a critical feature for low-resource settings where the power grid may be unreliable. The device is designed to be used with 5- to 60-mL syringes and can deliver fluids at flow rates ranging from 3 to 60 mL/hour. The cost of goods to build one AutoSyP device is approximately $500. AutoSyP was tested in a laboratory setting and in a pilot clinical study. Laboratory accuracy was within 4% of the programmed flow rate. The device was used to deliver fluid to 10 healthy adult volunteers and 30 infants requiring IV fluid therapy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. The device delivered fluid with an average mean flow rate error of −2.3% ± 1.9% for flow rates ranging from 3 to 60 mL/hour. AutoSyP has the potential to improve the accuracy and safety of IV fluid delivery in low-resource settings. PMID:27382075

  19. AutoSyP: A Low-Cost, Low-Power Syringe Pump for Use in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Alexa; Maynard, Kelley; Skerrett, Erica; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Dube, Queen; Oden, Z Maria

    2016-10-05

    This article describes the design and evaluation of AutoSyP, a low-cost, low-power syringe pump intended to deliver intravenous (IV) infusions in low-resource hospitals. A constant-force spring within the device provides mechanical energy to depress the syringe plunger. As a result, the device can run on rechargeable battery power for 66 hours, a critical feature for low-resource settings where the power grid may be unreliable. The device is designed to be used with 5- to 60-mL syringes and can deliver fluids at flow rates ranging from 3 to 60 mL/hour. The cost of goods to build one AutoSyP device is approximately $500. AutoSyP was tested in a laboratory setting and in a pilot clinical study. Laboratory accuracy was within 4% of the programmed flow rate. The device was used to deliver fluid to 10 healthy adult volunteers and 30 infants requiring IV fluid therapy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. The device delivered fluid with an average mean flow rate error of -2.3% ± 1.9% for flow rates ranging from 3 to 60 mL/hour. AutoSyP has the potential to improve the accuracy and safety of IV fluid delivery in low-resource settings.

  20. A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, P.H.; Hilton, David R.; Tryon, M.D.; Brown, K.M.; Kulongoski, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    [1] We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids are drawn smoothly, accurately, and continuously into the Cu tubing and can be time-stamped through user-determined operating parameters. In the laboratory, the tubing is sectioned to reveal helium (He) characteristics of the fluids at times and for durations of interest. The device is capable of prolonged deployments, up to 6 months or more, with minimal maintenance. It can be used to produce detailed time series records of He, or any other geochemical parameter, in groundwaters and geothermal fluids. SPARTAH has application in monitoring projects assessing the relationship between external transient events (e.g., earthquakes) and geochemical signals in aqueous fluids. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Syringing method as an alternative to Śṛṇga therapy in Vātakaṇṭaka.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Suma; Toshikhane, Sangeeta Hemant; Toshikhane, Hemant D

    2014-01-01

    Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to "Vātakaṇṭaka" (pricking sensation in the foot)-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga) in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University's Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy), bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS) came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS) and tenderness and swelling relived completely.

  2. Syringing method as an alternative to Śṛṇga therapy in Vātakaṇṭaka

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Suma; Toshikhane, Sangeeta Hemant; Toshikhane, Hemant D.

    2014-01-01

    Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to “Vātakaṇṭaka” (pricking sensation in the foot)-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga) in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University's Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy), bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS) came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS) and tenderness and swelling relived completely. PMID:25737611

  3. Direct megavoltage photon calibration service in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, G.; Oliver, C.; Cole, A.; Lye, J.; Harty, P. D.; Wright, T.; Webb, D. V.; Followill, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) maintains the Australian primary standard of absorbed dose. Until recently, the standard was used to calibrate ionisation chambers only in 60Co gamma rays. These chambers are then used by radiotherapy clinics to determine linac output, using a correction factor (kQ) to take into account the different spectra of 60Co and the linac. Over the period 2010–2013, ARPANSA adapted the primary standard to work in megavoltage linac beams, and has developed a calibration service at three photon beams (6, 10 and 18 MV) from an Elekta Synergy linac. We describe the details of the new calibration service, the method validation and the use of the new calibration factors with the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS-398 dosimetry Code of Practice. The expected changes in absorbed dose measurements in the clinic when shifting from 60Co to the direct calibration are determined. For a Farmer chamber (model 2571), the measured chamber calibration coefficient is expected to be reduced by 0.4, 1.0 and 1.1 % respectively for these three beams when compared to the factor derived from 60Co. These results are in overall agreement with international absorbed dose standards and calculations by Muir and Rogers in 2010 of kQ factors using Monte Carlo techniques. The reasons for and against moving to the new service are discussed in the light of the requirements of clinical dosimetry. PMID:25146559

  4. Static and dynamic calibration of radar data for hydrological use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, S. J.; Jones, D. A.; Moore, R. J.

    The HYREX dense raingauge network over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to explore the accuracy of calibrated (raingauge-adjusted) weather radar data. Calibration is restricted to the use of any single gauge within the catchment so as to simulate the conditions in a typical rainfall monitoring network. Combination of a single gauge and a radar estimate is used to obtain calibrated radar estimates, with the "calibration factor" varying dynamically from one time-frame to the next. Comparing this dynamic calibration with a static (long-term) calibration factor indicates the distance from a gauge over which the dynamic calibration is useful. A tapered calibration factor is implemented which behaves in the same way as the raw dynamic calibration at short distances, tending towards the static calibration factor at larger distances. This hybrid approach outperforms raingauge, uncalibrated radar, and statically-calibrated radar estimates of rainfall for the majority of raingauges in the catchment. The results provide valuable guidance on the density of raingauge network to employ in combination with a weather radar for flood estimation and forecasting.

  5. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  6. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  7. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  8. Calibration facility safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    A set of requirements is presented to insure the highest practical standard of safety for the Apollo 17 Calibration Facility in terms of identifying all critical or catastrophic type hazard areas. Plans for either counteracting or eliminating these areas are presented. All functional operations in calibrating the ultraviolet spectrometer and the testing of its components are described.

  9. A semi-automatic microextraction in packed sorbent, using a digitally controlled syringe, combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a new and ultra-fast approach for the determination of prenylflavonoids in beers.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João L; Alves, Vera L; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Figueira, José A; Câmara, José S

    2013-08-23

    In this work a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure based on semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol(®)) combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), is proposed to determine the prenylated chalcone derived from the hop (Humulus lupulus L.), xanthohumol (XN), and its isomeric flavonone isoxanthohumol (IXN) in beers. Extraction and UHPLC parameters were accurately optimized to achieve the highest recoveries and to enhance the analytical characteristics of the method. Important parameters affecting MEPS performance, namely the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and M1), elution solvent system, number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), sample volume, elution volume, and sample pH, were evaluated. The optimal experimental conditions involves the loading of 500μL of sample through a C18 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol(®) syringe followed by elution using 250μL of acetonitrile (ACN) in a 10 extractions cycle (about 5min for the entire sample preparation step). The obtained extract is directly analyzed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and ACN (eluent B) in the gradient elution mode (10min total analysis). Under optimized conditions good results were obtained in terms of linearity within the established concentration range with correlation coefficients (R) values higher than 0.986, with a residual deviation for each calibration point below 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.4ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1) for IXN, and 0.9ngmL(-1) and 3.0ngmL(-1) for XN, respectively. Precision was lower than 4.6% for IXN and 8.4% for XN. Typical recoveries ranged between 67.1% and 99.3% for IXN and between 74.2% and 99.9% for XN, with relative standard deviations %RSD no larger than 8%. The applicability of the proposed analytical

  10. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  11. Client-Level Coverage of Needle and Syringe Program and High-Risk Injection Behaviors: A Case Study of People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Noroozi, Alireza; Mehrabi, Yadoallah; Hajebi, Ahmad; Zamani, Saman; Sharifi, Hamid; Higgs, Peter; Soori, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background Needle-syringe programs (NSP) have been running in Iran since 2002. However, the coverage of such program among the NSP clients at the individual level was not studies yet. This study aimed to determine the client coverage of NSP and its correlation with high injection-related risk behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kermanshah province, Iran, in 2014. 230 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited from two drop-in centers (DICs) from April to September 2014, participated in a face-to-face interview to provide information related individual coverage of NSP, demographic characteristics, and injecting behaviors 30 days prior to the interview. Findings Overall, the average of syringe coverage was 158% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 65.7-205.5], while 56% (95% CI = 40-97) have individual converge less than 100%. Needle/syringe sharing was significantly higher among individual with low NSP coverage [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-6.2]. About 85% participants with coverage of less than 100% reported reuse of syringe within the last 30 days (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.7). Conclusion PWID are different regarding their NSP individual-level converges. There are certain clusters of PWID, who do not receive sufficient number of syringes. Given that insufficient individual syringe coverage level is highly associated with injection risk behaviors, reasons for such low converge need to be assessed and addressed carefully. PMID:26885353

  12. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents - A single blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10–15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  13. Miniaturized ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in a coupled-syringe system combined with UV for extraction and determination of danazol in danazol capsule and mice serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, for the first time, a coupled 1-mL microsyringe system was utilized to perform a miniaturized ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) method. Danazol was extracted and determined via the developed method followed by micro-volume ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The extraction process was carried out by the injection of extraction solvent ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C8mimPF6] into sample solution (syringe A), and then rapid shoot the solution into syringe B. After that the shooting was repeated several times at a rate of 1 cycle/s. The extraction procedure was induced by the formation of cloudy solution, which was composed of fine drops of [C8mimPF6] dispersed entirely into sample solution with the help of shooting without any dispersive solvent, ultrasonication or high temperature. Several important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.055 μg/mL (capsule) or 0.054 μg/mL (serum) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.62-25 μg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to danazol capsule and the real mice serum samples and good spiked recoveries in the range of 90.5-103.4% were obtained. The obtained results of this work were in good agreement with the results of HPLC.

  14. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High precision estimation and control algorithms, to achieve unprecedented levels of pointing accuracy, will be required to support future formation flying missions such as interferometry missions. Achieving high pointing accuracy requires precise knowledge of the spacecraft rotation rate. Typically, the rotation rate is measured by a gyro. The measured rates can be corrupted by errors in alignment and scale factor, gyro biases, and noise. In this work, we present nonlinear observers for gyro calibration. Nonlinear observers are superior to extended or pseudo-linear Kalman filter type approaches for large errors and global stability. Three nonlinear gyro calibration observers are developed. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. The observers are then combined, and the gyro calibration parameters are estimated simultaneously. The stability of the combined observers is addressed, as well as the stability of the resulting closed loop systems. Simulated test results are presented for each scenario. Finally, the nonlinear observers are compared to a pseudo-linear Kalman filter.

  15. On-Orbit Calibration of Satellite Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Radomski, Mark; Sedlak, Joseph; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In order to maneuver satellites accurately from one attitude to another, onboard rate sensing gyroscopes usually must be calibrated after launch. Several algorithms have been used to determine gyro biases, misalignments, and scale factors. This paper describes algorithms that have been used in the past, discusses their advantages and limitations, and describes a new algorithm and the gyro calibration results obtained using this new algorithm. The new algorithm has significant operational advantages in addition to being at least as accurate as other algorithms.

  16. Field calibration of reference reflectance panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. Susan; Slater, Philip N.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for calibrating reference reflectance panels using the sun as the radiation source and a pressed-polytetrafluoroethylene powder standard is described. The directional/directional reflectance factor and the directional/hemispheric reflectance factor are examined. Directional/directional voltage responses for pressed-halon are analyzed. Three painted BaSO4 and one painted halon were calibrated using the proposed procedure. The effects of diffuse irradiance on reflectance-factor measurements are investigated. It is determined that the method has an accuracy on the order of 1 percent. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

  17. Improving Viability of Stem Cells During Syringe Needle Flow Through the Design of Hydrogel Cell Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Mulyasasmita, Widya; Su, James; Lampe, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising therapy for a myriad of debilitating diseases; however, current delivery protocols using direct injection result in poor cell viability. We demonstrate that during the actual cell injection process, mechanical membrane disruption results in significant acute loss of viability at clinically relevant injection rates. As a strategy to protect cells from these damaging forces, we hypothesize that cell encapsulation within hydrogels of specific mechanical properties will significantly improve viability. We use a controlled in vitro model of cell injection to demonstrate success of this acute protection strategy for a wide range of cell types including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human adipose stem cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells, and mouse neural progenitor cells. Specifically, alginate hydrogels with plateau storage moduli (G′) ranging from 0.33 to 58.1 Pa were studied. A compliant crosslinked alginate hydrogel (G′=29.6 Pa) yielded the highest HUVEC viability, 88.9%±5.0%, while Newtonian solutions (i.e., buffer only) resulted in 58.7%±8.1% viability. Either increasing or decreasing the hydrogel storage modulus reduced this protective effect. Further, cells within noncrosslinked alginate solutions had viabilities lower than media alone, demonstrating that the protective effects are specifically a result of mechanical gelation and not the biochemistry of alginate. Experimental and theoretical data suggest that extensional flow at the entrance of the syringe needle is the main cause of acute cell death. These results provide mechanistic insight into the role of mechanical forces during cell delivery and support the use of protective hydrogels in future clinical stem cell injection studies. PMID:22011213

  18. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-06-15

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

  19. Dynamic Pressure Calibration Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, P. C.; Cate, K. H.; Young, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrating columns of fluid used to calibrate transducers. Dynamic pressure calibration standard developed for calibrating flush diaphragm-mounted pressure transducers. Pressures up to 20 kPa (3 psi) accurately generated over frequency range of 50 to 1,800 Hz. System includes two conically shaped aluminum columns one 5 cm (2 in.) high for low pressures and another 11 cm (4.3 in.) high for higher pressures, each filled with viscous fluid. Each column mounted on armature of vibration exciter, which imparts sinusoidally varying acceleration to fluid column. Signal noise low, and waveform highly dependent on quality of drive signal in vibration exciter.

  20. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  1. Airdata Measurement and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

  2. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  3. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  4. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  5. Traceable Pyrgeometer Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2016-05-02

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the progress on the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations for all shortwave and longwave radiometers that are deployed by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program.

  6. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  7. Variability among polysulphone calibration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, G. R.; Borra, M.; Colosimo, A.; Colucci, M.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.; Sisto, R.

    2006-09-01

    Within an epidemiological study regarding the correlation between skin pathologies and personal ultraviolet (UV) exposure due to solar radiation, 14 field campaigns using polysulphone (PS) dosemeters were carried out at three different Italian sites (urban, semi-rural and rural) in every season of the year. A polysulphone calibration curve for each field experiment was obtained by measuring the ambient UV dose under almost clear sky conditions and the corresponding change in the PS film absorbance, prior and post exposure. Ambient UV doses were measured by well-calibrated broad-band radiometers and by electronic dosemeters. The dose-response relation was represented by the typical best fit to a third-degree polynomial and it was parameterized by a coefficient multiplying a cubic polynomial function. It was observed that the fit curves differed from each other in the coefficient only. It was assessed that the multiplying coefficient was affected by the solar UV spectrum at the Earth's surface whilst the polynomial factor depended on the photoinduced reaction of the polysulphone film. The mismatch between the polysulphone spectral curve and the CIE erythemal action spectrum was responsible for the variability among polysulphone calibration curves. The variability of the coefficient was related to the total ozone amount and the solar zenith angle. A mathematical explanation of such a parameterization was also discussed.

  8. The Monoglyceride Content Affects the Self-Assembly Behavior, Rheological Properties, Syringeability, and Mucoadhesion of In Situ-Gelling Liquid Crystalline Phase.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kariane M; Teixeira, Cristian C C; Kaminski, Renata C K; Sarmento, Victor H V; Couto, Renê O; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Freitas, Osvaldo

    2016-08-01

    This article reports the development of a precursor liquid crystalline system based on a mixture of monoglycerides (MO) and Cremophor(®) (CREM) that exhibits in situ gelation to a liquid crystalline phase. The effects of different MO/CREM ratios and the water content (WC) on several performance characteristics were investigated with a full factorial design. The formulations were characterized by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and water uptake assays. Rheological, syringeability, and mucoadhesion evaluation were also performed. The polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering results for average and high MO/CREM ratios (2.1 and 4.0, respectively) indicated the coexistence of phases in transition to the liquid crystalline phase, independently of the WC. These systems became more viscous after taking up water, showing peaks characteristic of a cubic phase. Systems that had average and high MO/CREM ratios also exhibited shear-thinning behavior and high elasticity. Most systems showed suitable mucoadhesion for buccal purposes. Response surface methodology results demonstrated that the relative contribution of MO was the principal factor that affected the performance of the system. Accordingly, these precursor systems with average to high MO/CREM ratios and an average WC (10% w/w) demonstrated physicochemical and mucoadhesive properties that could enable them to be used as an in situ-gelling controlled drug delivery platform.

  9. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  10. Aerosol backscatter lidar calibration and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment of the various factors involved in lidar data acquisition and analysis is presented. This treatment highlights sources of fundamental, systematic, modeling, and calibration errors that may affect the accurate interpretation and calibration of lidar aerosol backscatter data. The discussion primarily pertains to ground based, pulsed CO2 lidars that probe the troposphere and are calibrated using large, hard calibration targets. However, a large part of the analysis is relevant to other types of lidar systems such as lidars operating at other wavelengths; continuous wave (CW) lidars; lidars operating in other regions of the atmosphere; lidars measuring nonaerosol elastic or inelastic backscatter; airborne or Earth-orbiting lidar platforms; and lidars employing combinations of the above characteristics.

  11. Increasing syringe access and HIV prevention in California: findings from a survey of local health jurisdiction key personnel.

    PubMed

    Stopka, Thomas J; Garfein, Richard S; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to "prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children." This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor's prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation.

  12. Increasing Syringe Access and HIV Prevention in California: Findings from a Survey of Local Health Jurisdiction Key Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, Richard S.; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to “prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children.” This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation. PMID:17151941

  13. Comparison of drug delivery with autoinjector versus manual prefilled syringe and between three different autoinjector devices administered in pig thigh

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert L; Wilmot, John G; Belluscio, Beth A; Cleary, Kevin; Lindisch, David; Tucker, Robin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Shukla, Rajesh B

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral routes of drug administration are often selected to optimize actual dose of drug delivered, assure high bioavailability, bypass first-pass metabolism or harsh gastrointestinal environments, as well as maximize the speed of onset. Intramuscular (IM) delivery can be preferred to intravenous delivery when initiating intravenous access is difficult or impossible. Drugs can be injected intramuscularly using a syringe or an automated delivery device (autoinjector). Investigation into the IM delivery dynamics of these methods may guide further improvements in the performance of injection technologies. Two porcine model studies were conducted to compare differences in dispersion of injectate volume for different methods of IM drug administration. The first study compared the differences in the degree of dispersion and uptake of injectate following the use of a manual syringe and an autoinjector. The second study compared the spatial spread of the injected formulation, or dispersion volume, and uptake of injectate following the use of five different autoinjectors (EpiPen® [0.3 mL], EpiPen® Jr [0.3 mL], Twinject® [0.15 mL, 0.3 mL], and Anapen® 300 [0.3 mL]) with varying needle length, needle gauge, and force applied to the plunger. In the first study, the autoinjector provided higher peak volumes of injectate, indicating a greater degree of dispersion, compared with manual syringe delivery. In the second study, EpiPen autoinjectors resulted in larger dispersion volumes and higher initial dispersion ratios, which decreased rapidly over time, suggesting a greater rate of uptake of injectate than the other autoinjectors. The differences in dispersion and uptake of injectate are likely the result of different functional characteristics of the delivery systems. Both studies demonstrate that the functional characteristics of the method for delivering IM injections impact the dispersion and uptake of the material injected, which could significantly affect the

  14. Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration

    DOEpatents

    Clifford, Harry J [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

  15. Effects of an Intensive Street-Level Police Intervention on Syringe Exchange Program Use in Philadelphia, Pa

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Corey S.; Burris, Scott; Kraut-Becher, Julie; Lynch, Kevin G.; Metzger, David

    2005-01-01

    Repeated measurements and mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of an intensive long-term street-level police intervention on syringe exchange program use. Utilization data for 9 months before and after the beginning of the intervention were analyzed. Use fell across all categories and time periods studied, with significant declines in use among total participants, male participants, and Black participants. Declines in use among Black and male participants were much more pronounced than decreases among White and female participants. PMID:15671455

  16. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, type 1+ vials.

    PubMed

    Baker, M

    2005-07-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for (125)I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV).

  17. New technique for calibrating hydrocarbon gas flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Puster, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for measuring calibration correction factors for hydrocarbon mass flowmeters is described. It is based on the Nernst theorem for matching the partial pressure of oxygen in the combustion products of the test hydrocarbon, burned in oxygen-enriched air, with that in normal air. It is applied to a widely used type of commercial thermal mass flowmeter for a number of hydrocarbons. The calibration correction factors measured using this technique are in good agreement with the values obtained by other independent procedures. The technique is successfully applied to the measurement of differences as low as one percent of the effective hydrocarbon content of the natural gas test samples.

  18. Calibration Method of an Ultrasonic System for Temperature Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yueke; Qiao, Chunjie; Dai, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    System calibration is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the ultrasonic temperature measurement, and it is basically involved in accurately measuring the path length and the system latency of the ultrasonic system. This paper proposes a method of high accuracy system calibration. By estimating the time delay between the transmitted signal and the received signal at several different temperatures, the calibration equations are constructed, and the calibrated results are determined with the use of the least squares algorithm. The formulas are deduced for calculating the calibration uncertainties, and the possible influential factors are analyzed. The experimental results in distilled water show that the calibrated path length and system latency can achieve uncertainties of 0.058 mm and 0.038 μs, respectively, and the temperature accuracy is significantly improved by using the calibrated results. The temperature error remains within ±0.04°C consistently, and the percentage error is less than 0.15%. PMID:27788252

  19. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Jermnak, Usuma; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Tsuyuki, Rie; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2012-02-15

    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0.8 mM, respectively, without significantly inhibiting fungal growth. Methyl syringate reduced mRNA levels of genes (aflR, pksA, and omtB) [corrected] encoding proteins required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Methyl gallate, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, and methyl 3-O-methylgallate inhibited both aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. However, their acids and syringic acid did not inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. parasiticus significantly, although gallic acid inhibited aflatoxin production of A. flavus with selectivity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of methyl syringate was much weaker than that of gallic acid. These results showed that methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production with a different mode of action from that of gallic acid.

  20. GTC Photometric Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    We are currently developing the calibration programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope calibration (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with calibration stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science instruments require photometric calibration between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The instruments are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first calibration fields observed.

  1. Polarimetric Palsar Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzi, R.; Shimada, M.

    2008-11-01

    Polarimetric PALSAR system parameters are assessed using data sets collected over various calibration sites. The data collected over the Amazonian forest permits validating the zero Faraday rotation hypotheses near the equator. The analysis of the Amazonian forest data and the response of the corner reflectors deployed during the PALSAR acquisitions lead to the conclusion that the antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB). Theses results are confirmed using data collected over the Sweden and Ottawa calibration sites. The 5-m height trihedrals deployed in the Sweden calibration site by the Chalmers University of technology permits accurate measurement of antenna parameters, and detection of 2-3 degree Faraday rotation during day acquisition, whereas no Faraday rotation was noted during night acquisition. Small Faraday rotation angles (2-3 degree) have been measured using acquisitions over the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and the Ottawa calibration sites. The presence of small but still significant Faraday rotation (2-3 degree) induces a CR return at the cross-polarization HV and VH that should not be interpreted as the actual antenna cross-talk. PALSAR antenna is highly isolated (better than -35 dB), and diagonal antenna distortion matrices (with zero cross-talk terms) can be used for accurate calibration of PALSAR polarimetric data.

  2. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  3. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  4. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  5. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  6. Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2006-02-01

    The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

  7. Towards A Modern Calibration Of The 238U/235U Paleoredox Proxy: Apparent Uranium Isotope Fractionation Factor During U(VI)-U(IV) Reduction In The Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, J. M.; Stirling, C. H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understating of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin and significant removal of U from the water column and high U accumulation rates in modern underlying sediments have been documented. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV). The primary results of this study are two-fold. First, significant 238U/235U fractionation was observed in the water column of the Black Sea, suggesting the reduction of U induces 238U/235U fractionation with the preferential removal of 238U from the aqueous phase. Second, the 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the water column through the isotope fractionation factor of the reduction reaction but is influenced by mass transport processes. These results provide important constraints on the use of 238U/235U as a proxy of the redox state of ancient oceans.

  8. TA489A calibrator: SANDUS

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, R.

    1987-08-01

    The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

  9. HIV risk behaviours of current sex workers attending syringe exchange: the experiences of women in five US cities.

    PubMed

    Paone, D; Cooper, H; Alperen, J; Shi, Q; Des Jarlais, D C

    1999-06-01

    Existing research indicates that sex workers who inject drugs are vulnerable to HIV infection through both risky sexual and drug use practices. This study is the first attempt to learn whether this increased risk persists among current sex workers who participate in syringe exchange programmes (SEPs). With data from interviews with randomly selected participants in five US cities, we compared the demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviours, drug use practices, emotional and physical health, and SEP utilization patterns of currently active female sex workers who attend SEPs with female SEP participants who do not engage in sex work. Data indicate that women enrolled in SEPs who were currently trading sex typically reported greater HIV risk than women non-sex workers. Current sex workers reported higher levels of risk for every drug risk variable examined in bivariate analysis. They were more likely than other women to inject with a syringe previously used by someone else, to inject daily and to attend shooting galleries; they were less likely to use a condom with their primary partners and to report higher levels of psychological distress than their counterparts. The relationship between sex work status and risky injection practices persisted when potential confounders were controlled for in multivariate analysis. SEPs can serve a pivotal role in providing sex workers with services and referrals which would help them reduce risk behaviours.

  10. NIMBY localism and national inequitable exclusion alliances: The case of syringe exchange programs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Risa; Keem, Marie; Cooper, Hannah; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2007-01-01

    Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) aim to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU). Although they have been accepted as critical components of HIV prevention in many parts of the world, they are often unwelcome and difficult to set up and maintain, even in communities hardest hit by IDU-related HIV transmission. This research examines socio-cultural and political processes that shape community and institutional resistance toward establishing and maintaining SEPs. These processes are configured and reinforced through the socio-spatial stigmatizing of IDUs, and legal and public policy against SEPs. Overarching themes the paper considers are: (1) institutional and/or political opposition based on (a) political and law enforcement issues associated with state drug paraphernalia laws and local syringe laws; (b) harassment of drug users and resistance to services for drug users by local politicians and police; and (c) state and local government (in)action or opposition; and (2) the stigmatization of drug users and location of SEPs in local neighborhoods and business districts. Rather than be explained by “not in my back yard” localism, this pattern seems best conceptualized as an “inequitable exclusion alliance” (IEA) that institutionalizes national and local stigmatizing of drug users and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18978931

  11. Outbreak of viral hepatitis B in a rural community in India linked to inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Bhatia, R.; Gandhi, J. C.; Kaswekar, A. P.; Khare, S.; Patel, S. B.; Oza, V. B.; Jain, D. C.; Sokhey, J.

    1998-01-01

    In India, virtually all outbreaks of viral hepatitis are considered to be due to faeco-orally transmitted hepatitis E virus. Recently, a cluster of 15 cases of viral hepatitis B was found in three villages in Gujarat State. The cases were epidemiologically linked to the use of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes by a local unqualified medical practitioner. The outbreak evolved slowly over a period of 3 months and was marked by a high case fatality rate (46.7%), probably because of concurrent infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) or sexually transmitted infections. But for the many fatalities within 2-3 weeks of the onset of illness, the outbreak would have gone unnoticed. The findings emphasize the importance of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes in the transmission of viral hepatitis B in India, the need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organize an education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:9615501

  12. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    PubMed

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required.

  13. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40 µg L(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method.

  14. Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-09-10

    We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively.

  15. Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Kevin Charles

    Problem-solving strategies in the physical sciences have been characterized by a dependence on algorithmic techniques often devoid of any reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to examine student responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases, which did not demand the use of a mathematical equation for its solution. Students (17- to 18-year-olds) in lower sixth form from two colleges in the Leeds district of Yorkshire in England were asked to respond to a task relating to pressure and volume measurements of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Both qualitative and quantitative tasks for the sealed syringe system were examined. It was found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under such circumstances. Performance on an inverse ratio (2:1) task was shown to depend on gender and those students who performed well on the 2:1 inverse ratio task did not necessarily perform well on a different inverse ratio task when an arithmetic averaging principle was present. Tasks which draw upon qualitative knowledge as well as quantitative knowledge have the potential to reduce dependence on algorithms, particularly equation substitution and solution. The implications for instructional design are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 29 June 1994;

  16. The ISOCAM Strategy for In-flight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, L.

    Many factors combined in order to form the ISOCAM in-flight calibration strategy : (a) the history of the mission development and the evolution of the ground segment design; (b) the approach to planning and organising the work of the Instrument Dedicated Team (IDT) and the tools available to do the work; (c) the preparation of the in-flight calibration command sequences, including the approach to pre-flight testing and simulation of the sequences (distinct from the mainline instrument ground calibration and characterisation); (d) the distribution in time of the calibration observations and any need for special calibration periods; (e) serendipitous calibration: including calibrations extracted from routine science observations or achieved opportunistically through benefiting from regularly scheduled spacecraft or orbital maintenance periods; (f) the amount of time we really needed to accomplish a good calibration vs. the time we had. Could we have performed ALL calibration in-flight? (g) the choice of which Uplink System to use and when (CUS or AOTs); (h) the value and role of formal procedures vs. personal checklists, training and experience; (i) the usage and value of different categories of documentation and the avoidance of extraneous documentation and useless effort; (j) how did the calibrators interface with the rest of the system. These issues will be discussed as a prelude to the more detailed presentations on specific aspects of the calibration which will follow during the course of the meeting.

  17. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  18. The Prison Economy of Needles and Syringes: What Opportunities Exist for Blood Borne Virus Risk Reduction When Prices Are so High?

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. Method The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. Results A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the ‘inside’ prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) “quiet”, stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. Conclusions The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices. PMID:27611849

  19. Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J.; Guenard, Robert D.

    2004-03-01

    A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.

  20. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  1. TWSTFT Link Calibration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Serrano, G. Brunetti (2013) Relative Calibration of the Time Transfer Link between CERN and LNGS for Precise Neutrino Time of Flight Measurements. Proc...Esteban, M. Pallavicini, Va. Pettiti, C. Plantard, A. Razeto (2012) Measurement of CNGS Muon Neutrinos Speed with Borexino: INRIM and ROA Contribution

  2. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  3. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  4. Improved Regression Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrondal, Anders; Kuha, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The likelihood for generalized linear models with covariate measurement error cannot in general be expressed in closed form, which makes maximum likelihood estimation taxing. A popular alternative is regression calibration which is computationally efficient at the cost of inconsistent estimation. We propose an improved regression calibration…

  5. Commodity-Free Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity-free calibration is a reaction rate calibration technique that does not require the addition of any commodities. This technique is a specific form of the reaction rate technique, where all of the necessary reactants, other than the sample being analyzed, are either inherent in the analyzing system or specifically added or provided to the system for a reason other than calibration. After introduction, the component of interest is exposed to other reactants or flow paths already present in the system. The instrument detector records one of the following to determine the rate of reaction: the increase in the response of the reaction product, a decrease in the signal of the analyte response, or a decrease in the signal from the inherent reactant. With this data, the initial concentration of the analyte is calculated. This type of system can analyze and calibrate simultaneously, reduce the risk of false positives and exposure to toxic vapors, and improve accuracy. Moreover, having an excess of the reactant already present in the system eliminates the need to add commodities, which further reduces cost, logistic problems, and potential contamination. Also, the calculations involved can be simplified by comparison to those of the reaction rate technique. We conducted tests with hypergols as an initial investigation into the feasiblility of the technique.

  6. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    SciTech Connect

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  7. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  8. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  9. Inversion Recovery with Embedded Self-Calibration (IRES)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ek T.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    With self-calibrated parallel acquisition, the calibration data used to characterize coil response are acquired within the actual, parallel scan. Although this eliminates the need for a separate calibration scan, it reduces the net acceleration factor of the parallel scan. Furthermore, this reduction gets worse at higher accelerations. A method is described for 3D inversion recovery gradient-echo imaging in which calibration is incorporated into the sequence but with no loss of net acceleration. This is done by acquiring the calibration data using very small (≤4°) tip angle acquisitions during the delay interval after acquisition of the accelerated imaging data. The technique is studied at 3T with simulation, phantom and in vivo experiments using both image space-based and k-space-based parallel reconstruction methods. At nominal acceleration factors of three and four, the newly described Inversion Recovery with Embedded Self-calibration (IRES) method can retain effective acceleration with comparable SNR and contrast to standard self-calibration. At a net 2D acceleration factor of four, IRES can achieve higher SNR than standard self-calibration having a nominal acceleration factor of six but the same acquisition time. PMID:19365864

  10. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  11. Unexplored Indoors method for pyranometers calibration traceable to SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Matadamas, H. A.; Molina-Vazquez, J. C.; Quintero-Torres, R.

    2015-01-01

    A method to calibrate pyranometers with direct traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is presented, the method use an electrically calibrated pyroelectric detector (ECPR) as standard and offers numerous advantages over outdoors conventional calibration methods, such as reducing the uncertainty from the reference standard and the final uncertainty of the sensitivity coefficient of the calibrated pyranometer; the measurement uncertainty achieved with this method at normal irradiance is 2.1% for a coverage factor k = 2 and could be reduce if one reduces the uncertainty level of the reference standard.

  12. MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  13. A Comparison of Two Balance Calibration Model Building Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Ulbrich, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Simulated strain-gage balance calibration data is used to compare the accuracy of two balance calibration model building methods for different noise environments and calibration experiment designs. The first building method obtains a math model for the analysis of balance calibration data after applying a candidate math model search algorithm to the calibration data set. The second building method uses stepwise regression analysis in order to construct a model for the analysis. Four balance calibration data sets were simulated in order to compare the accuracy of the two math model building methods. The simulated data sets were prepared using the traditional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) technique and the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) approach. Random and systematic errors were introduced in the simulated calibration data sets in order to study their influence on the math model building methods. Residuals of the fitted calibration responses and other statistical metrics were compared in order to evaluate the calibration models developed with different combinations of noise environment, experiment design, and model building method. Overall, predicted math models and residuals of both math model building methods show very good agreement. Significant differences in model quality were attributable to noise environment, experiment design, and their interaction. Generally, the addition of systematic error significantly degraded the quality of calibration models developed from OFAT data by either method, but MDOE experiment designs were more robust with respect to the introduction of a systematic component of the unexplained variance.

  14. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  15. Phase calibration generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

  16. Pipeline Calibration for STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

    The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

  17. MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

  18. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  20. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  1. Calibration of the Urbana lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, T.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for calibrating data obtained by the Urban sodium lidar system is presented. First, an expression relating the number of photocounts originating from a specific altitude range to the soodium concentration is developed. This relation is then simplified by normalizing the sodium photocounts with photocounts originating from the Rayleigh region of the atmosphere. To evaluate the calibration expression, the laser linewidth must be known. Therefore, a method for measuring the laser linewidth using a Fabry-Perot interferometer is given. The laser linewidth was found to be 6 + or - 2.5 pm. Problems due to photomultiplier tube overloading are discussed. Finally, calibrated data is presented. The sodium column abundance exhibits something close to a sinusoidal variation throughout the year with the winter months showing an enhancement of a factor of 5 to 7 over the summer months.

  2. Calibration Results Of The Strofio Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livi, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Miles, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    The sensor Strofio is a mass spectrometer, part of the Serena plasma/neutral particles package for the BepiColombo mission to Mercury. During several campaignes of calibraion at the Southwest Research Institute and at the University of Bern we calibrated the characteristics of the Flight Unit and determined the calibration factors of the sensor. All the measured responses of Strofio to external stimuly are compatible with the requirements necessary to characterize the tenuous exosphere of Mercury. In the measured particluar sensitivity (0.14 (cts/sec)/(1/cm3)), resolution (m/dm>90), mass range (4-60 + 80-120) and capability of background rejection ( > 40) are well fitted to the expected conditions around the planet. We present the current understanding of composition and variability of the Hemean exosphere, the derived physical measurables, and show the relevant Strofio calibration results.

  3. Calibration of Germanium Resistance Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladner, D.; Urban, E.; Mason, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Largely completed thermometer-calibration cryostat and probe allows six germanium resistance thermometers to be calibrated at one time at superfluid-helium temperatures. In experiments involving several such thermometers, use of this calibration apparatus results in substantial cost savings. Cryostat maintains temperature less than 2.17 K through controlled evaporation and removal of liquid helium from Dewar. Probe holds thermometers to be calibrated and applies small amount of heat as needed to maintain precise temperature below 2.17 K.

  4. Fast calibration of gas flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Digital unit automates calibration sequence using calculator IC and programmable read-only memory to solve calibration equations. Infrared sensors start and stop calibration sequence. Instrument calibrates mass flowmeters or rotameters where flow measurement is based on mass or volume. This automatic control reduces operator time by 80 percent. Solid-state components are very reliable, and digital character allows system accuracy to be determined primarily by accuracy of transducers.

  5. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  6. Calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorefice, Salvatore; Malengo, Andrea

    2006-10-01

    After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and the procedure used at the INRiM (formerly IMGC-CNR) density laboratory have been considered to assess all relevant contributions involved in the calibration of different kinds of hydrometers. The uncertainty is strongly dependent on the kind of hydrometer; in particular, the results highlight the importance of the density of the reference buoyant liquid, the temperature of calibration and the skill of operator in the reading of the scale in the whole assessment of the uncertainty. It is also interesting to realize that for high-resolution hydrometers (division of 0.1 kg m-3), the uncertainty contribution of the density of the reference liquid is the main source of the total uncertainty, but its importance falls under about 50% for hydrometers with a division of 0.5 kg m-3 and becomes somewhat negligible for hydrometers with a division of 1 kg m-3, for which the reading uncertainty is the predominant part of the total uncertainty. At present the best INRiM result is obtained with commercially available hydrometers having a scale division of 0.1 kg m-3, for which the relative uncertainty is about 12 × 10-6.

  7. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  8. Calibration Chamber Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-30

    penetrometers of different designs, (iii) the effect of rod friction, (iv) the effect of discontinuous operation, and (v) sensing an interface between two sand...layers. Other test results on two designs of 10 cm2 Fugro penetrometers, each with a different position of friction sleeve, assisted in the selection...at different stages in the penetration of a specimen. The calibration tests had the prime purpose of establishing correlations between the penetration

  9. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP

    DOEpatents

    Owren, H.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Smith, V.L.

    1958-04-22

    The time calibrator of an electric signal displayed on an oscilloscope is described. In contrast to the conventional technique of using time-calibrated divisions on the face of the oscilloscope, this invention provides means for directly superimposing equal time spaced markers upon a signal displayed upon an oscilloscope. More explicitly, the present invention includes generally a generator for developing a linear saw-tooth voltage and a circuit for combining a high-frequency sinusoidal voltage of a suitable amplitude and frequency with the saw-tooth voltage to produce a resultant sweep deflection voltage having a wave shape which is substantially linear with respect to time between equal time spaced incremental plateau regions occurring once each cycle of the sinusoidal voltage. The foregoing sweep voltage when applied to the horizontal deflection plates in combination with a signal to be observed applied to the vertical deflection plates of a cathode ray oscilloscope produces an image on the viewing screen which is essentially a display of the signal to be observed with respect to time. Intensified spots, or certain other conspicuous indications corresponding to the equal time spaced plateau regions of said sweep voltage, appear superimposed upon said displayed signal, which indications are therefore suitable for direct time calibration purposes.

  10. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  11. Radiation calibration targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several prominent features of Mars Pathfinder and surrounding terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder on July 4 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on the Red Planet. Portions of a lander petal are at the lower part of the image. At the left, the mechanism for the high-gain antenna can be seen. The dark area along the right side of the image represents a portion of the low-gain antenna. The radiation calibration target is at the right. The calibration target is made up of a number of materials with well-characterized colors. The known colors of the calibration targets allow scientists to determine the true colors of the rocks and soils of Mars. Three bull's-eye rings provide a wide range of brightness for the camera, similar to a photographer's grayscale chart. In the middle of the bull's-eye is a 5-inch tall post that casts a shadow, which is distorted in this image due to its location with respect to the lander camera.

    A large rock is located at the near center of the image. Smaller rocks and areas of soil are strewn across the Martian terrain up to the horizon line.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  13. Continued transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, but no transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug users participating in a syringe/needle exchange program.

    PubMed

    Månsson, A S; Moestrup, T; Nordenfelt, E; Widell, A

    2000-01-01

    The virological efficacy of a syringe/needle exchange program was evaluated in a cohort incidence study. Of 698 intravenous drug users (IVDUs) initially recruited, 15 (2.1%) were HIV-positive at baseline. Adequate follow-up was possible in 515 (74%) and showed no new cases of HIV infection during a median of 31 months. Most IVDUs had been previously exposed to HBV (anti-HBc-positive 70.1%) and HCV (anti-HCV-positive 90.7%). Of those 159 IVDUs negative at baseline for anti-HBc and/or anti-HCV, 56 (35%) seroconverted to one or both viruses during follow-up, corresponding to 11.7 seroconversions/100 y at risk for HBV and 26.3 seroconversions/100 y for HCV. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed hepatitis seroconversion to correlate with imprisonment during the study (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.04-4.74), absence of drug-free periods (OR 5.7; CI 1.44-22.3) and frequent syringe/needle exchanges (OR 1.31; CI 1.02-1.7). The absence of HIV spread was probably partly due to the low prevalence of HIV-infected IVDUs in the city. Despite free syringes and needles, both HBV and HCV continued to spread at high rates. Nevertheless, syringe/needle exchange programs, coupled with monitoring of serostatus provide good surveillance and are valuable for further assessment of remaining risks.

  14. Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-12-19

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  15. Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-04-17

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  16. Primary calibration in acoustics metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacelar Milhomem, T. A.; Defilippo Soares, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    SI unit in acoustics is realized by the reciprocity calibrations of laboratory standard microphones in pressure field, free field and diffuse field. Calibrations in pressure field and in free field are already consolidated and the Inmetro already done them. Calibration in diffuse field is not yet consolidated, however, some national metrology institutes, including Inmetro, are conducting researches on this subject. This paper presents the reciprocity calibration, the results of Inmetro in recent key comparisons and the research that is being developed for the implementation of reciprocity calibration in diffuse field.

  17. Calibration of triaxial fluxgate gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vcelak, Jan

    2006-04-15

    The description of simple and fast calibration procedures used for double-probe triaxial fluxgate gradiometer is provided in this paper. The calibration procedure consists of three basic steps. In the first step both probes are calibrated independently in order to reach constant total field reading in every position. Both probes are numerically aligned in the second step in order that the gradient reading is zero in homogenous magnetic field. The third step consists of periodic drift calibration during measurement. The results and detailed description of each calibration step are presented and discussed in the paper. The gradiometer is finally verified during the detection of the metal object in the measuring grid.

  18. The roles of law, client race and program visibility in shaping police interference with the operation of US syringe exchange programs

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; White, Edward; Bowman, Sarah; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the comparative levels of and associations between policing interference and characteristics of US syringe exchange programs (SEPs). Design Cross-sectional. Setting A national survey of US SEPs. Participants A total of 111 program managers (representing 59% of all US SEPs). Measurements Program manager self-report. Findings With overall interference profiles ranging from systematic to totally interference-free, 43% of respondents reported at least monthly client harassment, 31% at least monthly unauthorized confiscation of clients’ syringes, 12% at least monthly client arrest en route to or from SEP and 26% uninvited police appearances at program sites at least every 6 months. In multivariate modeling, legal status of SEP, jurisdiction’s syringe regulation environment and affiliation with health department were not associated with frequency of police interference. Programs serving pre-dominantly injection drug users (IDUs) of color were 3.56 times more likely to report frequent client arrest en route to or from SEP and 3.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation. Those serving more than three sites were 3.96 times more likely to report client harassment, while stationary operation was protective against uninvited police appearances. The majority (56%) reported not documenting adverse police events; those who did were 2.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation from clients. Conclusions Findings highlight limitations of the impact of legal reforms on aligning police activities with SEP operations. Systematic adverse event surveillance and evidence-based structural interventions are needed to maximize the benefits of public health prevention targeting IDUs and other criminalized populations. SEPs that report no adverse events may represent programs already working in harmony with law enforcement agencies, a priority highlighted in US Centers for Disease Control’s new SEP guidelines. The

  19. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  20. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  1. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for 125I seeds used for prostate brachytherapy. National Physical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Baker, M; Bass, G A; Woods, M J

    2002-01-01

    In the therapeutic use of radionuclides, by far the most rapid growth in recent years is that of 125I seeds used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Large numbers of these seeds are used in each treatment and there is a need for a simple but accurate means of confirming their dose rates. This mechanism requires a transfer device for which the calibration factors are traceable to national standards. The NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, because of its guaranteed reproducibility and traceable calibration procedure, is ideally suited for this purpose. A series of characterisation measurements have been performed on the NPL radionuclide calibrator in order to estimate the uncertainty levels that can be achieved and these are presented together with the relevant calibration factors for some typical seeds.

  2. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  3. Self-Calibrating Pressure Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A self-calibrating pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be calibrated. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be calibrated. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be calibrated in situ. Calibration is optionally automated so that calibration can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be calibrated without removing it from the process, reductions in costs and down time are realized.

  4. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  5. OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter, thus providing absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight maneuver data used to validate the scale factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range is also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. This provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  6. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Ryan A; Rovey, Joshua L; Pommerenke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of [Formula: see text] probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two [Formula: see text] probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first [Formula: see text] probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface

  7. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  8. Uncertainty and Dimensional Calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted; Stoup, John

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of uncertainty for a measurement is an effort to set reasonable bounds for the measurement result according to standardized rules. Since every measurement produces only an estimate of the answer, the primary requisite of an uncertainty statement is to inform the reader of how sure the writer is that the answer is in a certain range. This report explains how we have implemented these rules for dimensional calibrations of nine different types of gages: gage blocks, gage wires, ring gages, gage balls, roundness standards, optical flats indexing tables, angle blocks, and sieves. PMID:27805114

  9. Transient Calorimeter Calibration System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    can withstand the high heat flux levels encountered during calibration. 3 d. The verification of absorptivity of a colloidal graphite coat- ing used...CC4-)Ŕ ýz- ix w- Vj m ~ CL 4) > r- 4-) r-)W *. M 0 0 a 4) u.) . CJ C4) Lfl 𔃺 4%. C6 0) 0 ~ 4 -0 E 36 The colloidal graphite remains the most...before and after exposure. Such tests performed with the colloidal graphite coating yielded no apparent change in absorptivity up through 5 kW/cm2 . In

  10. White Dwarf Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis

    1994-01-01

    As a result of last November calibration workshop, all parties agreed that the HST should be switched to the WD basis for absolute fluxes. This proposal implements that decision. A measurement of the absolute sensitivity of the FOS detectors will be performed using theoretical pure hydrogen model atmosphere calculations for three white dwarfs. The high resolution gratings will be used in the 1 arcsec aperture. A four stage peakup of the standard star provides centering in the aperture. Observations are requested for fall 94 with repeated observations about two months after.

  11. Uncertainty and Dimensional Calibrations.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted; Stoup, John

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of uncertainty for a measurement is an effort to set reasonable bounds for the measurement result according to standardized rules. Since every measurement produces only an estimate of the answer, the primary requisite of an uncertainty statement is to inform the reader of how sure the writer is that the answer is in a certain range. This report explains how we have implemented these rules for dimensional calibrations of nine different types of gages: gage blocks, gage wires, ring gages, gage balls, roundness standards, optical flats indexing tables, angle blocks, and sieves.

  12. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  13. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  14. Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

  15. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Study of laser energy standard and establishment of calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Xia, Junwen; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Zhang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This paper studied the standard laser energy meter. A self calibration of the thermoelectric type standard laser energy meter is developed, which is provided with a suitable electric heater. It can be used to simulate and replace the equivalent thermal effect, and to realize the absolute measurement of the laser energy. Because the standard laser energy meter can bulk absorb laser radiation, it can bear higher laser energy density. The material absorption spectrum of the standard laser energy meter is relatively flat from the ultraviolet to the infrared, so it can be used for the measurement of laser energy at any wavelength. In addition, an electric calibration instrument is developed. The electric calibration instrument can be directly displayed or synchronous display by the digital frequency meter. The laser energy calibration device is composed of standard laser energy meter, pulsed laser source, monitoring system, digital multi meter and complete set of electric calibration system. Laser energy calibration device uses split beam detection method. The laser is divided into two beams by means of a wedge shaped optical beam splitter. A laser energy meter is used to monitor the change of the reflected light to reduce the influence of the output laser energy stability of the pulsed laser source, thereby improving the uncertainty of the calibration result. The sensitivity, correction factor and indication error of the laser energy meter can be calibrated by using the standard laser energy meter and the under calibrated laser energy meter to measure the transmission laser beam.

  17. Spectrophotometer spectral bandwidth calibration with absorption bands crystal standard.

    PubMed

    Soares, O D; Costa, J L

    1999-04-01

    A procedure for calibration of a spectral bandwidth standard for high-resolution spectrophotometers is described. Symmetrical absorption bands for a crystal standard are adopted. The method relies on spectral band shape fitting followed by a convolution with the slit function of the spectrophotometer. A reference spectrophotometer is used to calibrate the spectral bandwidth standard. Bandwidth calibration curves for a minimum spectral transmission factor relative to the spectral bandwidth of the reference spectrophotometer are derived for the absorption bands at the wavelength of the band absorption maximum. The family of these calibration curves characterizes the spectral bandwidth standard. We calibrate the spectral bandwidth of a spectrophotometer with respect to the reference spectrophotometer by determining the spectral transmission factor minimum at every calibrated absorption band of the bandwidth standard for the nominal instrument values of the spectral bandwidth. With reference to the standard spectral bandwidth calibration curves, the relation of the spectral bandwidth to the reference spectrophotometer is determined. We determine the discrepancy in the spectrophotometers' spectral bandwidths by averaging the spectral bandwidth discrepancies relative to the standard calibrated values found at the absorption bands considered. A weighted average of the uncertainties is taken.

  18. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.

  19. Quadrature phase interferometer used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shau-Chi; Liou, Huay-Chung; Peng, Gwo-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Feng

    2001-10-01

    To calibrate dial indicators, gage blocks or dial indicator calibrators are usually used. For better accuracy and resolution, interferometers are used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators. Systematic errors of laser interferometers can be classified into three categories of intrinsic errors, environment errors and installation errors. Intrinsic errors include laser wavelength error, electronic error and optics nonlinearity. In order to achieve nanometer accuracy, minimizing intrinsic error is crucial. In this paper, we will address the problems of minimizing the optics nonlinearity error and describe the discrete-time signal processing method to minimize the electronic error, nonlinearity error and drift by simply using quadrature phase interferometer for nanometer accuracy and linearity.

  20. Multigamma-ray calibration sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

    1983-05-01

    We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

  1. NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

  2. Calibration and monitoring of spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Frings, C S; Broussard, L A

    1979-06-01

    We have delineated some of the factors affecting the performance of spectrometers and spectrophotometers in the clinical laboratory and have presented some of the methods for verifying that these instruments are functioning properly. At a minimum, every laboratory should perform periodic inspections of spectrometric functions to check wavelength calibration, linearity of detector response, and stray radiation. Only through such an inspection program can a laboratory ensure that these instruments are not contributing to inaccurate analytical results.

  3. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  4. Neural networks for calibration tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

  5. Radiance calibration of spherical integrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.

  6. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  7. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  8. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  9. Quality Management and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Good specification of a product’s performance requires adequate characterization of relevant properties. Particulate products are usually characterized by some PSD, shape or porosity parameter(s). For proper characterization, adequate sampling, dispersion, and measurement procedures should be available or developed and skilful personnel should use appropriate, well-calibrated/qualified equipment. The characterization should be executed, in agreement with customers, in a wellorganized laboratory. All related aspects should be laid down in a quality handbook. The laboratory should provide proof for its capability to perform the characterization of stated products and/or reference materials within stated confidence limits. This can be done either by internal validation and audits or by external GLP accreditation.

  10. TOD to TTP calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Vos, Wouter K.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Fanning, Jonathan D.

    2011-05-01

    The TTP (Targeting Task Performance) metric, developed at NVESD, is the current standard US Army model to predict EO/IR Target Acquisition performance. This model however does not have a corresponding lab or field test to empirically assess the performance of a camera system. The TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method, developed at TNO in The Netherlands, provides such a measurement. In this study, we make a direct comparison between TOD performance for a range of sensors and the extensive historical US observer performance database built to develop and calibrate the TTP metric. The US perception data were collected doing an identification task by military personnel on a standard 12 target, 12 aspect tactical vehicle image set that was processed through simulated sensors for which the most fundamental sensor parameters such as blur, sampling, spatial and temporal noise were varied. In the present study, we measured TOD sensor performance using exactly the same sensors processing a set of TOD triangle test patterns. The study shows that good overall agreement is obtained when the ratio between target characteristic size and TOD test pattern size at threshold equals 6.3. Note that this number is purely based on empirical data without any intermediate modeling. The calibration of the TOD to the TTP is highly beneficial to the sensor modeling and testing community for a variety of reasons. These include: i) a connection between requirement specification and acceptance testing, and ii) a very efficient method to quickly validate or extend the TTP range prediction model to new systems and tasks.

  11. A new polarimetric active radar calibrator and calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaojian

    2015-10-01

    Polarimetric active radar calibrator (PARC) is one of the most important calibrators with high radar cross section (RCS) for polarimetry measurement. In this paper, a new double-antenna polarimetric active radar calibrator (DPARC) is proposed, which consists of two rotatable antennas with wideband electromagnetic polarization filters (EMPF) to achieve lower cross-polarization for transmission and reception. With two antennas which are rotatable around the radar line of sight (LOS), the DPARC provides a variety of standard polarimetric scattering matrices (PSM) through the rotation combination of receiving and transmitting polarization, which are useful for polarimatric calibration in different applications. In addition, a technique based on Fourier analysis is proposed for calibration processing. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed DPARC and processing technique.

  12. Laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales to injection drug users: relations to population density, HIV prevalence, and HIV incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S R; Perlis, T; Des Jarlais, D C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess relations of laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales (anti-OTC laws) to population prevalence of injection drug users and HIV prevalence or incidence among 96 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used. RESULTS: Metropolitan areas with anti-OTC laws had a higher mean HIV prevalence (13.8% vs 6.7%) than other metropolitan areas (pseudo-P < .001). In 83 metropolitan areas with HIV prevalence of less than 20%, anti-OTC laws were associated with HIV incidence rates of 1% or greater (pseudo-P < .001). Population proportions of injection drug users did not vary by presence of anti-OTC laws. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-OTC laws are not associated with lower population proportions of injection drug users. Laws restricting syringe access are associated with HIV transmission and should be repealed. PMID:11344889

  13. Method calibration of the model 13145 infrared target projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianxia; Gao, Yuan; Han, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The SBIR Model 13145 Infrared Target Projectors ( The following abbreviation Evaluation Unit ) used for characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. Test items: SiTF, MTF, NETD, MRTD, MDTD, NPS. Infrared target projectors includes two area blackbodies, a 12 position target wheel, all reflective collimator. It provide high spatial frequency differential targets, Precision differential targets imaged by infrared imaging system. And by photoelectricity convert on simulate signal or digital signal. Applications software (IR Windows TM 2001) evaluate characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. With regards to as a whole calibration, first differently calibration for distributed component , According to calibration specification for area blackbody to calibration area blackbody, by means of to amend error factor to calibration of all reflective collimator, radiance calibration of an infrared target projectors using the SR5000 spectral radiometer, and to analyze systematic error. With regards to as parameter of infrared imaging system, need to integrate evaluation method. According to regulation with -GJB2340-1995 General specification for military thermal imaging sets -testing parameters of infrared imaging system, the results compare with results from Optical Calibration Testing Laboratory . As a goal to real calibration performances of the Evaluation Unit.

  14. Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.

  15. Reduction in HCV Incidence Among Injection Drug Users Attending Needle and Syringe Programs in Australia: A Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Wand, Handan; Topp, Libby; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends in HCV incident infection among injection drug users (IDUs) attending needle and syringe programs (NSPs) in Australia in 1995 to 2010. Methods. We created a passive retrospective cohort of 724 IDUs who tested negative for HCV antibodies by a simple deterministic method linking partial identifiers to find repeat respondents in annual cross-sectional serosurveillance. Results. We identified 180 HCV seroconversions over the study period, for a pooled incidence density of 17.0 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.68, 19.66). Incidence density declined, from a high of 30.8 per 100 person-years (95% CI = 21.3, 44.6) in 2003 to a low of 4.0 (95% CI = 1.3, 12.3) in 2009. Conclusions. A decline in HCV incidence among Australian IDUs attending NSPs coincided with considerable expansion of harm reduction programs and a likely reduction in the number of IDUs, associated with significant changes in drug markets. Our results demonstrate the capacity of repeat cross-sectional serosurveillance to monitor trends in HCV incidence and provide a platform from which to assess the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:23763399

  16. Organizational Impact of the Introduction of a New Portable Syringe Pump for Iloprost Therapy in Italian Hospital Settings

    PubMed Central

    Restelli, Umberto; Faggioli, Paola; Scolari, Francesca; Gussoni, Gualberto; Valerio, Antonella; Sciascera, Alba; Croce, Davide; Mazzone, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at assessing the organizational and economic impact related to the use of a new portable syringe pump (Pompa Infonde®, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Cinisello Balsamo, Italy) at a hospital level. Methodology: Based on the HTA approach, the analysis assessed the organizational and economic impact of the new device at hospital level, using the traditional methods of Iloprost infusion as comparator. After a pilot evaluation, the organizational impact was assessed within 24 Italian hospitals. Structured interviews were conducted with clinicians and nurses. According to the Hospital-Based HTA approach, a questionnaire assessed the impact on human resources, training activities, internal meetings, spaces needed, facilities, clinical practice implications. Using Activity Based Costing approach, the economic evaluation was performed within the pilot center “Ospedale Civile” of Legnano, Italy. Findings: The new device leads to a positive managerial impact, with a substantial reduction of time to monitor patients by nurses. This resulted in a better management of human resources and in a reduction in nursing cost. Although a mild negative impact on training time for personnel, the structured interviews allowed the identification of three main areas of positive impact: (i) efficiency of internal processes, (ii) clinical pathways, (iii) synergies between wards. Originality: The organizational impact of Pompa Infonde®, showed that it is an efficient alternative to traditional methods, with benefits in the management of patients administered with Iloprost.

  17. "Hooked on" prescription-type opiates prior to using heroin: results from a survey of syringe exchange clients.

    PubMed

    Peavy, K Michelle; Banta-Green, Caleb J; Kingston, Susan; Hanrahan, Michael; Merrill, Joseph O; Coffin, Phillip O

    2012-01-01

    The availability and diversion of prescription-type opioids increased dramatically in the first decade of the twenty-first century. One possible consequence of increased prescription opioid use and accessibility is the associated rise in opioid dependence, potentially resulting in heroin addiction. This study aimed to determine how common initial dependence on prescription-type opioids is among heroin injectors; associations with demographic and drug-using characteristics were also examined. Interview data were collected at syringe exchanges in King County, Washington in 2009. Among the respondents who had used heroin in the prior four months, 39% reported being "hooked on" prescription-type opioids first. Regression analysis indicated that younger age, sedative use and no recent crack use were independently associated with self-report of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to using heroin. These data quantify the phenomenon of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to initiating heroin use. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology, etiology and trajectory of prescription-type opioid and heroin use in the context of continuing widespread availability of prescription-type opioids.

  18. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that not only malic and lactic acid but also bitter and astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  19. Fully-automated in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of caffeine in coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Maya, Fernando; Estela, José M; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-12-01

    A novel fully-automated magnetic stirring-assisted lab-in-syringe analytical procedure has been developed for the fast and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of caffeine in coffee beverages. The procedure is based on the microextraction of caffeine with a minute amount of dichloromethane, isolating caffeine from the sample matrix with no further sample pretreatment. Selection of the relevant extraction parameters such as the dispersive solvent, proportion of aqueous/organic phase, pH and flow rates have been carefully evaluated. Caffeine quantification was linear from 2 to 75mgL(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.46mgL(-1) and 1.54mgL(-1), respectively. A coefficient of variation (n=8; 5mgL(-1)) of a 2.1% and a sampling rate of 16h(-1), were obtained. The procedure was satisfactorily applied to the determination of caffeine in brewed, instant and decaf coffee samples, being the results for the sample analysis validated using high-performance liquid chromatography.

  20. Utilization of the aquatic research facility and fertilization syringe unit to study sea urchin development in space.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Chakrabarti, A; Levine, H G; Anderson, K

    1999-10-01

    Methods were developed for the investigation of the effects of microgravity on early development in sea urchins within the Canadian Space Agency's Aquatic Research Facility (ARF). The ARF payload provided light, temperature control, automated fixation capability, and a 1 G on-orbit centrifuge control. Eggs and embryos of either the sea urchin species Lytechinus pictus or Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were loaded into Standard Container Assemblies (SCAs) which comprised the experimental aquaria (33 mL volume) contained within the ARF. A newly developed Fertilization Syringe Unit (FSU) was used to achieve "in-flight" fertilization capability. Fixative solutions were preloaded into fixation blocks maintained adjacent to the SCAs and injected at pre-selected time points, resulting in final (diluted) concentrations of either 0.5% or 2% glutaraldehyde (depending upon embryonic stage). Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy determined that all desired embryonic and cell division stages (16-cell stage, blastula, gastrula, and pluteus) were preserved using the experimental protocols and fixation capability provided by the ARF/FSU system.

  1. BXS Re-calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; /SLAC

    2010-11-24

    Early in the commissioning it was noticed by Cecile Limborg that the calibration of the BXS spectrometer magnet seemed to be different from the strength of the BX01/BX02 magnets. First the BX01/BX02 currents were adjusted to 135 MeV and the beam energy was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit flat. Then BX01/BX02 magnets were switched off and BXS was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit in the spectrometer line flat, without changing the energy of the beam. The result was that about 140-141 MeV were required on the BXS magnet. This measurement was repeated several times by others with the same results. It was not clear what was causing the error: magnet strength or layout. A position error of about 19 mm of the BXS magnet could explain the difference. Because there was a significant misalignment of the vacuum chamber in the BXS line, the alignment of the whole spectrometer line was checked. The vacuum chamber was corrected, but the magnets were found to be in the proper alignment. So we were left with one (or conceivably two) magnet calibration errors. Because BXS is a wedged shaped magnet, the bend angle depends on the horizontal position of the incoming beam. As mentioned, an offset of the beam position of 19 mm would increase or decrease the bend angle roughly by the ratio of 135/141. The figure of 19 mm is special and caused a considerable confusion during the design and measurement of the BXS magnet. This is best illustrated in Figure 1 which was taken out of the BXS Traveler document. The distance between the horizontal midplanes of the poles and the apex of the beam path was chosen to be 19 mm so the beam is close to the good field region throughout its entire path. Thus it seemed possible that there was an error that resulted in the beam not being on this trajectory, or conversely, that the magnetic measurements were done on the wrong trajectory and the magnet was then mis-calibrated. Mechanical measurements of the vacuum chamber made in the tunnel

  2. Simplicity, safety, and acceptability of insulin pen use versus the conventional vial/syringe device in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Khreis, Noura A; Kabbara, Wissam K

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the simplicity, safety, patients’ preference, and convenience of the administration of insulin using the pen device versus the conventional vial/syringe in patients with diabetes. Methods This observational study was conducted in multiple community pharmacies in Lebanon. The investigators interviewed patients with diabetes using an insulin pen or conventional vial/syringe. A total of 74 questionnaires were filled over a period of 6 months. Answers were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Excel spreadsheet. t-test, logistic regression analysis, and correlation analysis were used in order to analyze the results. Results A higher percentage of patients from the insulin pen users group (95.2%) found the method easy to use as compared to only 46.7% of the insulin conventional users group (P 0.001, relative risk [RR]: 2.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.178–3.535). Moreover, 61.9% and 26.7% of pen users and conventional users, respectively, could read the scale easily (P 0.037, RR 2.321, 95% CI: 0.940–5.731), while 85.7% of pen users found it more convenient shifting to pen and 86.7% of the conventional users would want to shift to pen if it had the same cost. Pain perception was statistically different between the groups. A much higher percentage (76.2%) of pen users showed no pain during injection compared to only 26.7% of conventional users (P 0.003, RR 2.857, 95% CI: 1.194–6.838). Conclusion The insulin pen was significantly much easier to use and less painful than the conventional vial/syringe. Proper education on the methods of administration/storage and disposal of needles/syringes is needed in both groups. PMID:25848231

  3. Calibration of the ARID robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L

    1992-01-01

    The author has formulated a new, general model for specifying the kinematic properties of serial manipulators. The new model kinematic parameters do not suffer discontinuities when nominally parallel adjacent axes deviate from exact parallelism. From this new theory the author develops a first-order, lumped-parameter, calibration-model for the ARID manipulator. Next, the author develops a calibration methodology for the ARID based on visual and acoustic sensing. A sensor platform, consisting of a camera and four sonars attached to the ARID end frame, performs calibration measurements. A calibration measurement consists of processing one visual frame of an accurately placed calibration image and recording four acoustic range measurements. A minimum of two measurement protocols determine the kinematics calibration-model of the ARID for a particular region: assuming the joint displacements are accurately measured, the calibration surface is planar, and the kinematic parameters do not vary rapidly in the region. No theoretical or practical limitations appear to contra-indicate the feasibility of the calibration method developed here.

  4. Side looking radar calibration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

  5. Particle Characterization for a Protein Drug Product Stored in Pre-Filled Syringes Using Micro-Flow Imaging, Archimedes, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Songyan; Puri, Aastha; Li, Jinjiang; Jaiswal, Archana; Adams, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Micro-flow imaging (MFI) has been used for formulation development for analyzing sub-visible particles. Archimedes, a novel technique for analyzing sub-micron particles, has been considered as an orthogonal method to currently existing techniques. This study utilized these two techniques to investigate the effectiveness of polysorbate (PS-80) in mitigating the particle formation of a therapeutic protein formulation stored in silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. The results indicated that PS-80 prevented the formation of both protein and silicone oil particles. In the case of protein particles, PS-80 might involve in the interactions with the hydrophobic patches of protein, air bubbles, and the stressed surfaces of silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. Such interactions played a role in mitigating the formation of protein particles. Subsequently, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to characterize the interactions associated with silicone oil, protein, and PS-80 in the solutions. Based on QCM-D results, we proposed that PS-80 likely formed a layer on the interior surfaces of syringes. As a result, the adsorbed PS-80 might block the leakage of silicone oil from the surfaces to solution so that the silicone oil particles were mitigated at the presence of PS-80. Overall, this study demonstrated the necessary of utilizing these three techniques cooperatively in order to better understand the interfacial role of PS-80 in mitigating the formation of protein and silicone oil particles.

  6. Calibration of solar cells' photoelectric properties and related uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Haifeng; Xiong, Limin; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Junchao; Tian, Wei; Liu, Dingpu; Zhang, Jieyu; Xie, Linlin; Lei, Liu

    2014-07-01

    Solar cells' photoelectric properties calibration, i.e., current-voltage (I-V) characteristics is critical for both fundamental research and photovoltaic production line. This paper will present calibration of solar cells' I-V characteristics by a substitution method under simulate light source. Considering the calibration uncertainty and measurement accuracy, reliable measurement procedures developed in NIM with uncertainty analysis are also demonstrated. By controlling the influencing factors, relative expended combined uncertainty (Urel) of 2.1% (Isc), 1.0% (Voc) and 3.1% (Pmax) was concluded here, with a coverage factor k = 2. The measurement system meets all requirements of IEC 60904-1 and IEC 60904-9, and it has been applied to amounts of solar cells' I-V curves calibration for research institutes as well as industrial plants, which solved the problem of domestic metrology technology shortage in photovoltaic field.

  7. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  8. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  9. The Advanced LIGO photon calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, S.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Kandhasamy, S.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, T. D.; Anders, E. H.; Berliner, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Cahillane, C.; Canete, L.; Conley, C.; Daveloza, H. P.; De Lillo, N.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Izumi, K.; Kissel, J. S.; Mendell, G.; Quetschke, V.; Rodruck, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Schwinberg, P. B.; Sottile, A.; Wade, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; West, M.; Savage, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as photon calibrators. These systems, which were completely redesigned for Advanced LIGO, include several significant upgrades that enable them to meet the calibration requirements of second-generation gravitational wave detectors in the new era of gravitational-wave astronomy. We report on the design, implementation, and operation of these Advanced LIGO photon calibrators that are currently providing fiducial displacements on the order of 1 0-18m /√{Hz } with accuracy and precision of better than 1%.

  10. Improvements in dissemination of spectral irradiance calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärhä, P.; Ylianttila, L.; Jokela, K.; Ikonen, E.

    2003-04-01

    Solar UV measurements have reached a level where uncertainties and discrepancies of standard lamps used for calibration of the spectroradiometers are already limiting factors in the measurements. Lamps purchased from different national standards laboratories often show discrepancies higher than the stated uncertainties when measured in solar UV intercomparison campaigns. One major source for the deviations between the lamps is changes of the lamp irradiance in transportation. Even if hand-carried, the lamps may be damaged by thermal or mechanical shocks. Short-circuiting of the coils causes spectrally dependent decrease of the spectral irradiance values. This effect can be detected, but not quantified, by monitoring the voltage across the lamp terminals. However, this monitoring does not reveal changes caused by bending of the filaments. At the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), we have developed a portable primary standard of spectral irradiance based on characterised filter radiometers. The standard consists of a filter radiometer with 14 interchangeable narrow-band interference filters for the wavelength region 290 - 900 nm. The filter radiometer is packed in a flight case that allows its transportation to solar UV measurement sites. Thus, the use of the filter radiometer eliminates completely the need to transport lamps. The method has been tested in direct intercomparisons with PTB (Germany), NPL (UK) and NIST (USA). The results of the intercomparisons clearly verify the calculated uncertainties (2 sigma) that range between 2.7% and 1.5% in the solar UV region of 290 - 380 nm. The filter radiometer can also be used to calibrate a solar UV calibrator that has been developed in a collaboration project between HUT and STUK. This calibrator utilises a 1-kW DXW-type lamp that has been enclosed in robust aluminium housing. The lamp is monitored with two narrow-band UV filter radiometers. The calibrator can be assembled on top of any spectroradiometer by using

  11. A calibrated Franklin chimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonta, Igor; Williams, Earle

    1994-05-01

    Benjamin Franklin devised a simple yet intriguing device to measure electrification in the atmosphere during conditions of foul weather. He constructed a system of bells, one of which was attached to a conductor that was suspended vertically above his house. The device is illustrated in a well-known painting of Franklin (Cohen, 1985). The elevated conductor acquired a potential due to the electric field in the atmosphere and caused a brass ball to oscillate between two bells. The purpose of this study is to extend Franklin's idea by constructing a set of 'chimes' which will operate both in fair and in foul weather conditions. In addition, a mathematical relationship will be established between the frequency of oscillation of a metallic sphere in a simplified geometry and the potential on one plate due to the electrification of the atmosphere. Thus it will be possible to calibrate the 'Franklin Chimes' and to obtain a nearly instantaneous measurement of the potential of the elevated conductor in both fair and foul weather conditions.

  12. Diode calibration manual

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, J.L.

    1989-09-01

    This procedure is not for the faint of heart. It is a time consuming, complex series of journeys through advanced GAMANAL and the vagueness of analyzer electronics. A knowledge of TRIX AC, DLTV, and IMP on the Octopus system and DSCOPE, PE2, and Symphony on a PC class machine is required. Be aware that the example in this document is a condensation of information that takes up four feet of shelf space. In the attempt to convert the nomenclature of the 7600 version of GAMANAL to that of the CRAY version, there will be confusion with some of the terms used. The 7600 versions relied on punched cards to a great extent where the CRAY version doesn't use them at all. In order not to introduce a new set of nomenclature, I have changed the reference from card to card image. I hope that this will cause the least impact on the vernacular and cause the least amount of confusion possible. This document is a rewritten update of an unpublished document by Bob Wikkerink in 1980. His document was the only written record of the procedures needed to calibrate the Environmental Sciences Low Level Counting Facility. This document updates and expands this information.

  13. PROSPECT: Optical Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Ken; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment (PROSPECT), is a short baseline, reactor neutrino experiment which focuses on measurements of the flux and energy spectrum of antineutrinos emitted from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using these measurements, PROSPECT will probe for eV-scale sterile neutrinos while making a high precision measurement of the U-235 antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT contains two phases; the first phase consists of a mobile detector near the reactor core while the second phase adds a larger fixed detector further from the core. The PROSPECT Phase 1 detector consists of a 2ton optically segmented liquid scintillator with each segment read-out by two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are calibrated with a photon source generated by a nanosecond pulsed laser. In this project, we developed a plan to determine the effectiveness of a 450nm fiber-pigtailed diode laser as it coupled with several modules including an optical fiber splitter, an optical diffuser, and an attenuator. The project tested for the system ability to deliver light uniformly to each of the cells in the detector. We will present the design and result of this project as well as discuss how it will be implemented in PROSPECT.

  14. In situ broadband cryogenic calibration for two-port superconducting microwave resonators.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Anlage, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    We introduce an improved microwave calibration method for use in a cryogenic environment, based on a traditional three-standard calibration, the Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration. The modified calibration method takes advantage of additional information from multiple measurements of an ensemble of realizations of a superconducting resonator, as a new pseudo-Open standard, to correct errors in the TRL calibration. We also demonstrate an experimental realization of this in situ broadband cryogenic calibration system utilizing cryogenic switches. All calibration measurements are done in the same thermal cycle as the measurement of the resonator (requiring only an additional 20 min), thus avoiding 4 additional thermal cycles for traditional TRL calibration (which would require an additional 12 days). The experimental measurements on a wave-chaotic microwave billiard verify that the new method significantly improves the measured scattering matrix of a high-quality-factor superconducting resonator.

  15. CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-03-01

    The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

  16. MODIS Solar Calibration Simulation Assisted Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiaoxiong, Xiong; Guenther, Bruce; Barnes, William; Moyer, David; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed optical radiometric model has been created of the MODIS instruments solar calibration process. This model takes into account the orientation and distance of the spacecraft with respect to the sun, the correlated motions of the scan mirror and the sun, all of the optical elements, the detector locations on the visible and near IR focal planes, the solar diffuser and the attenuation screen with all of its hundreds of pinholes. An efficient computational scheme, takes into account all of these factors and has produced results which reproduce the observed time dependent intensity variations on the two focal planes with considerable fidelity. This agreement between predictions and observations, has given insight to the causes of some small time dependent variations and how to incorporate them into the overall calibration scheme. The radiometric model is described and modeled and actual measurements are presented and compared.

  17. Small Scale Mass Flow Plug Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model in the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. Effects of boundary layer growth and the reduction in cross-sectional flow area are calculated using an in- integral method. A CFD calibration is shown to be of lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35%, and slower by a factor of 100. Effects of total pressure distortion are taken into account in the experiment. Distortion creates a loss in flow rate and can be characterized by two different distortion descriptors.

  18. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  19. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human growth hormone administered by cool.click™ 2, a new needle-free device, compared with subcutaneous administration using a conventional syringe and needle

    PubMed Central

    Brearley, Chris; Priestley, Anthony; Leighton-Scott, James; Christen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) is used to treat growth hormone deficiency (GHD, adult and paediatric), short bowel syndrome in patients on a specialized diet, HIV-associated wasting and, in children, growth failure due to a number of disorders including Turner's syndrome and chronic renal failure, and in children born small for gestational age. Different brands and generic forms of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) are approved for varying indications in different countries. New ways of administering GH are required because the use of a needle and syringe or a device where a patient still has to insert the needle manually into the skin on a daily basis can lead to low adherence and sub-optimal treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of r-hGH (Saizen®, Merck Serono) administered by a new needle-free device, cool.click™ 2, and a standard needle and syringe. Methods The study was performed with 38 healthy volunteers who underwent pituitary somatotrope cell down-regulation using somatostatin, according to a randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover design. Following subcutaneous administration of r-hGH using cool.click™ 2 or needle and syringe, pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed by non-compartmental methods. Bioequivalence was assessed based on log-transformed AUC and Cmax values. Results The 90% confidence intervals for test/reference mean ratio of the plasma pharmacokinetic variables Cmax and AUC0-inf were 103.7–118.3 and 97.1–110.0, respectively, which is within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80–125%. r-hGH administered by cool.click™ 2 is, therefore, bioequivalent to administration by needle and syringe with respect to the rate and extent of GH exposure. Treatment using cool.click™ 2 was found to be well tolerated. With cool.click™ 2 the tmax was less (3.0 hours) than for needle and syringe delivery (4.5 hours), p = 0.002 (Friedman test), although this is unlikely to have

  20. Hot-wire calibration in subsonic/transonic flow regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabushana, K. A.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    A different approach for calibrating hot-wires, which simplifies the calibration procedure and reduces the tunnel run-time by an order of magnitude was sought. In general, it is accepted that the directly measurable quantities in any flow are velocity, density, and total temperature. Very few facilities have the capability of varying the total temperature over an adequate range. However, if the overheat temperature parameter, a(sub w), is used to calibrate the hot-wire then the directly measurable quantity, voltage, will be a function of the flow variables and the overheat parameter i.e., E = f(u,p,a(sub w), T(sub w)) where a(sub w) will contain the needed total temperature information. In this report, various methods of evaluating sensitivities with different dependent and independent variables to calibrate a 3-Wire hot-wire probe using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) in subsonic/transonic flow regimes is presented. The advantage of using a(sub w) as the independent variable instead of total temperature, t(sub o), or overheat temperature parameter, tau, is that while running a calibration test it is not necessary to know the recovery factor, the coefficients in a wire resistance to temperature relationship for a given probe. It was deduced that the method employing the relationship E = f (u,p,a(sub w)) should result in the most accurate calibration of hot wire probes. Any other method would require additional measurements. Also this method will allow calibration and determination of accurate temperature fluctuation information even in atmospheric wind tunnels where there is no ability to obtain any temperature sensitivity information at present. This technique greatly simplifies the calibration process for hot-wires, provides the required calibration information needed in obtaining temperature fluctuations, and reduces both the tunnel run-time and the test matrix required to calibrate hotwires. Some of the results using the above techniques are presented

  1. Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J R; Bowman, M E

    1997-11-01

    In a mixed-mode survey of all 1970-80 female graduates of all US veterinary colleges, information was obtained regarding several health, personal and occupational factors including data on occupational needlestick events. Among the 2,532 survey respondents, 1,620 reported one or more needlesticks after graduation from veterinary college (64.0% of all respondents). A total of 2,663 stick events were reported, although the descriptions of each puncture event varied in quality/completeness, probably due in large part to their retrospective nature. Substances most often injected include vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics and animal blood. Of the 438 sticks resulting in at least one side-effect (16.4% of all sticks), 337 were classified as mild and localized at the site of injection (12.4% of all sticks, approximately 77% of sticks producing a side-effect), with 18 characterized as severe and systemic (0.7% of all sticks, approximately 4% of sticks producing a side-effect). One accidental self-injection of a prostaglandin compound resulted in a spontaneous abortion, heightening awareness that occupational needlesticks may also represent a serious human reproductive health hazard. The estimated overall needlestick injury rate for this group of health care professionals was 9.3 sticks per 100 person-years (PYs) of practice, comparable to reported rates among health care workers such as nurses, laboratory technicians and hospital housekeeping staff. Accounting for underreporting of the stick events, the actual injury rate is likely to be at least 20 sticks per 100 PYs. When stick rates were estimated by clinical practice type (small animal, large animal and mixed practice), all-small-animal and mixed-practice veterinarians demonstrated the highest rates, with all-large-animal practitioners demonstrating a rate lower by about 40%.

  2. The Flux Calibration of Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Gaia mission is described, along with its scientific potential and its updated science perfomances. Although it is often described as a self-calibrated mission, Gaia still needs to tie part of its measurements to external scales (or to convert them in physical units). A detailed decription of the Gaia spectro-photometric standard stars survey is provided, along with a short description of the Gaia calibration model. The model requires a grid of approximately 200 stars, calibrated to a few percent with respect to Vega, and covering different spectral types.

  3. High uptake of naloxone-based overdose prevention training among previously incarcerated syringe-exchange program participants

    PubMed Central

    Barocas, Joshua A.; Baker, Lisa; Hull, Shawnika J.; Stokes, Scott; Westergaard, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Incarceration is common among people who inject drugs. Prior research has shown that incarceration is a marker of elevated risk for opioid overdose, suggesting that the criminal justice system may be an important, under-utilized venue for implementing overdose prevention strategies. To better understand the feasibility and acceptability of such strategies, we evaluated the utilization of naloxone-based overdose prevention training among people who inject drugs with and without a history of incarceration. Methods We surveyed clients who utilize a multi-site syringe exchange program (SEP) in 2 cities in the Midwestern United States. Participants completed an 88-item, computerized survey assessing history of incarceration, consequences associated with injection, injecting practices, and uptake of harm reduction strategies. Results Among 543 respondents who injected drugs in the prior 30 days, 243 (43%) reported prior incarceration. Comparing those with and without a history of incarceration, there were no significant differences with respect to age, gender, or race. Those who observed an overdose, experienced overdose, and received training to administer or have administered naloxone were more likely to report incarceration. Overall, 69% of previously incarcerated clients had been trained to administer naloxone. Conclusion People who inject drugs with a history of incarceration appear to have a higher risk of opioid overdose than those never incarcerated, and are more willing to utilize naloxone as an overdose prevention strategy. Naloxone training and distribution is an important component of comprehensive prevention services for persons with opioid use disorders. Expansion of services for persons leaving correctional facilities should be considered. PMID:26143300

  4. Approaches on calibration of bolometer and establishment of bolometer calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun'an; Xia, Junwen; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Bolometer is mainly used for measuring thermal radiation in the field of public places, labor hygiene, heating and ventilation and building energy conservation. The working principle of bolometer is under the exposure of thermal radiation, temperature of black absorbing layer of detector rise after absorption of thermal radiation, which makes the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric. The white light reflective layer of detector does not absorb thermal radiation, so the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric is almost zero. A comparison of electromotive force produced by thermoelectric of black absorbing layer and white reflective layer can eliminate the influence of electric potential produced by the basal background temperature change. After the electromotive force which produced by thermal radiation is processed by the signal processing unit, the indication displays through the indication display unit. The measurement unit of thermal radiation intensity is usually W/m2 or kW/m2. Its accurate and reliable value has important significance for high temperature operation, labor safety and hygiene grading management. Bolometer calibration device is mainly composed of absolute radiometer, the reference light source, electric measuring instrument. Absolute radiometer is a self-calibration type radiometer. Its working principle is using the electric power which can be accurately measured replaces radiation power to absolutely measure the radiation power. Absolute radiometer is the standard apparatus of laser low power standard device, the measurement traceability is guaranteed. Using the calibration method of comparison, the absolute radiometer and bolometer measure the reference light source in the same position alternately which can get correction factor of irradiance indication. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the bolometer calibration device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  5. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, M.; Sahebjameyan, M.; Moshiri, B.; Najafabadi, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other.

  6. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  7. [Research on calibration transfer of NIR filter spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-wei; Zhou, Chang-le; Zhang, Ye-hui; Xu, Xiao-jie; Lin, Kun-hui; Ye, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Calibration transfer is an important issue to building up universal and comparable performance of spectrometer data in near infrared spectral analysis technology. Methods of slope/bias correction, direct standardization (DS), and target factor analysis (TFA) were used for the calibration transfer among five NIR filter spectrophotometers using maize as the samples. The effects of three calibration transfer methods were compared. The DS method has the best performance. The average calibration transfer difference of DS is 7.01%. This study also relates to the dependence of calibration transfer on the number of standardization samples. It was proven by experiment that the results of calibration transfer will be better as the number of samples is increased and will be generally stable when there are twenty standardization samples. However, the effect of calibration transfer attained by DS is degraded sharply when the number of standardization samples decreases to be below twenty. Moreover, slope/bias and TFA are not sensitive to the number of standardization samples.

  8. Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2007-10-01

    There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.

  9. Effects of switch leakages upon Nimbus-7 SMMR calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Seung T.

    1988-01-01

    A calibration model for the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) is studied. This model not only removes major drawbacks of the current calibration model but also helps in the understanding of the performance degradation of the aging instrument. The current Nimbus 7 SMMR calibration algorithm was derived without considering the interference effect between the two orthogonally polarized signals merging at a ferrite polarization selector switch. The resulting calibrated brightness temperatures, considered as a function of scan angle, are not symmetric around scan angle = 0. However, neither the origin of the asymmetry nor the manner in which the two orthogonal components are mixed has been fully understood. The new calibration model proposed incorporates all the leakage factors associated with the ferrite switches along the signal paths. The resulting calibration equations clarify how the orthogonal components of surface brightness are coupled at radiometers. As a consequence, the origin of the asymmetry is clearly identified and explained. In addition, the feasibility of absolute calibration using in-orbit data is discussed.

  10. Effects of switch leakages upon Nimbus-7 SMMR calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Seung T.

    1988-01-01

    A calibration model for the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) is studied. This model not only removes major drawbacks of the current calibration model but also helps us understand the performance degradation of the aging instrument. The current Nimbus-7 SMMR calibration algorithm was derived without considering the interference effect between the two orthogonally polarized signals merging at a ferrite polarization selector switch. The resulting calibrated brightness temperatures, considered as a function of scan angle phi, are not symmetric around phi=0. However, neither the origin of the asymmetry nor the manner in which the two orthogonal components are mixed is fully understood. The proposed calibration model incorporates all the leakage factors associated with the ferrite switches along the signal paths. The resulting calibration equations clarify how the orthogonal components of surface brightness are coupled at radiometers. As a consequence, the origin of the asymmetry is clearly identified and explained. In addition, the feasibility of absolute calibration using in-orbit data is discussed.

  11. Fixture For Calibrating Pressure Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Vasquez, Peter; Horsley, Lewis A.; Bowman, John T.; Zumbrun, Henry N.; Eves, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Fixture in form of specially designed clamshell housing enables in situ calibration of pressure transducer mounted in body of pressure probe in wind tunnel. Includes two metal half shells machined with necks and matching cavities, when put together, define larger neck and cavity accommodating probe. Probe secured to bottom half shell by use of clamp before installing top half shell: necessary to follow sequence to protect probe during assembly. Clamshell calibration fixture attached to pressure probe in few minutes, making it possible to calibrate pressure transducer at convenient times. Calibrations performed before and after wind-tunnel runs each day, between runs in event of delays or suspected malfunctions, and essentially any other time, without having to remove probe from wind tunnel.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis... during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis... during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque...

  14. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  15. Airdata Measurement and Calibration. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This Section provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The Section informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This section is not intended to be all inclusive; readers should review AGARDograph 300, Volume 1, "Calibration of Airdata Systems and Flow Direction Sensors" for more detailed information. [11-1] References 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4 also supply pertinent information to better understand airdata measurement and calibration and related terminology. Airdata are vital to successfully complete an aircraft's mission and are derived from the air surrounding the aircraft. These airdata encompass indicated and true airspeed, pressure altitude, ambient air temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and rate of climb. Typically, pitot and static pressures are sensed and converted (by mechanical means in the instruments themselves) into indications on the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and Machmeter. Similarly, measured local flow angles establish angles of attack and sideslip, and the outside air temperature is measured and indicated in the cockpit. (Instruments that can perform the conversion, such as airspeed indicators, altimeters, and Machmeters, do not correct for errors in the input values.) These measured parameters are commonly input to the airdata computer which, using appropriate algorithms and correction factors (or calibrations, as discussed later), can provide other parameters, such as true airspeed, required by the aircraft's avionics or flight control system. The presence of the aircraft in the

  16. Bayesian Calibration of Microsimulation Models.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Carolyn M; Miglioretti, Diana L; Savarino, James E

    2009-12-01

    Microsimulation models that describe disease processes synthesize information from multiple sources and can be used to estimate the effects of screening and treatment on cancer incidence and mortality at a population level. These models are characterized by simulation of individual event histories for an idealized population of interest. Microsimulation models are complex and invariably include parameters that are not well informed by existing data. Therefore, a key component of model development is the choice of parameter values. Microsimulation model parameter values are selected to reproduce expected or known results though the process of model calibration. Calibration may be done by perturbing model parameters one at a time or by using a search algorithm. As an alternative, we propose a Bayesian method to calibrate microsimulation models that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo. We show that this approach converges to the target distribution and use a simulation study to demonstrate its finite-sample performance. Although computationally intensive, this approach has several advantages over previously proposed methods, including the use of statistical criteria to select parameter values, simultaneous calibration of multiple parameters to multiple data sources, incorporation of information via prior distributions, description of parameter identifiability, and the ability to obtain interval estimates of model parameters. We develop a microsimulation model for colorectal cancer and use our proposed method to calibrate model parameters. The microsimulation model provides a good fit to the calibration data. We find evidence that some parameters are identified primarily through prior distributions. Our results underscore the need to incorporate multiple sources of variability (i.e., due to calibration data, unknown parameters, and estimated parameters and predicted values) when calibrating and applying microsimulation models.

  17. Practical Study of Psychrometer Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentved, Anders Bonde; Heinonen, Martti; Hudoklin, Domen

    2012-09-01

    Psychrometers remain the most widely used instruments for controlling the humidity in climatic test chambers, yet the calibration of these instruments is particularly challenging. Psychrometer calibrations require careful consideration of influence variables such as the fitting and cleanliness of the wick, the effect of the calibration chamber on the air flow past the sensors, on radiation incident on the sensors, and on the dissipation heat from the built-in fan (if included). In addition, uncertainty requirements for calibration of such psychrometers are typically around 1 %rh to 2 %rh, i.e., close to the best calibration and measurement uncertainties (CMCs) claimed by national metrology institutes (NMIs). As well as their role in supporting CMCs, inter-comparisons provide a good test-ground to ensure all influence variables are controlled or otherwise accounted for in the uncertainty budget. This paper presents the results of a comparison of psychrometer calibrations performed by the NMIs in Denmark, Slovenia, and Finland. The comparison was carried out under EURAMET Project No. 1033 with the aim to investigate the equivalence of psychrometer calibrations performed at the highest level and to gather practical experience to be used in similar comparisons in the future. An aspirated electro-psychrometer was used for the comparison, and calibrations were carried out in the range from 15 %rh to 93 %rh in a temperature range from 15 °C to 70 °C. While the results show good agreement at high relative humidity, significant differences at low relative humidity are reported. It is suggested that the differences are caused by a combination of psychrometer wick contamination and a difference in the wick-wetting methods used by the participant laboratories.

  18. Infrasound Sensor Calibration and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    functions with faster rise times. SUMMARY We have documented past work on the determination of the calibration constant of the LANL infrasound sensor...Monitoring Technologies 735 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...National Laboratory ( LANL ) has operated an infrasound sensor calibration chamber that operates over a frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hz. This chamber has

  19. Vicarious calibration of KOMPSAT-3 AEISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hoyong; Kim, Jinsoo; Jin, Cheonggil; Choi, Chuluong

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2012 and 2014. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3 sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. KOMPSAT-3 calibration coefficients for all bands estimated in 2012 continued to agree well with calibration coefficients estimated in 2014 (within 1.5%). The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3 and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3 was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3 sensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. To overcome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor (SBAF).

  20. Camera calibration based on parallel lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weimin; Zhang, Yuhai; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer vision has been wildly used in our daily life. In order to get some reliable information, camera calibration can not be neglected. Traditional camera calibration cannot be used in reality due to the fact that we cannot find the accurate coordinate information of the referenced control points. In this article, we present a camera calibration algorithm which can determine the intrinsic parameters both with the extrinsic parameters. The algorithm is based on the parallel lines in photos which can be commonly find in the real life photos. That is we can first get the intrinsic parameters as well as the extrinsic parameters though the information picked from the photos we take from the normal life. More detail, we use two pairs of the parallel lines to compute the vanishing points, specially if these parallel lines are perpendicular, which means these two vanishing points are conjugate with each other, we can use some views (at least 5 views) to determine the image of the absolute conic(IAC). Then, we can easily get the intrinsic parameters by doing cholesky factorization on the matrix of IAC.As we all know, when connect the vanishing point with the camera optical center, we can get a line which is parallel with the original lines in the scene plane. According to this, we can get the extrinsic parameters R and T. Both the simulation and the experiment results meets our expectations.

  1. Spectrophotometric Standards for Cross-Observatory Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Miller, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    This program will obtain NICMOS spectrophotometry of four main sequence A stars and four K giants, each selected from the Spitzer IRAC photometric calibration target and/or candidate calibration target lists {Reach et al 2005, PASP,117,978}. These observations will supplement existing HST observations of DA white dwarfs and solar analogs, and will provide a broad base of stellar types for spectrophotometric cross calibration of HST, Spitzer, and eventually JWST. The targets are chosen to be faint enough for unsaturated observations with JWST NIRSPEC, yet still bright enough for high signal to noise in relatively short observations with HST+NICMOS and with Spitzer+IRAC.ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST OBS OF 1812095 & KF06T2These data demonstated heavy saturation in the longer exposures. For example, 1812095 {A3V, V=11.8, Ks=11.6} shows a peak rate of 250DN/s in G096, while KF06T2 {K1.5III V=13.8, Ks=11.3} reaches 250DN/s in G206, including the 100DN/s of background. Thus, full saturation of some charge wells occurred after integrating for 100s. Adopting a 2x safety factor, the integration times should be limited to 50s. The brightest stars are Ks=11, or 32% brighter.

  2. Calibration of the Oscillating Screen Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    We have devised a calibration procedure for the oscillating screen viscometer which can provide the accuracy needed for the flight measurement of viscosity near the liquid-vapor critical point of xenon. The procedure, which makes use of the viscometer's wide bandwidth and hydrodynamic similarity, allows the viscometer to be self-calibrating. To demonstrate the validity of this procedure we measured the oscillator's transfer function under a wide variety of conditions. We obtained data using CO2 at temperatures spanning a temperature range of 35 K and densities varying by a factor of 165, thereby encountering viscosity variations as great as 50%. In contrast the flight experiment will be performed over a temperature range of 29 K and at only a single density, and the viscosity is expected to change by less than 40%. The measurements show that, after excluding data above 10 Hz (where frequency-dependent corrections are poorly modeled) and making a plausible adjustment to the viscosity value used at high density, the viscometer's behavior is fully consistent with the use of hydrodynamic similarity for calibration. Achieving this agreement required understanding a 1% anelastic effect present in the oscillator's torsion fiber.

  3. Blackbody comparator for thermocouple calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ojanen, M.; Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.

    2013-09-11

    MIKES is developing a measurement set-up for calibrating thermocouples in the temperature range 960 °C - 1500 °C. The calibration method is based on direct comparison of thermocouples and radiation thermometers. We have designed a graphite blackbody comparator cell, which is operated in a horizontal single-zone tube furnace. The cell includes two blackbody cavities for radiation temperature measurements. The cavities have openings on opposite sides of the cell, allowing simultaneous measurement with two radiation thermometers. The design of the comparator allows three thermocouples to be calibrated simultaneously. The thermocouples to be calibrated are inserted in thermometer wells around one of the measurement cavities. We characterize the blackbody comparator in terms of repeatability, temperature distribution and emissivity. Finally, we validate the uncertainty analysis by comparing calibration results obtained for type B and S thermocouples to the calibration results reported by Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP), and MIKES. The agreement in the temperature range 1000 °C - 1500 °C is within 0.90 °C, the average deviation being 0.17 °C.

  4. Update of the Photometric Calibration of the LASCO-C2 Coronagraph Using Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaninno, Robin; Howard, Russell

    2015-04-01

    We present an update to the photometric calibration of the LASCO-C2 coronagraph onboard the SOHO spacecraft. We obtained the new calibration using data from the beginning of the mission in 1996 until 2013. We re-examined the LASCO-C2 photometric calibration by comparing the past three calibrations and the present calibration with the goal of validating an in-flight calibration. We find a photometric calibration factor (PCF) that is very similar to the factor recently published in Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria (Solar Phys. 283, 667, 2013), which calculated a calibration between 1996 and 2009. The average of our PCF between 1999 and 2009 is the same, within our margin of error, as the average given by Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria (Solar Phys. 283, 667, 2013) during the same time period. However, we find a different evolution of the calibration over the lifetime of the LASCO-C2 instrument compared with past results. We find that the sensitivity of the instrument is decreasing by a constant 0.20 [±0.03] % per year. We also find no significant difference in the signal degradation before and after the SOHO interruption. We discuss the effects of this new PCF on the calibrated data set and the potential impact on scientific results derived from the previous calibration.

  5. Update of the Photometric Calibration of the LASCO-C2 Coronagraph Using Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaninno, R. C.; Howard, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an update to the photometric calibration of the LASCO-C2 coronagraph onboard the SOHO spacecraft. We obtained the new calibration using data from the beginning of the mission in 1996 until 2013. We re-examined the LASCO-C2 photometric calibration by comparing the past three calibrations and the present calibration with the goal of validating an in-flight calibration. We find a photometric calibration factor (PCF) that is very similar to the factor recently published in Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria ( Solar Phys. 283, 667, 2013), which calculated a calibration between 1996 and 2009. The average of our PCF between 1999 and 2009 is the same, within our margin of error, as the average given by Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria ( Solar Phys. 283, 667, 2013) during the same time period. However, we find a different evolution of the calibration over the lifetime of the LASCO-C2 instrument compared with past results. We find that the sensitivity of the instrument is decreasing by a constant 0.20 [±0.03] % per year. We also find no significant difference in the signal degradation before and after the SOHO interruption. We discuss the effects of this new PCF on the calibrated data set and the potential impact on scientific results derived from the previous calibration.

  6. Update of the Photometric Calibration of the LASCO-C2 Coronagraph Using Stars.

    PubMed

    Colaninno, R C; Howard, R A

    We present an update to the photometric calibration of the LASCO-C2 coronagraph onboard the SOHO spacecraft. We obtained the new calibration using data from the beginning of the mission in 1996 until 2013. We re-examined the LASCO-C2 photometric calibration by comparing the past three calibrations and the present calibration with the goal of validating an in-flight calibration. We find a photometric calibration factor (PCF) that is very similar to the factor recently published in Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria (Solar Phys.283, 667, 2013), which calculated a calibration between 1996 and 2009. The average of our PCF between 1999 and 2009 is the same, within our margin of error, as the average given by Gardès, Lamy, and Llebaria (Solar Phys.283, 667, 2013) during the same time period. However, we find a different evolution of the calibration over the lifetime of the LASCO-C2 instrument compared with past results. We find that the sensitivity of the instrument is decreasing by a constant 0.20 [±0.03] % per year. We also find no significant difference in the signal degradation before and after the SOHO interruption. We discuss the effects of this new PCF on the calibrated data set and the potential impact on scientific results derived from the previous calibration.

  7. Gulf of Mexico Climate-History Calibration Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spear, Jessica W.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    Reliable instrumental records of past climate are available for about the last 150 years only. To supplement the instrumental record, reconstructions of past climate are made from natural recorders such as trees, ice, corals, and microfossils preserved in sediments. These proxy records provide information on the rate and magnitude of past climate variability, factors that are critical to distinguishing between natural and human-induced climate change in the present. However, the value of proxy records is heavily dependent on calibration between the chemistry of the natural recorder and of the modern environmental conditions. The Gulf of Mexico Climate and Environmental History Project is currently undertaking a climate-history calibration study with material collected from an automated sediment trap. The primary focus of the calibration study is to provide a better calibration of low-latitude environmental conditions and shell chemistry of calcareous microfossils, such as planktic Foraminifera.

  8. Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

  9. Calibration of CR-39-based thoron progeny device.

    PubMed

    Fábián, F; Csordás, A; Shahrokhi, A; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2014-07-01

    Radon isotopes and their progenies have proven significant role in respiratory tumour formation. In most cases, the radiological effect of one of the radon isotopes (thoron) and its progenies has been neglected together with its measurement technique; however, latest surveys proved that thoron's existence is expectable in flats and in workplace in Europe. Detectors based on different track detector measurement technologies have recently spread for measuring thoron progenies; however, the calibration is not yet completely elaborated. This study deals with the calibration of the track detector measurement method suitable for measuring thoron progenies using different devices with measurement techniques capable of measuring several progenies (Pylon AB5 and WLx, Sarad EQF 3220). The calibration factor values related to the thoron progeny monitors, the measurement uncertainty, reproducibility and other parameters were found using the calibration chamber. In the future, the effects of the different parameters (aerosol distribution, etc.) will be determined.

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  11. Application of In-Syringe Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Narrow-Bore Tube Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Amounts of BTEX in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Mashaallah; Kaykhaii, Massoud; Ghasemi, Elham; Tahernejad, Mohadeseh

    2015-08-01

    Two new simple and effective methods based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure, termed "in-syringe DLLME (IS-DLLME)" and "narrow-bore tube DLLME (NB-DLLME)", were developed and applied for rapid and simultaneous separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in water samples followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of both methods such as type and volume of the extraction solvent and the disperser solvent; pH, temperature and volume of sample solution and ionic strength of samples were investigated and optimized. Under optimal condition, the limits of detection ranged from 1.7 to 2.4 µg L(-1) for IS-DLLME and 1.5 to 2.2 µg L(-1) for NB-DLLME. Precision (as relative standard deviation) of the two techniques was between 2.1 and 4.6% for IS-DLLME and between 1.5 and 4.5% for NB-DLLME. The enrichment factors found to be between 20-29 and 31-73 for IS- and NB-DLLME, respectively. The applicability of the proposed methods was investigated by analyzing real water samples.

  12. A Calibration-Free, Noncontact, Disposable Liquid Dispensing Cartridge Featuring an Online Process Control.

    PubMed

    Bammesberger, Stefan Borja; Malki, Imad; Ernst, Andreas; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a noncontact liquid dispenser that uses a disposable cartridge for the calibration-free dosage of diverse biochemical reagents from the nanoliter to the microliter range. The dispensing system combines the advantages of a positive displacement syringe pump (responsible for defining the aliquot's volume with high accuracy) with a highly dynamic noncontact dispenser (providing kinetic energy to detach the liquid from the tip). The disposable, noncontact dispensing cartridge system renders elaborate washing procedures of tips obsolete. A noncontact sensor monitors the dispensing process to enable an online process control. To further increase confidence and reliability for particularly critical biomedical applications, an optional closed-loop control prevents malfunctions. The dispensing performance was characterized experimentally in the range of 0.25 to 10.0 µL using liquids of different rheological properties (viscosity 1.03-16.98 mPas, surface tension 30.49-70.83 mN/m) without adjusting or calibrating the actuation parameters. The precision ranged between a coefficient of variation of 0.5% and 5.3%, and the accuracy was below ±10%. The presented technology has the potential to contribute significantly to the improvement of biochemical liquid handling for laboratory automation in terms of usability, miniaturization, cost reduction, and safety.

  13. Dose calibrator manufacturer-dependent bias in assays of ¹²³I.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E; Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B; Young, Rheannan K; Zimmerman, Brian E

    2014-08-01

    Calibration factors for commercial ionization chambers (i.e. dose calibrators) were determined for a solution of (123)I; the activity was based on the 1976 NBS standard. A link between the NIST standard and the International Reference System (SIR) was established. The two major U.S. dose calibrator manufacturers recommend oppositely biased calibration factors, giving a spread of 11.3% in measured activities. With modern quantitative imaging techniques capable of ≤10% accuracy, this bias for a SPECT nuclide is highly significant.

  14. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

  15. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aucott, Timothy; Brand, Alexander; DiPrete, David

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  16. Activity of urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in glass or plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Tran, L T; Sinai, W J; Carr, L J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the diluent, the container, the i.v. set, and the drug concentration on the adsorption of urokinase to i.v. administration systems were studied, along with the compatibility of urokinase with plastic and glass syringes. Solutions of urokinase 1500 and 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers were sampled at 2 and 30 minutes. Administration sets were attached to PVC containers containing the urokinase-5% dextrose injection solutions, and samples were collected at 90 and 150 minutes. Glass and polypropylene syringes containing urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Urokinase activity was measured by an in vitro clot lysis assay. No urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection adsorbed to glass or PVC containers. For urokinase 1500 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, a loss of 15% to 20% occurred almost instantaneously in PVC containers; additional losses to the infusion sets were minimal. However, for urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, no losses were observed in the PVC systems. No drug loss to glass bottles was seen for urokinase 1500 or 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection. Urokinase potency remained constant in polypropylene and glass syringes for 24 hours. To minimize urokinase sorption to PVC containers, higher concentrations of urokinase diluted in 5% dextrose injection should be used, provided that clinical safety and efficacy are not compromised. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent also prevents sorption losses.

  17. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. Objectives: To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Results: Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P < 0.05). Time till the onset of sensory block was nonsignificantly shorter with nonsignificantly higher mean level of maximal sensory block in Group S compared to Group M (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications. PMID:27212767

  18. Novel one-step headspace dynamic in-syringe liquid phase derivatization-extraction technique for the determination of aqueous aliphatic amines by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Sarangapani; Shih, Hou-Kung; Chen, Ying-Fang; Hsiech, Chunming; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2013-06-28

    A novel one-step headspace (HS) dynamic in-syringe (DIS) based liquid-phase derivatization-extraction (LPDE) technique has been developed for the selective determination of two short-chain aliphatic amines (SCAAs) in aqueous samples using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD). Methylamine (MA) and dimethylamine (DMA) were selected as model compounds of SCAAs. In this method, a micro-syringe pre-filled with derivatizing reagent solution (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate) in the barrel was applied to achieve the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of two methylamines evolved from alkalized aqueous samples through the automated reciprocated movements of syringe plunger. After the derivatization-extraction process, the derivatized phase was directly injected into HPLC-FLD for analysis. Parameters influencing the evolution of methylamines and the HS-DIS-LPDE efficiency, including sample pH and temperature, sampling time, as well as the composition of derivatization reagent, reaction temperature, and frequency of reciprocated plunger movements, were thoroughly examined and optimized. Under optimal conditions, detections were linear in the range of 25-500μgL(-1) for MA and DMA with correlation coefficients all above 0.995. The limits of detection (based on S/N=3) were 5 and 19ngmL(-1) for MA and DMA, respectively. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated for the determination of MA and DMA in real water samples without any prior cleanup of the sample. The present method provides a simple, selective, automated, low cost and eco-friendly procedure to determine aliphatic amines in aqueous samples.

  19. Waveguide Calibrator for Multi-Element Probe Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    A calibrator, referred to as the spider design, can be used to calibrate probes incorporating multiple acoustic sensing elements. The application is an acoustic energy density probe, although the calibrator can be used for other types of acoustic probes. The calibrator relies on the use of acoustic waveguide technology to produce the same acoustic field at each of the sensing elements. As a result, the sensing elements can be separated from each other, but still calibrated through use of the acoustic waveguides. Standard calibration techniques involve placement of an individual microphone into a small cavity with a known, uniform pressure to perform the calibration. If a cavity is manufactured with sufficient size to insert the energy density probe, it has been found that a uniform pressure field can only be created at very low frequencies, due to the size of the probe. The size of the energy density probe prevents one from having the same pressure at each microphone in a cavity, due to the wave effects. The "spider" design probe is effective in calibrating multiple microphones separated from each other. The spider design ensures that the same wave effects exist for each microphone, each with an indivdual sound path. The calibrator s speaker is mounted at one end of a 14-cm-long and 4.1-cm diameter small plane-wave tube. This length was chosen so that the first evanescent cross mode of the plane-wave tube would be attenuated by about 90 dB, thus leaving just the plane wave at the termination plane of the tube. The tube terminates with a small, acrylic plate with five holes placed symmetrically about the axis of the speaker. Four ports are included for the four microphones on the probe. The fifth port is included for the pre-calibrated reference microphone. The ports in the acrylic plate are in turn connected to the probe sensing elements via flexible PVC tubes. These five tubes are the same length, so the acoustic wave effects are the same in each tube. The

  20. Stability of Ertapenem 100 mg/mL in Manufacturer’s Glass Vials or Syringes at 4°C and 23°C

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Scott E; Law, Shirley; Perks, William; Iazzetta, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prophylactic administration of ertapenem as a single 1-g IV dose has been shown to reduce sepsis after prostate biopsy. Objective: To evaluate the stability of ertapenem after reconstitution with 0.9% sodium chloride to a final concentration of 100 mg/mL and storage in the manufacturer’s original glass vials or polypropylene syringes. Methods: On study day 0, 100 mg/mL solutions of ertapenem were retained in the manufacturer’s glass vials or packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at 4°C or 23°C without protection from fluorescent room light. Samples were assayed periodically over 18 days using a validated, stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method with ultra-violet detection. A beyond-use date was determined as the time for the concentration to decline to 90% of the initial (day 0) concentration, based on the fastest degradation rate, with 95% confidence. Results: Reconstituted solutions stored in the manufacturer’s glass vials or polypropylene syringes exhibited a first-order degradation rate, such that 10% of the initial concentration was lost in the first 2.5 days when stored at 4°C or within the first 6.75 h when stored at room temperature (23°C). Analysis of variance showed differences in the percentage remaining due to temperature (p < 0.001) and study day (p < 0.001) but not type of container (p = 0.98). When a 95% CI for the degradation rate was calculated and used to determine a beyond-use date, it was established that more than 90% of the initial concentration would remain for 2.35 days at 4°C and for 0.23 day (about 5 h, 30 min) at room temperature. Conclusions: A 100 mg/mL ertapenem solution stored in the manufacturer’s glass vial or a polypropylene syringe will retain more than 90.5% of the initial concentration when stored for 48 h at 4°C and for an additional 1 h at 23°C. PMID:25964683