Science.gov

Sample records for system algainassb properties

  1. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  2. Vibrational properties of hierarchical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, W. P.; Ceccatto, H. A.; Huberman, B. A.

    1988-11-01

    The vibrational properties of one-dimensional hierarchical systems are investigated and results are obtained for both their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Two cases are considered, the first one with a hierarchy of spring constants and the latter with a hierarchy in the masses. In both cases the eigenspectrum is found to be a zero-measure, two-scale Cantor set with a fractal dimension between 0 and 1. The scaling properties of the spectra are calculated using renormalization group techniques and are verified by extensive numerical work. The low-frequency density of states and low-temperature specific heat are calculated and a singularity is found in the scaling behavior. The eigenvectors are found to be either extended or critical and self-similar. A transfer matrix formalism is introduced to calculate the scaling properties of the envelope of the critical eigenvectors. Furthermore, a connection is established between the hierarchical vibration and diffusion problems, as well as to the same problems in random systems, thus showing the universality of the observed features.

  3. Error analysis of system mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayshaw, J.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to verify the margin of system mass properties over values that are sufficient for the support of such other critical system requirements as those of dynamic control. System nominal mass properties are designed on the basis of an imperfect understanding of the mass and location of constituent elements; the effect of such element errors is to introduce net errors into calculated system mass properties. The direct measurement of system mass properties is, however, impractical. Attention is given to these issues in the case of the Galileo spacecraft.

  4. Ultrasonic System Measures Elastic Properties Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mal, Ajit K.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements with leaky Lamb waves yield data on properties and defects of panels. System nondestructively measures elastic properties of, and defects in, panel of laminated fiber/matrix material. Ultrasonic transducers operating in pitch/catch mode excite and detect leaky Lamb waves in specimen. Elastic properties of specimen and defects within it characterized from dispersion curves of Lamb waves.

  5. MyPropertyInfo - List of Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-22

    MyPropertyInfo provides a single, printable report based on individual address searches from numerous EPA databases. MyPropertyInfo's results come from EPA's Facility Registry System which contains information on over 2.6 million facilities or sites of interest to EPA.

  6. Wada property in systems with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2017-02-01

    Delay differential equations take into account the transmission time of the information. These delayed signals may turn a predictable system into chaotic, with the usual fractalization of the phase space. In this work, we study the connection between delay and unpredictability, in particular we focus on the Wada property in systems with delay. This topological property gives rise to dramatic changes in the final state for small changes in the history functions.

  7. Properties of Multiphase Polyurethane Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    polyurethane blend systems. --- ’ ET-38-1 is a polyether based polyurethane containing 38 wt% MDI. The molar ratios of the polymer are 3:2:1 (MDI: butane...a well-mixed PVC- polyether matrix phase as evidenced by T shifts, orientation characteristics, and infrared peak position changes. The aromatic...methods used in this study. B. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION \\Studies on blends of a segmented polyether polyurethane ET-38-1 with PVC were carried out utilizing

  8. Stochastic stability properties of jump linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Ji, Yuandong; Chizeck, Howard J.

    1992-01-01

    Jump linear systems are defined as a family of linear systems with randomly jumping parameters (usually governed by a Markov jump process) and are used to model systems subject to failures or changes in structure. The authors study stochastic stability properties in jump linear systems and the relationship among various moment and sample path stability properties. It is shown that all second moment stability properties are equivalent and are sufficient for almost sure sample path stability, and a testable necessary and sufficient condition for second moment stability is derived. The Lyapunov exponent method for the study of almost sure sample stability is discussed, and a theorem which characterizes the Lyapunov exponents of jump linear systems is presented.

  9. The review-of-particle-properties system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, Thomas G.

    1984-08-01

    The Berkeley Particle Data Group is engaged in a major modernization of its primary project, the Review of Particle Properties, a compilation of experimental data on elementary particles. The goal of this modernization is to develop an integrated system for data storage, manipulation, interactive access and publication using modern techniques for database management, text processing and phototypesetting. The existing system and the plans for modernization are described. The group's other projects and the computer systems used are also discussed.

  10. Properties of a federated epidemiology query system.

    PubMed

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Sue, Hoylen; Bird, Linda; Goodchild, Andrew; Hasvold, Toralf; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish knowledge about how online access to epidemiological data from general practitioners (GPs) electronic health record (EHR) system should be provided. Before such systems are developed and deployed a decision about the appropriate system architecture must be made. Such a decision should ideally be based on knowledge about the properties of different system architectures. This choice is important because the system architecture may affect the willingness of GPs to participate in providing epidemiological data from their EHR system. Verifying the performance and properties of an architectural approach by implementing and deploying a system on a trans-institutional level and performing evaluations studies is a very resource demanding method to establish a foundation for the decision of appropriate system architecture. Instead, we have tried to create this foundation by constructing a prototype system, establish knowledge about the properties of the system using experiments, and finally compare the properties of the federated approach to the properties of the centralised approach. By using this methodological approach we provide the best available knowledge, on this stage, for the appropriate system architecture to use for providing access to epidemiological data from the local population. Our experimental results show that it is possible to improve the timeliness and the temporal and spatial resolution of epidemiological data, compared to traditional centralised disease surveillance systems. Up-to-date epidemiological data from the local population may be provided directly from the source EHR system within 4s. The responsiveness of the system is minimally affected (0.1s) as the number of participating data providers grows from 1 to 49 data providers. The comparison of the federated approach to the centralised approach indicates that federated approaches avoid the privacy issues involved, as intended; it offers better scalability

  11. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  12. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2015-04-24

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  13. 48 CFR 3045.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of property control... Government Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The... contractor's property control system whenever there are indications that the contractor's property...

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Ellis Property Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ellis Property Superfund Site is located in a rural area of Burlington County, New Jersey. Most ofthe land at the site has not been developed. However, there is a building in a fenced area that is used tohouse the remedial system..

  15. 10 CFR 600.323 - Property management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management system. 600.323 Section 600.323 Energy....323 Property management system. The recipient's property management system must include the following... existence, current utilization, and continued need for the property. (d) A control system must be in...

  16. Properties of Systems with Many Random Walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larralde, Hernan

    Random walks have proven extremely useful as models for processes which underly many complex phenomena in nature. While most of the properties of systems containing a single random walk are well known, it is also recognized that the presence of a large number of random walkers in a system can give rise to new "collective" phenomena. In this thesis the properties of three generic systems with a large number (possibly infinite) of random walkers are studied. First, the number of distinct sites visited by N random walkers after t steps, < S_{N}(t) >, is considered under the condition that all the walkers are initially at the origin. It is found that < S_{N}(t) > passes through several distinct growth regimes in time, depending on the dimension of the system. Only the last growth regime is simply related to the number of steps visited by each walker in systems with spectral dimension d_{s} >= 2. The second property relates to the kinetics of A + B to C reaction-diffusion systems with initially separated reactants. These systems develop a "reaction front" which is strongly affected by correlations induced by confining the system to effectively one dimensional substrates. The kinetics of this reaction front is studied for three situations: systems of dimensionality d >= 2 in which mean field theory applies; and one dimensional systems, where the mean field theory is not applicable. The cases in which one reactant is static and in which both reactants have the same diffusion constant are considered for the one dimensional systems. The last part of the thesis is concerned with the kinetics of systems in which diffusing particles are injected into a reactive d-dimensional substrate. Here the growth laws for the reacted region are obtained, as well as the time -dependence of the number of unreacted particles and their spatial distribution. Most of the results presented in this work are obtained through analytical methods for which various approximations were needed depending

  17. 48 CFR 245.105 - Contractors' property management system compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contractor's failure to meet one or more of the property management system criteria in the clause at 252.245... the system criteria for an acceptable property management system as prescribed in the clause at...

  18. 48 CFR 1245.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of property control... 1245.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The property administrator (or other Government official authorized by the contracting officer) shall audit the contractor's property control system whenever there...

  19. 48 CFR 1245.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audit of property control... 1245.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The property administrator (or other Government official authorized by the contracting officer) shall audit the contractor's property control system whenever...

  20. 48 CFR 1245.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of property control... 1245.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The property administrator (or other Government official authorized by the contracting officer) shall audit the contractor's property control system whenever...

  1. Properties of on-line social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kruszewska, N.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    We study properties of five different social systems: (i) internet society of friends consisting of over 106 people, (ii) social network consisting of 3 × 104 individuals, who interact in a large virtual world of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), (iii) over 106 users of music community website, (iv) over 5 × 106 users of gamers community server and (v) over 0.25 × 106 users of books admirer website. Individuals included in large social network form an Internet community and organize themselves in groups of different sizes. The destiny of those systems, as well as the method of creating of new connections, are different, however we found that the properties of these networks are very similar. We have found that the network components size distribution follow the power-law scaling form. In all five systems we have found interesting scaling laws concerning human dynamics. Our research has shown how long people are interested in a single task, how much time they devote to it and how fast they are making friends. It is surprising that the time evolution of an individual connectivity is very similar in each system.

  2. Surface Properties from Transconductance in Nanoscale Systems.

    PubMed

    Lynall, David; Byrne, Kristopher; Shik, Alexander; Nair, Selvakumar V; Ruda, Harry E

    2016-10-12

    Because of the continued scaling of transistor dimensions and incorporation of nanostructured materials into modern electronic and optoelectronic devices, surfaces and interfaces have become a dominant factor dictating material properties and device performance. In this study, we investigate the temperature-dependent electronic transport properties of InAs nanowire field-effect transistors. A point where the nanowire conductance becomes independent of temperature is observed, known as the zero-temperature-coefficient. The distribution of surface states is determined by a spectral analysis of the conductance activation energy and used to develop a carrier transport model that explains the existence and gate voltage dependence of this point. We determine that the position of this point in gate voltage is directly related to the fixed oxide charge on the nanowire surface and demonstrate the utility of this method for studying surface passivations in nanoscale systems by characterizing (NH4)2Sx and H2 plasma surface treatments on InAs nanowires.

  3. 48 CFR 1245.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audit of property control system. 1245.511 Section 1245.511 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1245.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The property administrator (or other Government official...

  4. 18 CFR 367.58 - Property record system required for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property record system required for service company property. 367.58 Section 367.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.58 Property record system...

  5. 48 CFR 3045.511 - Audit of property control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of property control... Government Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.511 Audit of property control system. (a) The property administrator (or other Government official authorized by the contracting officer) shall audit the...

  6. Thermoelectric property measurements with computer controlled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Wood, C.

    1984-01-01

    A joint JPL-NASA program to develop an automated system to measure the thermoelectric properties of newly developed materials is described. Consideration is given to the difficulties created by signal drift in measurements of Hall voltage and the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient. The benefits of a computerized system were examined with respect to error reduction and time savings for human operators. It is shown that the time required to measure Hall voltage can be reduced by a factor of 10 when a computer is used to fit a curve to the ratio of the measured signal and its standard deviation. The accuracy of measurements of the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity was also enhanced by the use of computers.

  7. Thermoelectric property measurements with computer controlled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Wood, C.

    1984-01-01

    A joint JPL-NASA program to develop an automated system to measure the thermoelectric properties of newly developed materials is described. Consideration is given to the difficulties created by signal drift in measurements of Hall voltage and the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient. The benefits of a computerized system were examined with respect to error reduction and time savings for human operators. It is shown that the time required to measure Hall voltage can be reduced by a factor of 10 when a computer is used to fit a curve to the ratio of the measured signal and its standard deviation. The accuracy of measurements of the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity was also enhanced by the use of computers.

  8. Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Glass, Sara; Kamer, Brian; Klennert, Wade L.; Hostutler, David A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems, including diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) and the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), are of importance. However, there appears to be a lack of highly accurate transmission characteristics of these systems associated with their operating conditions. In this study laser propagation of the rubidium-based DPAL and the COIL has been simulated utilizing integrated cavity output spectroscopy. This technique allowed for the simulation of laser propagation approaching distances of 3 kilometers on a test stand only 35 cm long. The spectral output from these simulations was compared to the HITRAN database with excellent agreement. The spectral prole and proximity of the laser line to the atmospheric absorbers is shown. These low pressure spectral proles were then extrapolated to higher pressures using an in-house hyperne model. These models allowed for the comparison of proposed systems and their output spectral prole. The diode pumped rubidium laser at pressures under an atmosphere has been shown to interact with only one water absorption feature, but at pressures approaching 7 atmospheres the D1 transition may interact with more than 6 water lines depending on resonator considerations. Additionally, a low pressure system may have some slight control of the overlap of the output prole with the water line by changing the buer gases.

  9. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  10. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O

    2008-03-20

    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  11. 48 CFR 45.105 - Contractors' property management system compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractors' property management system compliance. 45.105 Section 45.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... the contractor's property management policies, procedures, practices, and systems. This analysis...

  12. The Thermodynamic Properties of Some Integrable Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    I discuss the thermodynamic properties of integrable quantum systems, in particular, generalizations of the Heisenberg chain and the one-dimensional Hubbard model, by making use of the Bethe-Ansatz technique. For the Heisenberg chain the following properties are obtained: (1) The critical behavior of the SU(2) invariant ferromagnet with spin S is studied, yielding critical exponents alpha = -1/2, nu = 1, and gamma = 2 for the specific heat, the correlation length, and the susceptibility, respectively. (2) An integrable SU(2) invariant model of the spin 1 Heisenberg chain interacting with an impurity of spin S is constructed. At low temperature for ferromagnetic coupling the impurity follows the critical behavior of the chain, i.e., alpha = -1/2 and gamma = 2. For antiferromagnetic coupling the impurity susceptibility for S = 1/2 diverges logarithmically as H to 0, while for S > 1 the impurity spin is partially compensated by the spins of the chain. (3) The linear coefficient gamma of the low temperature specific heat for the S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain is anomalous as H to 0, i.e.,limlimits _{Tto 0} limlimits _{Hto 0} gamma = 2/3 ne limlimits_{Hto 0 } limlimits_{Tto 0} gamma = [ 1+(e/pi) ^{1/2}]/3.. I obtained the following results for the one-dimensional Hubbard model: (1) The thermodynamic Bethe-Ansatz equations for the Hubbard chain with an attractive on-site interaction U are derived. The results are discussed in special limits, e.g., U to infty, U to 0, T to infty, and T to 0. (2) The thermodynamic integral equations for the attractive Hubbard chain are solved numerically at low temperature. At low T the dominant states consist of Cooper pairs and their excitations. A critical field is obtained at T = 0, which disappears for T ne 0. the dependence of the low temperature specific heat coefficient gamma on band filling and magnetic field is obtained. The excitation spectrum is discussed in the context of superconductivity and resonant valence

  13. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  14. 48 CFR 2945.104 - Review and correction of contractors' property control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contractors' property control systems. 2945.104 Section 2945.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractors' property control systems. When the Government's property administrator determines that review and approval of the contractor's property control system rests with DOL, the Government's...

  15. 48 CFR 2945.104 - Review and correction of contractors' property control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractors' property control systems. 2945.104 Section 2945.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractors' property control systems. When the Government's property administrator determines that review and approval of the contractor's property control system rests with DOL, the Government's...

  16. 25 CFR 900.52 - What type of property is the property management system required to track?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What type of property is the property management system...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.52 What type of property is the property management...

  17. On the problem of discrete-event systems properties preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagul, Nadezhda; Bychkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to solving a problem generally arising in studying dynamical systems, namely the problem of a system's properties preservation under some transformation. Combining algebra, logic and dynamics, the method of logical-algebraic equations (LAE-method) is developed, serving to synthesize criteria for preservation properties of systems connected by special type of morphisms. The LAE-method is applicable to various systems, but we focus on the case of discrete-event systems (DES), which are the systems that evolve in time due to the occurrence of some event sequences. We consider the issues of the LAE-method application to the reduction of supervisor for DES, the problems of DES basic properties, such as observability and controllability, preservation when sensor readings provide information about system's state and it is available to a supervisor. Decentralized supervisory control is also addressed, in particular, the question whether local supervisors properties are inherited in a global supervisor.

  18. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  19. System for testing properties of a network

    DOEpatents

    Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; Soares, Marshall A.

    2009-06-16

    A method for identifying properties of a downhole electromagnetic network in a downhole tool sting, including the step of providing an electromagnetic path intermediate a first location and a second location on the electromagnetic network. The method further includes the step of providing a receiver at the second location. The receiver includes a known reference. The analog signal includes a set amplitude, a set range of frequencies, and a set rate of change between the frequencies. The method further includes the steps of sending the analog signal, and passively modifying the signal. The analog signal is sent from the first location through the electromagnetic path, and the signal is modified by the properties of the electromagnetic path. The method further includes the step of receiving a modified signal at the second location and comparing the known reference to the modified signal.

  20. Fatigue properties of shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Cooper, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Static and cyclic load tests were conducted to determine the static and fatigue strength of the RIS tile/SIP thermal protection system used on the orbiter of the space shuttle. The material systems investigated include the densified and undensified LI-900 tile system on the .40 cm thick SIP and the densified and undensified LI-2200 tile system on the .23 cm (.090 inch) thick SIP. The tests were conducted at room temperature with a fully reversed uniform cyclic loading at 1 Hertz. Cyclic loading causes a relatively large reduction in the stress level that each of the SIP/tile systems can withstand for a small number of cycles. For example, the average static strength of the .40 cm thick SIP/LI-900 tile system is reduced from 86 kPa to 62 kPa for a thousand cycles. Although the .23 cm thick SIP/LI-2200 tile system has a higher static strength, similar reductions in the fatigue strength are noted. Densifying the faying surface of the RSI tile changes the failure mode from the SIP/tile interface to the parent RSI or the SIP and thus greatly increases the static strength of the system. Fatigue failure for the densified tile system, however, occurs due to complete separation or excessive elongation of the SIP and the fatigue strength is only slightly greater than that for the undensified tile system.

  1. Software Requirements Specifications of a Proposed Plant Property Management System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    RD-li32 176 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF R PROPOSED 1/2 PLANT PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(U) NAVAL POSTGRRDUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA E J...1983J THESIS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF A PROPOSED PLANT PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SY’STEM by Edward J. Buselt June 1983 C)Thesis Advisor: R.W...Subtitle) s. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Software Requirements Specifications Master’s Thesis; of a (June 1983) * Proposed Plant Property Management

  2. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  3. Thermodynamic properties of a polydisperse system.

    PubMed

    Tutschka, C; Kahl, G

    2001-09-01

    We use the virial theorem to derive a closed analytic form of the Helmholtz free energy for a polydisperse system of sticky hard spheres (SHS) within the mean spherical model (MSM). To this end we calculate the free energy of the MSM for an N-component mixture of SHS via the virial route and apply to it-after imposing a Lorentz-Berthelot type rule on the interactions-the stochastic (i.e., polydisperse) limit. The resulting excess free energy of this polydisperse system is of the truncatable moment free energy format. We also discuss the compressibility and the energy routes.

  4. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept <property> may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; <, >; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are

  5. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  6. Functional Properties of the Mitochondrial Carrier System.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    The mitochondrial carrier system (MCS) transports small molecules between mitochondria and the cytoplasm. It is integral to the core mitochondrial function to regulate cellular chemistry by metabolism. The mammalian MCS comprises the transporters of the 53-member canonical SLC25A family and a lesser number of identified noncanonical transporters. The recent discovery and investigations of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) illustrate the diverse effects a single mitochondrial carrier may exert on cellular function. However, the transport selectivities of many carriers remain unknown, and most have not been functionally investigated in mammalian cells. The mechanisms coordinating their function as a unified system remain undefined. Increased accessibility to molecular genetic and metabolomic technologies now greatly enables investigation of the MCS. Continued investigation of the MCS may reveal how mitochondria encode complex regulatory information within chemical thermodynamic gradients. This understanding may enable precision modulation of cellular chemistry to counteract the dysmetabolism inherent in disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Topological properties of adiabatically varied Floquet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Itzhack

    2017-08-01

    Energy or quasienergy (QE) band spectra depending on two parameters may have a nontrivial topological characterization by Chern integers. Band spectra of one-dimensional (1D) systems that are spanned by just one parameter, a Bloch phase, are topologically trivial. Recently, an ensemble of 1D Floquet (time-periodic) systems, double-kicked rotors (DKRs) that are classically nonintegrable and depend on an external parameter, has been studied. It was shown that a QE band spanned by both the Bloch phase and the external parameter is characterized by a Chern integer. The latter determines the change in the mean angular momentum of a state in the band when the external parameter is adiabatically varied by a natural period. We show here, under conditions much more general than in previous works, that the ensemble of DKRs for all values of the external parameter corresponds to a 1D double-kicked particle (DKP) having translational invariance in the position-momentum phase plane. This DKP can be characterized by a second Chern integer, which is shown to be connected with the integer above for the DKR ensemble. This connection is expressed by a Diophantine equation (DE), which we derive. The DE, involving the band degeneracies of the DKR ensemble and of the DKP system, determines the allowed values of the DKR-ensemble integer. In particular, this integer is generically nonzero, showing the general topological nontriviality of the DKR ensemble.

  8. Masking properties of APD communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. G.; Larrondo, H. A.; Slavin, H. A.; Levin, D. G.; Hidalgo, R. M.; Rivera, R. R.

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we explore the ability of wavelet multilevel analysis to unmask the information hidden in a chaotic mask. This digital filtering technique has been recently reported as particularly well suited for the detection of coherent structures. In a recent paper the capability of wavelets to unmask a message, in cases where a chaotic signal is just added to the information, has also been demonstrated. The case of an active passive decomposition scheme, where message is mixed with the chaotic signal, is studied here. A representative case employing Daubechies wavelets and a typical Rossler-oscillator-based communication system is reported. Using a time scaling parameter modifies the spectrum of the mask. The results show that wavelets are effective only in particular cases with poor masking. The fast Fourier transform analysis demonstrates that the spectrum of the chaotic mask shows no holes and then other digital filtering techniques such as Wiener filters or comb filters must also been disregarded.

  9. Chemosensory properties of the trigeminal system.

    PubMed

    Viana, Félix

    2011-01-19

    The capacity of cutaneous, including trigeminal endings, to detect chemicals is known as chemesthesis or cutaneous chemosensation. This sensory function involves the activation of nociceptor and thermoreceptor endings and has a protective or defensive function, as many of these substances are irritants or poisonous. However, humans have also developed a liking for the distinct sharpness or pungency of many foods, beverages, and spices following activation of the same sensory afferents. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemosensation in the trigeminal system has experienced enormous progress in the past decade, following the cloning and functional characterization of several ion channels activated by physical and chemical stimuli. This brief review attempts to summarize our current knowledge in this field, including a functional description of various sensory channels, especially TRP channels, involved in trigeminal chemosensitivy. Finally, some of these new findings are discussed in the context of the pathophysiology of trigeminal chemosensation, including pain, pruritus, migraine, cough, airway inflammation, and ophthalmic diseases.

  10. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleria, Iram; Brenig, Leon; Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  11. Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

    1985-09-01

    The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

  12. Chemosensory Properties of the Trigeminal System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of cutaneous, including trigeminal endings, to detect chemicals is known as chemesthesis or cutaneous chemosensation. This sensory function involves the activation of nociceptor and thermoreceptor endings and has a protective or defensive function, as many of these substances are irritants or poisonous. However, humans have also developed a liking for the distinct sharpness or pungency of many foods, beverages, and spices following activation of the same sensory afferents. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemosensation in the trigeminal system has experienced enormous progress in the past decade, following the cloning and functional characterization of several ion channels activated by physical and chemical stimuli. This brief review attempts to summarize our current knowledge in this field, including a functional description of various sensory channels, especially TRP channels, involved in trigeminal chemosensitivy. Finally, some of these new findings are discussed in the context of the pathophysiology of trigeminal chemosensation, including pain, pruritus, migraine, cough, airway inflammation, and ophthalmic diseases. PMID:22778855

  13. Electronic Properties of Low-Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Aleksandr

    This work deals with transport and general electronic phenomena in low-dimensional systems. The first chapter is dedicated to Variable Range Hopping. It starts with a brief review of the general hopping formalism, based on previous work. Next, new methods and results are presented and discussed. In particular, studies of both Ohmic and non-Ohmic regime are performed and the stark differences between the two are elucidated. In addition, apparent power law dependence of current on voltage in disordered one-dimensional materials is analyzed. The results obtained compare favorably with the experiments. Finally, the behavior of the conducting network in d dimensions is discussed using the percolation approach. The second chapter deals with plasmonic effects in graphene. After giving a short introduction to graphene and plasmonic behavior, current work is presented. Charge oscillations in graphene half-plane are discussed and compared with experimental results obtained from near-field microscopy. In addition, plasmonic oscillations in a "narrow-flake" geometry are analyzed analytically and numerically, showing good agreement between the two methods.

  14. 48 CFR 252.245-7003 - Contractor Property Management System Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... property system that complies with the system criteria in paragraph (c) of this clause. Property management... management system. Failure to maintain an acceptable property management system, as defined in this clause...) System criteria. The Contractor's property management system shall be in accordance with paragraph (f)...

  15. Stability properties of autonomous homogeneous polynomial differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    A geometrical approach is used to derive a generalized characteristic value problem for dynamic systems described by homogeneous polynomials. It is shown that a nonlinear homogeneous polynomial system possesses eigenvectors and eigenvalues, quantities normally associated with a linear system. These quantities are then employed in studying stability properties. The necessary and sufficient conditions for all forms of stabilities characteristic of a two-dimensional system are provided. This result, together with the classical theorem of Frommer, completes a stability analysis for a two-dimensional homogeneous polynomial system.

  16. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Nori, Franco

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin-orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  17. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  18. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  19. Medicinal Chemical Properties of Successful Central Nervous System Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lenz, George R.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Fundamental physiochemical features of CNS drugs are related to their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier affinity and exhibit CNS activity. Factors relevant to the success of CNS drugs are reviewed. CNS drugs show values of molecular weight, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor that in general have a smaller range than general therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic properties can be manipulated by the medicinal chemist to a significant extent. The solubility, permeability, metabolic stability, protein binding, and human ether-ago-go-related gene inhibition of CNS compounds need to be optimized simultaneously with potency, selectivity, and other biological parameters. The balance between optimizing the physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties to make the best compromises in properties is critical for designing new drugs likely to penetrate the blood brain barrier and affect relevant biological systems. This review is intended as a guide to designing CNS therapeutic agents with better drug-like properties. PMID:16489364

  20. Medicinal chemical properties of successful central nervous system drugs.

    PubMed

    Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lenz, George R

    2005-10-01

    Fundamental physiochemical features of CNS drugs are related to their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier affinity and exhibit CNS activity. Factors relevant to the success of CNS drugs are reviewed. CNS drugs show values of molecular weight, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor that in general have a smaller range than general therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic properties can be manipulated by the medicinal chemist to a significant extent. The solubility, permeability, metabolic stability, protein binding, and human ether-ago-go-related gene inhibition of CNS compounds need to be optimized simultaneously with potency, selectivity, and other biological parameters. The balance between optimizing the physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties to make the best compromises in properties is critical for designing new drugs likely to penetrate the blood brain barrier and affect relevant biological systems. This review is intended as a guide to designing CNS therapeutic agents with better drug-like properties.

  1. Delocalization and scaling properties of low-dimensional quasiperiodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-feng

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the localization transition and the scaling properties of both quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional quasiperiodic systems, which are constituted from coupling several Aubry-André (AA) chains along the transverse direction, in the presence of next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) hopping. The localization length, two-terminal conductance, and participation ratio are calculated within the tight-binding Hamiltonian. Our results reveal that a metal-insulator transition could be driven in these systems not only by changing the NNN hopping integral but also by the dimensionality effects. These results are general and hold by coupling distinct AA chains with various model parameters. Furthermore, we show from finite-size scaling that the transport properties of the two-dimensional quasiperiodic system can be described by a single parameter and the scaling function can reach the value 1, contrary to the scaling theory of localization of disordered systems. The underlying physical mechanism is discussed.

  2. Perceptual uncertainty is a property of the cognitive system.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    We qualify Frost's proposals regarding letter-position coding in visual word recognition and the universal model of reading. First, we show that perceptual uncertainty regarding letter position is not tied to European languages-instead it is a general property of the cognitive system. Second, we argue that a universal model of reading should incorporate a developmental view of the reading process.

  3. Mass properties measurement system: Dynamics and statics measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents and interprets experimental data obtained from the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS). Statics measurements yield the center-of-gravity of an unknown mass and dynamics measurements yield its inertia matrix. Observations of the MPMS performance has lead us to specific design criteria and an understanding of MPMS limitations.

  4. Addiction as a function of action system properties.

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J; Sztulman, H

    2000-01-01

    Generalising from some previous analyses of addiction and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focused on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management," we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety, and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state." A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strong significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  5. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  6. Electronic properties of a molecular system with Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, J. H.; Medina, F. G.; Becerra-Alonso, David

    2017-10-01

    The electronic properties are studied using a finite homogeneous molecule called Trans-platinum-linked oligo(tetraethenylethenes). This system is composed of individual molecules such as benzene rings, platinum, Phosphore and Sulfur. The mechanism for the study of the electron transport through this system is based on placing the molecule between metal contacts to control the current through the molecular system. We study this molecule based on the tight-binding approach for the calculation of the transport properties using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism and the Fischer-Lee relationship, based on a semi-analytic Green's function method within a real-space renormalization approach. Our results show a significant agreement with experimental measurements.

  7. Effects of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengyu; Yan, Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-06-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties. There were five treatments: maize continuous cropping, maize and peanuts rotation, peanuts continuous cropping, peanuts continuous cropping with low level of amendment and peanuts continuous cropping with high level of amendment. The results showed that maize continuous cropping increased total root length by 118.95%, projected area by 204.86%, projected area by 150.70%, total root volume by 20.66%, and average root diameter by184.53%. The amendments also improved root properties and the high level of amendment had much more better effect.

  8. Statistical properties of chaotic dynamical systems which exhibit strange attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.V.; Oberman, C.R.

    1981-07-01

    A path integral method is developed for the calculation of the statistical properties of turbulent dynamical systems. The method is applicable to conservative systems which exhibit a transition to stochasticity as well as dissipative systems which exhibit strange attractors. A specific dissipative mapping is considered in detail which models the dynamics of a Brownian particle in a wave field with a broad frequency spectrum. Results are presented for the low order statistical moments for three turbulent regimes which exhibit strange attractors corresponding to strong, intermediate, and weak collisional damping.

  9. Optoelectronic properties of nanostructured ensembles controlled by biomolecular logic systems.

    PubMed

    Pita, Marcos; Krämer, Melina; Zhou, Jian; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Fernández, Víctor M; Katz, Evgeny

    2008-10-28

    A nanostructured system composed of enzyme-functionalized silica microparticles, ca. 74 microm, and gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles, 18 +/- 3 nm, modified with pH-sensitive organic shells was used to process biochemical signals and transduce the output signal into the changes of the optoelectronic properties of the assembly. The enzymes (glucose oxidase, invertase, esterase) covalently bound to the silica microparticles performed Boolean logic operations AND/OR processing biochemical information received in the form of chemical input signals resulting in changes of the solution pH value. Dissociation state of the organic shells on the gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles was controlled by pH changes generated in situ by the enzyme logic systems. The charge variation on the organic shells upon the reversible protonation/dissociation process resulted in the changes of the gold layer localized surface plasmon resonance energy (LSPR), thus producing optical changes in the system. The proton transfer process allowed the functional coupling of the information processing enzyme systems with the signal transducing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles providing their cooperative performance. Magnetic properties of the gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles allowed separation of the signal-transducing nanoparticles from the enzyme-modified signal processing silica microparticles. The reversible system operation was achieved by the Reset function, returning the pH value and optical properties of the system to the initial state. This process was biocatalyzed by another immobilized enzyme (urease) activated with a biochemical signal. The studied approach opens the way to novel optical biosensors logically processing multiple biochemical signals and "smart" multisignal responsive materials with logically switchable optical properties.

  10. Systems, Methods and Apparatus for Determining Physical Properties of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butas, John P. (Inventor); VanBuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    In some embodiments, systems and methods and apparatus are provided through which the equation of state is used to control a process through analyses of one or more properties of a fluid through an interactive modeler that models the equation of state for the fluid in the process based on measured signals and for selectively enabling the modeling of control changes to the process. In some embodiments, a device generates an indication of machine health based on variations on the equation of state for a fluid in a machine. In some embodiments, one or more properties for the fluid from at least one unmeasured machine parameter in the interactive modeler are determined for the machine at various operating states. In some embodiments, a difference between an expected one or more properties of the fluid beyond a set point indicates the health of the machine

  11. Volume-controlled hydrologic property measurements in triaxial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.; Willden, Arthur T.; Kiusalaas, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Karl R.; Poeter, Eileen P.

    1994-01-01

    New capabilities for hydrologic property measurements in triaxial systems include: (1) volume-controlled and simultaneous measurements of hydraulic conductivity and one-dimensional consolidation (or specific storage) of a saturated test specimen; and (2) volume-controlled measurements of hydraulic conductivity, matric potential, and the variation of these properties with the moisture content of an unsaturated test specimen. Data on saturated kaolinite demonstrate simultaneous hydraulic-conductivity and one-dimensional consolidation tests with continuous monitoring of both vertical and horizontal effective stresses. Data on well-graded silty sand demonstrate the feasibility of concurrent constant-flow hydraulic conductivity and mattic potential measurements, and the variation of these properties with moisture content, for undisturbed and unsaturated specimens mounted in triaxial cells. Refinements needed to realize the full potential of these capabilities include a more rigid triaxial cell to minimize compliance, and an improved technique for measuring hydraulic-head differences within an unsaturated test specimen.

  12. Structure-Property Correlations in Double Perovskite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Manisha

    Double perovskite compounds of the type ABB'O3 where B and B' are transition elements, exhibit a wide range of properties that are useful for various applications. Double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO 6 (SFMO), Sr2CrReO6 (SCRO) are ferrimagnetic materials with properties useful for spintronic applications. The ordering of Fe and Mo atoms in the case of SFMO and Cr and Re atoms in case of SCRO known as B-site ordering is very important. Sputter-deposited thin-films of SFMO and SCRO systems were characterized using various high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. B-site disorders, other kinds of structural defects and variation in chemical composition were found in the thin-films studied. Valence state of Fe in SFMO system was studied using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). In order to interpret the EELS data, other comparative perovskite compounds were also utilized. In the case of SCRO system, multislice simulations were used to interpret information about B-site ordering from scanning transmission electron microscopy images acquired using the high-angle annular dark-field detector. It was found that presence of various kinds of structural defects and composition variations in these systems have an effect on the useful magnetic and electrical properties.

  13. Geometric and algebraic properties of minimal bases of singular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos

    2013-11-01

    For a general singular system ? with an associated pencil T(S), a complete classification of the right polynomial vector pairs ?, connected with the ? rational vector space, is given according to the proper-nonproper property, characterising the relationship of the degrees of those two vectors. An integral part of the classification of right pairs is the development of the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases for ? and ? rational vector spaces, where R(s) is the state restriction pencil of ?. It is shown that the notions of canonical and normal minimal bases are equivalent; the first notion characterises the pure algebraic aspect of the classification, whereas the second is intimately connected to the real geometry properties and the underlying generation mechanism of the proper and nonproper state vectors ?. The results describe the algebraic and geometric dimensions of the invariant partitioning of the set of reachability indices of singular systems. The classification of all proper and nonproper polynomial vectors ? induces a corresponding classification for the reachability spaces to proper-nonproper and results related to the possible dimensions feedback-spectra assignment properties of them are also given. The classification of minimal bases introduces new feedback invariants for singular systems, based on the real geometry of polynomial minimal bases, and provides an extension of the standard theory for proper systems (Warren, M.E., & Eckenberg, A.E. (1975).

  14. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  15. Modeling of rheological properties for entangled polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nilanjana

    The study of entangled polymer rheology both in the field of medicine and polymer processing has their major importance. Mechanical properties of biomolecules are studied in order to better understand cellular behavior. Similarly, industrial processing of polymers needs thorough understanding of rheology so as to improve process techniques. Work in this dissertation has been organized into three major sections. Firstly, numerical/analytical models are reviewed for describing rheological properties and mechanical behaviors of cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton models are classified into categories according to the length scales of the phenomena of interest. The main principles and characteristics of each model are summarized and discussed by comparison with each other, thus providing a systematic understanding of biopolymer network modeling. Secondly, a new constitutive "toy" Mead-Banerjee-Park (MBP) model is developed for monodisperse entangled polymer systems, by introducing the idea of a configuration dependent friction coefficient (CDFC) and entanglement dynamics (ED) into the MLD "toy" model. The model is tested against experimental data in steady and transient extensional and shear flows. The model simultaneously captures the monotonic thinning of the extensional flow curve of polystyrene (PS) melts and the extension hardening found in PS solutions. Thirdly, the monodisperse MBP model is accordingly modified into polydisperse MBP "toy" constitutive model to predict the nonlinear viscoelastic material properties of model polydisperse systems. The polydisperse MBP toy model accurately predicts the material properties in the forward direction for transient uniaxial extension and transient shear flow.

  16. 41 CFR 101-1.101 - Federal Property Management Regulations System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations System. 101-1.101 Section 101-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1...

  17. Simple estimation of thermodynamic properties of Yukawa systems.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, S A; Khrapak, A G; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E

    2014-02-01

    A simple analytical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of model Yukawa systems is presented. The approach extends the traditional Debye-Hückel theory into the regime of moderate coupling and is able to qualitatively reproduce thermodynamics of Yukawa systems up to the fluid-solid phase transition. The simplistic equation of state (pressure equation) is derived and applied to the hydrodynamic description of the longitudinal waves in Yukawa fluids. The relevance of this study to the topic of complex (dusty) plasmas is discussed.

  18. Quasi-Three Body Systems: Properties and Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate systems of three mutually interacting particles with masses m_e, m_μ , M that obey the following inequality m_e ≪ m_μ ≪ M. Then the three-body problem reduces to the two-body scattering or structure of m_e in the field of the pseudo-nucleus m_μ M. We calculate analytically the properties of considered systems, such as the scattering cross-sections, hyperfine splitting, Auger decay of exited states and Lamb shits, presenting them as expansions in powers of the parameter β = m_e/m_μ ≪ 1.

  19. Conversion properties of short-range autodyne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgov, V. N.

    1990-04-01

    An analysis is made of the conversion properties of Doppler autodyne systems (for use in short-range navigation systems) described by a third-order differential equation. Expressions are obtained for the conversion coefficients of the echo signal from a moving object as a function of the degree of regeneration and detuning of the oscillation circuit of the autodyne, the time constant of the shift circuit, the self-oscillation amplitude, the degree of nonlinearity of the active-element characteristics, and the Doppler-shift frequency.

  20. The properties of probabilistic simple regular sticker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2015-10-01

    A mathematical model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, has been introduced in 1998. In sticker system, the sticker operation is based on the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules. The computation of sticker system starts from an incomplete double-stranded sequence. Then by iterative sticking operations, a complete double-stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rule (including the simple regular sticker system) generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of the languages generated by the sticker systems. In this paper, we study the properties of probabilistic simple regular sticker systems. In this variant of sticker system, probabilities are associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings. The language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple regular sticker systems.

  1. Critical properties of dissipative quantum spin systems in finite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Kabuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2016-10-01

    We study the critical properties of finite-dimensional dissipative quantum spin systems with uniform ferromagnetic interactions. Starting from the transverse field Ising model coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators with Ohmic spectral density, we generalize its classical representation to classical spin systems with O(n) symmetry and then take the large-n limit to reduce the system to a spherical model. The exact solution to the resulting spherical model with long-range interactions along the imaginary time axis shows a phase transition with static critical exponents coinciding with those of the conventional short-range spherical model in d+2 dimensions, where d is the spatial dimensionality of the original quantum system. This implies that the dynamical exponent is z = 2. These conclusions are consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and renormalization group calculations for dissipative transverse field Ising and O(n) models in one and two dimensions. The present approach therefore serves as a useful tool for analytically investigating the properties of quantum phase transitions of the dissipative transverse field Ising and other related models. Our method may also offer a platform to study more complex phase transitions in dissipative finite-dimensional quantum spin systems, which have recently received renewed interest in the context of quantum annealing in a noisy environment.

  2. Geometric and asymptotic properties associated with linear switched systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitour, Y.; Gaye, M.; Mason, P.

    2015-12-01

    Consider a continuous-time linear switched system on Rn associated with a compact convex set of matrices. When it is irreducible and its largest Lyapunov exponent is zero there always exists a Barabanov norm associated with the system. This paper deals with two types of issues: (a) properties of Barabanov norms such as uniqueness up to homogeneity and strict convexity; (b) asymptotic behavior of the extremal solutions of the linear switched system. Regarding Issue (a), we provide partial answers and propose four related open problems. As for Issue (b), we establish, when n = 3, a Poincaré-Bendixson theorem under a regularity assumption on the set of matrices. We then revisit a noteworthy result of N.E. Barabanov describing the asymptotic behavior of linear switched system on R3 associated with a pair of Hurwitz matrices { A , A + bcT }. After pointing out a gap in Barabanov's proof we partially recover his result by alternative arguments.

  3. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  4. Equilibration properties of small quantum systems: further examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed to investigate the equilibration properties of a small isolated quantum system by means of the matrix of asymptotic transition probabilities in some preferential basis. The trace T of this matrix measures the degree of equilibration of the system prepared in a typical state of the preferential basis. This quantity may vary between unity (ideal equilibration) and the dimension N of the Hilbert space (no equilibration at all). Here we analyze several examples of simple systems where the behavior of T can be investigated by analytical means. We first study the statistics of T when the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics is random and drawn from a distribution invariant under the group U(N) or O(N) . We then investigate a quantum spin S in a tilted magnetic field making an arbitrary angle with the preferred quantization axis, as well as a tight-binding particle on a finite electrified chain. The last two cases provide examples of the interesting situation where varying a system parameter—such as the tilt angle or the electric field—through some scaling regime induces a continuous crossover from good to bad equilibration properties.

  5. Fractal variability: An emergent property of complex dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Andrew J. E.; Macklem, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance.

  6. Model Checking Linear-Time Properties of Probabilistic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Christel; Größer, Marcus; Ciesinski, Frank

    This chapter is about the verification of Markov decision processes (MDPs) which incorporate one of the fundamental models for reasoning about probabilistic and nondeterministic phenomena in reactive systems. MDPs have their roots in the field of operations research and are nowadays used in a wide variety of areas including verification, robotics, planning, controlling, reinforcement learning, economics and semantics of randomized systems. Furthermore, MDPs served as the basis for the introduction of probabilistic automata which are related to weighted automata. We describe the use of MDPs as an operational model for randomized systems, e.g., systems that employ randomized algorithms, multi-agent systems or systems with unreliable components or surroundings. In this context we outline the theory of verifying ω-regular properties of such operational models. As an integral part of this theory we use ω-automata, i.e., finite-state automata over finite alphabets that accept languages of infinite words. Additionally, basic concepts of important reduction techniques are sketched, namely partial order reduction of MDPs and quotient system reduction of the numerical problem that arises in the verification of MDPs. Furthermore we present several undecidability and decidability results for the controller synthesis problem for partially observable MDPs.

  7. Interfacial and mechanical properties of self-assembling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Daniel

    Self-assembly is a fascinating phenomena where interactions between small subunits allow them to aggregate and form complex structures that can span many length scales. These self-assembled structures are especially important in biology where they are necessary for life as we know it. This dissertation is a study of three very different self-assembling systems, all of which have important connections to biology and biological systems. Drop shape analysis was used to study the interfacial assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers at the oil/water interface. When biologically functionalyzed copolymers are used, this system can serve as a model for receptor-ligand interactions that are used by cells to perform many activities, such as interact with their surroundings. The physical properties of a self-assembling membrane system were quantified using membrane inflation and swelling experiments. These types of membranes may have important applications in medicine such as drug eluting (growth factor eluting) scaffolds to aid in wound healing. The factors affecting the properties of bis(leucine) oxalamide gels were also explored. We believe that this particular system will serve as an appropriate model for biological gels that are made up of fiber-like and/or rod-like structures. During the course of the research presented in this dissertation, many new techniques were developed specifically to allow/aid the study of these distinct self-assembling systems. For example, numerical methods were used to predict drop stability for drop shape analysis experiments and the methods used to create reproducibly create self-assembling membranes were developed specifically for this purpose. The development of these new techniques is an integral part of the thesis and should aid future students who work on these projects. A number ongoing projects and interesting research directions for each one of the projects is also presented.

  8. The paramagnetic properties of ferromagnetic mixed-spin chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting; Qin, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The double-time Green's function method is used to investigate the paramagnetic properties of ferromagnetic mixed-spin chain system within the random-phase approximation and Anderson-Callen's decoupling approximation. The analytic expressions of the transverse susceptibility, longitudinal susceptibility and correlation length are obtained under transverse and longitudinal magnetic field. Using the analytic expressions of the transverse and longitudinal susceptibility to fit the experimental results, our results well agree with experimental data and the results from the high temperature series expansion within a simple Padé approximation.

  9. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    SciTech Connect

    Mecca, Angela; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in many astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy ν = 2, that can be regarded as a model of pure neutron matter. Our approach is based on the effective interaction obtained from the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique. The resulting transport coefficients show a strong sensitivity to the quasiparticle effective mass, reflecting the effect of second-order contributions to the self-energy that are not taken into account in nuclear matter studies available in the literature.

  10. Control System Upgrade for a Mass Property Measurement Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mass Property Measurement Facility (MPMF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center has undergone modifications to ensure the safety of Flight Payloads and the measurement facility. The MPMF has been technically updated to improve reliability and increase the accuracy of the measurements. Modifications include the replacement of outdated electronics with a computer based software control system, the addition of a secondary gas supply in case of a catastrophic failure to the gas supply and a motor controlled emergency stopping feature instead of a hard stop.

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated...

  13. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated contractor's...

  14. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated contractor's...

  15. 41 CFR 109-1.5205 - Personal property management system changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal property management system changes. 109-1.5205 Section 109-1.5205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Personal property management system changes. Any proposed significant change to a designated contractor's...

  16. Effects of carbon nanoparticles on properties of thermoset polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movva, Siva Subramanyam

    Polymer nanocomposites are novel materials in which at least one of the dimensions of the reinforcing material is on the order of 100 nm or less. While thermoplastic nanocomposites have been studied very widely, there are fewer studies concerning the effect of nanoparticles on thermoset systems. Low temperature cure thermoset systems are very important for many important applications. In this study, the processing, mechanical and thermal properties and reaction kinetics of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) reinforced low temperature vinyl ester and epoxy nanocomposites were studied. In the first part, the processing challenge of incorporating CNFs into conventional fiber reinforced composites made by Vacuum infusion resin transfer molding (VARTM) was addressed by a new technique. The CNFs are pre-bound on the long fiber mats, instead of mixing them in the polymer resin, thereby eliminating several processing drawbacks. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites showed significant improvements in tensile, flexural and thermal properties. The effect of CNFs on the mold filling in VARTM was also studied and shown to follow the Darcy's law. In the second part, the effect of CNFs on the low temperature cure kinetics of vinyl ester and epoxy resins is studied using a thermal analysis technique, namely Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of CNFs on the free radical polymerization of vinyl esters was found to be very complex as the CNFs interact with the various curing ingredients in the formulation. Specifically, the interaction effects of CNFs and the inhibitor were studied and a reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon. The effect of surface modification of the carbon nanoparticles on the cure kinetics of wind-blade epoxy was studied. The surface functionalization reduced the activation energy of the epoxy reaction and was found to have an acceleration effect on the cure kinetics of epoxy resin at room temperature

  17. Multiple planetary systems: Properties of the current sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Melissa J.; Gomez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    We carry out analyses on stellar and planetary properties of multiple exoplanetary systems in the currently available sample. With regards to the stars, we study their temperature, distance from the Sun, and metallicity distributions, finding that the stars that harbour multiple exoplanets tend to have subsolar metallicities, in contrast to metal-rich Hot Jupiter hosts; while non-Hot Jupiter single planet hosts form an intermediate group between these two, with approximately solar metallicities. With regards to the planetary systems, we select those with four or more planets and analyse their configurations in terms of stability (via Hill radii), compactness, and size variations. We find that most planetary pairs are stable, and that the compactness correlates to the size variation: More compact systems have more similarly sized planets and vice versa. We also investigate the spectral energy distributions of the stars hosting multiple exoplanetary systems, seeking infra-red excesses that could indicate the presence of debris disks. These disks would be leftovers from the planetary formation process, and could be considered as analogues of the Solar System's Asteroid or Kuiper belts. We identify potential candidates for disks that are good targets for far infra-red follow-up observations to confirm their existence.

  18. Equilibration properties of a disordered interacting open quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert; Huber, Sebastian

    The central question in the field of many body localization is if a closed interacting quantum system effectively thermalizes in the presence of disorder. However, any experimental test necessarily involves the opening of the ideally closed quantum system. Both from a fundamental point of view as well as for concrete experimental investigations of many body localization phenomena, a solid understanding of the effect of an attached bath is of significant importance. We study the equilibration properties of disordered interacting open quantum systems. On the one hand we consider the equilibration of such a many body localized system by coupling baths to the ends of a 1D spin chain. We find non-monotonous behaviour of the slowest relaxation time towards equilibrium. On the other hand, we take the bath itself to be a disordered interacting open quantum system and investigate the dephasing of a single qubit coupled to it. The model for the bath has a many body localization transition, affecting the dephasing of the single qubit.

  19. A PET system design by using mixed detectors: resolution properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Kao, Chien-Min; Gu, Shuguo; Xiao, Peng; Xie, Qingguo

    2014-07-01

    We investigate a cylindrical positron emission tomography (PET) system design strategy that employs two groups of detectors with different resolutions. The reason for considering this strategy is the observation that in many tasks one would want a higher resolution in a targeted region, which contains lesions or organs of interest, than that in the rest of the subject. Although one can design a PET system to meet the highest resolution required by the imaging task, this is not cost efficient because the superior resolution outside the target region is not needed. To address this issue, investigators have proposed the concept of an insert, in which a high-resolution detector (HRD) is inserted into a parent PET system to locally increase the image resolution. In this paper, we examine an alternative strategy in which the system is made of one arc of normal-resolution detectors with respect to, for example, whole-body imaging and one arc of HRDs. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the resolution properties of this system design and examine how they are affected by the location and size of the HRD arc. Our results show that the region obtained by connecting the edges of the HRD arc to the center of the field-of-view (FOV) can have significantly better resolution than that in the rest of the FOV, as well as better resolution uniformity.

  20. Ordered phases in coupled nonequilibrium systems: Static properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Shauri; Chatterjee, Sakuntala; Barma, Mustansir

    2017-08-01

    We study a coupled driven system in which two species of particles are advected by a fluctuating potential energy landscape. While the particles follow the potential gradient, each species affects the local shape of the landscape in different ways. As a result of this two-way coupling between the landscape and the particles, the system shows interesting new phases, characterized by different sorts of long-ranged order in the particles and in the landscape. In all these ordered phases, the two particle species phase separate completely from each other, but the underlying landscape may either show complete ordering, with macroscopic regions with distinct average slopes, or may show coexistence of ordered and disordered regions, depending on the differential nature of effect produced by the particle species on the landscape. We discuss several aspects of static properties of these phases in this paper, and we discuss the dynamics of these phases in the sequel.

  1. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Klots, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl- substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental- frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  2. Optical properties of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nogueira, Audrea D; Pecho, Oscar E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the direct transmittance (T%), translucency, opacity and opalescence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems and the correlation between the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Specimens of shades A1, A2 and A3 (n=5) were fabricated from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD HT and LT, IPS Empress(®) CAD HT and LT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. A spectrophotometer (Lambda 20) was used to measure T% on the wavelength range of 400-780nm. Another spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade(®) Advance) was used to measure the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of samples on white and black backgrounds. TP, CR and the opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. Data were statistically analysed using VAF (variance accounting for) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, Bonferroni correction and Pearson's correlation. T% of some ceramic systems is dependent on the wavelength. The spectral behaviour showed a slight and constant increase in T% up to approximately 550nm, then some ceramics changed the behaviour as the wavelength gets longer. TP and CR values ranged, respectively, from 16.79 to 21.69 and from 0.52 to 0.64 (r(2)=-0.97). OP values ranged from 3.01 to 7.64. The microstructure of CAD-CAM ceramic systems influenced the optical properties. TP and CR showed a strong correlation for all ceramic systems evaluated. Yet, all ceramics showed some degree of light transmittance. In addition to shade, this study showed that other optical properties influence on the natural appearance of dental ceramics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2016-05-06

    Here, in many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high-performance computing has led to a growing availability of high-fidelity simulation data, which open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neuralmore » networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first , a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance with significantly reduced computational training costs.« less

  4. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese; Templeton, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    In many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high performance computing has led to a growing availability of high fidelity simulation data. These data open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these empirical models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first method, a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance at significantly reduced computational training costs.

  5. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2016-05-06

    Here, in many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high-performance computing has led to a growing availability of high-fidelity simulation data, which open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first , a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance with significantly reduced computational training costs.

  6. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2016-05-06

    Here, in many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high-performance computing has led to a growing availability of high-fidelity simulation data, which open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first , a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance with significantly reduced computational training costs.

  7. A System-Level Approach to Thermoelectric Material Property Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.; Lorimer, A.; Hannemann, C.; Reifenberg, J.; Miller, L.; Scullin, M.

    2015-06-01

    The opportunities for creating the most effective thermoelectric (TE) material can be maximized by considering the full system for a given application when developing the material. If conversion efficiency is the only consideration in the design of a TE material, then maximizing average ZT over the largest temperature range may be the best choice. If the system or end application is unknown or not well defined, this design path may also be the best choice. However, there are more factors that should affect TE material design choice than just maximizing average ZT when considering the system-level attributes of an application. The following paper demonstrates how other aspects of the design affect how TE material properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity) can be tuned to get maximum performance for a given application. These other aspects include device and system level parasitic losses, constraints, and design objectives. Simulation results are provided that demonstrate how a TE material with a lower average ZT can be more effective depending on the design objective than a TE material with a higher average ZT.

  8. Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

    2015-02-13

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the α-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime.

  9. Criticality in conserved dynamical systems: experimental observation vs. exact properties.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius; Schuelein, André

    2013-03-01

    Conserved dynamical systems are generally considered to be critical. We study a class of critical routing models, equivalent to random maps, which can be solved rigorously in the thermodynamic limit. The information flow is conserved for these routing models and governed by cyclic attractors. We consider two classes of information flow, Markovian routing without memory and vertex routing involving a one-step routing memory. Investigating the respective cycle length distributions for complete graphs, we find log corrections to power-law scaling for the mean cycle length, as a function of the number of vertices, and a sub-polynomial growth for the overall number of cycles. When observing experimentally a real-world dynamical system one normally samples stochastically its phase space. The number and the length of the attractors are then weighted by the size of their respective basins of attraction. This situation is equivalent, for theory studies, to "on the fly" generation of the dynamical transition probabilities. For the case of vertex routing models, we find in this case power law scaling for the weighted average length of attractors, for both conserved routing models. These results show that the critical dynamical systems are generically not scale-invariant but may show power-law scaling when sampled stochastically. It is hence important to distinguish between intrinsic properties of a critical dynamical system and its behavior that one would observe when randomly probing its phase space.

  10. Topological effects on properties of multicomponent polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Swati

    Multicomponent polymer systems comprised of two or more chemically different polymer moieties provide an effective way to attain the desired properties from a limited palette of commodity polymers. Variations in macromolecular topologies often result in unique and unusual properties leading to novel applications. This dissertation addresses the effect of topology on properties of two multicomponent polymers systems: blends and polyrotaxanes. Blends of cyclic and linear polymers were compared to their topological counterparts, polyrotaxanes, in which cyclic components are threaded onto the linear polymer chains. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the synthesis and purification of cyclic polymers derived from linear (polyoxyethylene) (POE). Cyclic POEs of different cycle sizes were synthesized and then purified from their linear byproducts by inclusion complexation with alpha-cyclodextrin. Polystyrene was threaded through the resulting cycles by in situ free radical polymerization of styrene monomer in the presence of an excess of POE cycles. A bulky free radical initiator was utilized to endcap the polystyrene molecule at the two ends to prevent dethreading of cyclic moieties. In the second part of the dissertation, phase behavior, morphology and dynamics of cyclic POE and polystyrene blends were compared to linear POE and polystyrene blends. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for this purpose. Cyclic POE was found to be much more miscible with polystyrene when compared to linear POE, resulting in nanometer-sized domains and significantly reduced mobilities of the cyclic POE components in the blends. The unusual behavior of cyclic POE in the blends was attributed to topological as well as end-group effects with the topological effects being predominant. Polyrotaxanes composed of polystyrene and cyclic POE components exhibited cyclic POE domain sizes similar to that of physical blends. Cyclic POE

  11. Upscaling of Thermal Transport Properties in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S.; Hao, Y.; Chiaramonte, L.

    2010-12-01

    : Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) have garnered significant attention as a possible source of geographically disperse, carbon-free energy without the environmental impact of many other renewable energy sources. However, a significant barrier to the adoption of EGS is the uncertainty in whether a specific site is amenable to engineering and how fluid injection rates can affect, either through stimulation of the fracture network or through deleterious channeling of the thermal fluid, the heat extraction rate possible in a specific reservoir. Because of the uncertainties involved in determining the exact fracture network topology extant in any particular reservoir, it is desirable to have a stochastic description (distribution) of the possible heat extraction rates that could be achieved. This work provides both an approach and application of the approach for simulating several synthetic fracture networks. The approach uses a coupled geomechanics and discrete fracture network (DFN) solver coupled uni-directionally with a reservoir scale, hydro-thermal transport code, the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-Saturated Flow and Transport simulation code (NUFT), to capture the coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical behavior of these synthetic networks. Particular attention is paid to the upscaling approach used to determine effective permeability and thermal transfer coefficients that are used in the dual porosity/permeability (DKM) model employed in NUFT. This upscaling is based on a multi-scale treatment of the domain, starting with the upscaling of permeability from explicitly represented fractures in the DFN model, which considers the fracture-scale effects of fluid injection, to a finely resolved, unstructured mesh representation of the subdomain. Effective properties of this subdomain are then determined for a variety of sub-sampled discrete fracture network topologies. The result catalog of spatially correlated thermal and fluid properties are then used to populate the

  12. Properties of numerical experiments in chaotic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation contains four projects that I have worked on during my graduate study at University of Maryland at College Park. These projects are all related to numerical simulations of chaotic dynamical systems. In particular, the two conjectures in Chapter 1 are inspired by the numerical discoveries in Hunt and Ott [1, 2]. In Chapter 2, statistical properties of scalar transport in chaotic flows are investigated by using numerical simulations. In Chapters 3 and 4, I take a different angle and discuss the limitations of numerical simulations; i.e. for certain ``bad'' systems numerical simulations will yield incorrect or at least unreliable results no matter how many digits of precision are used. Chapter 1 discusses the properties of optimal orbits. Given a dynamical system and a function f from the state space to the real numbers, an optimal orbit for f is an orbit over which the average of f is maximal. In this chapter we discuss some basic mathematical aspects of optimal orbits: existence, sensitivity to perturbations of f, and approximability by periodic orbits with low period. For hyperbolic systems, we conjecture that (1)for (topologically) generic smooth functions, there exists an optimal periodic orbit, and (2)the optimal average can be approximated exponentially well by averages over certain periodic orbits with increasing period. In Chapter 2 we theoretically study the power spectrum of passive scalars transported in two dimensional chaotic fluid flows. Using a wave-packet method introduced by Antonsen et al. [3] [4], we numerically investigate several model flows, and confirm that the power spectrum has the k -l- scaling predicted by Batchelor [5]. In Chapter 3 we consider a class of nonhyperbolic systems, for which there are two fixed points in an attractor having a dense trajectory; the unstable manifold of one fixed point has dimension one and the other's is two dimensional. Under the condition that there exists a direction which is more expanding

  13. Systemic ozone effects on root hydraulic properties in pima cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Yang, S. |

    1995-12-31

    Ambient ozone concentrations have become problematic even in rural, agricultural areas such as the San Joaquin Valley of California. Pima cotton (cv. S6) has been shown to be relatively sensitive to ozone air pollution, at levels occurring in this production area. In this semi-arid area acquisition of water and nutrients may limit yield and biological productivity. Therefore maximal proliferation, exploration, and efficiency of root systems is desirable. Hydraulic conductance provides a parameter to characterize the efficiency of roots and shoots and their interaction. The authors have used a variety of transpiration and pressure vessel techniques to document ozone-induced reduction of root hydraulic conductance in cotton. They hypothesized that these effects are caused by reduced carbohydrate supply due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity of the shoot associated with direct oxidant damage to foliage. However, the authors simulated this reduced photosynthetic capacity by continuously removing leaf area to match that of ozone treated plants. This resulted in a reduction of whole plant biomass similar to ozone-treated plants, but a root/shoot biomass ratio and root hydraulic properties similar to control plants and contrasting with ozone-treated plants. Thus leaf removal did not simulate effects of ozone on root hydraulic properties. A systematic effect of ozone on whole plant function is indicated, perhaps mediated by direct effects on carbohydrate translocation throughout the plant.

  14. Processing and Properties of a Phenolic Composite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Bai, J. M.; Baughman, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic resin systems generate water as a reaction by-product via condensation reactions during curing at elevated temperatures. In the fabrication of fiber reinforced phenolic resin matrix composites, volatile management is crucial in producing void-free quality laminates. A commercial vacuum-bag moldable phenolic prepreg system was selected for this study. The traditional single-vacuum-bag (SVB) process was unable to manage the volatiles effectively, resulting in inferior voidy laminates. However, a double vacuum bag (DVB) process was shown to afford superior volatile management and consistently yielded void-free quality parts. The DVB process cure cycle (temperature /pressure profiles) for the selected composite system was designed, with the vacuum pressure application point carefully selected, to avoid excessive resin squeeze-outs and achieve the net shape and target resin content in the final consolidated laminate parts. Laminate consolidation quality was characterized by optical photomicrography for the cross sections and measurements of mechanical properties. A 40% increase in short beam shear strength, 30% greater flexural strength, 10% higher tensile and 18% higher compression strengths were obtained in composite laminates fabricated by the DVB process.

  15. Nonequilibrium entropy, Lyapounov variables, and ergodic properties of classical systems

    PubMed Central

    Misra, B.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the problem of defining (nonequilibrium) entropy in terms of the concepts of mechanics and of reconciling its monotonic increase with the Hamiltonian evolution of the dynamical system. This leads to investigating necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of monotonically increasing quantities or the so-called Lyapounov variables of classical systems. It is found that the condition of “mixing” is necessary and the property of being K-flow is sufficient for the existence of a Lyapounov variable. The significance of the study of Lyapounov variables for the elucidation of the fundamental questions of statistical mechanics is briefly discussed. It is seen that every Lyapounov variable must fail to commute with at least some of the operators of multiplication by phase space functions. The uncertainty relations implied by this necessary noncommutativity would then set a limit on the simultaneous determination of entropy and trajectories in phase space. These considerations thus support and sharpen the view that the thermodynamical and the (microscopic) dynamical descriptions of classical systems could be consistently reconciled as being complementary descriptions analogous to the complementary descriptions encountered in quantum mechanics. PMID:16592515

  16. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  17. Understanding and Exploiting Spatial Properties of System Failures on Extreme-Scale HPC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, James H; Maxwell, Don E

    2015-01-01

    As we approach exascale, the scientific simulations are expected to experience more interruptions due to increased system failures. Designing better HPC resilience techniques requires understanding the key characteristics of system failures on these systems. While temporal properties of system failures on HPC systems have been well-investigated, there is limited understanding about the spatial characteristics of system failures and its impact on the resilience mechanisms. Therefore, we examine the spatial characteristics and behavior of system failures. We investigate the interaction between spatial and temporal characteristics of failures and its implications for system operations and resilience mechanisms on large-scale HPC systems. We show that system failures have spatial locality at different granularity in the system; study impact of different failure-types; and investigate the correlation among different failure-types. Finally, we propose a novel scheme that exploits the spatial locality in failures to improve application and system performance. Our evaluation shows that the proposed scheme significantly improves the system performance in a dynamic and production-level HPC system.

  18. Analysis of properties of thrust bearing in ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhu-Xin; Liu, Zheng-Lin

    2010-06-01

    Thrust bearing is a key component of the propulsion system of a ship. It transfers the propulsive forces from the propeller to the ship’s hull, allowing the propeller to push the ship ahead. The performance of a thrust bearing pad is critical. When the thrust bearing becomes damaged, it can cause the ship to lose power and can also affect its operational safety. For this paper, the distribution of the pressure field of a thrust pad was calculated with numerical method, applying Reynolds equation. Thrust bearing properties for loads were analyzed, given variations in outlet thickness of the pad and variations between the load and the slope of the pad. It was noticed that the distribution of pressure was uneven. As a result, increases of both the outlet thickness and the slope coefficient of the pad were able to improve load bearing capability.

  19. Exploring the properties of the DDO system using synthetic colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripicco, Michael J.; Bell, R. A.

    1991-08-01

    The properties of the David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) system (which uses bandpasses centered at about 3450, 3800, 4180, 4250, 4500, 4850, and 5150 A, referred to as 35, 38, 41, 42, 45, 48, and 51 filters) are explored by applying synthetic colors. Using DDO colors for a sample of stars for which spectrophotometric data were reported by Gunn and Stryker (1983), the correctness of the transmission profiles of the filters was established. It is shown that the presence of MgH lines in the 48 bandpass is an important reason why cool dwarfs and giants are separated in the C(45-48) vs C(42-45) diagram. It was found that including SiH lines in the spectra improved the agreement between observed and computed C(41-45) colors for dwarfs.

  20. Rheological properties of aqueous Pluronic-alginate systems containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G; Crevatin, A; Farra, R; Guarnieri, G; Pascotto, A; Rehimers, B; Lapasin, R; Grassi, M

    2006-09-01

    Rheological and erosion studies regarding a liposome-containing polymeric blend that is propaedeutic to its use in paving techniques in tubular organs, such as blood vessels, are reported. Attention is focused on an aqueous polymeric blend composed of Pluronic (PF127) and alginate (Protanal LF 10/60) because both polymers, when dissolved in water at a sufficiently high concentration, are subjected to different structural mechanisms, which are driven by temperature increase and addition of bivalent cations, respectively, and both result in marked viscoelastic and plastic properties. After proving the compatibility between PF127 and alginate, we show that the structural transition temperature of the blend, T(ST), can be properly modulated. In particular, we found that T(ST) for an aqueous solution of pure Pluronic 20% w/w is about 21 degrees C and that even slight reductions in polymer concentration result in considerable T(ST) decrease. The addition of salts or alginate (provided as Na-alginate) provokes a substantial decrease of T(ST) and thus the alginate concentration in the blend should not exceed 1% w/w. In addition, liposomes slow down the structural transition but do not substantially affect the rheological properties of the system in the final state at higher temperatures, thus showing that they can be added to the polymeric blend without significant effects. Finally, erosion tests show that after contact with a source of bivalent cations, the polymeric blend containing PF127 and alginate shows an erosion resistance neatly improved with respect to the simple structured Pluronic system having the same polymer concentration. As a whole, all these results constitute the basis for future potential applications of the considered polymeric blend in tubular organs such as blood vessels.

  1. Properties of polypyrrole polyvinilsulfate films for dual actuator sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Victor H.; Otero, Toribio F.; Schumacher, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    One of the challenges of modern science is the development of actuators able to sense working conditions while actuation, mimicking the way in which biological organs work. Actuation of those organs includes nervous (electric) pulses dense reactive gels, chemical reactions exchange of ions and solvent. For that purpose, conducting polymers are being widely studied. In this work the properties of self-supported films of the polypyrrole:polyvinilsulfate (PPy/PVS) blend polymer were assessed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show how during reduction / oxidation the polymer exchanges cations when immersed in a NaClO4 aqueous solution, revealing free positive charges in the electrolytic solution as the driving agents leading to the swelling/shrinking of the polymer. Eventually it is the phenomenon responsible of the actuation of the polymeric motors. Submitting the system to consecutive potential sweeps shows the reaction is really sensing the scan rate used in each cycle revealing that while actuating the system is actually sensing the electrochemical working conditions.

  2. System Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, L.

    2001-01-01

    This systems report describes how the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment was developed. Pertinent design parameters are discussed, along with mission information and system requirements to successfully complete the mission. Environmental testing was performed on the OPM to certify it for spaceflight. This testing included vibration, thermal vacuum, electromagnetic interference and conductance, and toxicity tests. Instrument and monitor subsystem performances, including the reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet, total integrated scatter, atomic oxygen monitor, irradiance monitor, and molecular contamination monitor during the mission are discussed. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. The OPM conducted in situ measurements of a number of material samples. These data may be found in the OPM Science Report. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  3. Management Academy LANL Business Systems: Property Management, Course #31036

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, Michael J.; Rinke, Helen Mae; Hanson, Todd; Wolfe, Randy P.

    2016-07-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the efficient economical management of all government property in its stewardship. This training explains the role LANL managers have in managing, controlling, and disposing of government property. The Laboratory's goal is good asset management. By properly managing property across the facility, Laboratory managers can help ASM improve government property utilization and extend asset life, while reducing asset-related operating costs and expenditures.

  4. Low temperature properties of strong spin-orbit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Jennifer

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is a relativistic interaction between the electronic spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The SOC can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, most notably at low temperatures in compounds composed of large-Z (atomic number) elements, since the SOC scales as Z4. In this dissertation, I examine the low-temperature expression of SOC in the transport and magnetic properties of a representative selection of materials, including the heavy fermion system URu2Si2, narrow band gap semiconductor FeSb2, 5d transition metal oxide BaIrO3, linear band CoSb3 and RhSb3 skutterudites, as well as a new class of rare earth materials on a novel kagome lattice with non-collinear Ising axes, called the "tripod" kagome lattice. These compounds all feature unusual many-body properties that are either directly or indirectly linked to the large SOC present in each. In URu2Si2, for example, the large SOC is foundational to the hidden order (HO) phase that arises at THO = 17.5 K, where a remarkable magnetic signature is seen not in the linear magnetic susceptibility, chi1, but in the leading nonlinear term chi 3. Exotic magnetic ground states are also seen in the newly synthesized rare earth tripod kagome systems. The SOC is also an important component of the inverted band structure in Dirac materials, and thus plays a role in the band formation of CoSb3 and RhSb3, which have both been predicted to be near a topological transition. Finally, large SOC may also be related to interesting carrier dynamics in FeSb2 and BaIrO 3: FeSb2 displays a unique proportionality between the thermopower, S(T), and Hall mobility, UH( T), while BaIrO3 exhibits a non-saturating positive linear magnetoresistance, despite ferromagnetic order, which usually results in a negative saturating magnetoresistance. These examples showcase the importance of SOC across a range of strongly correlated phenomena spanning itinerant to localized electronic degrees of freedom.

  5. Test system accurately determines tensile properties of irradiated metals at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, P. J.; Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.

    1967-01-01

    Modified testing system determines tensile properties of irradiated brittle-type metals at cryogenic temperatures. The system includes a lightweight cryostat, split-screw grips, a universal joint, and a special temperature control system.

  6. Properties of the stimulus router system, a novel neural prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Liu Shi; Prochazka, Arthur

    2010-02-01

    Various types of neural prostheses (NPs) have been developed to restore motor function after neural injury. Surface NPs are noninvasive and inexpensive, but are often poorly selective, activating nontargeted muscles and cutaneous sensory nerves that can cause discomfort or pain. Implantable NPs are highly selective, but invasive and costly. The stimulus router system (SRS) is a novel NP consisting of fully implanted leads that "capture" and route some of the current flowing between a pair of surface electrodes to the vicinity of a target nerve. An SRS lead consists of a "pick-up" terminal that is implanted subcutaneously under one of the surface electrodes and a "delivery" terminal that is secured on or near the target nerve. We have published a preliminary report on the basic properties of the SRS [L. S. Gan , "A new means of transcutaneous coupling for neural prostheses," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 509-517, Mar. 2007]. Here, we further characterize the SRS and identify aspects that maximize its performance as a motor NP. The surface current needed to activate nerves with an SRS, was found to depend on the proximity of the delivery terminal(s) to the nerve, electrode configurations, contact areas of the surface electrodes and implanted terminals, and the distance between the surface anode and the delivery terminal.

  7. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kroeger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-15

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (K{sub AF}) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of K{sub AF} of 1.2x10{sup 7} ergs/cc.

  8. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kröger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (KAF) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of KAF of 1.2×107 ergs/cc.

  9. Optical properties of polymer microtips investigated with workshop tomographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Michał; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Makowski, Piotr; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Parat, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel methodology for optical fiber polymer microtip manufacturing ant testing, which supports the structure optimization process through utilization of an optical diffraction tomography system based on the lateral shear digital holographic microscope. The most important functional parameter of an optical fiber microtip is the output beam distribution in the far-field region, which depends on geometrical properties and refractive index distribution within the microtip. These factors, in turn, are determined by the optical power distribution of the actinic light and the exposition time during the photopolymerization process. In order to obtain a desired light field distribution we propose to govern the manufacturing process by a hybrid opto-numerical methodology, which constitutes a convenient feedback loop for modification of the fabrication parameters. A single cycle of the proposed scheme includes numerical modeling, tomographic measurements and modifications of fabrication process. We introduced the real values of three-dimensional refractive index distribution of microtips into the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, which leaded to controlled modification of technology parameters and finally to improvement of a functional parameter of microtips.

  10. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe...

  11. Dust in the Solar System - Properties and Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    include both amorphous and crystalline silicates. The organic matter in these samples also exhibits highly anomalous H, C, and N isotopic compositions that are consistent with formation in low temperature environments at the outermost regions of the solar nebula or presolar cold molecular cloud. The scientific frontiers for these samples include working toward a better understanding of the origins of the solar system amorphous and crystalline grains in IDPs and the very challenging task of determining the chemical composition of sub-micron organic grains. Laboratory studies of ancient and present-day dust in the Solar System thus reveal in exquisite detail the chemistry, mineralogy and isotopic properties of materials that derive from a range of astrophysical environments. These studies are an important complement to astronomical observations that help to place the laboratory observations into broader context.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Interfacial Properties of Complex Liquid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the interfacial properties of linear and branched chain alkane molecule condensed systems. The only notable effect of branching in our studies is the reduction of system ordering and layering since the degree of branching in the systems is very small. It is found that thin alkane films, adsorbed on a solid substrate at a temperature well above its bulk melting temperature, have about up to four well defined layers near the substrate. Within these layers, molecules are parallel to the substrate and exhibit domains of short range ordering. At the liquid-vapor interface, the molecular segment density tail is well fit by an error function indicating that the molecular height distribution obeys the Gaussian law predicted from the capillary wave model. At a temperature around the liquid bulk solidification temperature, a first order phase transition occurs at the liquid-vapor interfacial region of the alkane thin films. Molecules in this region pack hexagonally and align themselves parallel to the interface normal with a small cant angle. Below this crystalline monolayer, there are four sharp layers where molecules lie parallel to the substrate surface with enhanced domains of transverse ordering. It is observed that the contact angle of an alkane nanodroplet on top of a solid surface increases when the solid-liquid interaction strength decreases, or the molecule length increases. Due to the fact that almost all the molecules are in the liquid-vapor interfacial region, a nanodroplet with molecules of a length comparable to the droplet dimension has clear layers from the solid-liquid interface to the top of the droplet. This layering reduces when the size of the droplet increases or the molecule length decreases. Substrates do not create, but enhance the layering. It is also noticed that in the confined thin fluid films, liquid molecules exhibit partially solid-like characteristics behavior with the ability to

  13. 32 CFR 34.23 - Property management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Federal Government) and cost. (6) Information from which one can calculate the percentage of Federal participation in the cost of the property (not applicable to property furnished by the Federal... current fair market value where a recipient compensates the Federal Government for its share....

  14. Influence of surface structure on thermoprotection properties of intumescent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, Igor S.; Yablokova, Marina Yu.; Khalturinskij, Nikolay A.

    1997-06-01

    Intumescent fire retardant coatings have found great application due to high thermoprotection properties, which reduce heat flow on the polymer surface. However there were no attempts to study the influence of surface structure on foamed char formation processes. In this work we present the experimental investigation of thermoprotection properties of CFR with a PTFE modified surface.

  15. PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE M33 STAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata; Aparicio, Antonio E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.ed

    2010-09-10

    We present a catalog of 2990 extended sources in a 1{sup 0} x 1{sup 0} area centered on M33 using the MegaCam camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The catalog includes 599 new candidate stellar clusters, 204 previously confirmed clusters, 1969 likely background galaxies, and 218 unknown extended objects. We present ugriz integrated magnitudes of the candidates and confirmed star clusters (SCs) as well as the full width at half maximum, ellipticity, and stellarity. Based on the properties of the confirmed SCs, we select a sub-sample of highly probable clusters composed of 246 objects. The integrated photometry of the complete cluster catalog reveals a wide range of colors of -0.4 < (g - r) < 1.5 and -1.0 < (r - i) < 1.0 with no obvious cluster subpopulations. Comparisons with models of simple stellar populations suggest a large range of ages some as old as {approx}10 Gyr. In addition, we find a sequence in the color-color diagrams that deviates from the expected direction of evolution. This feature could be associated with very young clusters (<10{sup 7} yr) possessing significant nebular emission. Analysis of the radial density distribution suggests that the cluster system of M33 has suffered from significant depletion possibly due to interactions with M31. We also detect a gap in the cluster distribution in the color-color diagram at (g - r) {approx_equal} 0.3 and (u - g) {approx_equal} 0.8. This gap could be interpreted as an evolutionary effect. This complete catalog provides promising targets for deep photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to study the structure and star formation history of M33.

  16. Refined Properties of the HD 130322 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R.; Henry, Gregory W.; Feng, Y. Katherina; Boyajian, Tabetha; Wright, Jason; Fischer, Debra A.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2015-04-01

    Exoplanetary systems closest to the Sun, with the brightest host stars, provide the most favorable opportunities for characterization studies of the host star and their planet(s). The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey uses both new radial velocity (RV) measurements and photometry in order to greatly improve planetary orbit uncertainties and the fundamental properties of the star, in this case HD 130322. The only companion, HD 130322b, orbits in a relatively circular orbit, e = 0.029 every ∼10.7 days. We have compiled RV measurements from multiple sources, including 12 unpublished from the Keck I telescope, over the course of ∼14 yr and have reduced the uncertainty in the transit midpoint to ∼2 hr. The transit probability for the b-companion is 4.7%, where {{M}p}sin i=1.15 {{M}J} and a = 0.0925 AU. In this paper, we compile photometric data from the T11 0.8 m Automated Photoelectric Telescope at Fairborn Observatory taken over ∼14 yr, including the constrained transit window, which results in a dispositive null result for both full transit exclusion of HD 130322b to a depth of 0.017 mag and grazing transit exclusion to a depth of ∼0.001 mag. Our analysis of the starspot activity via the photometric data reveals a highly accurate stellar rotation period: 26.53 ± 0.70 days. In addition, the brightness of the host with respect to the comparison stars is anti-correlated with the Ca ii H and K indices, typical for a young solar-type star.

  17. Organic cotton systems improved soil properties vis-a-vis the modern systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Venugopalan, M. V.; Singh, J. V.; Narkhedkar, N. G.; Velmourougane, K.

    2012-04-01

    India is the largest cotton growing country in the world. Traditionally, cotton in India was grown with minimal inputs and resources available on farm were put to efficient use. Advent of hybrids and Bt cotton revolutionized cotton production in the country and lead to heavy reliance on external inputs. However, there is a growing awareness of the detrimental effects of excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers. This is leading to growing interest in organic cultivation of crops. An organic system (OS) was compared with the modern systems (MS) for changes in the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in field experiments conducted both on station and farmers fields in Maharashtra, India on rain dependent cotton grown on Vertisols. Soil samples of the organic plots had significantly greater C content than the MS plots relying on mineral fertilizers and pesticides. Similarly, other nutrients were also greater in the OS than the MS across locations. Most of the increases were noticed in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Interestingly, enrichment of the soil at lower depths was noticed in the OS which could be due to the surface creep of soils through the cracks in the Vertisols. With regard to the physical properties, water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter in the MS were significantly lesser than the OS. Differences were restricted to the top 20 cm. Soil biological properties of the two systems were compared through the enzyme assays such as the dehydrogenase, glucosidase, phosphatase, sulfatase periodically during the crop growing season. All the enzyme assays indicated greater activities in the OS than the MS. Further, microfauna (nematodes) monitored indicated less of plant parasitic nematodes in the OS than the MS. Excessive tillage followed in the MS did bring about a reduction in the nematode numbers. But the systems had more parasitic nematodes.

  18. Momentum and spin transport properties of spin polarized Fermi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lijuan

    We carried out experiments on a spin polarized 3He- 4He mixture with 3He concentration x 3 = 6.26 x 10-4, and on pure 3He liquid. Spin polarization affects the transport properties of these Fermi systems. The effect on momentum transport was studied by using a vibrating-wire viscometer to measure viscosity of the 3He-4He mixture over the temperature range 6.09 mK--100 mK in 7.96 T and 1.00 T magnetic fields. A large viscosity increase was observed upon application of the 7.96 T magnetic field for temperature T < TF(TF = 19.5 mK is the Fermi temperature). The observed viscosity is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations for a dilute Fermi gas by Jeon and Mullin [1988, 1989] and Mullin and Jeon [1992]. The polarization effect on spin transport was investigated by measuring the transverse diffusion coefficient D ⊥ in pure 3He liquid at saturated vapor pressure and at 15.85 bar over the temperature range 4.5 mK--159 mK in a 7.96 T magnetic field. We used a pulsed NMR spin echo technique in a field gradient of 16.0 G/cm to do the measurements and fits to the Leggett equations [1970] to obtain D⊥. For T < 20 mK, we found D⊥ is less than measured in earlier experiments at lower magnetic fields. D⊥ does not increase with decreasing temperature as 1/T2, but appears to approach a constant as T → 0 while it is expected that the longitudinal spin diffusion coefficient D∥ ∝ 1/ T2. This is called spin diffusion anisotropy and it was observed for the first time in our 3He liquid experiments. The anisotropy temperature we determined for 3He liquid was Ta = 16.4 +/- 2.2 mK at saturated vapor pressure and in a 7.96 T magnetic field. The transverse spin diffusion in 3 He results agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Meyerovich and Musaeflan [1992, 1994]. They also agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Golosov and Ruckenstein [1995, 1998] by extrapolation of the dilute theory to a strongly interacting system.

  19. Thermophysical properties and modeling of a hydrogenic pellet production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, Jacob William

    A fusion energy experiment that is under construction, the ITER machine, has the mission to be the first device to demonstrate the technological feasibility of fusion energy and serve as the primary step towards commercialization of fusion reactors. The ITER machine and future fusion energy machines will require a continuous supply of hydrogenic fuel pellets for sustained operation. The purpose of this research is to provide the fundamental visco-plastic flow measurements as well as the numerical models that are necessary to design a hydrogenic pellet production system (PPS) to meet the ITER fueling specifications. A numerical model of a PPS for the ITER machine is presented and used to design a system that precools, liquefies, and solidifies hydrogenic material that is ultimately extruded and cut into fuel pellets. The specific components modeled within the PPS include a precooling heat exchanger, a liquefier, and a twin-screw solidifying extruder. Numerical models of these components are developed and used as design tools. The modeling results suggest that the performance of the PPS will be dictated by the heat transfer and viscous dissipation associated with the solid and solidifying hydrogen in the twin-screw extruder. This observation motivates experimental efforts that are aimed at precise measurement of these quantities. Steady-state measurements are presented of the dynamic shear stress and heat transfer during flow of solid hydrogen, deuterium, and neon in a Couette type viscometer cell. Thermal conductivity measurements in the stationary condition are compared with those reported in the literature. The measurements span a range of shear rates and extend from temperatures associated with the onset of solidification to sub-cooled solid states. The viscous dissipation is found to vary directly with the applied heat load from the onset of solidification to the point at which the solid begins to sub-cool. Flow of the sub-cooled solid exhibits behavior that is

  20. Structural thermal break systems for buildings: Development and properties of concrete systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litvin, A.; Van Geem, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents results from the second phase of a three phase program to investigate lightweight concrete systems for potential use as structural thermal breaks in buildings. The second phase of work, presented in this report, is the laboratory development and measurement of properties of the lightweight portland cement concrete. Work included materials selection and concrete mix development. Thermal and physical properties of the candidate concretes were measured on small-scale specimens. Data on concrete thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, compressive strength, flexural strength, shear strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity are presented. Casting and surface finishing techniques for the most desirable mix are also described. 13 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Electronic contributions to linear and nonlinear electric properties in fullerene-based molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwara, B.; Loboda, O.; Avramopoulos, A.; Luis, J.-M.; Reis, H.; Papadopoulos, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of the linear and nonlinear electric properties of various fullerene-based subsystems are reviewed. The electric properties of derivatives of C60 fullerene with carbazole, benzothiazole, benzothiazole-triphenyloamine and free-base porphyrin substituents at different levels of theory are summarized. In addition, the electronic and vibrational electric properties of endohedral Sc2@C72 system are reported.

  2. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    PubMed

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p < 0.001). In general, the traditional hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  3. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  5. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.k

    2010-09-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z < 0.03 that contain 8904 satellite galaxies. Using this sample, we construct a catalog of 635 satellites associated with 215 host galaxies whose spin directions are determined by our inspection of the SDSS color images and/or by spectroscopic observations in the literature. We divide satellite galaxies into prograde and retrograde orbit subsamples depending on their orbital motion with respect to the spin direction of the host. We find that the number of galaxies in prograde orbit is nearly equal to that of retrograde orbit galaxies: the fraction of satellites in prograde orbit is 50% {+-} 2%. The velocity distribution of satellites with respect to their hosts is found to be almost symmetric: the median bulk rotation of satellites is -1 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R < 0.1r{sub vir,host}), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through

  6. THEORETICAL Computations of Equilibrium Compositions, Thermodynamic Properties, and Performance Characteristics of Propellant Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    the NWC thermochemical program or the propellant evaluation program (PEP). The program is used to calculate high-temperature thermodynamic properties ...temperature thermodynamic properties and performance characteristics of propellant systems. This report is a summary of the methods and equations... Properties and Perb,,,mance Oicracterastics of’ Propellant Systems, by H. N. Browne Jr.. M. M. Wiiilams. and D). R. Cruise. China Lake, Calif., NOTS

  7. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  11. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  12. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management...

  13. Discrepancies between Ideal Characteristics of a Property Tax System and Current Practice in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netzer, Dick; Berne, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Ideally, voters' and state legislatures' policy choices should underlie a property tax system that is straightforward, comprehensible, systematic, and reasonably related to policy objectives. Administration should be uniform and fair. New York State's property tax system lacks a uniform valuation standard and "circuit breaker" and has…

  14. Mechanical Properties of Normal and Diseased Cerebrovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood vessel mechanics has traditionally been of interest to researchers and clinicians. Changes in mechanical properties of arteries have been associated with various diseases. Objective: To provide a comprehensive review directed towards understanding the basic biomechanical properties of cerebral arteries under normal and diseased conditions. Methods: Literature review supplemented by personal knowledge. Results: The mechanical properties of vascular tissue may depend on several factors including macromolecular volume fraction, molecular orientation, and volume or number of cells such as smooth muscle cells. Mechanical properties of a blood vessel have been characterized using different methods such as in vitro tensile testing, non-invasive ultrasound examination, and mathematical models. Experiments are complicated by the variation in properties and content of materials that make up the vessel wall and more challenging as the size of the vessel of interest decreases. Therapeutic interventions aiming to alter the mechanical response are either pharmaceutical: including calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and β-blockers; or, mechanical interventions such as angioplasty, stent placement, mechanical thrombectomy, or embolization procedures. Conclusion: It is apparent from the literature that macromolecular and cellular mechanics of blood vessels are not fully understood. Therefore, further studies are necessary to better understand contribution of these mechanisms to the overall mechanics of the vascular tissue. PMID:22518247

  15. Magnetic properties driven by local structure in quasi-1D Ising chain system cobaltate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjae; Kim, Beom Hyun; Kim, Kyoo; Choi, Hong Chul; Park, Sang-Yeon; Jeong, Y.-H.; Min, B. I.

    2012-02-01

    Using ab-initio band structure method and the microscopic model calculation, the origins of the large orbital magnetic moment and unique magnetic anisotropy in the quasi-1D magnetic cobaltate, α-CoV2O6, is investigated. Unique crystal electric field effect in α-CoV2O6 is combined with the strong spin-orbit coupling, results in intriguing magnetic properties of the system. Based on the estimated strengths of the intra- and the inter-chain exchange interaction, experimentally found 1/3 magnetization plateau in the MH curve can be attributed to spin-flop mechanism. Origin of the reduced magnetic entropy behavior is found to be the strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the quasi-1D Ising chain system.

  16. Protocol dependence of mechanical properties in granular systems.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, S; Otsuki, M; Sasa, S

    2011-11-01

    We study the protocol dependence of the mechanical properties of granular media by means of computer simulations. We control a protocol of realizing disk packings in a systematic manner. In 2D, by keeping material properties of the constituents identical, we carry out compaction with various strain rates. The disk packings exhibit the strain rate dependence of the critical packing fraction above which the pressure becomes non-zero. The observed behavior contrasts with the well-studied jamming transitions for frictionless disk packings. We also observe that the elastic moduli of the disk packings depend on the strain rate logarithmically. Our results suggest that there exists a time-dependent state variable to describe macroscopic material properties of disk packings, which depend on its protocol.

  17. 18 CFR 367.58 - Property record system required for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... required for service company property. 367.58 Section 367.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  18. 18 CFR 367.58 - Property record system required for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... required for service company property. 367.58 Section 367.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  19. 18 CFR 367.58 - Property record system required for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... required for service company property. 367.58 Section 367.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  20. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    estimates based on measured displacement magnitudes. APPROACH The bulk properties measurement methods are intended to run concurrently with the...to better understand biomechanics of sound reception and production in cetaceans, and 2) to understand and hopefully mitigate any harmful effects of

  1. 32 CFR 34.23 - Property management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... serial number, model number, Federal stock number, national stock number, or any other identification...) Federally owned equipment shall be marked, to indicate Federal ownership. (c) A physical inventory shall be... the inventory, verify the existence, current utilization, and continued need for the property. (d) A...

  2. Dielectric Properties of PMN-PZ-PT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    acetylacetone. 0.1Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.9Pb(ZrxTi(1-x))O3 thin films were deposited on Pt-coated substrate by spin - coating and crystallized at 700 deg C in air. And then their dielectric properties were investigated.

  3. Electronic properties of crystalline fluorides of a cubic crystal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, I. E.; Eremin, E. L.; Demchuk, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of effective mathematical modeling of polarization characteristics of crystalline dielectrics is considered. It is shown that the generation of frequency dielectric spectra of the substances under consideration, which equivalent to their physically measured properties, gives the objective possibility of mediated visualization of their electron-atomic structure.

  4. Structure-Property Characterization of the Crinkle-Leaf Peach Wood Phenotype: A Future Model System for Wood Properties Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Arévalo, Rafael; Ledbetter, Craig; Jakes, Joseph E.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure-property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach ( Prunus persica L.) trees, wild-type and crinkle-leaf, were examined to elucidate the nature of weak wood in crinkle-leaf trees. Crinkle-leaf is a naturally-occurring mutation in which wood strength is altered in conjunction with an easily observed `crinkling' of the leaves' surface. Trees from three vigor classes (low growth rate, average growth rate, and high growth rate) of each genotype were sampled. No meaningful tendency of dissimilarities among the different vigor classes was found, nor any pattern in features in a genotype-by-vigor analysis. Wild-type trees exhibited longer vessels and fibers, wider rays, and slightly higher specific gravity. Neither cell wall mechanical properties measured with nanoindentation nor cell wall histochemical properties were statistically or observably different between crinkle-leaf and wild-type wood. The crinkle-leaf mutant has the potential to be a useful model system for wood properties investigation and manipulation if it can serve as a field-observable vegetative marker for altered wood properties.

  5. Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of PTFE/Al/W System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Marc A.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2007-12-01

    Mechanical and microstructural properties of high density PTFE/Al/W composites consisting of PTFE matrix, aluminum and tungsten particles were investigated. Three types of samples having different porosities and particle sizes of W with an identical weight ratio between PTFE, Al and W were fabricated by Cold Isostatic Pressing. The quasi-static and Hopkinson Bar compression tests were employed to investigate the mechanical properties of these materials. The results demonstrated that the porous PTFE/Al/W composite samples containing fine W particles have higher quasi-static and dynamic fracture stresses than higher density PTFE/Al/W samples containing coarse W particles. ESEM micrographs revealed that deformation occurred mainly in the PTFE matrix while metal particles remain undeformed. We observed nano-fibers of PTFE caused by high strain rate deformation.

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  13. Environmental Containment Property Estimation Using QSARs in an Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-15

    measure of the polar nature. After the regression equations were chosen the final calculations of the Analysis of Variance table and the graphs were...area. J. Phys. Chem., 1972. 76: p. 2754-2759. 14. Amidon, G.L., S.H. Yalkowsky, and S.Leung, Solubility of Nonelectroytes in Polar Solvents II...X)np is the index for the non- polar molecule and X is the index for the original molecule. Choosing the Properties After the MCIs have been

  14. Shocks in 2D Yukawa systems : thermodynamics and kinetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Michael S.; Marciante, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The study of shock propagation has become a common way to obtain statistical information on a medium, as one can relate properties of the undisturbed medium to the shock dynamics through the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. However, theoretical investigations of shock dynamics are often done through idealized fluid models, which neglect kinetic properties. In this poster we study the propagation of shock waves in plasmas at the particle level, using molecular dynamics simulations to model the propagation of stationary shock waves in a two-dimensional Yukawa plasma. Stationary shocks are generated by a piston moving at constant speed, and macroscopic thermodynamic quantities such as temperature and pressure are computed from statistical averages. This theoretical investigation comprises two parts. First, we present the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of Yukawa plasmas under shock dynamics. Next, we focus on the influence of the kinetic aspects of the plasma, showing how transport coefficients of fluid models are related to the microscopic dynamics in phase-space and apply it to the Yukawa plasma case. Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    system (referred to as “ CFE ”, for Convergent Field Elastography), to include determine bulk tissue speed and attenuation. Such data would provide...measurement system. Bulk speed and attenuation in the 1-3 MHz range will be estimated using transmission and scattering data in the CFE system’s primary...the CFE system force generation transducer. Methods in both frequency ranges will make use of reference measurements made on tissue phantoms whose

  16. System and method to determine thermophysical properties of a multi-component gas

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2003-08-05

    A system and method to characterize natural gas hydrocarbons using a single inferential property, such as standard sound speed, when the concentrations of the diluent gases (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrogen) are known. The system to determine a thermophysical property of a gas having a first plurality of components comprises a sound velocity measurement device, a concentration measurement device, and a processor to determine a thermophysical property as a function of a correlation between the thermophysical property, the speed of sound, and the concentration measurements, wherein the number of concentration measurements is less than the number of components in the gas. The method includes the steps of determining the speed of sound in the gas, determining a plurality of gas component concentrations in the gas, and determining the thermophysical property as a function of a correlation between the thermophysical property, the speed of sound, and the plurality of concentrations.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  18. Common computational properties found in natural sensory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Geoffrey

    2009-05-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom there are many existing sensory systems with capabilities desired by the human designers of new sensory and computational systems. There are a few basic design principles constantly observed among these natural mechano-, chemo-, and photo-sensory systems, principles that have been proven by the test of time. Such principles include non-uniform sampling and processing, topological computing, contrast enhancement by localized signal inhibition, graded localized signal processing, spiked signal transmission, and coarse coding, which is the computational transformation of raw data using broadly overlapping filters. These principles are outlined here with references to natural biological sensory systems as well as successful biomimetic sensory systems exploiting these natural design concepts.

  19. Vibrational properties of quasiregular systems with mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalbán, A.; Velasco, V. R.; Tutor, J.; Fernández-Velicia, F. J.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the vibrational frequencies and atom displacements of one-dimensional systems formed by combinations of quasiregular stackings having mirror symmetry. The materials are described by nearest-neighbor force constants and the corresponding atom masses. Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are considered. These systems exhibit differences in the frequency spectrum as compared to the original systems with no mirror symmetry. Localized modes are found in the wide primary gaps and near the band edges of the Fibonacci structures. In the Rudin-Shapiro structures localized modes near the band edges are also found whereas in the Thue-Morse structures no such features are found. Besides this a selective confinement of the atom displacements in one of the sequences forming the total system is found for different frequency ranges in all the systems studied.

  20. Definition of Tire Properties Required for Landing System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Luchini, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The data bank constructed provided two basic advantages for the user of aircraft tire information. First, computerization of the data bank allowed mechanical property data to be stored, corrected, updated, and revised quickly and easily as more reliable tests and measurements were carried out. Secondly, the format of the book which can be printed from the computerized data bank can be easily adjusted to suit the needs of the users without the great expense normally associated with reprinting and editing books set by ordinary typography.

  1. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  2. Estimating coupling directions in the cardiorespiratory system using recurrence properties.

    PubMed

    Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong; Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-08-28

    The asymmetry of coupling between complex systems can be studied by conditional probabilities of recurrence, which can be estimated by joint recurrence plots. This approach is applied for the first time on experimental data: time series of the human cardiorespiratory system in order to investigate the couplings between heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and respiration. We find that the respiratory system couples towards the heart rate, and the heart rate towards the mean arterial blood pressure. However, our analysis could not detect a clear coupling direction between the mean arterial blood pressure and respiration.

  3. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A.

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  4. Flight control systems properties and problems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    This volume contains a delineation of fundamental and mechanization-specific flight control characteristics and problems gleaned from many sources and spanning a period of over two decades. It is organized to present and discuss first some fundamental, generic problems of closed-loop flight control systems involving numerator characteristics (quadratic dipoles, non-minimum phase roots, and intentionally introduced zeros). Next the principal elements of the largely mechanical primary flight control system are reviewed with particular emphasis on the influence of nonlinearities. The characteristics and problems of augmentation (damping, stability, and feel) system mechanizations are then dealt with. The particular idiosyncracies of automatic control actuation and command augmentation schemes are stressed, because they constitute the major interfaces with the primary flight control system and an often highly variable vehicle response.

  5. Property Accounting for Local and State School Systems. State Educational Records and Reports Series--Handbook III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Paul L.; Tankard, George G., Jr.

    This handbook serves as a basic guide to property accounting for local and state school systems in the U.S. Information and guidelines are presented regarding--(1) classification of property accounts, (2) definitions of property accounts, (3) measures of school property, (4) supplies and equipment, (5) individual property records, and (6) summary…

  6. Intellectual property education exemplified by the patents on the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangyu; Liao, Guojian; Xie, Jianping

    2014-12-01

    With the accelerated globalization of the world economies, the role of intellectual property in the the competition is increasingly important. The universities are important base to instill the intellectual property awareness to the young generation. However, current model of intellectual property education cannot meet the needs of undergraduates. In this paper, we take the first patent issued for CRISPR/Cas9 system as a teaching example, and together with personal teaching experience in biomedicine related intellectual property, we propose a new way for intellectual property education which consists of two stages: enlightenment stage and in-depth training stage. In the former stage, we integrate the intellectual property education with the basic major courses. In the latter stage, students are encouraged to devote into intellectual property related career. This model can somehow solve the the current shortage of qualified teachers for biotechnology related intellectual property education and will facilitate the popularization of intellectual property in college students. Since genetics plays a pivotal role in biomedicine, this effort is illustrated by the novel genome editing technology based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is one hotspot of recent studies. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas9 from basic microbial genetics discovery to major tools for genome editing exeplified the essence of biomedicine related intellectual property education.

  7. Impacts of an integrated crop-livestock system on soil properties to enhance precipitation capture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping/Livestock systems alter soil properties that are important in enhancing capture of precipitation by developing and maintaining water infiltration and storage. In this paper we will relate soil hydraulic conductivity and other physical properties on managed Old World Bluestem grassland, whea...

  8. A Variational Property of the Velocity Distribution in a System of Material Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siboni, S.

    2009-01-01

    A simple variational property concerning the velocity distribution of a set of point particles is illustrated. This property provides a full characterization of the velocity distribution which minimizes the kinetic energy of the system for prescribed values of linear and angular momentum. Such a characterization is applied to discuss the kinetic…

  9. A Variational Property of the Velocity Distribution in a System of Material Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siboni, S.

    2009-01-01

    A simple variational property concerning the velocity distribution of a set of point particles is illustrated. This property provides a full characterization of the velocity distribution which minimizes the kinetic energy of the system for prescribed values of linear and angular momentum. Such a characterization is applied to discuss the kinetic…

  10. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Hajime

    2006-03-15

    The quantum Markov property is equivalent to the strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems. The additivity of von Neumann entropy for bipartite graded systems implies the statistical independence of states. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor-product systems which have trivial grading. For three-composed graded systems we have U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the marginal pair of subsystems is nonseparable.

  11. Thermal properties of composite materials: a complex systems approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. L.; Bonilla, Beatriz; Reyes, J. J.; Dossetti, Victor

    We propose an effective media approximation to describe the thermal diffusivity of composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the thermal diffusivity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal diffusivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a significant difference in the thermal properties of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed. We correlate some measures of the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal analysis. In this way, we are able to describe, and at some extent predict, the behavior of the thermal diffusivity in terms of the lacunarity and other measures of the complexity of these samples Partial Financial Support by CONACyT México and VIEP-BUAP.

  12. The analysis on optical property for stereo vision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-ming; Ye, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Shan; Cao, Shu-qing

    2016-01-01

    In the relative measurement for the space non-cooperative target, the analysis to the optical property of the target is one of premises of the sensor design. The article is targeted on GEO satellites. From the perspective of photometry and based on the blackbody radiation law, we analyze the visible light energy of the sun outside the atmosphere, and consider the impact of satellite thermal control multilayer, model the luminosity feature related to the solar incident angle and the sensor observing angle. Finally we get the equivalent visual magnitude of the target satellite at the pupil of the camera. Our research could effectively direct the design and development of the visible relative measurement sensor.

  13. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, S.; Siegmund, T.; Cipra, R. J.; Bolton, J. S.

    2015-04-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms.

  14. A Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) for Characterizing Properties of Sorbents Used in Separation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolek, Sara D.; Monje, Oscar A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design, method of operation, and testing of a regenerable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control system that characterizes properties of sorbents used in separation technologies.

  15. Properties and performance of grazing-incidence mirror systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    1982-04-01

    We investigate the performance of, and the origin of aberrations in, beam lines based on simple and the recently proposed CARSA mirror elements. New results include the identification of the sums of off-grazing angles and their squares as figures of merit for total reflectance and scattering losses in near-grazing-incidence systems, and the discovery that the usual image distortions and aberrations previously associated with simple elements can essentially be eliminated with pairs of elliptical mirrors having a common rotational symmetry axis. Slit throughput efficiencies and sensitivities to system stability are calculated for both horizontal and vertical dispersion for several representative beam lines using a ray-tracing program developed for CARSA systems. We find that high-resolution operation is possible with no entrance slit for CARSA combinations.

  16. System and methods to determine and monitor changes in microstructural properties

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Joseph A

    2014-11-18

    A system and methods with which changes in microstructure properties such as grain size, grain elongation, texture, and porosity of materials can be determined and monitored over time to assess conditions such as stress and defects. An example system includes a number of ultrasonic transducers configured to transmit ultrasonic waves towards a target region on a specimen, a voltage source configured to excite the first and second ultrasonic transducers, and a processor configured to determine one or more properties of the specimen.

  17. Investigations regarding the evaluation of specific intellectual property production risks within Quality Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakocs, R.; Lupulescu, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a theoretical research concerning methods for risk assessment of specific intellectual property production risks that are identified in the product achievement stage within the Quality Management System. In order to realize this, we will start by identifying the specific intellectual property production risks and by proposing some new calculating formulas for minimalizing their negative effects. The theoretical model proposed assessment of specific intellectual property production risks, will be realized based on 3 hypothetical situations. This study intends to reduce the intellectual property risks identified in the production process of commercial societies that have an industrial profile.

  18. Metallurgical and tensile property analysis of several silicon carbide/titanium composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. D.; Unnam, J.

    1983-01-01

    Several silicon-carbide fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite systems were investigated to determine composite degradation mechanisms and to develop techniques to minimize loss of mechanical properties during fabrication and in service. Emphasis was on interface control by fiber or matrix coatings. Fibers and matrix materials were sputter coated with various metals to determine the effects of the coatings on basic fiber properties, fiber-matrix interactions, and on composite properties. The effects of limited variations in fabrication temperature on composite properties were determined for composites consolidated by standard press-diffusion-bonding techniques.

  19. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  20. Universal properties of dynamically complex systems - The organization of chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procaccia, Itamar

    1988-06-01

    The complex dynamic behavior of natural systems far from equilibrium is discussed. Progress that has been made in understanding universal aspects of the paths to such behavior, of the trajectories at the borderline of chaos, and of the nature of the complexity in the chaotic regime, is reviewed. The emerging grammar of chaos is examined.

  1. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Systems From Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    interacting particles, and t is the time step. Español and Warren (1995) showed that the system samples the canonical ensemble and obeys the...Sloan, J.; Napadensky, E.; Beyer, R.; Snyder, J.; Chung, P. W.; McKnight, S. 25th Army Science Conference, 2006. Español , P.; Warren, P. B

  2. EMP Shielding Properties of Conduit Systems and Related Hardware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    degradation in performance. An integral part of this EMP-shielding system is the condut runs that carry the instrumentation and power cables between the...Practically, however, heat loss from the chamber combined with the thermal inertia of the chamber and thermostat cause these values to vary with time. These

  3. AC Breakdown Properties of Bamboo-Ice Composite System at Cryogenic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiji, Yuhei; Muramoto, Yuji; Shimizu, Noriyuki

    In recent years biomaterials attract attention in various fields to solve environmental problems. Bamboo is naturally decomposed and characterized by its excellent elasticity, split and water absorption property. We consider that bamboo-ice composite system can be used as a substitute of GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics), which is not decomposed, in electrical insulation system at cryogenic region. In this paper we will report the effect of water absorption on ac breakdown of bamboo-ice composite system in liquid nitrogen. Ac breakdown properties of bamboo-ice composite system depend on water absorption and structure of bamboo.

  4. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    PubMed

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  5. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    by which wave motion in soft tissues is generated and measured. The measurement concept thus developed, called convergent field elastography ( CFE ...Figure 1. CFE concept. Color contour plots illustrate soft tissue displacements parallel to the transducer beam axes. (A) The annular force generation...together enable CFE to image 2-3 times deeper than existing systems. WORK COMPLETED Ultrasonic data collected on live cetaceans was used to

  6. Biogeochemical properties of eddies in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenillat, Fanny; Franks, Peter J. S.; Combes, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    The California Current System (CCS) has intense mesoscale activity that modulates and exports biological production from the coastal upwelling system. To characterize and quantify the ability of mesoscale eddies to affect the local and regional planktonic ecosystem of the CCS, we analyzed a 10 year-long physical-biological model simulation, using eddy detection and tracking to isolate the dynamics of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. As they propagate westward across the shelf, cyclonic eddies efficiently transport coastal planktonic organisms and maintain locally elevated production for up to 1 year (800 km offshore). Anticyclonic eddies, on the other hand, have a limited impact on local production over their ~6 month lifetime as they propagate 400 km offshore. At any given time ~8% of the model domain was covered by eddy cores. Though the eddies cover a small area, they explain ~50 and 20% of the transport of nitrate and plankton, respectively.

  7. Biogeochemical Properties of Eddies in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenillat, Fanny; Franks, Peter J. S.; Combes, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The California Current System (CCS) is a coastal upwelling system characterized by intense mesoscale activity. This mesoscale activity plays a critical role in modulating biological production and exporting coastal biogeochemical materials offshore. To characterize and quantify the ability of mesoscale eddies to affect local and regional planktonic ecosystems in the CCS, we analyzed a 10-year-long physical-biological model simulation - with 5km horizontal resolution - using eddy detection and tracking to isolate the dynamics in cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. At any given time, ~8% of the model domain was covered by eddies, and this small area belies ~50% of the cross-shelf biological transport. As they propagate westward across the shelf, cyclonic eddies efficiently transport coastal planktonic organisms, and maintain locally elevated production, Anticyclones, on the other hand, have a limited impact on local production.

  8. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties of the cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Cardiovascular electromechanical measurements were collected on returning Skylab crewmembers at rest and during both lower body negative pressure and exercise stress testing. These data were compared with averaged responses from multiple preflight tests. Systolic time intervals and first heart sound amplitude changes were measured. Clinical cardiovascular examinations and clinical phonocardiograms were evaluated. All changes noted returned to normal within 30 days postflight so that the processes appear to be transient and self limited. The cardiovascular system seems to adapt quite readily to zero-g, and more importantly it is capable of readaptation to one-g after long duration space flight. Repeated exposures to zero-g also appear to have no detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system.

  9. The right of women in property sharing in Bangladesh: Can the islamic inheritance system eliminate discrimination?

    PubMed

    Khan, Issa; Abdullah, Md Faruk; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to discover the best solution for women's property sharing between Islamic and current social practices in Bangladesh. A qualitative method has been adopted to achieve this goal. It is found that the majority of the women are marginalised from their property in the social practice. On the other hand, in the Islamic solution, the property is fixed for all classes of women and is based on a property sharing system called fara'id that takes into account the roles and responsibilities of man and woman in the society. Men are responsible for providing maintenance to their wives and children. Men in Islamic society should bear expenditure related to marriage. The research concludes that the Islamic solution is fair and ensures just property sharing rights for women. It suggests that the Islamic solution for property sharing should be implemented to empower women in Bangladesh.

  10. 32 CFR 37.605 - What is the general policy on participants' financial, property, and purchasing systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...' financial, property, and purchasing systems? 37.605 Section 37.605 National Defense Department of Defense... Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems § 37.605 What is the general policy on participants' financial, property, and purchasing systems? The general policy for...

  11. Entropic properties of D-dimensional Rydberg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toranzo, I. V.; Puertas-Centeno, D.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2016-11-01

    The fundamental information-theoretic measures (the Rényi Rp [ ρ ] and Tsallis Tp [ ρ ] entropies, p > 0) of the highly-excited (Rydberg) quantum states of the D-dimensional (D > 1) hydrogenic systems, which include the Shannon entropy (p → 1) and the disequilibrium (p = 2), are analytically determined by use of the strong asymptotics of the Laguerre orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of these states. We first realize that these quantities are derived from the entropic moments of the quantum-mechanical probability ρ(r →) densities associated to the Rydberg hydrogenic wavefunctions Ψ n , l , { μ }(r →) , which are closely connected to the Lp-norms of the associated Laguerre polynomials. Then, we determine the (n → ∞)-asymptotics of these norms in terms of the basic parameters of our system (the dimensionality D, the nuclear charge and the hyperquantum numbers (n , l , { μ }) of the state) by use of recent techniques of approximation theory. Finally, these three entropic quantities are analytically and numerically discussed in terms of the basic parameters of the system for various particular states.

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  13. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  14. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  15. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  16. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  18. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  19. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  20. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  1. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  2. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  3. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    While the types of cases reported in this year's chapter are essentially the same as those reported in last year's, the number of certain types of cases have changed--in some instances significantly. For example, the number of cases raising constitutional issues in the areas of school construction, location, and property use have declined. On the…

  5. Structural Properties and Estimation of Delay Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, R. H. S.

    1975-01-01

    Two areas in the theory of delay systems were studied: structural properties and their applications to feedback control, and optimal linear and nonlinear estimation. The concepts of controllability, stabilizability, observability, and detectability were investigated. The property of pointwise degeneracy of linear time-invariant delay systems is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for three dimensional linear systems to be made pointwise degenerate by delay feedback were obtained, while sufficient conditions for this to be possible are given for higher dimensional linear systems. These results were applied to obtain solvability conditions for the minimum time output zeroing control problem by delay feedback. A representation theorem is given for conditional moment functionals of general nonlinear stochastic delay systems, and stochastic differential equations are derived for conditional moment functionals satisfying certain smoothness properties.

  6. Fluency Profiling System: an automated system for analyzing the temporal properties of speech.

    PubMed

    Little, Daniel R; Oehmen, Raoul; Dunn, John; Hird, Kathryn; Kirsner, Kim

    2013-03-01

    The temporal characteristics of speech can be captured by examining the distributions of the durations of measurable speech components, namely speech segment durations and pause durations. However, several barriers prevent the easy analysis of pause durations: The first problem is that natural speech is noisy, and although recording contrived speech minimizes this problem, it also discards diagnostic information about cognitive processes inherent in the longer pauses associated with natural speech. The second issue concerns setting the distribution threshold, and consists of the problem of appropriately classifying pause segments as either short pauses reflecting articulation or long pauses reflecting cognitive processing, while minimizing the overall classification error rate. This article describes a fully automated system for determining the locations of speech-pause transitions and estimating the temporal parameters of both speech and pause distributions in natural speech. We use the properties of Gaussian mixture models at several stages of the analysis, in order to identify theoretical components of the data distributions, to classify speech components, to compute durations, and to calculate the relevant statistics.

  7. Spontaneous polarizations, electrical properties, and phononic properties of GaN nanostructures and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Takayuki; Sun, Ke; Li, Yang; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A.

    2007-02-01

    Spontaneous polarizations of GaN nanostructures and quantum dots are calculated for different surface terminations. In addition, dimensionally-confined phonons in GaN-based nanostructures are discussed. GaN-based nanostructures have applications in a variety of systems and concepts including: non-charge-transfer-based devices and single-photon detectors based on GaN-based double-barrier quantum-well injectors, conductive-polymer collectors, and colloidal quantum dot recombination regions. In this paper, application of photodetectors is considered along with the related application of using colloidal quantum-dot-based ensembles for solar cell applications.

  8. Systems properties of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd metabolic genotype.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J S; Palsson, B O

    1999-06-18

    Haemophilus influenzae Rd was the first free-living organism for which the complete genomic sequence was established. The annotated sequence and known biochemical information was used to define the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype. This genotype contains 488 metabolic reactions operating on 343 metabolites. The stoichiometric matrix was used to determine the systems characteristics of the metabolic genotype and to assess the metabolic capabilities of H. influenzae. The need to balance cofactor and biosynthetic precursor production during growth on mixed substrates led to the definition of six different optimal metabolic phenotypes arising from the same metabolic genotype, each with different constraining features. The effects of variations in the metabolic genotype were also studied, and it was shown that the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype contains redundant functions under defined conditions. We thus show that the synthesis of in silico metabolic genotypes from annotated genome sequences is possible and that systems analysis methods are available that can be used to analyze and interpret phenotypic behavior of such genotypes.

  9. System for throttling and compensation for variable feedstock properties

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, J. W.

    1981-05-05

    Apparatus is shown for adjusting the feed rate of pulverized feed material into a pressurized container. The apparatus also has utility for compensating for variations in the permeability of the feed material. A rotor that includes sprues with provision for controlling the pressure distribution along the sprues is located within the pressurized container. The rotor hub is connected to a drive means and a material supply means which extend through the wall of the container. A line for controlling pressure along the sprues by gas injection is connected to a chamber between sections of the sprue for controlling gas pressure at that point. The gas pressure control line is connected to a pressurized gas source and a control system external to the rotor. 10 figs.

  10. System for throttling and compensation for variable feedstock properties

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is shown for adjusting the feed rate of pulverized feed material into a pressurized container. The apparatus also has utility for compensating for variations in the permeability of the feed material. A rotor that includes sprues with provision for controlling the pressure distribution along the sprues is located within the pressurized container. The rotor hub is connected to a drive means and a material supply means which extend through the wall of the container. A line for controlling pressure along the sprues by gas injection is connected to a chamber between sections of the sprue for controlling gas pressure at that point. The gas pressure control line is connected to a pressurized gas source and a control system external to the rotor.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of mesoscale convective systems observed during BAMEX

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, James; Arritt, R.

    2008-11-01

    Dropsonde observations from the Bow-echo and Mesoscale convective vortex EXperiment (BAMEX) are used to document the spatio-temporal variability of temperature, moisture and wind within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Onion type sounding structures are found throughout the stratiform region of MCSs but the temperature and moisture variability is large. Composite soundings were constructed and statistics of thermodynamic variability were generated within each sub-region of the MCS. The calculated air vertical velocity helped identify subsaturated downdrafts. We found that lapse rates within the cold pool varied markedly throughout the MCS. Layered wet bulb potential temperature profiles seem to indicate that air within the lowest several km comes from a variety of source regions. We also found that lapse rate transitions across the 0 C level were more common than isothermal, melting layers. We discuss the implications these findings have and how they can be used to validate future high resolution numerical simulations of MCSs.

  12. Glass formation and properties in the gallia-calcia system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whichard, G.; Day, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The critical cooling rate for glass formation was measured for five compositions in the Ga2O3-CaO system and varied from a low of (315 + or - 85) C/s for a eutectic melt containing 37.5 mol pct Ga2O3 to a high of (840 + or - 60) C/s for a melt containing 52 mol pct Ga2O3. The density and refractive index both increased with increasing Ga2O3 content, but the crystallization temperature and microhardness varied only slightly. The IR spectra of these glasses suggest that both GaO4 tetrahedra and GaO6 octahedra are present.

  13. Equilibrium properties of a one-dimensional kinetic system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H.; Joyce, G.

    1973-01-01

    One-dimensional systems of N = 500 and 250 particles in equilibrium are numerically simulated utilizing the method of molecular dynamics. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed. The classical two-body interaction potential is short range, repulsive and has a corresponding finite force. The equations of state are determined for densities both less and greater than one. Corresponding theoretical isochores are determined from models based on nearest-neighbor interactions and on a truncated virial expansion, and a comparison is made with the experimental isochores. Time independent radial distributions are constructed numerically and discussed. A change of state from a solidlike state to a fluid-gas state based on the penetrability of the particles is predicted. The transition temperatures are estimated from the radial distribution functions and the nearest-neighbor model. Self-diffusion is observed and the corresponding constants are determined from the velocity autocorrelation functions.

  14. A Design Quality Learning Unit in Relational Data Modeling Based on Thriving Systems Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a learning unit that addresses quality design in relational data models. The focus on modeling allows the learning to span analysis, design, and implementation enriching pedagogy across the systems development life cycle. Thriving Systems Theory presents fifteen choice properties that convey design quality in models integrating…

  15. Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...

  16. The Equity, Adequacy and Educational Effects of a Property Tax Redistribution Finance System: Vermont's Act 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.; Fleming, Brenda L.

    Vermont's Act 60 is arguably the most equitable school funding system in the nation. However, it is also one of the most controversial. The disputes are primarily focused on the recapture provision that sends excess revenues from property-rich towns to the state's education trust fund. After a 4-year implementation period, the system is now in its…

  17. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controls? 900.54 Section 900.54 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes...

  18. Connecting the Silicate Dust and Gas Properties of Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; Morrison, Sean

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our program investigating the silicate dust properties in distant galaxies using quasar absorption systems. The dust and gas properties of distant galaxies can be characterized by studying the absorption features produced by them along the sightlines to luminous background quasars. Based on our prior finding that silicate dust absorption in z<1.5 quasar absorption systems exhibits a range of optical depths and absorption feature substructures, suggestive of silicate grain property variations, we are investigating silicate dust absorption in quasar absorption systems toward quasars with archival Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra. We present our measurements of the 10 and/or 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature(s) in these systems, and discuss constraints on the grain properties, such as composition and crystallinity, based on the shape and substructure present in these features. We also investigate the correlations between the silicate dust properties and the reddening. Connections between the silicate dust and gas phase metal absorption properties can also be probed for some of our targets with archival ground-based spectra. These relationships will yield valuable insights into the star formation history and evolution of metals and dust. This work is supported by NASA through ADAP grant NNX14AG74G and by an award issued by JPL/Caltech, and from US-NSF grant AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  19. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Dana L; Miyata, Sarah T; Kitaoka, Maya; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2010-11-09

    The acute diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is structurally similar to the bacteriophage cell-puncturing device, has been recently identified in V. cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum. We tested the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain V52, an O37 serogroup with a constitutively active T6SS. V52 was found to be highly virulent toward multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, and caused up to a 100,000-fold reduction in E. coli survival. Because the T6SS-deficient mutants V52ΔvasK and V52ΔvasH showed toxicity defects that could be complemented, virulence displayed by V. cholerae depends on a functional T6SS. V. cholerae V52 and strains of the O1 serogroup were resistant to V52, suggesting that V. cholerae has acquired immunity independently of its serogroup. We hypothesize that the T6SS, in addition to targeting eukaryotic host cells, confers toxicity toward other bacteria, providing a means of interspecies competition to enhance environmental survival. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS may enhance the survival of V. cholerae in its aquatic ecosystem during the transmission of cholera and between epidemics.

  20. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-03-15

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N{sub t}+curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R{sup 3} depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R{sup 4}(t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented.

  1. Optomechanical properties of a particle-waveguide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    The balances of the electromagnetic powers and momentum flows for the system of a dielectric particle and a dielectric slab waveguide are studied. The emphasis is made on the regime when whispering gallery resonances in the particle are excited. The excitation is achieved by a guided mode that has either transverse electric or magnetic polarization. The scattering problem is solved by using an analytical representation of the solution with subsequent numerical approach to find the scattered fields with high accuracy. It accounts rigorously for the interaction between the particle and the waveguide. It is found that the propelling force on the particle can be comparable to or even exceed the value of the momentum flow of the incident mode. This is related to a highly anisotropic angular distribution of the bulk radiation that can carry some noticeable momentum in the longitudinal direction. The bulk radiation carries also nonvanishing momentum in the transverse direction giving rise to a difference in the transverse forces experienced by the particle and by the waveguide. The strong coupling between the particle and the waveguide operating in the single-mode regime is shown to upshift slightly the resonant frequencies with decreasing gap between the particle and the waveguide.

  2. Electric properties of the Beryllium-11 system in Halo EFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Phillips, D. R.

    2011-08-01

    We compute E1 transitions and electric radii in the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the leading-order parameters of the EFT from measured data on the 1/2 and 1/2 levels in 11Be and the B(E1) strength for the transition between them. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength for Coulomb dissociation of the 11Be nucleus to the continuum. We also compute the charge radii of the 1/2 and 1/2 states. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also discuss how next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections involving both s-wave and p-wave 10Be-neutron interactions affect our results, and display the NLO predictions for quantities which are free of additional short-distance operators at this order. Information on neutron- 10Be scattering in the relevant channels is inferred.

  3. The near-infrared properties of compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia Suzanne

    I present H- and K-band light curves of the dwarf nova cataclysmic variable (CV), IP Peg, and the novalike CV, RW Tri, and an H-band light curve of the novalike CV, SW Sex. All three systems showed contributions from the late-type secondary star and the accretion disk, including a primary eclipse of the accretion disk by the secondary star and a secondary eclipse of the star by the disk. The ellipsoidal variations of the secondary star in IP Peg were modeled and subtracted from the data. The subtracted light curves show a pronounced double-hump variation, resembling those seen in the dwarf novae WZ Sge and AL Com. The primary eclipse was modeled using maximum entropy disk mapping techniques. The accretion disk has a flat intensity distribution and a low brightness temperature (Tbr ~= 3000-4000 K). Superimposed on the face of the disk is the bright spot, where the mass accretion stream impacts the disk; the position of the bright spot is different from the range of positions seen at visible wavelengths. The near-infrared accretion disk flux is dominated by optically thin emission. The eclipse depth is too shallow to be caused by a fully opaque accretion disk. The NIR light curves in RW Tri show a deep primary eclipse of the accretion disk, ellipsoidal variations from the secondary star, a secondary eclipse, and strong flickering in the disk flux. The depth of the secondary eclipse indicates that the accretion disk is opaque. The light curve also has a hump extending from φ = 0.1-0.9 which was successfully modeled as flux from the inner face of the secondary star when heated by a ~0.2 L Lsolar source. The radial brightness temperature profile of the outer disk is consistent with models of a disk in steady-state for a mass transfer rate of M~=5×10- 10 Msolaryr- 1 . At small disk radii, however, the brightness temperature profile is flatter than the steady-state model. The H-band light curve of SW Sex is dominated by emission from the accretion disk. As in RW Tri

  4. Mechanical and thermal properties of composite material system reinforced with micro glass balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Ishiwatari, H.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanical and thermal properties of polymer composites reinforced with micro glass balloons are investigated in temperature conditions. The matrix resin of the composite is epoxy resin and its dispersion is micro glassy spherical shells of Sirasu Balloon. The composite system developed is a kind of micro porous materials with lightweight. From the experimental data of bending and tension tests, mechanical behaviours of the composites were clarified, and the effects of material properties and configurations on the mechanical properties of composites were discussed from the viewpoint of micromechanical study. A homogenization theory with multi-scale analytical method has been applied in order to evaluate the composite material system in temperature conditions. Numerical calculations were performed by using a model of micro porous materials and setting properties of each material at the temperature. Analytical results for the mechanical behaviour made a good agreement with experimental result of the composites in temperature conditions.

  5. Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Distant Galaxies Probed by Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2015-01-01

    Dust grains are a fundamental component of the interstellar medium, and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, including star formation, and the heating, cooling and ionization of interstellar material. Using the absorption features produced by dust in the spectra of luminous background quasars, it is possible to study the properties of extragalactic interstellar dust grains. We will present results from an ongoing program utilizing existing Spitzer Space Telescope infrared quasar spectra to probe silicate dust grain properties in z<1.4 quasar absorption systems. In combination with complementary ground-based data on associated gas-phase metal absorption lines, we explore connections between the interstellar dust and gas in the quasar absorption systems. Our project yields clear detections of the 10 micron silicate dust absorption feature in the studied systems, as well as detections of the 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature in sources with adequate spectral coverage. Based on measured variations in the breath, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 micron absorption features, there appear to be differences in the silicate dust grain properties from system-to-system. We also show indications of trends between the gas-phase metal properties, such as metallicity and gas velocity spread, with the silicate dust grain absorption properties. Support for this work is provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech and through NASA grant NNX14AG74G, and from National Science Foundation grants AST-0908890 and AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  6. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  7. Time-Dependent Density Functional Computations of the Spectrochemical Properties of Dithiolodithiole and Thiophene Electrochromic Systems.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Bruna Clara; Mazzone, Gloria; Marino, Tiziana; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    2017-08-23

    The importance of organic electrochromic materials has grown considerably in recent decades due to their application in smart window, automotive, and aircraft technologies. Theoretical prediction of the optical properties should contribute to their better characterization and help the explanation of the experimental data. By using various exchange-correlation functionals, we show how density functional theory (DFT) and the related time-dependent formulation (TDDFT) are able to correctly reproduce the spectrochemical properties of dithiolodithiole and thiophene organic electrochromic systems.

  8. Time-Dependent Density Functional Computations of the Spectrochemical Properties of Dithiolodithiole and Thiophene Electrochromic Systems

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Bruna Clara; Mazzone, Gloria; Marino, Tiziana; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    2017-01-01

    The importance of organic electrochromic materials has grown considerably in recent decades due to their application in smart window, automotive, and aircraft technologies. Theoretical prediction of the optical properties should contribute to their better characterization and help the explanation of the experimental data. By using various exchange–correlation functionals, we show how density functional theory (DFT) and the related time-dependent formulation (TDDFT) are able to correctly reproduce the spectrochemical properties of dithiolodithiole and thiophene organic electrochromic systems. PMID:28832528

  9. Prediction of thermomagnetic and thermoelectric properties for novel materials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, A. A.; Kavokin, Alexey V.

    2013-08-01

    We express the link between conductivity and coefficients of Seebeck, Nernst-Ettingshausen, Peltier, and Thompson and Reghi-Leduc via the temperature derivative of the chemical potential of a system. These general expressions are applied to three-, two- and one-dimensional systems of charge carriers having a parabolic or Dirac spectrum. The method allows for predicting thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties of novel materials and systems.

  10. Modelling and properties of a nonlinear autonomous switching system in fed-batch culture of glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Sun, Qingying; Feng, Enmin

    2012-11-01

    A nonlinear autonomous switching system is proposed to describe the coupled fed-batch fermentation with the pH as the feedback parameter. We prove the non-Zeno behaviors of the switching system and some basic properties of its solution, including the existence, uniqueness, boundedness and regularity. Numerical simulation is also carried out, which reveals that the proposed system can describe the factual fermentation process properly.

  11. Focusing properties of a three-element quadrupole lens system and its stigmatic focusing behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Yu.

    The focusing properties of a three-element quadrupole lens system (triplet) have been studied in its general thick-lens form, and analytical expressions of corresponding matrix elements have been obtained. A graphical method has been utilized to determine the stigmatic focusing region of the triplet system generally, and in the special case of electrostatic triplet system installed in 'on-line SPIN-3 facility' in YASNAPP-2, JINR.

  12. Complex fluids: probing mechanical properties of biological systems with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Wei, Ming-Tzo

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells are crucial for cell sensing and reaction to mechanical environments. This review describes the basic principles of optical tweezers and their use as force sensors for studying the mechanical properties of biological systems. It covers experiments of four groups of biological systems arranged by increasing complexity: (a) packaging DNA into viral capsids by bacteriophage portal motors and the dynamical stiffness of DNA upon protein binding, (b) actin-coated giant vesicles and the myosin-II embedded actin polymer network, (c) suspension cells, and (d) adhesion cells. These examples demonstrate how optical tweezers have been used to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of biological systems at subcellular and molecular levels.

  13. Determining stationary-state quantum properties directly from system-environment interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicacio, F.; Paternostro, M.; Ferraro, A.

    2016-11-01

    Considering stationary states of continuous-variable systems undergoing an open dynamics, we unveil the connection between properties and symmetries of the latter and the dynamical parameters. In particular, we explore the relation between the Lyapunov equation for dynamical systems and the steady-state solutions of a time-independent Lindblad master equation for bosonic modes. Exploiting bona fide relations that characterize some genuine quantum properties (entanglement, classicality, and steerability), we obtain conditions on the dynamical parameters for which the system is driven to a steady state possessing such properties. We also develop a method to capture the symmetries of a steady state based on symmetries of the Lyapunov equation. All the results and examples can be useful for steady-state engineering processes.

  14. Portable, Fiber-Based, Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DRS) Systems for Estimating Tissue Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Chang, Kevin; Klein, Daniel; Deng, Yu Feng; Chang, Vivide; Phelps, Janelle E.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a well-studied optical technique that can provide a noninvasive and quantitative method for characterizing the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. Here, we compare three fiber-based diffuse reflection spectroscopy systems that were assembled to create a light-weight, portable, and robust optical spectrometer that could be easily translated for repeated and reliable use in mobile settings. The three systems were built using a broadband light source and a compact, commercially available spectrograph. We tested two different light sources and two spectrographs (manufactured by two different vendors). The assembled systems were characterized by their signal-to-noise ratios, the source-intensity drifts, and detector linearity. We quantified the performance of these instruments in extracting optical properties from diffuse reflectance spectra in tissue-mimicking liquid phantoms with well-controlled optical absorption and scattering coefficients. We show that all assembled systems were able to extract the optical absorption and scattering properties with errors less than 10%, while providing greater than ten-fold decrease in footprint and cost (relative to a previously well-characterized and widely used commercial system). Finally, we demonstrate the use of these small systems to measure optical biomarkers in vivo in a small-animal model cancer therapy study. We show that optical measurements from the simple portable system provide estimates of tumor oxygen saturation similar to those detected using the commercial system in murine tumor models of head and neck cancer. PMID:21499501

  15. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  16. An electronic system for measuring thermophysical properties of wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corwin, R. R.; Kramer, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    An electronic system is described which measures the surface temperature of a small portion of the surface of the model or sample at high speeds using an infrared radiometer. This data is processed along with heating rate data from the reference heat gauge in a small computer and prints out the desired thermophysical properties, time, surface temperature, and reference heat rate. This system allows fast and accurate property measurements over thirty temperature increments. The technique, the details of the apparatus, the procedure for making these measurements, and the results of some preliminary tests are presented.

  17. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  18. Quantum properties of parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman-type atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharypov, A. V.; He, Bing; Arkhipkin, V. G.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the quantum properties of two light fields used in parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman-type atomic system. The system realizes an effective Hamiltonian of beam-splitter-type coupling between the light fields, which allows one to control squeezing and amplitude distribution of the light fields, as well as realizing their entanglement. The scheme can be feasibly applied to engineer the quantum properties of two single-mode light fields in properly chosen input states.

  19. Structural and electronic properties of the graphene/Al/Ni(111) intercalation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshina, E. N.; Generalov, A.; Weser, M.; Böttcher, S.; Horn, K.; Dedkov, Yu S.

    2011-11-01

    Decoupling of the graphene layer from the ferromagnetic substrate via intercalation of sp metal has recently been proposed as an effective way to realize a single-layer graphene-based spin-filter. Here, the structural and electronic properties of the prototype system, graphene/Al/Ni(111), are investigated via a combination of electron diffraction and spectroscopic methods. These studies are accompanied by state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations. The properties of this prospective Al-intercalation-like system and its possible implementations in future graphene-based devices are discussed.

  20. Probing the Microscopic with the Macroscopic: from Properties of Star Cluster Systems to Properties of Cluster-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, G.

    To understand how systems of star clusters have reached their presently observed properties constitutes a powerful probe into the physics of cluster formation, without needing to resort to high spatial resolution observations of individual cluster-forming regions (CFRg) in distant galaxies. In this contribution I focus on the mass-radius relation of CFRgs, how it can be uncovered by studying the gas expulsion phase of forming star clusters, and what the implications are. I demonstrate that, through the tidal field impact upon exposed star clusters, the CFRg mass-radius relation rules cluster infant weight-loss in dependence of cluster mass. The observational constraint of a time-invariant slope for the power-law young cluster mass function is robustly satisfied by CFRgs with a constant mean volume density. In contrast, a constant mean surface density would be conducive to the preferential destruction of high-mass clusters. A purely dynamical line-of-reasoning leads therefore to a conclusion consistent with star formation a process driven by a volume density threshold. Developing this concept further, properties of molecular clumps and CFRgs naturally get dissociated. This allows to understand: (i) why the star cluster mass function is steeper than the molecular cloud/clump mass function; (ii) the presence of a massive star formation limit in the mass-size space of molecular structures.

  1. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; Morrison, Sean

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 μm silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  2. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  3. Ultrasonic model and system for measurement of corneal biomechanical properties and validation on phantoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; He, Xiaoyin; Pan, Xueliang; Roberts, Cynthia J

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of biomechanical properties of corneas may provide important information for ocular disease management and therapeutic procedures. An ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation method with a wave propagation model was developed to determine corneal biomechanical properties in vivo. In this study, we tested the feasibility of the approach in differentiating the mechanical properties of soft contact lenses as corneal phantoms. Three material types of soft contact lenses (six samples in each group) were measured using a broadband ultrasound transducer. The ultrasonic reflections from the contact lenses were recorded by a 500MHz/8-bit digitizer, and displayed and processed by a PC. A reference signal was recorded to compute the normalized power spectra using Fast Fourier Transformation. An inverse algorithm based on least-squares minimization was used to reconstruct three parameters of the contact lenses: density, thickness, and elastic constants lambda+2micro. The thickness of each sample was verified using an electronic thickness gauge, and the averaged density for each type of lenses was verified using Archimedes' principle and manufacturer's report. Our results demonstrated that the ultrasonic system was able to differentiate the elastic properties of the three types of the soft contact lenses with statistical significance (P-value<0.001). The reconstructed thicknesses and densities agreed well with the independent measurements. Our studies on corneal phantoms indicated that the ultrasonic system was sensitive and accurate in measuring the material properties of cornea-like structures. It is important to optimize the system for in vivo measurements.

  4. Paraxial properties of three-element zoom systems for laser beam expanders.

    PubMed

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel

    2014-09-08

    Our work is focused on the problem of theoretical analysis of paraxial properties of the three-element zoom optical system for laser beam expanders. Equations that enable to calculate mutual axial distances between individual elements of the system based on the axial position of the beam waist of the input Gaussian beam and the desired magnification of the system are derived. Finally, the derived equations are applied on an example of calculation of paraxial parameters of the three-element zoom system for the laser beam expander.

  5. Measuring the electrical properties of soil using a calibrated ground-coupled GPR system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Olhoeft, G.R.; Wright, D.L.; Powers, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating vadose zone soil properties using ground penetrating radar (GPR) include measuring travel time, fitting diffraction hyperbolae, and other methods exploiting geometry. Additional processing techniques for estimating soil properties are possible with properly calibrated GPR systems. Such calibration using ground-coupled antennas must account for the effects of the shallow soil on the antenna's response, because changing soil properties result in a changing antenna response. A prototype GPR system using ground-coupled antennas was calibrated using laboratory measurements and numerical simulations of the GPR components. Two methods for estimating subsurface properties that utilize the calibrated response were developed. First, a new nonlinear inversion algorithm to estimate shallow soil properties under ground-coupled antennas was evaluated. Tests with synthetic data showed that the inversion algorithm is well behaved across the allowed range of soil properties. A preliminary field test gave encouraging results, with estimated soil property uncertainties (????) of ??1.9 and ??4.4 mS/m for the relative dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, respectively. Next, a deconvolution method for estimating the properties of subsurface reflectors with known shapes (e.g., pipes or planar interfaces) was developed. This method uses scattering matrices to account for the response of subsurface reflectors. The deconvolution method was evaluated for use with noisy data using synthetic data. Results indicate that the deconvolution method requires reflected waves with a signal/noise ratio of about 10:1 or greater. When applied to field data with a signal/noise ratio of 2:1, the method was able to estimate the reflection coefficient and relative permittivity, but the large uncertainty in this estimate precluded inversion for conductivity. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  6. Barium titanate tape properties for MLCC application using different binder systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dang-Hyok

    Most of multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) industries are currently using solvent-based slip systems, although water-based slips have been receiving increasing attention due to reduced health and environmental hazards. The current work focuses on two main fields to meet the challenges in MLCC processing in aqueous media. One is the comparison between water- and solvent-based slip systems using design of experiments (DOE). The other is the understanding of Ba2+ ion leaching behavior in water and its effect on tape properties. For the first part, twenty four kinds of BaTiO3 slips were investigated using three different binder systems: one solvent-based, and two water-based systems. Tape casting, sintering and characterization were conducted. Slip viscosity and tape strength of the green tape depended significantly on the binder type. It was possible to achieve a higher green density for water-based system than that for a solvent-based one. Most of the green body properties from solvent-based system depended on the ceramic powder. On the other hand, the dispersant was the most significant factor for the green body properties of two water-based systems. Sintered properties such as microstructure and dielectric permittivity for three systems depended significantly on the type of ceramic powder. An optimization was performed for each system by means of a scorecard. By choosing the optimum condition, comparable results were drawn for the water-based system compared to a solvent-based one for MLCC application. For the second part, the amount of Ba2+ ion leaching from BaTiO3 in water was determined by an EDTA titration method. The greater extent and the faster rate of Ba2+ leaching were found at the lower solution pH. The excess free barium ions expressed by means of the Ba/Ti ratio adversely affected most tape properties. To passivate BaTiO 3 surface from Ba2+ ion leaching in water, passivation agent layer (PAL) was formed by drying the slurry after adding a commercial

  7. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  8. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system. PMID:27042378

  9. Atomistic Modeling of Surface and Bulk Properties of Cu, Pd and the Cu-Pd System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Garces, Jorge E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip; Mosca, Hugo O.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is applied to the study of the Cu-Pd system. A variety of issues are analyzed and discussed, including the properties of pure Cu or Pd crystals (surface energies, surface relaxations), Pd/Cu and Cu/Pd surface alloys, segregation of Pd (or Cu) in Cu (or Pd), concentration dependence of the lattice parameter of the high temperature fcc CuPd solid solution, the formation and properties of low temperature ordered phases, and order-disorder transition temperatures. Emphasis is made on the ability of the method to describe these properties on the basis of a minimum set of BFS universal parameters that uniquely characterize the Cu-Pd system.

  10. Mechanical properties of the Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system strain isolator pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation conducted to determine the static and fatigue properties of the Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) used on the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal protection system is described. Static tension-compression and shear test results show that the SIP is highly nonlinear and that it possesses a large hysteresis, a large low modulus region for low stress levels, and stress-strain properties that are highly sensitive to strain rate and previous load history. In addition, the shear properties are also found to be sensitive to forces applied normal to the plane of the pad and to the orientation of the material. For the undensified tile/SIP system, static and fatigue failure takes place at the SIP/tile interface at low stress levels and for a small number of cycles.

  11. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of mammalian neurons: insights into central nervous system function.

    PubMed

    Llinás, R R

    1988-12-23

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhythmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  12. The Intrinsic Electrophysiological Properties of Mammalian Neurons: Insights into Central Nervous System Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.

    1988-12-01

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhytmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  13. Mechanical properties of the Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system strain isolator pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation conducted to determine the static and fatigue properties of the Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) used on the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal protection system is described. Static tension-compression and shear test results show that the SIP is highly nonlinear and that it possesses a large hysteresis, a large low modulus region for low stress levels, and stress-strain properties that are highly sensitive to strain rate and previous load history. In addition, the shear properties are also found to be sensitive to forces applied normal to the plane of the pad and to the orientation of the material. For the undensified tile/SIP system, static and fatigue failure takes place at the SIP/tile interface at low stress levels and for a small number of cycles.

  14. Chemical components, pharmacological properties, and nanoparticulate delivery systems of Brucea javanica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meiwan; Chen, Ruie; Wang, Shengpeng; Tan, Wen; Hu, Yangyang; Peng, Xinsheng; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Brucea javanica has demonstrated a variety of antitumoral, antimalarial, and anti- inflammatory properties. As a Chinese herbal medicine, Brucea javanica is mainly used in the treatment of lung and gastrointestinal cancers. Pharmacological research has identified the main antitumor components are tetracyclic triterpene quassinoids. However, most of these active components have poor water solubility and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their clinical application. Nanoparticulate delivery systems are urgently needed to improve the bioavailability of Brucea javanica. This paper mainly focuses on the chemical components in Brucea javanica and its pharmacological properties and nanoparticulate formulations, in an attempt to encourage further research on its active components and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems to expand its clinical applications. It is expected to improve the level of pharmaceutical research and provide a strong scientific foundation for further study on the medicinal properties of this plant. PMID:23319860

  15. An electrodeless system for measurement of liquid sample dielectric properties in radio frequency band.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, V; Giovannetti, G; Vanello, N; Costantino, M; Landini, L; Benassi, A

    2006-01-01

    An electrodeless measurement system based on a resonant circuit is proposed for the measurement of dielectric properties of liquid samples at RF (radio frequency). Generally, properties as dielectric constant, loss factor and conductivity are measured by parallel plate capacitor cells: this method has several limitations in the case of particular liquid samples and in the range of radiofrequencies. Our method is based on the measurements of resonance frequency and quality factor of a LC resonant circuit in different measuring conditions, without and with the liquid sample placed inside a test tube around which the home made coil is wrapped. The measurement is performed using a network analyzer and a dual loop probe, inductively coupled with the resonant circuit. One of the advantages of this method is the contactless between the liquid sample and the measurement electrodes. In this paper the measurement system is described and test measurements of conventional liquids dielectric properties are reported.

  16. Thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of the DGEBA/PMR-15 blend system.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hwa-Young; Han, Mijeong; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2004-02-15

    In this work, the blend system of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and PMR-15 polyimide is investigated in terms of thermal and dynamic mechanical interfacial properties of the casting specimens. The thermal stabilities are studied by thermogravimetric and thermomechanical analyses, and the dynamic mechanical properties are carried out by dynamic mechanical analysis. The results show that the thermal stabilities based on the initial decomposition temperature, the integral procedural decomposition temperature, and the glass transition temperature are increased with increasing PMR-15 content. The crosslinking density (rho) of the blend system is increased at 10 phr of PMR-15, compared with that of neat epoxy. Mechanical interfacial properties measured in the context of critical stress intensity factor and critical strain energy release rate show similar behaviors with E(a) and rho, probably due to the increase in intermolecular interactions or hydrogen bondings in polymer chains.

  17. Growth of complex systems can be related to the properties of their underlying determinants

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Growth—increase in size, number, or amount—in many cases appears to follow simple empirical laws. Such laws have been noted in a wide variety of fields for many years. Until now these laws have never been related to the underlying determinants of these systems. By starting with fundamental properties of the component mechanisms in such systems, one can derive a basic growth equation for which the well-known laws of growth are special cases. PMID:16592715

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  19. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  20. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  1. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  2. Analytical model to relate DMFC material properties to optimum fuel efficiency and system size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Jeremy P.; Bennett, Brent

    In the design of the direct methanol fuel cell and the evaluation of new materials and their appropriateness for inclusion, it is helpful to consider the impact of material properties on the performance of a complete system: to some degree, methanol crossover losses can be mitigated by proper system design. As such, an analytical model is developed to evaluate the methanol concentration profile across the anode backing layer and membrane of the direct methanol fuel cell. The model is integrated down the anode flow channel to determine fuel utilization as a function of the feed concentration, backing layer properties, and membrane properties. A minimum stoichiometric ratio is determined based on maintaining zero-order methanol kinetics, which allows the fuel efficiency to be optimized by controlling these physical properties. This analysis is then used to estimate the required flow rates and the size of system components such as the methanol storage tank, based on the minimum methanol flow rate that those components must produce to deliver a specified current; in this way, the system-level benefits of reduced membrane crossover can be evaluated.

  3. Sheep Grazing Effect on Dryland Soil Properties and Wheat Yield in the Wheat-Fallow System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

  4. Sheep Grazing in the Wheat-Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties and Grain Yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

  5. Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system

    Treesearch

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the fire-retardant properties of wood in one treatment using a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Phosphorus pentoxide and 16 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines were compounded in N,N-dimethylformamide and the resulting solutions containing phosphoramides were reacted with wood. The characteristics of...

  6. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Treesearch

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  7. Systematic analysis of gene properties influencing organ system phenotypes in mammalian perturbations.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Ingo; Prinz, Jeanette; Worf, Karolina; Campillos, Monica

    2014-11-01

    Diseases and adverse drug reactions are frequently caused by disruptions in gene functionality. Gaining insight into the global system properties governing the relationships between genotype and phenotype is thus crucial to understand and interfere with perturbations in complex organisms such as diseases states. We present a systematic analysis of phenotypic information of 5047 perturbations of single genes in mice, 4766 human diseases and 1666 drugs that examines the relationships between different gene properties and the phenotypic impact at the organ system level in mammalian organisms. We observe that while single gene perturbations and alterations of nonessential, tissue-specific genes or those with low betweenness centrality in protein-protein interaction networks often show organ-specific effects, multiple gene alterations resulting e.g. from complex disorders and drug treatments have a more widespread impact. Interestingly, certain cellular localizations are distinctly associated to systemic effects in monogenic disease genes and mouse gene perturbations, such as the lumen of intracellular organelles and transcription factor complexes, respectively. In summary, we show that the broadness of the phenotypic effect is clearly related to certain gene properties and is an indicator of the severity of perturbations. This work contributes to the understanding of gene properties influencing the systemic effects of diseases and drugs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Luminescence properties of Si-containing porous matrix–PbS nanoparticle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, S. A. Aleksandrova, O. A.; Lamkin, I. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Musikhin, S. F.; Nalimova, S. S.; Permyakov, N. V.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Travkin, P. G.

    2015-12-15

    The luminescence properties of systems that contain lead-sulfide nanoparticles deposited onto substrates fabricated from porous silicon, oxidized porous silicon, and porous (tin-oxide)–(silicon-oxide) layers are studied. It is shown that the structure and composition of the matrix induce a strong effect on the luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots, defining their emission wavelength.

  9. Time-averaged properties of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic orbits in ordinary differential equation systems.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Michio

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been found in some dynamical systems in fluid dynamics that only a few unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) with low periods can give good approximations to the mean properties of turbulent (chaotic) solutions. By employing three chaotic systems described by ordinary differential equations, we compare time-averaged properties of a set of UPOs and those of a set of segments of chaotic orbits. For every chaotic system we study, the distributions of a time average of a dynamical variable along UPOs with lower and higher periods are similar to each other and the variance of the distribution is small, in contrast with that along chaotic segments. The distribution seems to converge to some limiting distribution with nonzero variance as the period of the UPO increases, although that along chaotic orbits inclines to converge to a delta -like distribution. These properties seem to lie in the background of why only a few UPOs with low periods can give good mean statistical properties in dynamical systems in fluid dynamics.

  10. Estimation of trunk mechanical properties using system identification: effects of experimental setup and modelling assumptions.

    PubMed

    Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The use of system identification to quantify trunk mechanical properties is growing in biomechanics research. The effects of several experimental and modelling factors involved in the system identification of trunk mechanical properties were investigated. Trunk kinematics and kinetics were measured in six individuals when exposed to sudden trunk perturbations. Effects of motion sensor positioning and properties of elements between the perturbing device and the trunk were investigated by adopting different models for system identification. Results showed that by measuring trunk kinematics at a location other than the trunk surface, the deformation of soft tissues is erroneously included into trunk kinematics and results in the trunk being predicted as a more damped structure. Results also showed that including elements between the trunk and the perturbing device in the system identification model did not substantially alter model predictions. Other important parameters that were found to substantially affect predictions were the cut-off frequency used when low-pass filtering raw data and the data window length used to estimate trunk properties.

  11. Cloud Microphysical Properties in Mesoscale Convective Systems: An Intercomparison of Three Tropical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Coutris, Pierre; Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice; Strapp, John W.; Lilie, Lyle E.

    2017-04-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems are complex cloud systems which are primarily the result of specific synoptic conditions associated with mesoscale instabilities leading to the development of cumulonimbus type clouds (Houze, 2004). These systems can last several hours and can affect human societies in various ways. In general, weather and climate models use simplistic schemes to describe ice hydrometeors' properties. However, MCS are complex cloud systems where the dynamic, radiative and precipitation processes depend on spatiotemporal location in the MCS (Houze, 2004). As a consequence, hydrometeor growth processes in MCS vary in space and time, thereby impacting shape and concentration of ice crystals and finally CWC. As a consequence, differences in the representation of ice properties in models (Li et al., 2007, 2005) lead to significant disagreements in the quantification of ice cloud effects on climate evolution (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report). An accurate estimation of the spatiotemporal CWC distribution is therefore a key parameter for evaluating and improving numerical weather prediction (Stephens et al., 2002). The main purpose of this study is to show ice microphysical properties of MCS observed in three different locations in the tropical atmosphere: West-African continent, Indian Ocean, and Northern Australia. An intercomparison study is performed in order to quantify how similar or different are the ice hydrometeors' properties in these three regions related to radar reflectivity factors and temperatures observed in respective MCS.

  12. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  13. The Appearance of Equilibrium-like Properties in Driven Dissipative Systems in Complex Earth (and Other) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Klein, W.

    2001-05-01

    Driven dissipative systems constitute some of the most important nonlinear systems in geophysics. Examples include earthquakes, mantle convection, and the geodynamo. A number of these systems also appear to show behavior that is very similar to equilibrium systems residing near a critical point, namely, the appearance of scaling laws and in some cases, nucleation. Examples of scaling laws include the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, the Kolmogorov 5/3 law for turbulent fluid systems, and similar scaling laws (not named) for landslide frequency and wildfire occurrence. Examples of nucleation include earthquakes, the formation of hurricanes, and catastrophic landslides. A fundamental question is why such equilibrium-like scaling laws should be demonstrated in manifestly non-equilibrium systems, and why in many cases such systems seem to have ergodic properties. The answer to this question, at least in some cases, is evidently connected to the long-range nature of the interactions with which various parts of the system communicate. In recent years, a number of studies (JBR et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 1658, 1995; WK et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 3793, 1997; G. Morein et al., Geophys. J. Int., 131, 552, 1997; D. Fisher et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 4885, 1997; CD Ferguson et al., Phys. Rev. E., 60, 1359, 1999; DA Egolf, Science, 287, 101, 2000; IG Main et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6105, 2000; A. Hunt, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, 2001) have shown that when a system has mean field properties arising from long range interactions, together with a dynamical randomizing ("thermalizing") mechanisim, the system demonstrates ergodic behavior. In this lecture, I discuss these issues, along with recent examples that demonstrate how nucleation and critical phenomena arise, and how these processes can be physically understood. I also discuss how these results apply to other systems.

  14. Signal encoding in magnetic particle imaging: properties of the system function

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tomographic imaging technique capable of imaging magnetic tracer material at high temporal and spatial resolution. Image reconstruction requires solving a system of linear equations, which is characterized by a "system function" that establishes the relation between spatial tracer position and frequency response. This paper for the first time reports on the structure and properties of the MPI system function. Methods An analytical derivation of the 1D MPI system function exhibits its explicit dependence on encoding field parameters and tracer properties. Simulations are used to derive properties of the 2D and 3D system function. Results It is found that for ideal tracer particles in a harmonic excitation field and constant selection field gradient, the 1D system function can be represented by Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. Exact 1D image reconstruction can thus be performed using the Chebyshev transform. More realistic particle magnetization curves can be treated as a convolution of the derivative of the magnetization curve with the Chebyshev functions. For 2D and 3D imaging, it is found that Lissajous excitation trajectories lead to system functions that are closely related to tensor products of Chebyshev functions. Conclusion Since to date, the MPI system function has to be measured in time-consuming calibration scans, the additional information derived here can be used to reduce the amount of information to be acquired experimentally and can hence speed up system function acquisition. Furthermore, redundancies found in the system function can be removed to arrive at sparser representations that reduce memory load and allow faster image reconstruction. PMID:19335923

  15. Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling of Properties in Complex Actinide Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Atta Fynn, Raymond; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.; de Jong, Wibe A.

    2015-03-30

    In this chapter we focus on methodological and computational aspects that are key to accurately modeling the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular systems containing actinides within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. Our focus is on properties that require either an accurate relativistic all-electron description or an accurate description of the dynamical behavior of actinide species in an environment at finite temperature, or both. The implementation of the methods and the calculations discussed in this chapter were done with the NWChem software suite (Valiev et al. 2010). In the first two sections we discuss two methods that account for relativistic effects, the ZORA and the X2C Hamiltonian. Section 1.2.1 discusses the implementation of the approximate relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian and its extension to magnetic properties. Section 1.3 focuses on the exact X2C Hamiltonian and the application of this methodology to obtain accurate molecular properties. In Section 1.4 we examine the role of a dynamical environment at finite temperature as well as the presence of other ions on the thermodynamics of hydrolysis and exchange reaction mechanisms. Finally, Section 1.5 discusses the modeling of XAS (EXAFS, XANES) properties in realistic environments accounting for both the dynamics of the system and (for XANES) the relativistic effects.

  16. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique Christine; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald; Welty, Daniel; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. Recent studies of QASs also find trends in both the gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of gas-phase element abundances based on archival high-resolution optical spectra. We also discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between absorption redshift, gas metallicity, metal depletions, and silicate dust abundance, which will yield valuable insights into the star formation history. Support is provided by NASA through grant NNX14AG74G and by an award issued by JPL/Caltech, and from US-NSF grants AST-0908890 and AST-1108830 to the U. of S. Carolina.

  17. [Physical imaging properties of a flat panel X-ray detector system].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akira; Nakamura, Satoru; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Kohama, Chiyuki; Takahata, Akira; Fujikawa, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    We report the physical imaging properties of a flat panel detector (FPD) designed for radiographic imaging applications (Revolution XQ/i digital chest imaging system, G.E. Medical Systems). The imaging properties of the detector were evaluated through measurements of the characteristic curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), and Wiener spectrum. The digital characteristic curves of the FPD system were measured for the two tube voltages (80 kV and 120 kV). They showed that the correlation between the pixel values of FPD and the incident exposure to the FPD was a linear correlation. The dynamic range of characteristic curves had a range from about 0.003 to 2 microC/kg at the exposure. The presampling MTFs for different tube voltage were almost the same, when we measured the MTFs at 80 kV and 120 kV. And also, there was no significant difference between the MTFs measured with the slit in the direction parallel to the horizontal direction and with the slit in the perpendicular direction. The relative resolution of the FPD system was a 46% higher than that of ST-V imaging plate of FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography) system at 2 cycles/mm. The digital Wiener spectrum of the FPD system was about 1/10 lower than that of the CR system. Thus the FPD system can provide superior imaging performance due to both high resolution and low noise.

  18. Wave function properties of a single and a system of magnetic flux tube(s) oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Shahriar; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the properties of wave functions of the MHD oscillations for a single and a system of straight flux tubes are investigated. Magnetic flux tubes with a straight magnetic field and longitudinal density stratification were considered in zero-β approximation. A single three-dimensional wave equation (eigenvalue problem) is solved for longitudinal component of the perturbed magnetic field using the finite element method. Wave functions (eigenfunction of wave equation) of the MHD oscillations are categorized into sausage, kink, helical kink, and fluting modes. Exact recognition of the wave functions and the frequencies of oscillations can be used in coronal seismology and also helps to the future high-resolution instruments that would be designed for studying the properties of the solar loop oscillations in details. The properties of collective oscillations of nonidentical and identical system of flux tubes and their interactions are studied. The ratios of frequencies, the oscillation frequencies of a system of flux tubes to their equivalent monolithic tube (ω sys/ω mono), are obtained between 0.748 and 0.841 for a system of nonidentical tubes, whereas the related ratios of frequencies for a system of identical flux tubes are fluctuated around 0.761.

  19. Lotka-Volterra systems satisfying a strong Painlevé property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bountis, Tassos; Vanhaecke, Pol

    2016-12-01

    We use a strong version of the Painlevé property to discover and characterize a new class of n-dimensional Hamiltonian Lotka-Volterra systems, which turn out to be Liouville integrable as well as superintegrable. These systems are in fact Nambu systems, they posses Lax equations and they can be explicitly integrated in terms of elementary functions. We apply our analysis to systems containing only quadratic nonlinearities of the form aijxixj , i ≠ j, and require that all variables diverge as t-1. We also require that the leading terms depend on n - 2 free parameters. We thus discover a cocycle relation among the coefficients aij of the equations of motion and by integrating the cocycle equations we show that they are equivalent to the above strong version of the Painlevé property. We also show that these systems remain explicitly solvable even if a linear term bixi is added to the i-th equation, even though this violates the Painlevé property, as logarithmic singularities are introduced in the Laurent solutions, at the first terms following the leading order pole.

  20. Liquid helium free mechanical property test system with G-M cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hengcheng; Xu, Dong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, Chuanjun; Liu, Huiming; Han, Yemao; Li, Laifeng

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, a cryogenic mechanical property testing system conduction-cooled by two G-M cryocoolers was developed. The testing sample can be cooled from room temperature to 2.7 K within 7.5 h. The sample was first cooled down to 11.1 K directly by the two G-M cryocoolers and then cooled down to 2.7 K by decompressing the chamber. Instead of liquid helium, the cooling process is characterized by cooling with recycled helium gas as heat transfer medium. The heat load of the system was analyzed and optimizations were adopted in terms of material selections and design. The static load capacity of the system reaches 200 kN and the fatigue load capacity can reach 50 kN. This system can be installed onto an electronic universal testing machine or a fatigue testing machine to characterize static tension, fracture mechanics or fatigue properties at tunable low temperatures. Tensile properties of 316L austenitic stainless steels at 4.2 K were tested with the system and the results were compared with those obtained by cooled using liquid helium, which demonstrates high reliability.

  1. Statistical properties of spectral fluctuations for a quantum system with infinitely many components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, H.; Minami, N.; Tasaki, S.

    2009-03-01

    Extending the idea formulated in Makino [Phys. Rev. E 67, 066205 (2003)], that is based on the Berry-Robnik approach [M. V. Berry and M. Robnik, J. Phys. A 17, 2413 (1984)], we investigate the statistical properties of a two-point spectral correlation for a classically integrable quantum system. The eigenenergy sequence of this system is regarded as a superposition of infinitely many independent components in the semiclassical limit. We derive the level number variance (LNV) in the limit of infinitely many components and discuss its deviations from Poisson statistics. The slope of the limiting LNV is found to be larger than that of Poisson statistics when the individual components have a certain accumulation. This property agrees with the result from the semiclassical periodic-orbit theory that is applied to a system with degenerate torus actions [D. Biswas, M. Azam, and S. V. Lawande, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5694 (1991)].

  2. Representing Mutually Exclusive Knowledge in a Property Hierarchy for a Reasoning System in Clinical Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Small, Steven L.; Muechler, Eberhard K.

    1985-01-01

    The education and practice of clinical medicine can benefit significantly from the use of computational assistants. This article describes the development of a prototype system called SURGES (Strong/University of Rochester Gynecological Expert System) for representing medical knowledge and then applying this knowledge to suggest diagnostic procedures in medical gynecology. The paper focuses on the representation technique of property inheritance, which facilitates the simple common sense reasoning required to enable execution of the more complex medical inferences. Such common sense can be viewed as a collection mundane inferences, which are the simple conclusions drawn from knowledge that an exclusive or (XOR) relation (i.e., mutual exclusion) holds among a number of facts. The paper discusses the use of a property hierarchy for this purpose and shows how it simplifies knowledge representation in medical artificial intelligence (AIM) computer systems.

  3. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the propulsion-system problems that will most likely be encountered if the specifications of hydrocarbon-based jet fuels must undergo significant changes in the future and, correspondingly, the advances in technology that will be required to minimize the adverse impact of these problems. Several investigations conducted are summarized. Illustrations are used to describe the relative effects of selected fuel properties on the behavior of propulsion-system components and fuel systems. The selected fuel properties are those that are most likely to be relaxed in future fuel specifications. Illustrations are also used to describe technological advances that may be needed in the future. Finally, the technological areas needing the most attention are described, and programs that are under way to address these needs are briefly discussed.

  4. Mechanical and microstructural properties of fixation systems used in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcelo Breno Meneses; Medeiros, Raquel Correia de; Lauria, Andrezza; Marchiori, Érica; Sawazaki, Renato; Lopes, Éder Sócrates Najar; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate in vitro the mechanical and microstructural properties of internal fixation systems used in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. Four brands of internal fixation systems (screws and 4-hole straight plates) were selected and assigned to four groups: G1 Leibinger®, G2 Tóride®, G3 Engimplan®, and G4 Medartis®. The systems were submitted to Vickers hardness testing, metallographic and interstitial elements chemical composition analyses. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test for statistical analysis. Plates in groups 1, 2, and 3 showed similar microstructure and mechanical properties, different from those in G4 revealing larger grains. In all groups, the screws showed similar microstructure, with uniform arrangement and size of grains; the screws showed higher hardness values than those observed for the plates. The results indicate that all materials tested are adequate for use in oral maxillofacial surgeries.

  5. Experimental Design for Determination of Effects of Superdisintegrant Combinations on Liquisolid System Properties.

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Pavloková, Sylvie; Gajdziok, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The preparation of liquisolid systems presents a promising and innovative possibility for enhancing dissolution profiles and improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. This study aims to evaluate the differences in the properties of liquisolid systems containing combinations of 3 commercially used superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, and croscarmellose sodium). Multiple regression models and contour plots were used to study how the amount and the type of superdisintegrant used affected the quality parameters of liquisolid tablets. The results revealed that an increased amount of crospovidone in the mixture improves disintegration and wetting time and enhances drug release from the prepared liquisolid tablets. Moreover, it was observed that a binary blend of crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate improved tablet disintegration. Considering the obtained results, it could be stated that crospovidone showed the best properties to be used as superdisintegrant for the preparation of liquisolid systems containing rosuvastatin.

  6. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  7. A COAXIAL TE011 CAVITY AND A SYSTEM TO MEASURE DC AND RF PROPERTIES OF SUPERCONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Rao Myneni; Larry Turlington; Gary Slack; Michael Morrone; William Clemens; Richard Bundy; Thomas Elliott; Jayanta Mondal

    2008-01-23

    A coaxial niobium cavity has been designed and built where the center conductor consists of a removable sample. In addition, a system to measure properties such as magnetization, penetration depth, critical temperature and thermal conductivity on the same cylindrical sample has been designed and built. The purpose of this effort is to investigate possible correlations between DC and RF properties of superconductors. In this contribution, the design of the various components is discussed and the test results on a niobium sample obtained so far are presented.

  8. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  9. The geometry, controllability, and flatness property of the n-bar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shun-Jie; Respondek, Witold

    2011-05-01

    We propose a kinematic model of a system moving in an (m + 1)-dimensional euclidean space and consisting of n rigid bars attached successively to each other and subject to the nonholonomic constraints that the instantaneous velocity of the source point of each bar is parallel to that bar. We prove that the associated control system is controllable and feedback equivalent to the m-chained form around any regular configuration. As a consequence, we deduce that the n-bar system is flat and show that the Cartesian position of the source point of the last (from the top) bar is a flat output. The n-bar system is a natural generalisation of the n-trailer system and we provide a comparison of flatness properties of both systems.

  10. On the property sign-stability of equilibria in quasimonotone positive nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Navarro, G.; Alvarez-Gallegos, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the problem of generalizing the relationship existing between sign and stability of nontrivial equilibria in positive linear systems to the class of quasimonotone positive nonlinear systems. Such a class of positive systems is founded in many mathematical models of physical processes. The mathematical tools which enable us to obtain the sufficient conditions, guaranteeing the equivalence sign-stability, are the so-called Matrosov`s comparison principle and the Lyapunov vector function method. The results are used to study the property sign-stability of the only equilibrium point in a bilinear model of a double effect evaporator.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the Co-Sc and Co-Y systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, M. A.; Ivanov, M. I.; Berezutski, V. V.; Kudin, V. G.; Sudavtsova, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    The thermochemical properties of melts of the Co-Sc(Y) systems were studied by the calorimetry method at 1873 K over the wide concentration intervals. It was shown that moderate negative heat effects of mixing are characteristic for these melts. Using the ideal associated solution (IAS) model, the activities of components, mixing Gibbs energies and entropies in the alloys of these systems, and their phase diagrams were calculated, and they agree well with the data from literature and undergo the general dependences for the Fe(Co, Ni, Cu)- d-metal systems.

  12. Fossil group origins. IV. Characterization of the sample and observational properties of fossil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarattini, S.; Barrena, R.; Girardi, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Boschin, W.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Corsini, E. M.; del Burgo, C.; D'Onghia, E.; Herrera-Ruiz, N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jimenez Bailon, E.; Lozada Muoz, M.; Napolitano, N.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Virialized halos grow by the accretion of smaller ones in the cold dark matter scenario. The rate of accretion depends on the different properties of the host halo. Those halos for which this accretion rate was very fast and efficient resulted in systems dominated by a central galaxy surrounded by smaller galaxies that were at least two magnitudes fainter. These galaxy systems are called fossil systems, and they can be the fossil relics of ancient galaxy structures. Aims: We started an extensive observational program to characterize a sample of 34 fossil group candidates spanning a broad range of physical properties. Methods: Deep r-band images were obtained with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and Nordic Optic Telescope. Optical spectroscopic observations were performed at the 3.5-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo for ~1200 galaxies. This new dataset was completed with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 archival data to obtain robust cluster membership and global properties of each fossil group candidate. For each system, we recomputed the magnitude gaps between the two brightest galaxies (Δm12) and the first and fourth ranked galaxies (Δm14) within 0.5 R200. We consider fossil systems to be those with Δm12 ≥ 2 mag or Δm14 ≥ 2.5 mag within the errors. Results: We find that 15 candidates turned out to be fossil systems. Their observational properties agree with those of non-fossil systems. Both follow the same correlations, but the fossil systems are always extreme cases. In particular, they host the brightest central galaxies, and the fraction of total galaxy light enclosed in the brightest group galaxy is larger in fossil than in non-fossil systems. Finally, we confirm the existence of genuine fossil clusters. Conclusions: Combining our results with others in the literature, we favor the merging scenario in which fossil systems formed from mergers of L∗ galaxies. The large magnitude gap is a consequence of the extreme merger ratio within

  13. Healing efficiency and dynamic mechanical properties of self-healing epoxy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Naddeo, Carlo; Longo, Pasquale; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Binder, Wolfgang H.

    2014-03-01

    Several systems to develop self-repairing epoxy resins have recently been formulated. In this paper the effect of matrix nature and curing cycle on the healing efficiency and dynamic mechanical properties of self-healing epoxy resins were investigated. We discuss several aspects by transferring self-healing systems from the laboratory scale to real applications in the aeronautic field, such as the possibility to choose systems with increased glass transition temperature, high storage modulus and high values in the healing functionality under real working conditions.

  14. The influence of the semiconductor and dielectric properties on surface flashover in silicon-dielectric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gradinaru, G.; Madangarli, V.P.; Sudarshan, T.S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    New experimental results on surface flashover are reported for high field silicon-dielectric systems. Different conditions of the lateral surface, contacts and ambient dielectrics have been studied. The strong influence of the semiconductor quality, and that of the dielectric properties, on the prebreakdown and breakdown response of the system, is demonstrated. All experimental results strongly support the conclusion that surface flashover in silicon systems is a physical process totally different from semiconductor surface breakdown. This conclusion has important practical application in the improvement of the performance of photoconductive power switches, severely limited by premature breakdown effects.

  15. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  16. Characterization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Miscible Lactose-Sugars Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Runjing; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2017-09-01

    Lactose-sugars systems were produced by spray drying. They were lactose, lactose-glucose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-maltose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-sucrose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-trehalose (4:1) mixtures, and lactose-corn syrup solids (CSS) (4:1) mixtures. The physical characteristics, water sorption behavior, glass transition, and mechanical properties of miscible lactose-sugars systems were investigated. Lactose-glucose mixtures had larger particle size than other lactose-sugars systems after spray drying. The presence of glucose or sucrose in lactose-sugars mixtures decreased the glass transition temperatures of amorphous systems, while the presence of maltose and trehalose had only minor impact on the glass transition temperatures. Moreover, glucose accelerated the crystallization of amorphous system at 0.44 aw , but its presence delayed the loss of sorbed water at higher water activities (≥0.54 aw ). Mechanical property study indicated that glucose and sucrose in amorphous system could result in an increase of molecular mobility, while the presence of CSS could decrease the free volume and maintain the stiffness of the miscible systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Abasy Atlas: a comprehensive inventory of systems, global network properties and systems-level elements across bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Arellano, Miguel A.; Campos-González, Adrián I.; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G.; Tauch, Andreas; Freyre-González, Julio A.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of databases electronically encoding curated regulatory networks and of high-throughput technologies and methods to discover regulatory interactions provides an invaluable source of data to understand the principles underpinning the organization and evolution of these networks responsible for cellular regulation. Nevertheless, data on these sources never goes beyond the regulon level despite the fact that regulatory networks are complex hierarchical-modular structures still challenging our understanding. This brings the necessity for an inventory of systems across a large range of organisms, a key step to rendering feasible comparative systems biology approaches. In this work, we take the first step towards a global understanding of the regulatory networks organization by making a cartography of the functional architectures of diverse bacteria. Abasy (Across-bacteria systems) Atlas provides a comprehensive inventory of annotated functional systems, global network properties and systems-level elements (global regulators, modular genes shaping functional systems, basal machinery genes and intermodular genes) predicted by the natural decomposition approach for reconstructed and meta-curated regulatory networks across a large range of bacteria, including pathogenically and biotechnologically relevant organisms. The meta-curation of regulatory datasets provides the most complete and reliable set of regulatory interactions currently available, which can even be projected into subsets by considering the force or weight of evidence supporting them or the systems that they belong to. Besides, Abasy Atlas provides data enabling large-scale comparative systems biology studies aimed at understanding the common principles and particular lifestyle adaptions of systems across bacteria. Abasy Atlas contains systems and system-level elements for 50 regulatory networks comprising 78 649 regulatory interactions covering 42 bacteria in nine taxa, containing 3708

  18. Pharmaceutical cocrystals, salts and multicomponent systems; intermolecular interactions and property based design.

    PubMed

    Berry, David J; Steed, Jonathan W

    2017-03-23

    As small molecule drugs become harder to develop and less cost effective for patient use, efficient strategies for their property improvement become increasingly important to global health initiatives. Improvements in the physical properties of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), without changes in the covalent chemistry, have long been possible through the application of binary component solids. This was first achieved through the use of pharmaceutical salts, within the last 10-15years with cocrystals and more recently coamorphous systems have also been consciously applied to this problem. In order to rationally discover the best multicomponent phase for drug development, intermolecular interactions need to be considered at all stages of the process. This review highlights the current thinking in this area and the state of the art in: pharmaceutical multicomponent phase design, the intermolecular interactions in these phases, the implications of these interactions on the material properties and the pharmacokinetics in a patient.

  19. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monem, S.; Singh, A.; Karsten, A. E.; Amin, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tissue simulators, the so-called tissue phantoms, have been used to mimic human tissue for spectroscopic applications. Phantoms' design depends on patterning the optical properties, namely absorption and scattering coefficients which characterize light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere measurement results were fed into the calibration models using the multiple polynomial regression method and Newton-Raphson algorithm. The third-order polynomials have been used for optical properties predictions. Good agreement between the two models has been obtained. Role of solid phantoms' components, namely titanium dioxide as a scatterer and black carbon as an absorber, has been discussed. Both of the two components showed observable effects on the absorption and scattering of light inside the solid tissue phantoms.

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Properties of high pressure phases in metal-hydrogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponyatovskiĭ, E. G.; Antonov, Vladimir E.; Belash, I. T.

    1982-08-01

    The development of high-pressure technology has in recent years permitted obtaining extensive new information on the properties of hydrides of group VI-VIII transition metals. In this review, the experimental procedures for compressing macroscopic quantities of hydrogen to record high pressures, phase transitions, and structures of new high-pressure phases in Me-H systems are briefly described. Special attention is devoted to the magnetic properties of solid solutions of hydrogen in 3d metals and their alloys, whose study has yielded definite conclusions concerning the effect of hydrogen on the band structure and exchange interaction in these materials. The role of structural instabilities in the formation of superconducting properties of hydrogen solutions in 4d metal alloys based on palladium is examined.

  1. Selective Laser Sintering of Filled Polymer Systems: Bulk Properties and Laser Beam Material Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wudy, Katrin; Lanzl, Lydia; Drummer, Dietmar

    Additive manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting of plastics, generate components directly from a CAD data set without using a specific mold. The range of materials commercially available for selective laser sintering merely includes some semi crystalline polymers mainly polyamides, which leads to an absence of realizable component properties. The presented investigations are concerned with the manufacturing and analysis of components made from filled polymer systems by means of selective laser sintering. The test specimens were generated at varied filler concentration, filler types and manufacturing parameter like laser power or scan speed. In addition to the characterization of the mixed powders, resulting melt depth were analyzed in order to investigate the beam material interaction. The basic understanding of the influence of different fillers, filler concentration and manufacturing parameters on resulting component properties will lead to new realizable component properties and thus fields of application of selective laser sintering.

  2. Process-based karst modelling to relate hydrodynamic and hydrochemical characteristics to system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Weiler, M.; Wagener, T.; Lange, J.; Kralik, M.; Humer, F.; Mizyed, N.; Rimmer, A.; Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.; Butscher, C.; Huggenberger, P.

    2013-08-01

    More than 30% of Europe's land surface is made up of karst exposures. In some countries, water from karst aquifers constitutes almost half of the drinking water supply. Hydrological simulation models can predict the large-scale impact of future environmental change on hydrological variables. However, the information needed to obtain model parameters is not available everywhere and regionalisation methods have to be applied. The responsive behaviour of hydrological systems can be quantified by individual metrics, so-called system signatures. This study explores their value for distinguishing the dominant processes and properties of five different karst systems in Europe and the Middle East. By defining ten system signatures derived from hydrodynamic and hydrochemical observations, a process-based karst model is applied to the five karst systems. In a stepwise model evaluation strategy, optimum parameters and their sensitivity are identified using automatic calibration and global variance-based sensitivity analysis. System signatures and sensitive parameters serve as proxies for dominant processes, and optimised parameters are used to determine system properties. By sensitivity analysis, the set of system signatures was able to distinguish the karst systems from one another by providing separate information about dominant soil, epikarst, and fast and slow groundwater flow processes. Comparing sensitive parameters to the system signatures revealed that annual discharge can serve as a proxy for the recharge area, that the slopes of the high flow parts of the flow duration curves correlate with the fast flow storage constant, and that the dampening of the isotopic signal of the rain as well as the medium flow parts of the flow duration curves have a non-linear relation to the distribution of groundwater storage constants that represent the variability of groundwater flow dynamics. Our approach enabled us to identify dominant processes of the different systems and

  3. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    PubMed

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  4. Mechanical properties of particle systems using a molecular dynamics approach inspired by continuum homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andia, Pedro C.

    The topic of this dissertation is the study of the mechanical properties of solid material systems at the nanoscale. At such length scales, materials can be viewed as particle systems, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations help one understand their behavior as well as quantify their properties. However, mechanical concepts such as strain, stress and moduli were originally developed in continuum models, which are typically applied in space scales that range from the microscopic to the macroscopic. For this reason, a careful translation of ideas from continuum scales to the nanoscale is necessary. In essence, this thesis reviews and refines the continuum notions of average mechanical properties, such as stress and strain, and the meaning of such notions when MD is used to compute them. A Lagrangian-based approach is utilized for the purpose of determining the stress-deformation behavior of continua as well as of particle systems. At the continuum level, the mentioned Lagrangian-based approach is applied within homogenization theory for developing a nonlinear continuum homogenization model, which includes a novel constitutive relation for the stress. At the nanoscale, an MD method is presented as the extension of the continuum homogenization model. This MD method is able to simulate the behavior of particle systems under a given type of deformation as well as to generate stress-strain curves. In the process of developing the MD method, some concepts and techniques commonly used in MD, such as the virial stress and the Parrinello-Rahman method, are clarified.

  5. Investigation of Electromagnetic Properties of Multiparticle Systems in the Optical and Microwave Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Wendy

    The goal of this work is to examine the electromagnetic properties of multiple particles ensembles in optical and microwave regions. Electromagnetic scattering problems of multi-particles systems appear in many research areas, including biomedical research problems. When a particle system becomes dense, multiple scattering between the particles need to be included in order to fully describe the response of the system to an EM wave. The generalized multiparticle Mie (GMM) solution is used to rigorously solve the Maxwell's equations for multi-particles systems. The algorithm accounts for multiple scattering effects by transforming the waves scattered by an individual particle to the incident waves of other spheres in the ensemble. In the optical region, light scattering from biological tissues can reveal structural changes in the tissues which can be a mean for disease diagnosis. A new Monte Carlo simulation method is introduced to study the effect of tissue structure on signals from two diagnostic probes, the polarization gating probe and low coherence enhanced back scattering probe (LEBS). In the microwave region, the study of electromagnetic properties with metallic nanoparticles can determine their potential as effective heating agents in microwave hyperthermia therapy. The investigation aims to study the dielectric properties of metallic nanoparticles and quantify the relationship between the characteristics of metallic nanoparticles and the heating effect. The finding should help optimize the design and use of metallic nanoparticles in hyperthermia treatment. In addition, the metallic nanoparticles are studied for their potential to be contrast agents for biological tissue in the microwave region.

  6. Materials properties numerical database system established and operational at CINDAS/Purdue University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. Y.; Li, H. H.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized comprehensive numerical database system on the mechanical, thermophysical, electronic, electrical, magnetic, optical, and other properties of various types of technologically important materials such as metals, alloys, composites, dielectrics, polymers, and ceramics has been established and operational at the Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS) of Purdue University. This is an on-line, interactive, menu-driven, user-friendly database system. Users can easily search, retrieve, and manipulate the data from the database system without learning special query language, special commands, standardized names of materials, properties, variables, etc. It enables both the direct mode of search/retrieval of data for specified materials, properties, independent variables, etc., and the inverted mode of search/retrieval of candidate materials that meet a set of specified requirements (which is the computer-aided materials selection). It enables also tabular and graphical displays and on-line data manipulations such as units conversion, variables transformation, statistical analysis, etc., of the retrieved data. The development, content, accessibility, etc., of the database system are presented and discussed.

  7. Study of Microfluidic System for Mechanical Property Measurement of Fluid-cell Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Shin; Choi, Se Bin; Yoon, Hong Min; Tanner, Roger I.; Lee, Joon Sang

    2016-11-01

    The system for measuring the mechanical properties of active cell is studied through an integrated microfluidic system for cell separation, alignment and measurement of mechanical properties. A highly efficient lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was employed to optimize the micro-fluidic system to investigate the interrelations between mechanical properties and various surrounding fluid ingredients which are difficult to observe using current experimental techniques. A combination model of the three dimensional LBM and the immersed boundary method (IBM) were used to simulate these systems. The LBM was used to determine incompressible fluid flow with a regular Eulerian grid. The IBM was used to solve the deformation of cells and matrix fluid interaction with a Lagrangian grid. Highly non-linear results such as cell-cell interactions, fluid-cell interactions, and optical force-cell interactions is studied. National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Grant Number: NRF-2015R1A2A1A15056182, NRF-2015R1A5A1037668).

  8. A systems approach to model natural variation in reactive properties of bacterial ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Julius H; Schmidt, Thomas M; Herring, Patricia A

    2008-01-01

    Background Natural variation in protein output from translation in bacteria and archaea may be an organism-specific property of the ribosome. This paper adopts a systems approach to model the protein output as a measure of specific ribosome reactive properties in a ribosome-mediated translation apparatus. We use the steady-state assumption to define a transition state complex for the ribosome, coupled with mRNA, tRNA, amino acids and reaction factors, as a subsystem that allows a focus on the completed translational output as a measure of specific properties of the ribosome. Results In analogy to the steady-state reaction of an enzyme complex, we propose a steady-state translation complex for mRNA from any gene, and derive a maximum specific translation activity, Ta(max), as a property of the ribosomal reaction complex. Ta(max) has units of a-protein output per time per a-specific mRNA. A related property of the ribosome, T˜a(max⁡), has units of a-protein per time per total RNA with the relationship T˜a(max⁡) = ρa Ta(max), where ρa represents the fraction of total RNA committed to translation output of Pa from gene a message. Ta(max) as a ribosome property is analogous to kcat for a purified enzyme, and T˜a(max⁡) is analogous to enzyme specific activity in a crude extract. Conclusion Analogy to an enzyme reaction complex led us to a ribosome reaction model for measuring specific translation activity of a bacterial ribosome. We propose to use this model to design experimental tests of our hypothesis that specific translation activity is a ribosomal property that is subject to natural variation and natural selection much like Vmax and Km for any specific enzyme. PMID:18620602

  9. Dynamical properties and complexity in fractional-order diffusionless Lorenz system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shaobo; Sun, Kehui; Banerjee, Santo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, dynamics and complexity of the fractional-order diffusionless Lorenz system which is solved by the developed discrete Adomian decomposition method are investigated numerically. Dynamical properties of the fractional-order diffusionless Lorenz system with the control parameter and derivative order varying is analyzed by using bifurcation diagrams, and period-doubling route to chaos in different cases is observed. The complexity of the system is investigated by means of Lyapunov characteristic exponents, multi-scale spectral entropy algorithm and multiscale Renyi permutation entropy algorithm. It can be observed that the three methods illustrate consistent results and the system has rich complex dynamics. Interestingly, complexity decreases with the increase of derivative order. It shows that the fractional-order diffusionless Lorenz system is a good model for real applications such as information encryption and secure communication.

  10. New real-space renormalization-group calculation for the critical properties of lattice spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Charles E.; Kikuchi, Ryoichi

    1982-05-01

    In evaluating the critical properties of lattice spin systems in the real-space renormalization-group theory we use the cluster variation method. A configuration in the transformed system is constrained and the probability of occurrence of this configuration is calculated both in the transformed system and in the original system. By equating the two probabilities and forming ratios of two such equalities (for two or more constrained configurations) the fixed point of the renormalization transformation is evaluated. The method can avoid the trouble due to different singularities in the original and transformed systems, and hence can obviate the possible development of spurious singularities in the transformation at low temperatures. The two-dimensional triangular Ising model is treated with numerical results comparable with those obtained by the cluster treatment of Niemeijer and van Leeuwen who used more and larger cluster types than those we introduce.

  11. The effect of the liquid-solid system properties on the interline heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region of an evaporating meniscus using the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals forces between condensed phases (solid and liquid). The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux model. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number which is evaluated for various systems. The heat transfer characteristics of the decane-steel system are numerically compared with those of the carbon tetrachloride-quartz system.

  12. The psychology of potential threat: properties of the security motivation system.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Andrea L; Woody, Erik Z; Drandic, Ana; Schmidt, Louis A; Van Ameringen, Michael; Coroneos, Marie; Szechtman, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Results of three experiments support hypothesized properties of the security motivation system, a special motivational system for handling potential threats, as proposed by Szechtman and Woody (2004). First, mild stimuli suggesting potential harm produced a marked state of activation (evident in both objective and subjective measures), consistent with the hypothesis that the security motivation system is finely tuned for the detection of potential threat. Second, in the absence of corrective behavior, this evoked activation is persistent, supporting the hypothesis that once stimulated, the security motivation system produces an enduring motivational state involving the urge to engage in threat-reducing behavior. Third, engagement in corrective behavior was effective in returning activation levels to baseline, whereas cognitive reappraisal was not. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that deactivation of the security motivation system depends on performance of security-related behaviors, rather than non-behavioral events such as cognitive re-evaluation of threat.

  13. Efficient implementation of a real-time estimation system for thalamocortical hidden Parkinsonian properties

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuangming; Deng, Bin; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Liu, Chen; Fietkiewicz, Chris; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Real-time estimation of dynamical characteristics of thalamocortical cells, such as dynamics of ion channels and membrane potentials, is useful and essential in the study of the thalamus in Parkinsonian state. However, measuring the dynamical properties of ion channels is extremely challenging experimentally and even impossible in clinical applications. This paper presents and evaluates a real-time estimation system for thalamocortical hidden properties. For the sake of efficiency, we use a field programmable gate array for strictly hardware-based computation and algorithm optimization. In the proposed system, the FPGA-based unscented Kalman filter is implemented into a conductance-based TC neuron model. Since the complexity of TC neuron model restrains its hardware implementation in parallel structure, a cost efficient model is proposed to reduce the resource cost while retaining the relevant ionic dynamics. Experimental results demonstrate the real-time capability to estimate thalamocortical hidden properties with high precision under both normal and Parkinsonian states. While it is applied to estimate the hidden properties of the thalamus and explore the mechanism of the Parkinsonian state, the proposed method can be useful in the dynamic clamp technique of the electrophysiological experiments, the neural control engineering and brain-machine interface studies. PMID:28065938

  14. Efficient implementation of a real-time estimation system for thalamocortical hidden Parkinsonian properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuangming; Deng, Bin; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Liu, Chen; Fietkiewicz, Chris; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Real-time estimation of dynamical characteristics of thalamocortical cells, such as dynamics of ion channels and membrane potentials, is useful and essential in the study of the thalamus in Parkinsonian state. However, measuring the dynamical properties of ion channels is extremely challenging experimentally and even impossible in clinical applications. This paper presents and evaluates a real-time estimation system for thalamocortical hidden properties. For the sake of efficiency, we use a field programmable gate array for strictly hardware-based computation and algorithm optimization. In the proposed system, the FPGA-based unscented Kalman filter is implemented into a conductance-based TC neuron model. Since the complexity of TC neuron model restrains its hardware implementation in parallel structure, a cost efficient model is proposed to reduce the resource cost while retaining the relevant ionic dynamics. Experimental results demonstrate the real-time capability to estimate thalamocortical hidden properties with high precision under both normal and Parkinsonian states. While it is applied to estimate the hidden properties of the thalamus and explore the mechanism of the Parkinsonian state, the proposed method can be useful in the dynamic clamp technique of the electrophysiological experiments, the neural control engineering and brain-machine interface studies.

  15. Upper tropospheric cloud systems derived from IR sounders: properties of cirrus anvils in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadaki, Sofia E.; Stubenrauch, Claudia J.; Feofilov, Artem G.

    2017-03-01

    Representing about 30 % of the Earth's total cloud cover, upper tropospheric clouds play a crucial role in the climate system by modulating the Earth's energy budget and heat transport. When originating from convection, they often form organized systems. The high spectral resolution of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) allows reliable cirrus identification, both from day and nighttime observations. Tropical upper tropospheric cloud systems have been analyzed by using a spatial composite technique on the retrieved cloud pressure of AIRS data. Cloud emissivity is used to distinguish convective core, cirrus and thin cirrus anvil within these systems. A comparison with simultaneous precipitation data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) shows that, for tropical upper tropospheric clouds, a cloud emissivity close to 1 is strongly linked to a high rain rate, leading to a proxy to identify convective cores. Combining AIRS cloud data with this cloud system approach, using physical variables, provides a new opportunity to relate the properties of the anvils, including also the thinner cirrus, to the convective cores. It also distinguishes convective cloud systems from isolated cirrus systems. Deep convective cloud systems, covering 15 % of the tropics, are further distinguished into single-core and multi-core systems. Though AIRS samples the tropics only twice per day, the evolution of longer-living convective systems can be still statistically captured, and we were able to select relatively mature single-core convective systems by using the fraction of convective core area within the cloud systems as a proxy for maturity. For these systems, we have demonstrated that the physical properties of the anvils are related to convective depth, indicated by the minimum retrieved cloud temperature within the convective core. Our analyses show that the size of the systems does in general increase with convective depth, though for

  16. Energy landscape analysis of the subcortical brain network unravels system properties beneath resting state dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiyoung; Pae, Chongwon; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-04-01

    The configuration of the human brain system at rest, which is in a transitory phase among multistable states, remains unknown. To investigate the dynamic systems properties of the human brain at rest, we constructed an energy landscape for the state dynamics of the subcortical brain network, a critical center that modulates whole brain states, using resting state fMRI. We evaluated alterations in energy landscapes following perturbation in network parameters, which revealed characteristics of the state dynamics in the subcortical brain system, such as maximal number of attractors, unequal temporal occupations, and readiness for reconfiguration of the system. Perturbation in the network parameters, even those as small as the ones in individual nodes or edges, caused a significant shift in the energy landscape of brain systems. The effect of the perturbation on the energy landscape depended on the network properties of the perturbed nodes and edges, with greater effects on hub nodes and hubs-connecting edges in the subcortical brain system. Two simultaneously perturbed nodes produced perturbation effects showing low sensitivity in the interhemispheric homologous nodes and strong dependency on the more primary node among the two. This study demonstrated that energy landscape analysis could be an important tool to investigate alterations in brain networks that may underlie certain brain diseases, or diverse brain functions that may emerge due to the reconfiguration of the default brain network at rest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Dadashev; R, Kutuev; D, Elimkhanov

    2008-02-01

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension (σ) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density (ρ) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of σ in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system σ decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of σ on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  18. Computer-assisted analyses of the thermodynamic properties of slags in coal-combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blander, M.; Pelton, A.D.

    1983-09-01

    Equations were developed for the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of molten silicate solutions; the equations take into account the unusual concentration and temperature dependence of the solution properties of ordered systems. For binary systems, these equations were coupled with an optimization computer program to analyze all reliable thermodynamic data, including phase diagrams, free energies and enthalpies of formation of compounds, activities of components, enthalpies of mixing, entropies of fusion, miscibility gaps, etc. In this manner, we analyzed data for five binary systems: CaO-SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O-SiO/sub 2/, CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/. The results of the binary systems were combined, and an analysis done of three ternary systems: CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O-CaO-SiO/sub 2/, and Na/sub 2/O-Al/sub 2/O/sup 3/-SiO/sub 2/. A tentative analysis of the quaternary system, Na/sub 2/O-CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/, was also undertaken. 53 references, 51 figures, 3 tables.

  19. 25 CFR 900.51 - What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.51 What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property...

  20. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range...

  1. Synthesis and optical properties of isomeric branched pi-conjugated systems.

    PubMed

    Nierengarten, Jean-François; Zhang, Sheng; Gégout, Aline; Urbani, Maxence; Armaroli, Nicola; Marconi, Giancarlo; Rio, Yannick

    2005-09-16

    [structure: see text] Branched conjugated systems with a terminal alkyne function have been prepared starting from 4-(triisopropylsilylethynyl) phenylacetylene by applying the following iterative reaction sequence: (i) metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of the terminal alkyne with 3,4-dibromobenzaldehyde or 2,5- dibromobenzaldehyde; (ii) Corey-Fuchs dibromoolefination and treatment with an excess of LDA. The building blocks thus prepared have been subjected to a Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction with 1,4-diiodobenzene to yield isomeric branched pi-conjugated systems containing 7 (first generation) or 15 (second generation) phenyl units connected by ethynyl spacers. The different pi-conjugation patterns in those isomeric derivatives have a dramatic effect on their electronic properties, as attested by the differences observed in their absorption and emission spectra. Finally, theoretical calculations have been performed to rationalize the optical properties of these compounds.

  2. Can observations inside the Solar System reveal the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2013-02-01

    The understanding of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum might be the next scientific revolution. It was recently proposed that the quantum vacuum contains the virtual gravitational dipoles; we argue that this hypothesis might be tested within the Solar System. The key point is that the quantum vacuum ("enriched" with the gravitational dipoles) induces a retrograde precession of the perihelion. It is obvious that this phenomenon might eventually be revealed by more accurate studies of orbits of planets and orbits of the artificial Earth satellites. However, we suggest that potentially the best "laboratory" for the study of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum is the recently discovered dwarf planet Eris with its satellite named Dysnomia; the distance of nearly 100 AU from the Sun makes it the unique system in which the precession of the perihelion of Dysnomia (around Eris) is strongly dominated by the quantum vacuum.

  3. Evolutionary associations between nectar properties and specificity in bird pollination systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven D; Nicolson, Susan W

    2008-02-23

    A long-standing paradigm in biology has been that hummingbirds and passerine birds select for different nectar properties in the plants they pollinate. Here we show that this dichotomy is false and a more useful distinction is that between specialized and generalized bird pollination systems. Flowers adapted for sunbirds, which are specialized passerine nectarivores, have nectar similar to that of hummingbird flowers in terms of volume (approx. 10-30 microl), concentration (approx. 15-25% w/w) and sucrose content (approx. 40-60% of total sugar). In contrast, flowers adapted to generalized bird pollinators are characterized by large volumes (approx. 40-100 microl) of extremely dilute (approx. 8-12%) nectar with minimal sucrose (approx. 0-5%). These differences in nectar traits are highly significant even when statistical analyses are based on phylogenetically separate pairwise comparisons between taxa. We present several hypotheses for the association between nectar properties and specificity in bird pollination systems.

  4. Chaotic properties of isokinetic-isobaric atomic systems under planar shear and elongational flows.

    PubMed

    Frascoli, Federico; Searles, Debra J; Todd, B D

    2008-05-01

    An investigation of the chaotic properties of nonequilibrium atomic systems under planar shear and planar elongational flows is carried out for a constant pressure and temperature ensemble, with the combined use of a Gaussian thermostat and a Nosé-Hoover integral feedback mechanism for pressure conservation. A comparison with Lyapunov spectra of atomic systems under the same flows and at constant volume and temperature shows that, regardless of whether the underlying algorithm describing the flow is symplectic, the degrees of freedom associated with the barostat have no overall influence on chaoticity and the general conjugate pairing properties are independent of the ensemble. Finally, the dimension of the strange attractor onto which the phase space collapses is found not to be significantly altered by the presence of the Nosé-Hoover barostatting mechanism.

  5. Effect of defoliant (butiphose) on morpho-physiological properties and enzyme systems of natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Mirakhmedov, A K; Ochilov, K R; Sagatova, G A; Khan, M Z; Khole, V

    1989-03-01

    Butiphose (Tributyltritiophosphate, (C4H9S)3PO) a commonly used defoliant in cotton growing regions of USSR, caused extensive alterations in morphological features of erythrocyte and nuclear membranes and affected the permeability properties of rat liver mitochondrial membrane. It disrupted Ca2+ transport system and other energy dependent processes in mitochondria. A reduction in the activity of cytochrome-c-oxidase and NAD.H-oxidase was also observed.

  6. ON THE COMPLETENESS AND QUASIPOWER BASIS PROPERTY OF SYSTEMS \\{z^nf(\\lambda_nz)\\}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskolkov, V. A.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses questions of completeness and the quasipower property in spaces A_R of systems of functions \\{z^nf(\\lambda_nz)\\} under some natural conditions on the Taylor coefficients of the function f(z), assumed regular in a disk \\vert z\\vert. The complex numbers \\lambda_n ( n=0,1,\\dots) are subject to the condition \\vert\\lambda_n\\vert\\leqslant1. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  7. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging System with Chirp-Coded Excitation for Assessing Biomechanical Properties of Elasticity Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Guan-Chun; Chiang, Hsing-Jung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Chen, Tainsong

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC) and absolution difference (AD) algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe). The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images. PMID:28793718

  8. System and methods to determine and monitor changes in microstructural properties

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Joseph Alan

    2011-05-17

    A system and methods with which changes in microstructure properties such as grain size, grain elongation, texture, and porosity of materials can be determined and monitored over time to assess conditions such as stress and defects. The present invention includes a database of data, wherein a first set of data is used for comparison with a second set of data to determine the conditions of the material microstructure.

  9. Comparing the properties of neuronal culture systems: a shopping guide for the cell biologist.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Peter J; Bamburg, James R

    2003-01-01

    Cell biologists of many stripes may find that their question of interest can be studied to advantage in neurons. However, they will also find that "neurons" include many and diverse cell types among which perhaps just one or a few may be ideal for a particular experiment. This chapter discusses the properties, relative complexity, and cost of primary neurons and neuronal cell types from different species and parts of the nervous system and compares their utility for different kinds of cell biological experiments.

  10. Lactones. 21. Synthesis and odoriferous properties of lactones with the p-menthane system.

    PubMed

    Dams, Iwona; Bialoniska, Agata; Ciunik, Zbigniew; Wawrzenczyk, Czesław

    2004-03-24

    Starting from (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-pulegone, enantiomeric pairs of esters and lactones with the p-menthane system were obtained. The Claisen rearrangement of allylic alcohols and iodolactonization of gamma,delta-unsaturated acids were the key steps of syntheses presented. The structures of compounds were determined by both spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Some of the synthesized compounds are characterized by interesting odoriferous properties.

  11. Properties of solutions of certain control problems associated with the Navier-Stokes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursikov, A. V.

    The paper examines the properties of solutions of certain problems involving the control of systems described by the Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and without constraints on the controlling parameter. The uniqueness of the solutions is considered; necessary and sufficient conditions of the absolute minimum are obtained; and the smoothness of the solutions is demonstrated. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are also examined.

  12. Relevance of system size to the steady-state properties of tapped granular systems.

    PubMed

    Gago, Paula A; Maza, Diego; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the steady-state packing fraction ϕ and force moment tensor Σ of quasi-two-dimensional granular columns subjected to tapping. Systems of different height h and width L are considered. We find that ϕ and Σ, which describe the macroscopic state of the system, are insensitive to L for L>50d (with d the grain diameter). However, results for granular columns of different heights cannot be conciliated. This suggests that comparison between results of different laboratories on this type of experiments can be done only for systems of same height. We show that a parameter ɛ=1+(Aω)2/(2gh), with A and ω the amplitude and frequency of the tap and g the acceleration of gravity, can be defined to characterize the tap intensity. This parameter is based on the effective flight of the granular bed, which takes into account the h dependency. When ϕ is plotted as a function of ɛ, the data collapses for systems of different h. However, this parameter alone is unable to determine the steady state to be reached since different Σ can be observed for a given ɛ if different column heights are considered.

  13. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.

  14. A data acquisition system for longitudinal beam properties in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Steimel, J.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A longitudinal beam properties, data acquisition system has been commissioned to operate in the Fermilab booster ring. This system captures real time information including beam synchronous phase, bunch length, and coupled bunch instability amplitudes as the beam is accelerated from 400 MeV to 8 GeV in 33 ms. The system uses an off-the-shelf Tektronix oscilloscope running Labview software and a synchronous pulse generator. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the software configuration used to optimize the data processing rate. The Fermilab Booster is currently pushed to its intensity limit due to the high demand from different experiments for protons. This will continue into the era of the intensity frontier. While intensity is the most critical parameter, emittance must be controlled as well. Longitudinal emittance is an important parameter for optimizing the slip stacking process in the Main Injector. Longitudinal instabilities can spoil the emittance, so it is important to monitor bunch lengths and bunch phase oscillations in the Booster. The Booster presents a special challenge when it comes to measuring beam properties. The acceleration ramp is short (33ms), and the RF frequency varies from 38-52.8 MHz. Standard instrumentation like spectrum analyzers and network analyzers cannot effectively measure beam properties, because they cannot track the changing frequencies. Early instrumentation involved a series of tracking oscillators, mixers, and diode detectors that would require vigilant calibration. There was a demand for a more robust means of gathering beam parameters.

  15. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C.; d’Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W. H. Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R.; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

  16. Participation in Decision Making as a Property of Complex Adaptive Systems: Developing and Testing a Measure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Hsieh, Pi-Ching; Su, Hui Fang; Landerman, Lawrence R.; McDaniel, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To (1) describe participation in decision-making as a systems-level property of complex adaptive systems and (2) present empirical evidence of reliability and validity of a corresponding measure. Method. Study 1 was a mail survey of a single respondent (administrators or directors of nursing) in each of 197 nursing homes. Study 2 was a field study using random, proportionally stratified sampling procedure that included 195 organizations with 3,968 respondents. Analysis. In Study 1, we analyzed the data to reduce the number of scale items and establish initial reliability and validity. In Study 2, we strengthened the psychometric test using a large sample. Results. Results demonstrated validity and reliability of the participation in decision-making instrument (PDMI) while measuring participation of workers in two distinct job categories (RNs and CNAs). We established reliability at the organizational level aggregated items scores. We established validity of the multidimensional properties using convergent and discriminant validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions. Participation in decision making, when modeled as a systems-level property of organization, has multiple dimensions and is more complex than is being traditionally measured. Managers can use this model to form decision teams that maximize the depth and breadth of expertise needed and to foster connection among them. PMID:24349771

  17. Properties of elementary astigmatic pencils of rays in a decentered optical system

    SciTech Connect

    Grammatin, A.P.

    1995-11-01

    Properties of elementary astigmatic pencils of rays of an optical system with small decentering are formulated using the technique based on translating astigmatism from the intermediate space of the optical system to the space of images. The results obtained are not limited by the approximations based on expansions in series and are valid for decentering-caused astigmatism of an arbitrary order. The necessity of calculating at least two elementary pencils of rays when analyzing the effect of decenterings on the astigmatism is proved. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The study of data collection method for the plasma properties collection and evaluation system from web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Mi-Young; Plasma Fundamental Technology Research Team

    2015-09-01

    Plasma databases are necessarily required to compute the plasma parameters and high reliable databases are closely related with accuracy enhancement of simulations. Therefore, a major concern of plasma properties collection and evaluation system is to create a sustainable and useful research environment for plasma data. The system has a commitment to provide not only numerical data but also bibliographic data (including DOI information). Originally, our collection data methods were done by manual data search. In some cases, it took a long time to find data. We will be find data more automatically and quickly than legacy methods by crawling or search engine such as Lucene.

  19. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  20. Noncontact single-pulse optical method to measure interfacial properties in intact systems.

    PubMed

    Clark, David C; Kim, Myung K

    2012-12-15

    We introduce a noncontact purely optical approach to measuring the localized surface properties of an interface within a system using a single optical pressure pulse and a time-resolved digital holographic quantitative phase-imaging technique to track the propagating nanometric capillary disturbance. We demonstrate the proposed method's ability to measure the surface energy of deionized water, methanol, and chemical monolayers formed by surfactants with good agreement to published values. The development of this technique boasts immediate application to static and dynamic systems and near-future applications for living biological cell membranes.

  1. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

  2. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  3. Characterizing steady-state and transient properties of reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Sven; Pleimling, Michel

    2009-12-01

    In the past, the study of reaction-diffusion systems has greatly contributed to our understanding of the behavior of many-body systems far from equilibrium. In this paper, we aim at characterizing the properties of diffusion-limited reactions both in their steady states and out of stationarity. Many reaction-diffusion systems have the peculiarity that microscopic reversibility is broken such that their transient behavior cannot be investigated through the study of most of the observables discussed in the literature. For this reason, we analyze the transient properties of reaction-diffusion systems through a specific work observable that remains well defined even in the absence of microscopic reversibility and that obeys an exact detailed fluctuation relation in cases where detailed balance is fulfilled. We thereby drive the systems out of their nonequilibrium steady states through time-dependent reaction rates. Using a numerical exact method and computer simulations, we analyze fluctuation ratios of the probability distributions obtained during the forward and reversed processes. We show that the underlying microscopic dynamics gives rise to peculiarities in the configuration-space trajectories, thereby, yielding prominent features in the fluctuation ratios.

  4. Evaluation of optical and chromatic properties under electrical and thermal coupling in solid state lighting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han-Kuei; Peng, Yi-Ping; Wang, Chien-Ping; Chiang, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Tzung-Te; Chen, Chiu-Ling; Chou, Pei-Ting

    2013-09-01

    For energy-saving, high efficiency and low pollution, the lighting of LED systems is important for the future of green energy technology industry. The solid state lighting becomes the replacement of traditional lighting, such as, light bulbs and compact fluorescent lamps. Because of the semiconductor characteristics, the luminous efficiency of LEDs is sensitive to the operating temperature. Besides increasing the luminous efficiency, effective controlling electricity and thermal characteristics in the design of LED lighting products is the key point to achieve the best results. LED modules can be combined with multi-grain process or through a combination of multiple LED chips. Accurate analysis of this LED module for the electrical, thermal characteristics and high reliability is the critical knowledge of modular design. In this report, we studied the electrical and thermal coupling phenomenon in solid state lighting systems to analyze their reliability. By experiments and simulations, we obtained the apparent variation of temperature distribution of LED system due to differences of their forward voltages and thermal resistances. These events may reduce their reliability. Besides, the evaluation of optical and chromatic properties was based on the variation of temperature distribution and current of LED system. This is the key technology to predict the optical and chromatic properties of LED system in use.

  5. Newly Designed Tensile Test System for in vitro Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki

    A tensile test system for isolated cytoskeletal filaments, which enables to control strain rate, was newly designed. A pair of piezo-driven cantilevers were used to manipulate the specimen and to measure tensile load from the deflection of one of the cantilevers. The displacements of the cantilevers were optically and electrically detected. The specimen strain, determined from the cantilever displacements, was used as a feedback signal. We proposed a servo-system for strain rate control in which a desired path for the strain transition was designated. The path was chosen as a triangular-shape waveform against time, along which the strain rate is kept constant. We measured tensile properties of a single stress fiber isolated from a smooth muscle cell with this system to obtain a stretching stiffness of 45nN per strain. Performance evaluation and the tensile test demonstrated that the system enabled to carry out strain rate-controlled tensile test.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of Kepler multi-planet candidate systems (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xie, J.-W.; Barclay, T.; Fischer, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Our sample consists of bright host stars with multi-planet transiting systems from Kepler. Out of 5779 Kepler Objects of Interest (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/), we selected all the systems with a Kepler magnitude (KP) brighter than 13.5mag and with at least two planet candidates. The sample includes 343 planet candidates (see Table3) in 138 multi-planet candidate systems (see Table2) from the Kepler mission. For these systems, we used archival data from Kepler to characterize their stellar (see Table2) and orbital properties (see Table3). We used UKIRT images to calculate brightness contrast curves and to detect stellar companions around planet candidate host stars (see Table4). (3 data files).

  7. Stability and dynamical properties of material flow systems on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, K.; Galla, T.

    2009-04-01

    The theory of complex networks and of disordered systems is used to study the stability and dynamical properties of a simple model of material flow networks defined on random graphs. In particular we address instabilities that are characteristic of flow networks in economic, ecological and biological systems. Based on results from random matrix theory, we work out the phase diagram of such systems defined on extensively connected random graphs, and study in detail how the choice of control policies and the network structure affects stability. We also present results for more complex topologies of the underlying graph, focussing on finitely connected Erdös-Réyni graphs, Small-World Networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. Results indicate that variability of input-output matrix elements, and random structures of the underlying graph tend to make the system less stable, while fast price dynamics or strong responsiveness to stock accumulation promote stability.

  8. The DIGISOIL multi-sensor system: from geophysical measurements to soil properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the preliminary tasks of the DIGISOIL project were to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The different field tests, realized at this time, allow focusing on technological suitable solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from such data to soil properties maps.

  9. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  10. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if

  11. Process-based karst modelling to relate hydrodynamic and hydrochemical characteristics to system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Weiler, M.; Wagener, T.; Lange, J.; Kralik, M.; Humer, F.; Mizyed, N.; Rimmer, A.; Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.; Butscher, C.; Huggenberger, P.

    2013-03-01

    More than 30% of Europe's land surface is made up of karst exposures. In some countries, water from karst aquifers constitutes almost half of the drinking water supply. Hydrological simulation models can predict the large-scale impact of future environmental change on hydrological variables. However, the information needed to obtain model parameters is not available everywhere and regionalisation methods have to be applied. The responsive behaviour of hydrological systems can be quantified by individual metrics, so-called system signatures. This study explores their value for distinguishing the dominant processes and properties of five different karst systems in Europe and the Middle East with the overall aim of regionalising system signatures and model parameters to ungauged karst areas. By defining ten system signatures derived from hydrodynamic and hydrochemical observations, a process-based karst model is applied to the five karst systems. In a stepwise model evaluation strategy, optimum parameters and their sensitivity are identified using automatic calibration and global variance-based sensitivity analysis. System signatures and sensitive parameters serve as proxies for dominant processes and optimised parameters are used to determine system properties. To test the transferability of the signatures, they are compared with the optimised model parameters and simple climatic and topographic descriptors of the five karst systems. By sensitivity analysis, the set of system signatures was able to distinguish the karst systems from one another by providing separate information about dominant soil, epikarst, and fast and slow groundwater flow processes. Comparing sensitive parameters to the system signatures revealed that annual discharge can serve as a proxy for the recharge area, that the slopes of the high flow parts of the flow duration curves correlate with the fast flow storage constant, and that the dampening of the isotopic signal of the rain as well as the

  12. Contrasting Inherent Optical Properties and Carbon Metabolism Between Five Northeastern (USA) Estuary-plume Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Doug; Salisbury, Joe; Hunt, Chris; McGillis, Wade R.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently developed the ability to rapidly assess Surface inherent optical properties (IOP), oxygen concentration and pCO2 in estuarine-plume systems using flow-through instrumentation. During the summer of 2004, several estuarine-plume systems were surveyed which include the Pleasant (ME), Penobscot (ME), Kennebec-Androscoggin (ME), Merrimack (NH-MA) and Hudson (NY). Continuous measurements of surface chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic carbon (CDOM) fluorescence, beam attenuation, temperature, salinity, oxygen and pC02 were taken at each system along a salinity gradient from fresh water to near oceanic endmembers. CTD and IOP profiles were also taken at predetermined surface salinity intervals. These were accompanied by discrete determinations of chlorophyll (HPLC and fluorometric), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity. IOP data were calibrated using chlorophyll, DOC and TSS data to enable the retrieval of these constituents from IOP data. Considerable differences in the data sets were observed between systems. These ranged from the DOC-enriched, strongly heterotrophic Pleasant River System to the high-chlorophyll autotrophic Merrimack River System. Using pCO2 and oxygen saturation measurements as proxies for water column metabolism, distinct relationships were found between trophic status and inherent optical properties. The nature of these relationships varies between systems and is likely a function of watershed and estuarine attributes including carbon and nutrient loading, in-situ production and related autochthonous inputs of DOC and alkalinity. Our results suggest that IOP data may contain significant information about the trophic status of estuarine and plume systems.

  13. Contrasting Inherent Optical Properties and Carbon Metabolism Between Five Northeastern (USA) Estuary-plume Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Doug; Salisbury, Joe; Hunt, Chris; McGillis, Wade R.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently developed the ability to rapidly assess Surface inherent optical properties (IOP), oxygen concentration and pCO2 in estuarine-plume systems using flow-through instrumentation. During the summer of 2004, several estuarine-plume systems were surveyed which include the Pleasant (ME), Penobscot (ME), Kennebec-Androscoggin (ME), Merrimack (NH-MA) and Hudson (NY). Continuous measurements of surface chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic carbon (CDOM) fluorescence, beam attenuation, temperature, salinity, oxygen and pC02 were taken at each system along a salinity gradient from fresh water to near oceanic endmembers. CTD and IOP profiles were also taken at predetermined surface salinity intervals. These were accompanied by discrete determinations of chlorophyll (HPLC and fluorometric), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity. IOP data were calibrated using chlorophyll, DOC and TSS data to enable the retrieval of these constituents from IOP data. Considerable differences in the data sets were observed between systems. These ranged from the DOC-enriched, strongly heterotrophic Pleasant River System to the high-chlorophyll autotrophic Merrimack River System. Using pCO2 and oxygen saturation measurements as proxies for water column metabolism, distinct relationships were found between trophic status and inherent optical properties. The nature of these relationships varies between systems and is likely a function of watershed and estuarine attributes including carbon and nutrient loading, in-situ production and related autochthonous inputs of DOC and alkalinity. Our results suggest that IOP data may contain significant information about the trophic status of estuarine and plume systems.

  14. Atomically modified thin interface in metal-dielectric hetero-integrated systems: control of electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Kenji; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2017-04-01

    We have performed first-principles studies of the electronic properties of Cu-diamond hetero-integrated systems, particularly placing emphasis on elucidating the effects of surface modification of diamond with H or O. It is found that the electronic properties crucially depend on the chemical compositions of the modified atomically thin interface region. The local density of states (LDOS) of the H-terminated diamond moiety near the Cu surface exhibits a clearly different distribution from that near the vacuum region, whereas the LDOS of the O-terminated diamond is almost independent of the Cu deposition. In other words, the effects of the electronic interactions between Cu and diamond on the electronic properties in the interface region are readily controlled by surface modification with only one atomic (i.e. H or O) layer. Electric field (EF) effects on the Cu-diamond systems also strongly depend on the electronic details, i.e. atomistic modification in the interface regions. In particular, at the interface between the H-terminated diamond moiety and the vacuum region, its conduction band energy is strongly affected by an applied EF much more than the valence band energy; that is, the band gap can be varied with an applied EF. The band gap variation is found to be attributed to an atomistic level difference in the spatial extension of the valence and conduction bands and thus is not explained with a macroscopic band diagram model. It has been demonstrated that the electronic properties of hetero-integrated systems are described and controlled well by carefully designing atomically thin interface regions.

  15. Atomically modified thin interface in metal-dielectric hetero-integrated systems: control of electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kenji; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2017-04-12

    We have performed first-principles studies of the electronic properties of Cu-diamond hetero-integrated systems, particularly placing emphasis on elucidating the effects of surface modification of diamond with H or O. It is found that the electronic properties crucially depend on the chemical compositions of the modified atomically thin interface region. The local density of states (LDOS) of the H-terminated diamond moiety near the Cu surface exhibits a clearly different distribution from that near the vacuum region, whereas the LDOS of the O-terminated diamond is almost independent of the Cu deposition. In other words, the effects of the electronic interactions between Cu and diamond on the electronic properties in the interface region are readily controlled by surface modification with only one atomic (i.e. H or O) layer. Electric field (EF) effects on the Cu-diamond systems also strongly depend on the electronic details, i.e. atomistic modification in the interface regions. In particular, at the interface between the H-terminated diamond moiety and the vacuum region, its conduction band energy is strongly affected by an applied EF much more than the valence band energy; that is, the band gap can be varied with an applied EF. The band gap variation is found to be attributed to an atomistic level difference in the spatial extension of the valence and conduction bands and thus is not explained with a macroscopic band diagram model. It has been demonstrated that the electronic properties of hetero-integrated systems are described and controlled well by carefully designing atomically thin interface regions.

  16. First results of the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system for mapping soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and accurate maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects (Figure 1): (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies. With respect to these issues, the preliminary tasks of the DIGISOIL project were to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The different field tests, realized at this time, allow focusing on technological suitable solutions for each of identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. Data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, data processing are thus presented and discussed in the perspectives of producing information layers for Digital Soil Mapping. Next tasks will be dedicated to (i) establish correlations between the measured geophysical measurements and the soil properties involved in soil functions / threats

  17. Mechanical properties of polymer/carbon nanotube composite micro-electromechanical systems bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. M.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2013-04-01

    Microelectromechanical systems with all-polymer structural layers are expected to allow novel MEMS applications due to their mechanical, optical, electronic, and chemical properties, which are tunable and distinct from the standard inorganic layers currently used. The mechanical properties of micro-electromechanical bridge resonators (pMEMS) based on a polymer/carbon-nanotubes (CNT) composite structural material are presented. The structural material of the electrostatically actuated pMEMS microresonators are multilayers of a conductive polymer based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to which carboxylated multi-wall CNTs monolayers are electrostatically attached after surface functionalization. The effects of measurement pressure, temperature, and applied load on the resonance frequency and on the quality factor, Q, of the pMEMS are studied. The long term reliability of the pMEMS resonators is also investigated, and the resonators were subjected to above 1011 actuation cycles without significant performance deterioration. The mechanical properties of the pMEMS are systematically compared to those of a doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (n+-a-Si:H) MEMS. While the CNT multilayers increase the rigidity (and hence the resonance frequency) as well as the electrical conductivity of the structural layer, they decrease the energy dissipation (and hence increase Q). Changes in CNT-polymer matrix adhesion result in reversible changes of the resonator properties during operation, requiring monitoring and control.

  18. The boron oxide{endash}boric acid system: Nanoscale mechanical and wear properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Unertl, W.N.; Erdemir, A.

    1999-08-01

    The film that forms spontaneously when boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is exposed to humid air is a solid lubricant. This film is usually assumed to be boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), the stable bulk phase. We describe the nanometer-scale surface morphology, mechanical properties, and tribological properties of these films and compare them with crystals precipitated from saturated solutions of boric acid. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) and low-load indentation were the primary experimental tools. Mechanical properties and their variation with depth are reported. In all cases, the surfaces were covered with a layer that has different mechanical properties than the underlying bulk. The films formed on boron oxide showed no evidence of crystalline structure. A thin surface layer was rapidly removed, followed by slower wear of the underlying film. The thickness of this initial layer was sensitive to sample preparation conditions, including humidity. Friction on the worn surface was lower than on the as-formed surface in all cases. In contrast, the SFM tip was unable to cause any wear to the surface film on the precipitated crystals. Indentation pop-in features were common for precipitated crystals but did not occur on the films formed on boron oxide. The surface structures were more complex than assumed in models put forth previously to explain the mechanism of lubricity in the boron oxide{endash}boric acid{endash}water system. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  19. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 4d electron Ruthenate systems: their unique and new magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungran; Shin, Yeongjae; Anwar, M. S.; Sugimoto, Yusuke; Lee, Mincheol; Kang, Sungjin; Yonezawa, Shingo; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Noh, Taewon

    The Ruddlesden-Popper series (PR) of Srn+1RunO3n+1 has attract much interest of their unique physical properties. Among them, SrRuO3 (n = ∞) (SRO) is the only ferromagnetic metallic oxide especially in Ru 4d transition metal oxides. Bulk SRO has orthorhombic structure showing the Curie temperature (TC) ~ 160 K. It is well known that RuO6 octahedral distortion plays critical roles in its mangetic properties. In film systems, such RuO6 octahedra can be easily controlled by strain-engineering. In this talk, with high quality SRO films fully strained (-1.7%-1%) using various substrates, we systematically studied their structural changes and associated magnetic properties. Compared to theoretical predictions, the structural changes can be explained, while the magnetic property changes cannot be understood. Surprisingly, when SRO113 is grown on its PR series of Sr2RuO4 (n=1) (SRO214) single crystal, the exact substrate of SRO214 magnetization results in strongly enhanced magnetization (M > 3 μB/Ru, TC ~ 160 K), which has never found SRO113 (001) since the low-spin configuration of SRO113 prevent M never exceed 2 μB/Ru. The mystery of M in SRO113 (especially SRO113/SRO214) will be further discussed.

  1. Transport properties across the many-body localization transition in quasiperiodic and random systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, F.; Deng, Dong-Ling; Pixley, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically study transport properties in one-dimensional interacting quasiperiodic systems at infinite temperature. We compare and contrast the dynamical transport properties across the many-body localization (MBL) transition in quasiperiodic and random models. Using exact diagonalization we compute the optical conductivity σ (ω ) and the return probability R (τ ) and study their average low-frequency and long-time power-law behavior, respectively. We show that the low-energy transport dynamics is markedly distinct in both the thermal and MBL phases in quasiperiodic and random models and find that the diffusive and MBL regimes of the quasiperiodic model are more robust than those in the random system. Using the distribution of the dc conductivity, we quantify the contribution of sample-to-sample and state-to-state fluctuations of σ (ω ) across the MBL transition. We find that the activated dynamical scaling ansatz works poorly in the quasiperiodic model but holds in the random model with an estimated activation exponent ψ ≈0.9 . We argue that near the MBL transition in quasiperiodic systems, critical eigenstates give rise to a subdiffusive crossover regime on finite-size systems.

  2. Physical properties of a two-component system at the Fermi and Sharvin length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jason N.; Gande, Eric M.; Vinti, John W.; Hua, Susan Z.; Deep Chopra, Harsh

    2012-11-01

    Previously, we have reported the measurement of various physical properties at the Fermi and Sharvin length scales in pure elements (1-component systems). In the present study, the evolution of physical properties is mapped in a 2-component system at these length scales, using Au-Ag alloys. These alloys are well known to have complete solubility in each other at all compositions in the bulk and an ideal system to vary the surface energy of the alloy simply by changing the alloy composition. At sample sizes where surface effects dominate (less than ˜2-3 nm), varying the alloy composition is found to cause dramatic changes in force required to rupture the bonds (strength) as well as atomic cohesion (modulus) and can be directly attributed to segregation of higher surface energy Au from the lower surface energy Ag. In other words, the Au-Ag system with complete solubility in the bulk exhibits segregation at these length scales. This breakdown of bulk solubility rules for alloying (the so-called Hume-Rothery rules) even in near-ideal solid solutions has consequences for future atomic-scale devices.

  3. Thermophysical and heat transfer properties of phase change material candidate for waste heat transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizawa, Akihide; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Atsushi; Kamano, Hiroomi; Jozuka, Tetsuji; Senda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2008-05-01

    A waste heat transportation system trans-heat (TH) system is quite attractive that uses the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The purpose of this paper is to study the thermophysical properties of various sugars and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) as PCMs for a practical TH system and the heat transfer property between PCM selected and heat transfer oil, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a heat storage tube. As a result, erythritol, with a large latent heat of 344 kJ/kg at melting point of 117°C, high decomposition point of 160°C and excellent chemical stability under repeated phase change cycles was found to be the best PCM among them for the practical TH system. In the heat release experiments between liquid erythritol and flowing cold oil, we observed foaming phenomena of encapsulated oil, in which oil droplet was coated by solidification of PCM.

  4. Physical Properties and Evolution of the Eclipsing Binary System XZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poochaum, R.; Komonjinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the eclipse binary system so that its physical properties and evolution can be determined and used as an example to teach high school astronomy. The study of an eclipsing binary system XZ Canis Minoris (XZ CMi) was done at Sirindhorn Observatory, Chiang Mai University using a 0.5-meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system (2184×1417 pixel) in B V and R bands of UVB System. The data obtained were used to construct the light curve for each wavelength band and to compute the times of its light minima. New elements were derived using observations with linear to all available minima. As a result, linear ephemeris is HDJmin I = .578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121+2450 515.321 26+/-0.001 07 E, and the new orbital period of XZ CMi is 0.578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121 day. The values obtained were used with the previously published times of minima to get O-C curve of XZ CMi. The result revealed that the orbital period of XZ CMi is continuously decreased at a rate of 0.007 31+/-0.000 57 sec/year. This result indicates that the binary stars are moving closer continuously. From the O-C residuals, there is significant change to indicate the existence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle on the star. However, further analysis of the physical properties of XZ CMi is required.

  5. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  6. Fuzzy-based human vision properties in stereo sonification system for the visually impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Ramachandran; Yaacob, Sazali; Sainarayanan, G.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents incorporation of certain human vision properties in the image processing methodologies, applied in the vision substitutive system for human blind. The prototype of the system has digital video camera fixed in a headgear, stereo earphone and a laptop computer, interconnected. The processing of the captured image is designed as human vision. It involves lateral inhibition, which is developed using Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) and domination of the object properties with suppression of background by means of Fuzzy based Image Processing System (FLIPS). The processed image is mapped to stereo acoustic signals to the earphone. The sound is generated using non-linear frequency incremental sine wave. The sequence of the scanning to construct the acoustic signal is designed to produce stereo signals, which aids to locate the object in horizontal axis. Frequency variation implies the location of object in the vertical axis. The system is tested with blind volunteer and his suggestion in formatting, pleasantness and discrimination of sound pattern were also considered.

  7. Analyzing resilience properties in oscillatory biological systems using parametric model checking.

    PubMed

    Andreychenko, Alexander; Magnin, Morgan; Inoue, Katsumi

    2016-11-01

    Automated verification of living organism models allows us to gain previously unknown knowledge about underlying biological processes. In this paper we show how parametric time model checking can be applied to define the time behavior of biological oscillatory systems more precisely. In particular, we focus on the resilience properties of such systems. This notion was introduced to understand the behavior of biological systems (e.g. the mammalian circadian rhythm) that are reactive and adaptive enough to endorse major changes in their environment (e.g. jet-lags, day-night alternating work-time). We formalize these properties through parametric TCTL and investigate the influence of environmental conditions changes on the resilience of living organisms under the uncertainty in parameters. In particular, we discuss the influence of various perturbations, e.g. artificial jet-lag or components knock-out on the parameters controlling the oscillatory behavior. This analysis is crucial when it comes to model elicitation for dynamic biological systems. We demonstrate the applicability of this technique using a simplified model of circadian clock and discuss its results with regard to other previous studies based on hybrid modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermophysical properties of aqueous and frozen states of BSA/water/Tris systems.

    PubMed

    Hottot, A; Daoussi, R; Andrieu, J

    2006-05-30

    In the modelling and the optimization of pharmaceutical protein freeze-drying processes, thermophysical properties values of the formulation in frozen or in liquid states are necessary in order to determine the optimal operating conditions (temperature, pressure) of the two steps (sublimation, desorption) drying diagramme and the optimal storage conditions of the final freeze-dried product. The most important thermophysical properties of BSA/water/Tris system buffered with Tris-HCl (5%, w/w) at pH 7, a standard formulation largely used in industrial freeze-drying process of pharmaceutical proteins, are reported in this paper. The state diagram of this formulation was determined by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) and, then the vitreous transition temperatures were interpreted as a function of water content by the Gordon-Taylor equation. The same technique was used to experimentally determine the heat capacity of the BSA/water frozen system. Moreover, the transient hot wire probe method was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the frozen system as a function of temperature. It proved that the thermal conductivity and the apparent heat capacity values for this dilute formulation were reasonably close to the values for the pure water/ice system. Sorption isotherms data were also measured by two different methods-the equilibrium with saturated salts solutions and also the controlled humidity oven. Water vapour sorption data were finally correlated by the three parameters Guggenheim, Anderson, De Boer (GAB) equation.

  9. Simple sensor system for measuring the dielectric properties of saline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilland, Jannicke

    1997-08-01

    On-line measurements of dielectric properties can be used for quality determination of process streams. Measurements of the water cut are important in order to determine how much water and oil that are e.g. produced from an oil well or how much oil is discharged to the sea. This work describes the use of a single open-ended probe measurement system for determination of the dielectric properties of saline solutions, the salinity being an important parameter in the determination of the dielectric properties of the water. The frequency range of the measurements is from 500 MHz up to 40 GHz, the salinity varying from 0 to 3.5 wt% (sea water) at 0957-0233/8/8/011/img1C. Models are developed under controlled laboratory conditions relating the static permittivity, relaxation time and conductivity to the salinity of the water. For model verification the same set of tests are performed with a well established precision laboratory system. The potential for on-line implementation of the open-ended probe has been verified by tests in a multiphase flow loop, and these results are also presented.

  10. Influence of organic acid and organic base interactions on interfacial properties in NAPL--water systems.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Lan; Demond, Avery H

    2007-02-01

    Interfacial properties play an important role in determining the transport and distribution of waste nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in groundwater. To develop a better understanding of the solute interactions governing the interfacial properties of waste NAPLs, this study examined the interfacial tension and contact angle of a tetrachloroethylene/water/quartz system containing octanoic acid and dodecylamine as a function of pH. The results showed that interactions between these solutes affected the system's interfacial properties significantly, producing a positive synergism. For example, octanoic acid, which by itself does not affect wettability, could reverse the wettability of quartz in the presence of dodecylamine. The significant reduction in interfacial tension and increase in contact angle around neutral pH was, based on the results of speciation modeling, attributed to the formation of a complex composed of the protonated organic base and deprotonated organic acid, whose formation also peaks around neutral pH. Thus, measures of the content of only one class of compounds, such as the base number, are inadequate descriptors of a NAPL's ability to alter wettability.

  11. Osmotic Properties of the Sealed Tubular System of Toad and Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S.; Stephenson, D. George

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed that allows conversion of changes in maximum Ca2+-dependent fluorescence of a fixed amount of fluo-3 into volume changes of the fluo-3–containing solution. This method was then applied to investigate by confocal microscopy the osmotic properties of the sealed tubular (t-) system of toad and rat mechanically skinned fibers in which a certain amount of fluo-3 was trapped. When the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment was altered by simple dilution or addition of sucrose within the range 190–638 mosmol kg−1, the sealed t-system of toad fibers behaved almost like an ideal osmometer, changing its volume inverse proportionally to osmolality. However, increasing the osmolality above 638 to 2,550 mosmol kg−1 caused hardly any change in t-system volume. In myoplasmic solutions made hypotonic to 128 mosmol kg−1, a loss of Ca2+ from the sealed t-system of toad fibers occurred, presumably through either stretch-activated cationic channels or store-operated Ca2+ channels. In contrast to the behavior of the t-system in toad fibers, the volume of the sealed t-system of rat fibers changed little (by <20%) when the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment changed between 210 and 2,800 mosmol kg−1. Results were also validated with calcein. Clear differences between rat and toad fibers were also found with respect to the t-system permeability for glycerol. Thus, glycerol equilibrated across the rat t-system within seconds to minutes, but was not equilibrated across the t-system of toad fibers even after 20 min. These results have broad implications for understanding osmotic properties of the t-system and reversible vacuolation in muscle fibers. Furthermore, we observed for the first time in mammalian fibers an orderly lateral shift of the t-system networks whereby t-tubule networks to the left of the Z-line crossover to become t-tubule networks to the right of the Z-line in the adjacent sarcomere (and vice versa). This orderly rearrangement can

  12. Osmotic properties of the sealed tubular system of toad and rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

    2004-03-01

    A method was developed that allows conversion of changes in maximum Ca(2+)-dependent fluorescence of a fixed amount of fluo-3 into volume changes of the fluo-3-containing solution. This method was then applied to investigate by confocal microscopy the osmotic properties of the sealed tubular (t-) system of toad and rat mechanically skinned fibers in which a certain amount of fluo-3 was trapped. When the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment was altered by simple dilution or addition of sucrose within the range 190-638 mosmol kg(-1), the sealed t-system of toad fibers behaved almost like an ideal osmometer, changing its volume inverse proportionally to osmolality. However, increasing the osmolality above 638 to 2,550 mosmol kg(-1) caused hardly any change in t-system volume. In myoplasmic solutions made hypotonic to 128 mosmol kg(-1), a loss of Ca(2+) from the sealed t-system of toad fibers occurred, presumably through either stretch-activated cationic channels or store-operated Ca(2+) channels. In contrast to the behavior of the t-system in toad fibers, the volume of the sealed t-system of rat fibers changed little (by <20%) when the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment changed between 210 and 2,800 mosmol kg(-1). Results were also validated with calcein. Clear differences between rat and toad fibers were also found with respect to the t-system permeability for glycerol. Thus, glycerol equilibrated across the rat t-system within seconds to minutes, but was not equilibrated across the t-system of toad fibers even after 20 min. These results have broad implications for understanding osmotic properties of the t-system and reversible vacuolation in muscle fibers. Furthermore, we observed for the first time in mammalian fibers an orderly lateral shift of the t-system networks whereby t-tubule networks to the left of the Z-line crossover to become t-tubule networks to the right of the Z-line in the adjacent sarcomere (and vice versa). This orderly rearrangement

  13. [Does garlic influence rheologic properties and blood flow in progressive systemic sclerosis?].

    PubMed

    Rapp, Alexander; Grohmann, Gerald; Oelzner, Peter; Uehleke, Bernhard; Uhlemann, Christine

    2006-06-01

    According to traditional European naturopathy garlic is an agent that increases perfusion. In studies with healthy subjects and in-vitro research garlic has shown influences on erythrocyte and thrombocyte aggregation as well as on vasoregulation. However, data on its effects in clinical populations are still lacking. Garlic may be useful for systemic sclerosis which is characterised by impaired perfusion that often cannot sufficiently be influenced by standard treatment. We investigated if dried garlic powder can influence rheologic properties and vasomotor function in systemic sclerosis. During a randomised, double blind pilot study, 20 female inpatients with systemic sclerosis received a 7 day add-on therapy with either 900 mg dried garlic powder or placebo. Rheologic properties (erythrocyte aggregation, ADP-induced thromboycyte aggregation, plasma viscosity, fibrinogenous plasma level, blood sedimentation rate) were assessed initially as well as after 1 and 7 days of treatment. Vasomotor function was evaluated using near-infrared red photoplethysmography, a new diagnostic tool to assess microcirculation. Furthermore, acral skin temperature was measured. After 7 days, only the verum treatment had induced a significant reduction of ADP-induced thrombocyte aggregation and a decrease in erythrocyte aggregation. Results showed no significant effects on vasomotor function, but an immediate effect of garlic on acral skin temperature. According to the 'Qualitatenlehre' of traditional European naturopathy, garlic is classified as a 'heating agent'. Our results suggest that the improvement of rheologic properties could be a possible biological correlate for this. Although further research is required, we conclude garlic could be a rational add-on therapy in the 'Kaltekrankheit' ('cold disease') of systemic sclerosis.

  14. HOST STAR PROPERTIES AND TRANSIT EXCLUSION FOR THE HD 38529 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Gregory W.; Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Wang, Sharon X.; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Pilyavsky, Genady; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Fischer, Debra A.; Dragomir, Diana; Farrington, Chris; Howard, Andrew W.; Jensen, Eric; Laughlin, Gregory

    2013-05-10

    The transit signature of exoplanets provides an avenue through which characterization of exoplanetary properties may be undertaken, such as studies of mean density, structure, and atmospheric composition. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey is a program to expand the catalog of transiting planets around bright host stars by refining the orbits of known planets discovered with the radial velocity technique. Here we present results for the HD 38529 system. We determine fundamental properties of the host star through direct interferometric measurements of the radius and through spectroscopic analysis. We provide new radial velocity measurements that are used to improve the Keplerian solution for the two known planets, and we find no evidence for a previously postulated third planet. We also present 12 years of precision robotic photometry of HD 38529 that demonstrate the inner planet does not transit and the host star exhibits cyclic variations in seasonal mean brightness with a timescale of approximately six years.

  15. In situ characterization of transport properties of superconducting (Cu, C)-system thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikunaga, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Kikuchi, N.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.

    2010-09-01

    Transport properties of (Cu, C)Ba2CuOx [(Cu, C)-1201] thin films have been characterized by in situ temperature dependence of resistivity, without breaking vacuum from the deposition to the measurement. In in situ transport properties measurements, the obtained results reveal that (Cu, C)Ba2CuOx films exhibit Tc > 20 K on the cased of conductivity at 290 K (σ[290 K]) > 4 × 102 S/cm and temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) > 1.5 × 10-3 K-1, and doping level of them should be in between under-doped and optimally-doped states. Their results suggest that there would be possible to further increases of Tc, and XPS data suggest that (Cu, C)-system should have the excellent dopability in their charge reservoir and the possibility of low anisotropy.

  16. Optimal control of the Lotka-Volterra system: turnpike property and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Aitziber

    2017-12-01

    The Lotka-Volterra model is a differential system of two coupled equations representing the interaction of two species: a prey one and a predator one. We formulate an optimal control problem adding the effect of hunting both species as the control variable. We analyse the optimal hunting problem paying special attention to the nature of the optimal state and control trajectories in long time intervals. To do that, we apply recent theoretical results on the frame to show that, when the time horizon is large enough, optimal strategies are nearly steady-state. Such path is known as turnpike property. Some experiments are performed to observe such turnpike phenomenon in the hunting problem. Based on the turnpike property, we implement a variant of the single shooting method to solve the previous optimisation problem, taking the middle of the time interval as starting point.

  17. Spectral properties of a strongly coupled quantum-dot-metal-nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakami, Jabir; Wang, Ligang; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the coherent control of the quantum optical properties of a quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle using a photon Green's function method, which is based on the exact quantization of the electromagnetic fields in a dissipative medium. The properties of the spontaneous emission spectra of such a system are studied in detail with and without involving the coherent field. The Rabi splitting effect in the spectrum emitted by the quantum dot under particular conditions is predicted for different sizes of the metal nanoparticles. We show that the spontaneous emission spectra of the transition coupled to surface plasmons may be further modified by adjusting the external coherent control on the adjacent transitions. Furthermore, the pronounced oscillatory behavior for the quantum-dot dynamics is demonstrated with the presence of the metal nanoparticle by the non-Markovian treatment. Our results may have potential applications in plasmonic-based quantum manipulation.

  18. An airjet actuator system for identification of the human arm joint mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu YMj; Hunter, I W; Hollerbach, J M; Bennett, D J

    1991-11-01

    A system is described for determining the mechanical properties of the human arm during unconstrained posture and movement. An airjet perturbation device is attached to the wrist with a special cuff, and provides high-frequency stochastic perturbations in potentially three orthogonal directions. The airjet operates as a fluidic flip-flop utilizing the Coanda effect, and generates binary force sequences with a steady-state thrust of 4 N, a flat frequency response to 75 Hz, usable thrust to 150 Hz, and a rise time of 1 ms, when the static pressure at the nozzle inlet is 5.5 x 10(5) Pa (80 psi). These operating characteristics are adequate to identify the arm's mechanical properties efficiently and robustly.

  19. A Measurement Testing Setup of the Characteristic Properties for High Temperature Superconducting bearing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qunxu; Jiang, Donghui; Wang, Jiasu; Ma, Guangtong; Yen, Fei; Deng, Zigang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Suyu

    A measurement testing setup of the characteristic properties for high temperature superconducting bearing (HTSB) systems is introduced in this paper. The equipment setup can measure the radial and axial forces, temperature, oscillation and rotary speed of the HTSB simultaneously, so the relation between these properties can be investigated. For example, the decrease of the radial and axial forces, and the increase of the temperature can be measured and analyzed during different rotary speeds of the permanent magnetic rotor. The measurement ranges for the radial and axial force will reach 5 kN and 10 kN. The temperature of the superconductors in HTSB can then be controlled by adjusting the air press inside the dewar which is an easier method compared with a cryocooler.

  20. Statistical distribution of mechanical properties for three graphite-epoxy material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, C.; Sorem, J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy composites are playing an increasing role as viable alternative materials in structural applications necessitating thorough investigation into the predictability and reproducibility of their material strength properties. This investigation was concerned with tension, compression, and short beam shear coupon testing of large samples from three different material suppliers to determine their statistical strength behavior. Statistical results indicate that a two Parameter Weibull distribution model provides better overall characterization of material behavior for the graphite-epoxy systems tested than does the standard Normal distribution model that is employed for most design work. While either a Weibull or Normal distribution model provides adequate predictions for average strength values, the Weibull model provides better characterization in the lower tail region where the predictions are of maximum design interest. The two sets of the same material were found to have essentially the same material properties, and indicate that repeatability can be achieved.

  1. Statistic properties and cascading failures in a coupled transit network consisting of bus and subway systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Huang, Ailing; Guan, Wei

    2014-08-01

    A coupled network model consisting of bus and subway systems is proposed, and the statistic properties of the three networks: bus, subway and coupled networks of Beijing are studied with the theory of complex network. The result shows that the three networks have typical properties of small-world. We propose three parameters to depict the coupled network, they are: the coupled parameter β the influence parameter S and the node tolerance parameter γ. We use the binary influence model to simulate a feedback process and cascading failure in the coupled network and we obtain the conclusions: (1) The cascading size grows with β; (2) The cascading size grows with S, but it has a critical point; (3) The cascading size grows with the decrease of γ, when γ≤0.3, the cascading failure will extent to the whole network.

  2. Properties of a Formal Method for Prediction of Emergent Behaviors in Swarm-based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy; Hinchey, Mike; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent swarms of satellites are being proposed for NASA missions that have complex behaviors and interactions. The emergent properties of swarms make these missions powerful, but at the same time more difficult to design and assure that proper behaviors will emerge. This paper gives the results of research into formal methods techniques for verification and validation of NASA swarm-based missions. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft. The NASA ANTS mission was used as an example of swarm intelligence for which to apply the formal methods. This paper will give the evaluation of these formal methods and give partial specifications of the ANTS mission using four selected methods. We then give an evaluation of the methods and the needed properties of a formal method for effective specification and prediction of emergent behavior in swarm-based systems.

  3. Lasing properties of non-resonant single quantum dot-cavity system under incoherent excitation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huan; Yao, Peijun; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

    2012-12-17

    Single quantum dot laser has earned extensive interest due to its peculiar properties, however, most of works are focused on the resonant case. In this paper, the lasing oscillation based on off-resonant quantum dot (QD)-cavity system is investigated detailedly through two-electrons QD model. By gradually increasing the pump rate, the typical lasing signatures are shown with and without detuning, include the spectral transition from multiple peaks to single peak, and antibunching to Poissonian distribution. It is also demonstrated how detuning factor strongly influence photon statistics and emission properties, specially, the side peak of spectra induced by the exchange energy (named "sub-peak") will go across the main peak from left to right when the detuning is gradually increased, and, furthermore, we find the "sub-peak cross of spectra" will facilitate the lasing oscillation because of the existence of exchange energy.

  4. Effects of repeated baking on the mechanical and physical properties of metal-ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sakae; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Terashima, Nobuyoshi; Kamijyo, Kuni; Ito, Michio; Oshida, Yoshiki

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluates effects of repeated baking processes on the mechanical and physical properties of single and triple applications of opaque, body and enamel porcelains fused to three different metal substrates (precious metal, semi-precious metal and non-precious metal). The vintage halo porcelain system was employed and fused to metals. Fused samples were subjected to three-point bend tests to evaluate bend strength and modulus of elasticity. It was found that, by increasing repeated baking cycles, (1) body and enamel porcelains increased bend strengths but opaque porcelain did not show any changes, (2) all triple-layered porcelains fired to metals increased bend strengths, and (3) all three porcelains and metal substrates did not exhibit changes in thermal expansion percentage. It was concluded that repeating baking procedures up to 10 cycles did not exhibit any adverse effects on the final properties of porcelain-fired to metals, rather it was noticed that mechanical strengths increased by increasing cycles.

  5. Impact of oceanic heat transport on global thermodynamical properties in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Lunkeit, Frank; Lucarini, Valerio

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how properties of macroscale thermodynamics of the climate system respond to changes in the intensity of the oceanic heat transport by utilising PlaSim, an Earth-like general circulation model of intermediate complexity, in an aqua-planet configuration. By increasing the magnitude of the meridional heat transport in the ocean, characterised by an export out of the tropics and a poleward convergence, we observe a surface warming of about 10K and a decrease in the equator-to-pole temperature difference, while the total poleward heat transport remains unchanged. The Carnot efficiency, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increasing oceanic heat transport. These results suggest that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production, as the oceanic transport of heat out of the tropics is reinforced.

  6. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam

    2015-06-24

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  7. More Dynamical Properties Revealed from a 3D Lorenz-like System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijun; Li, Xianyi

    After a 3D Lorenz-like system has been revisited, more rich hidden dynamics that was not found previously is clearly revealed. Some more precise mathematical work, such as for the complete distribution and the local stability and bifurcation of its equilibrium points, the existence of singularly degenerate heteroclinic cycles as well as homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits, and the dynamics at infinity, is carried out in this paper. In particular, another possible new mechanism behind the creation of chaotic attractors is presented. Based on this mechanism, some different structure types of chaotic attractors are numerically found in the case of small b > 0. All theoretical results obtained are further illustrated by numerical simulations. What we formulate in this paper is to not only show those dynamical properties hiding in this system, but also (more mainly) present a kind of way and means — both "locally" and "globally" and both "finitely" and "infinitely" — to comprehensively explore a given system.

  8. Realistic Many-Body Quantum Systems vs. Full Random Matrices: Static and Dynamical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Herrera, Eduardo; Karp, Jonathan; Távora, Marco; Santos, Lea

    2016-10-01

    We study the static and dynamical properties of isolated many-body quantum systems and compare them with the results for full random matrices. In doing so, we link concepts from quantum information theory with those from quantum chaos. In particular, we relate the von Neumann entanglement entropy with the Shannon information entropy and discuss their relevance for the analysis of the degree of complexity of the eigenstates, the behavior of the system at different time scales and the conditions for thermalization. A main advantage of full random matrices is that they enable the derivation of analytical expressions that agree extremely well with the numerics and provide bounds for realistic many-body quantum systems.

  9. Bulk and surface properties of ZnTe-ZnS system semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Kosarev, B. A.; Nor, P. E.; Bukashkina, T. L.

    2016-10-01

    Physicochemical studies of a new ZnTe-ZnS semiconductor system are conducted. It is found that at certain ratios of binary components, substitutional solid solutions with a cubic sphalerite structure are formed in this system. Interrelated laws governing changes in the bulk (crystal chemical, structural) and surface (acid-base) properties with varying system composition are identified. It is assumed they can be attributed to the nature of the active (acid-base) sites. The presented data, observed patterns, and an interpretation of them are used not only to confirm earlier proposed mechanisms of atomic-molecular interaction on diamond-like semiconductors, but to search for promising materials for use in highly sensitive selective sensors for environmental and medical purposes as well.

  10. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ɛ + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  11. Mechanical properties and structure of the biological multilayered material system, Atractosteus spatula scales.

    PubMed

    Allison, P G; Chandler, M Q; Rodriguez, R I; Williams, B A; Moser, R D; Weiss, C A; Poda, A R; Lafferty, B J; Kennedy, A J; Seiter, J M; Hodo, W D; Cook, R F

    2013-02-01

    During recent decades, research on biological systems such as abalone shell and fish armor has revealed that these biological systems employ carefully arranged hierarchical multilayered structures to achieve properties of high strength, high ductility and light weight. Knowledge of such structures may enable pathways to design bio-inspired materials for various applications. This study was conducted to investigate the spatial distribution of structure, chemical composition and mechanical properties in mineralized fish scales of the species Atractosteus spatula. Microindentation tests were conducted, and cracking patterns and damage sites in the scales were examined to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of fish scales under impact and penetration loads. A difference in nanomechanical properties was observed, with a thinner, stiffer and harder outer layer (indentation modulus ∼69 GPa and hardness ∼3.3 GPa) on a more compliant and thicker inner layer (indentation modulus ∼14.3 GPa and hardness ∼0.5 GPa). High-resolution scanning electron microscopy imaging of a fracture surface revealed that the outer layer contained oriented nanorods embedded in a matrix, and that the nanostructure of the inner layer contained fiber-like structures organized in a complex layered pattern. Damage patterns formed during microindentation show complex deformation mechanisms. Images of cracks identify growth through the outer layer, then deflection along the interface before growing and arresting in the inner layer. High-magnification images of the crack tip in the inner layer show void-linking and fiber-bridging exhibiting inelastic behavior. The observed difference in mechanical properties and unique nanostructures of different layers may have contributed to the resistance of fish scales to failure by impact and penetration loading. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Scavenging properties of metronidazole on free oxygen radicals in a skin lipid model system.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sabrina; Hünerbein, Andreas; Getie, Melkamu; Jäckel, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2007-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the pathophysiology of the skin disease rosacea, a chronic, genetically-determined and UV-triggered disease, leading to facial redness and blemishes and exhibiting a deep impact on a patient's self-esteem and quality of life. ROS can cause oxidative damage to nucleic acids, sugars, proteins and lipids, thereby contributing to adverse effects on the skin. Metronidazole has been the first-line topical agent therapy for many years; nevertheless the mechanism of action is still not well understood. The therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole has been attributed to its antioxidant effects, which can involve two pathways: decreased generation of ROS within tissues or scavenging and inactivation of existing ROS. Previous investigations have shown that metronidazole reduces ROS by decreasing ROS production in cellular in-vitro systems. The aim of the following study was to demonstrate that metronidazole additionally exhibits antioxidative properties in a cell-free system, by acting as an antioxidant scavenger. A simple skin lipid model (oxidative) system and a complex skin adapted lipid system in conjunction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test, a quantitative assay for the detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) and therefore lipid peroxidation, were used to determine the antioxidative properties of metronidazole after UV irradiation. Results clearly show that metronidazole has antioxidative properties in a cell-free environment, acting as a free radical scavenger. Simple skin lipid model: in the presence of 10, 100 and 500 microg mL(-1)metronidazole the MDA concentration was reduced by 25, 36 and 49%, respectively. Complex skin lipid system: in the presence of 100 and 500 microg mL(-1)metronidazole the MDA concentration was reduced by 19 and 34%, respectively. The results obtained in this study and from previous publications strongly suggest that metronidazole exhibits antioxidative effects via two mechanisms: decrease in ROS

  13. Pathogenicity phenomena in three model systems: from network mining to emerging system-level properties.

    PubMed

    Castelhano Santos, Nadine; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Lourenço, Anália

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interconnections of microbial pathogenicity phenomena, such as biofilm formation, quorum sensing and antimicrobial resistance, is a tremendous open challenge for biomedical research. Progress made by wet-lab researchers and bioinformaticians in understanding the underlying regulatory phenomena has been significant, with converging evidence from multiple high-throughput technologies. Notably, network reconstructions are already of considerable size and quality, tackling both intracellular regulation and signal mediation in microbial infection. Therefore, it stands to reason that in silico investigations would play a more active part in this research. Drug target identification and drug repurposing could take much advantage of the ability to simulate pathogen regulatory systems, host-pathogen interactions and pathogen cross-talking. Here, we review the bioinformatics resources and tools available for the study of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungal species Candida albicans. The choice of these three microorganisms fits the rationale of the review converging into pathogens of great clinical importance, which thrive in biofilm consortia and manifest growing antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Probing Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Quasar Absorption Systems at Redshifts z<1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, M.; Kulkarni, V. P.; York, D. G.; Welty, D. E.; Vladilo, G.; Som, D.

    Absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars whose sightlines serendipitously pass through foreground galaxies provide a valuable tool to simultaneously probe the dust and gas compositions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. In particular, the damped and sub-damped Lyman- α (DLA/sub-DLA) absorbers trace gas-rich galaxies, independent of the intrinsic luminosities or star-formation rates of the associated galaxy stellar populations. The first evidence of silicate dust in a quasar absorption system was provided through our detection of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the z=0.52 DLA absorber toward the quasar AO 0235+164. We present results from 2 follow-up programs using archival Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectra to study the interstellar silicate dust grain properties in a total of 13 quasar absorption systems at 0.1 < z < 1.4. We find clear detections of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the quasar absorption systems studied. In addition, we also detect the 18 µ m silicate feature in the sources with adequate spectral coverage. We find variations in the breadth, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 µ m interstellar silicate absorption features among the absorbers. This suggests that the silicate dust grain properties in these distant galaxies may differ relative to one another, and relative to those in the Milky Way. We also find suggestions in several sources, based on comparisons with laboratory-derived profiles from the literature, that the silicate dust grains may be significantly more crystalline than those in the amorphous Milky Way ISM. This is particularly evident in the z=0.89 absorber toward the quasar PKS 1830-211, where substructure near 10 µ m is consistent with a crystalline olivine composition. If confirmed, these grain property variations may have implications for both dust and galaxy evolution over the past 9 Gyrs, and for the commonly-made assumption that highredshift dust is similar to local dust. We also discuss

  15. The complex distribution of arterial system mechanical properties, pulsatile hemodynamics, and vascular stresses emerges from three simple adaptive rules.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc H; Coquis-Knezek, Sarah F; Mohiuddin, Mohammad W; Tuzun, Egemen; Quick, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    Arterial mechanical properties, pulsatile hemodynamic variables, and mechanical vascular stresses vary significantly throughout the systemic arterial system. Although the fundamental principles governing pulsatile hemodynamics in elastic arteries are widely accepted, a set of rules governing stress-induced adaptation of mechanical properties can only be indirectly inferred from experimental studies. Previously reported mathematical models have assumed mechanical properties adapt to achieve an assumed target stress "set point." Simultaneous prediction of the mechanical properties, hemodynamics, and stresses, however, requires that equilibrium stresses are not assumed a priori. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to use a "balance point" approach to identify the simplest set of universal adaptation rules that simultaneously predict observed mechanical properties, hemodynamics, and stresses throughout the human systemic arterial system. First, we employed a classical systemic arterial system model with 121 arterial segments and removed all parameter values except vessel lengths and peripheral resistances. We then assumed vessel radii increase with endothelial shear stress, wall thicknesses increase with circumferential wall stress, and material stiffnesses decrease with circumferential wall stress. Parameters characterizing adaptive responses were assumed to be identical in all arterial segments. Iteratively predicting local mechanical properties, hemodynamics, and stresses reproduced five trends observed when traversing away from the aortic root towards the periphery: decrease in lumen radii, wall thicknesses, and pulsatile flows and increase in wall stiffnesses and pulsatile pressures. The extraordinary complexity of the systemic arterial system can thus arise from independent adaptation of vessels to local stresses characterized by three simple adaptive rules.

  16. Using SEVIRI radiances to retrieve cloud optical properties of convective cloud systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Jennifer; Fischer, Jürgen; Hünerbein, Anja; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    In this case study the development of cloud properties (cloud optical depth, effective radius and cloud top height) during the life-cycle of a convective cloud system over Europe was analyzed. To retrieve the properties we developed a retrieval scheme based on the radiative transfer code MOMO and an optimal estimation procedure. Input data are the visible to short-wavelength infrared channels from SEVIRI. In contrast to many other retrieval schemes we used 4 channels simultaneously. Especially the 3,9μm channel provides additional information due to the fact that it measures solar reflectance and thermal emission and allows the inclusion of cloud top height into the retrieval. By using a time series of SEVIRI measurements we want to provide and examine the microphysical development of the cloud over life-time. We monitored the growth of the system and found the most active parts of the convection with the highest water content and optical depth in those regions where the cloud top height is largest, too. The effective radius of the cloud particles is largest in older regions of the cloud system, where the cloud is already decaying.

  17. Geometric Properties of a Mechanical Forward Motion Compensation System Controlled by a Piezoelectric Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, F.; Gline, S.; Losseau, J.; Lecharlier, L.

    2012-07-01

    Forward Motion Compensation (FMC) systems have been designed to ensure the radiometric quality of motion acquisition in airborne cameras. If the radiometric benefits of FMC have been acknowledged, what are its effects on the geometrical properties of the camera? This paper demonstrates that FMC significantly improves geometrical properties of a camera. Aspects of FMC theory are discussed, with a focus on the near-lossless implementation of this technology into digital aerial camera systems. Among mechanical FMC technologies, the piezoelectric drive is proving to excel in dynamic positioning in both accuracy and repeatability. The patented piezoelectric drive integrated into Optech aerial camera systems allows for continuous and precise sensor motion to ensure exact compensation of the aircraft's forward motion. This paper presents findings that demonstrate the validity of this assertion. The paper also discusses the physical principles involved in motion acquisition. Equations are included that define the motion effect at image level and illustrate how FMC acts to prevent motion effects. The residual motion effect or compensation error is formulated and a practical computation applied to the more restrictive camera case. The assessment concludes that, in the range of airborne camera utilization, the mechanical FMC technique is free of "visible" error at both human eye and computer assessment level. Lastly, the paper proceeds to a detailed technical discussion of piezoelectric drives and why they have proven to be so effective as nanopositioning devices for optical applications. The effectiveness of the patented piezoelectric drives used to achieve FMC in Optech cameras is conclusively demonstrated.

  18. Hybrid systems based on "drug - in cyclodextrin - in nanoclays" for improving oxaprozin dissolution properties.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Maestrelli, Francesca; Aguzzi, Carola; Viseras, César

    2016-07-25

    A combined approach based on drug complexation with cyclodextrins, and complex entrapment in nanoclays has been investigated, to join in a single delivery system the benefits of these carriers and potentiate their ability to improve the dissolution properties of oxaprozin (OXA), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug. Based on previous studies, randomly methylated ß-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) was chosen as the most effective cyclodextrin for OXA complexation. Adsorption equilibrium studies performed on three different clays (sepiolite, attapulgite, bentonite) allowed selection of sepiolite (SV) for its greater adsorption power towards OXA. DSC and XRPD studies indicated drug amorphization in both binary OXA-RAMEB coground and OXA-SV cofused products, due to its complexation or very fine dispersion in the clay structure, respectively. The drug amorphous state was maintained also in the ternary OXA-RAMEB-SV cofused system. Dissolution studies evidenced a clear synergistic effect of RAMEB complexation and clay nanoencapsulation in improving the OXA dissolution properties, with an almost 100% increase in percent dissolved and dissolution efficiency compared to the OXA-RAMEB coground system. Therefore, the proposed combined approach represents an interesting tool for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of poorly soluble drugs, and reducing the CD amount necessary for obtaining the desired drug solubility and dissolution rate increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overalll system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1880 kg/cu m.

  20. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  1. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  2. Influence of Photoinitiator System on Physical-Chemical Properties of Experimental Self-Adhesive Composites.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Marcus Vinicius Loureiro; Moraes, Rita de Cássia Martins; Pfeifer, Carmem; Salgado, Vinícius Esteves; Correr, Ana Rosa Costa; Schneider, Luis Felipe J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of photoinitiator systems on physical-chemical properties of flowable composites. Conventional (CFC), composed by bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA)+triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and self-adhesive (SAFC), composed by BisGMA+TEDGMA+bis{2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl} phosphate (2MP), flowable composites were developed. Five photoinitiator systems were tested: camphorquinone (CQ), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB), diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO), phenylbis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (BAPO), CQ+EDMAB+TPO and CQ+EDMAB+BAPO. A two-peak LED was used; degree of conversion (DC) and the maximum polymerization rate (RPmax) were determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For the yellowing degree a spectrophotometer was used. Water sorption (Wsp) was obtained after 30 days of water storage (n=5). Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (a=0.05). BAPO presented the highest DC and RPmax values for both series. SAFCs presented lower DC and RPmax for CQ+EDMAB-based materials. Greater yellowing was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs, except for BAPO. Greater Wsp was observed for SAFCs compared with CFCs. The photoinitiator did not influence Wsp for CFCs, but TPO and BAPO presented the highest Wsp in SAFCs. The photoinitiator system affected differently the physical-chemical properties of CFCs and SAFCs.

  3. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist.

    PubMed

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Knol, Dirk L; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2012-05-01

    The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5-18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist to calculate quality scores per measurement property when using the checklist in systematic reviews of measurement properties. The scoring system was developed based on discussions among experts and testing of the scoring system on 46 articles from a systematic review. Four response options were defined for each COSMIN item (excellent, good, fair, and poor). A quality score per measurement property is obtained by taking the lowest rating of any item in a box ("worst score counts"). Specific criteria for excellent, good, fair, and poor quality for each COSMIN item are described. In defining the criteria, the "worst score counts" algorithm was taken into consideration. This means that only fatal flaws were defined as poor quality. The scores of the 46 articles show how the scoring system can be used to provide an overview of the methodological quality of studies included in a systematic review of measurement properties. Based on experience in testing this scoring system on 46 articles, the COSMIN checklist with the proposed scoring system seems to be a useful tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies included in systematic reviews of measurement properties.

  4. Bio-inspired metal-coordination dynamics: A unique tool for engineering novel properties in soft matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindy, Scott; Li, Qiaochu; Halim, Abigail; Learsch, Robert; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2015-03-01

    In soft material systems, materials properties are generally governed by transient, dynamic interactions of many types over many hierarchal length- and time-scales. However, explicit control over these dynamics is not always possible, leaving open questions into how transient interactions can be exploited to design soft materials with unique and exceptional properties. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry and tough character of mussel byssal threads, we present several studies on both the mechanical properties of soft materials and templated crystallization kinetics to show the diverse array of materials properties that can be generated using bio-inspired metal-coordination. By studying our model systems, we can determine the explicit effects of metal-coordination dynamics on various bulk properties, further adding to the set of tools we can use to design soft material systems.

  5. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    PubMed

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research of aberration properties and passive athermalization of optical systems for infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Galina E.; Pyś, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Infrared optical systems are widely used for surveillance, military and many other purposes. Image quality of such systems should be stable over wide working temperature range from - 40 up to +60°C. Due to temperature dependence of properties of optical materials and mechanical parts it is a difficult task to achieve the required stability. Passive and active methods exist to compensate the most significant aberration - so called thermal defocus. Passive compensation ways are the most attractive because complicated mechanical parts or devices are not required. The work is aimed at developing and improving of the IR system design methods. The analysis of thermoaberrations starts with analysis of possibilities of chromatic and thermal defocus correction in two and three component systems. Based on these results the development and improvement of the design method which was proposed earlier was implemented. Examples of designed systems are given. Results of the work may be helpful for designers to find optimal material combination for further designing of thermostabilized systems working in IR region.

  7. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  8. Assessment of the Sensitivity of Distributions of Climate System Properties to Methodology and Model Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libardoni, A. G.; Forest, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the sensitivity of probability distribution functions for climate sensitivity, the rate of ocean heat uptake, and the net anthropogenic aerosol forcing to multiple factors. First, the impact on the distributions of the method used when using surface temperatures to evaluate model performance is explored. Specifically, the treatment of missing data in the surface observations and how it is used to mask the model data is modified and its impact evaluated. Second, the sensitivity of the distributions to the reference climatology used to calculate surface temperature anomalies is explored. Third, the sensitivity of the distributions to the observational data sources is explored. In total, five different surface temperature datasets and three different ocean heat content datasets are used. Lastly, the impact of including more recent data in the surface and ocean heat content records is explored. Contained in this exploration is an evaluation of how using a longer surface temperature record (six decades versus five decades) in model evaluation impacts the resulting distributions. The probability distributions are derived using a two-step process consisting of: 1) running a single climate model while varying the parameter settings for each model run and 2) evaluating the performance of a given model through the comparison of model output to observed climate records. The MIT Integrated Assessment Model is used due to its efficiency and ability to easily modify the three climate system properties that are assessed. Model output for a given set of parameters is compared to historical surface temperature, ocean heat content, and upper-air temperature patterns and the resulting goodness-of-fit statistics are used to derive probability distributions for the system properties. Understanding the uncertainties that are attributable to each of the factors described above allows for a more thorough analysis of climate system properties and will help guide the

  9. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  10. Control of a wheeled system taking into account its inertial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyukhin, V. I.

    2013-05-01

    Mechanical wheeled systems (WS) such as a wheeled tractor, a motor car, a mobile robot, etc. are studied. The well-known trajectory problem, i.e., the problem of controlling the WS motion along a given trajectory, is considered. This problem was solved earlier in the framework of kinematic WS models. The present paper deals with general WS models that additionally take into account inertial properties such as the WS masses and/or moments of inertia. We establish that the WS are subjected to rather significant perturbing forces. A control law stabilizing the WS motion along a given trajectory is constructed.

  11. The effect of artificial saliva on the rheological properties of tooth whitening systems.

    PubMed

    Castellon, R G; Combe, E C; Pesun, I J

    2004-12-01

    This work was undertaken to explore the effect of saliva addition on the rheological properties of two contrasting tooth bleaching systems, one of which was a paste (Colgate Platinum) and the other a gel (Zaris, 3M ESPE). Using a dynamic stress rheometer with cone and plate geometry, it was shown that addition of artificial saliva reduced the apparent viscosity of each material. However, in some cases this was accompanied by an increase in elasticity. It is suggested that saliva may not have a deleterious effect on the ability of the materials to remain in the bleaching tray.

  12. Motion properties of the sanals of the primo vascular system under a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Suk

    2013-12-01

    The motion properties of the sanals of the primo vascular system were investigated under a low static magnetic field of 100 Oe. Sanals of about 1 μm were selected and separated from the primo vessels and nodes on a rabbit's organ surface. The average velocity of five sanals in a physiologic saline solution parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field was approximately 1.0 pixel/second in random directions, which implies that the rotating motion of sanals with nuclei composed of DNA containing many inorganic magnetic elements such as manganese and cobalt is monotonically weakened by increasing an applied magnetic field.

  13. Nonlinear electric properties in biological system for stochastic computing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumida, Saki; Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Ohyama, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Yoichi; Che, Dock-Chil; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinearity is the vital factor for stochastic computing. Toward the realization of brain-mimetic function using molecular network, the nonlinear electric properties of molecular systems are investigated in nanoscale with atomic force microscopy and nano-gap electrodes. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics were observed for {Mo154/152}-ring, cytochorome c, and cytochrome c/DNA networks where the conduction paths include electron injection into weakly coupled discrete energy levels, electron tunneling through potential well, and electron hopping via Coulomb-blockade network. Stochastic resonance was observed in Cytochrome c/DNA network.

  14. Hydrate Properties and Molecular Mobility in the Protein-Disaccharide Systems at Low Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyukina, G. N.; Volkov, V. Ya.

    2008-04-01

    The freeze dried samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and BSA—saccharose, BSA—lactose, and BSA—trehalose complexes were studied by the proton NMR relaxation technique in the humidity range from 1 to 20%. The disaccharide molecules were found to assume translational mobility at the humidity higher than 12% per dry weight. It was established that, at the same water content in the samples, saccharose, lactose, and trehalose possess, respectively, high, intermediate, and low mobility. To display water "dissolving" properties in these systems at a humidity higher than 12%, two, three, and four water molecules are required additionally per each sugar molecule for, respectively, saccharose, lactose, and trehalose.

  15. Modeling and Properties of Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamical System of Continuous Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Feng, Enmin; Ye, Jianxiong; Xiu, Zhilong

    The stochastic counterpart to the deterministic description of continuous fermentation with ordinary differential equation is investigated in the process of glycerol bio-dissimilation to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. We briefly discuss the continuous fermentation process driven by three-dimensional Brownian motion and Lipschitz coefficients, which is suitable for the factual fermentation. Subsequently, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the stochastic system as well as the boundedness of the Two-order Moment and the Markov property of the solution. Finally stochastic simulation is carried out under the Stochastic Euler-Maruyama method.

  16. Study of the Properties of Plessey's Electrocardiographic Capacitive Electrodes for Portable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, A. A.; Lezhnina, I. A.; Overchuk, K. V.; Starchak, A. S.; Akhmedov, Sh D.; Larioshina, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac diseases are still most widely spread in all regions of the world. And more and more devices are invented to satisfy increasing requirements of the patients. One of the perspective technologies in cardiac diagnostics is capacitive sensing ECG electrodes. This article describes a study of the properties of electrocardiographic capacitive electrodes PS25255 from Plessey Semiconductors for portable systems as well as some undocumented parameters of these sensors. We developed special cardiograph using Plessey's electrodes and applied to the number of patients with ischemic heart disease. We paid our attention mostly to the correct transition of the ST segment as it has critical impact on the diagnostics of ischemic heart disease.

  17. Analysis of corrugated cardboard influence on the protective properties of complex packaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowski, Przemyslaw; Piatkowski, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    According to available literature, it is assumed that outer packaging container, which is usually made of corrugated cardboard, does not influence the mitigation of the impact effects, thus in the designing process of packaging system the outer packaging is skipped. The purpose of this paper is to verify the above assumption, including determination of the influence of the 5-layer cardboard on the properties of structures that consist of that cardboard and polyethylene foam. Verification is performed with the use of the finite element method. To apply this method the dynamic compression curve of cushioning material is required. Therefore in the paper it is also presented the modified method to determine the curve.

  18. Eigen-Property of Single-j System and Seniority Conservation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobao; Qi, Chong; Xu, Furong

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we study the system with three nucleons within a single-j shell, which can be described as the angular momentum coupling of a nucleon pair and the odd nucleon. The overlaps between these non-orthonormal states form a special matrix coincidental with the one obtained by Rowe and Rosensteel. They proposed a proposition related to the eigenvalue problems of that matrix and dimensions of the associated subspaces. We prove their proposition with the help of the symmetric properties of the six-j symbols. We also derive algebraic expressions for eigen energies as well as conditions for conservation of seniority through the decomposition of the angular momentum.

  19. Optical Properties of a Quantum Dot-Ring System Grown Using Droplet Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Linares-García, Gabriel; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Stinaff, Eric; Alsolamy, S M; Ware, M E; Mazur, Y I; Wang, Z M; Lee, Jihoon; Salamo, G J

    2016-12-01

    Electronic and optical properties of InAs/GaAs nanostructures grown by the droplet epitaxy method are studied. Carrier states were determined by k · p theory including effects of strain and In gradient concentration for a model geometry. Wavefunctions are highly localized in the dots. Coulomb and exchange interactions are studied and we found the system is in the strong confinement regime. Microphotoluminescence spectra and lifetimes were calculated and compared with measurements performed on a set of quantum rings in a single sample. Some features of spectra are in good agreement.

  20. Evolution and Mean Properties of Convective Systems in Southwestern Amazonia During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickenbach, Thomas M.; Ferreira, Rosana Nieto; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; deSilvaDias, Maria A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the wet season TRMM field campaign in Rondonia, Brazil, a variety of convective systems were sampled by radar, sounding, and geostationary satellite for a 60 day period in early 1999. Local variations in the local wind and humidity field have been attributed in part by this study to synoptic scale phenomena, most conspicuously the establishment of stationary frontal systems penetrating into the tropics. These baroclinic systems induced periodic episodes low level moist, westerly flow across Rondonia during the experiment. This flow feature may be an important component of the South American climate system by playing a role in maintaining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, which was active during these local westerly wind events. It is therefore important to understand the differences in mesoscale properties of convective systems between the westerly wind periods and intervening easterly wind periods. Differences in shear and moisture characteristics (Halverson et al. 2000, this meeting) are compared to structural and life-cycle characteristics of convective systems in Rondonia. Data from ground based radar and geostationary satellite provide a view of the evolution of the vertical structure and horizontal morphology of several large mesoscale convective systems in each regime. Preliminary statistics on the diurnal variation of precipitation intensity, areal coverage, and cloud top area are presented. Results suggest that long-lived, shallow convective systems with a large stratiform component of precipitation are characteristic of the westerly wind periods. A goal of this study is to establish a basis for which to parameterize the mesoscale effects of convection on large scale features of the South American climate system.

  1. Comparative study on electrochemical 4-chlorophenol degradation in different diaphragm systems with combined reduction and oxidation properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, S L; Wang, H; Bian, Z Y

    2015-01-01

    Two diaphragm electrolysis systems, two-electrode (anode-cathode) and three-electrode (cathode-anode-cathode), were compared for the electrochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol. The performance of these systems was improved by feeding with hydrogen gas and then with air, in aid of the combined processes of reduction and oxidation. The 4-chlorophenol degradation, dechlorination, and total organic carbon removal were monitored to characterize the difference between the two systems. The results indicated that the three-electrode system exhibited higher degradation percentages for 4-chlorophenol compared with that of the two-electrode system. The dechlorination property of the three-electrode system was stronger than that of the two-electrode system. In addition, the total organic carbon removal percentage of the anodic compartment in the three-electrode system was higher than that of the two-electrode system. The three-electrode system showed excellent treatment properties for 4-chlorophenol.

  2. Physical Properties of Lyman-alpha Forest and Damped Lyman-alpha Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, V. P.; Fall, S. M.

    1995-12-01

    We present a review of our results regarding various physical properties of quasar absorption line systems, in particular, the Lyman-alpha forest and the damped Lyman-alpha systems. We made the first detection of the quasar proximity effect at low redshifts, using HST Key Project data on the Ly-alpha forest for z < 1. This allowed the first empirical estimate of the intensity of the ionizing UV background at < z > ~ 0.5 and showed evidence for evolution of the ionizing UV background with redshift. We have also studied the implications of non-thermal motions inside Ly-alpha forest clouds for the statistics of these clouds. We showed that the distributions in H I column densities f(N) for systems with saturated Ly-alpha lines and the extent (and sign) of N-sigma correlations could differ from previous estimates, if the clouds possessed non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. We also present results of a study of the chemical properties of several damped Lyman-alpha systems, based on published high-sensitivity observations. In particular, we examine the total (gas + solid phase) metallicity and the dust content of these systems. Results will also be presented of an analysis of an 18 km s(-1) resolution spectrum of the Ly-alpha forest of the z = 2.1 quasar Q1331+170, performed in collaboration with Dr. D. G. York, Dr. D. E. Welty (U. Chicago), Dr. R. F. Green, Dr. K. Huang (NOAO) and Dr. J. Bechtold (U. Arizona). One of the main results is some evidence for small-scale clustering among the Ly-alpha forest clouds.

  3. Physical and Nutritional Properties of Catfish Roe Spray Dried Protein Powder and its Application in an Emulsion System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soluble spray dried protein powder (CRP) was made from catfish roe and its physical and nutritional properties evaluated. An emulsion system (CRPE) was developed using CRP and rheological properties compared with two commercial mayonnaises (RME and RVE). CRP contained 67 % protein, 4.5% moisture, ...

  4. Structure–property characterization of the crinkle-leaf peach wood phenotype: a future model system for wood properties research?

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Rafael Arévalo; Craig Ledbetter; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure– property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach (Prunus persica L.)...

  5. Constraining the Evolution of Galaxy Properties in Interacting Systems with UV-FIR Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, A.; Brassington, N.; Smith, H. A.; Ashby, M. N.; da Cunha, E.; Hayward, C. C.; Jonsson, P.; Hernquist, L. E.; Fazio, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is greatly influenced by their interactions. As part of the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey (SIGS), we imaged 48 nearby systems with Spitzer. We measured and modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at wavelengths from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared (FIR) of the set of these galaxies with publicly available Herschel SPIRE observations. We fit these SEDs with the Bayesian SED-fitting program MAGPHYS developed by da Cunha et al. (2008). In order to determine the reliability of the parameters extracted, we determined how well MAGPHYS recovers parameters of hydrodynamic simulations run with GADGET (Springel et al. 2005) and for which simulated photometry was calculated using the SUNRISE radiative transfer code (Jonsson et al. 2010). We present our conclusions on the variations with interaction stage of galaxy properties including: star formation histories; dust luminosities, temperatures, and masses; and stellar masses. We discuss how successfully MAGPHYS recovers galaxy properties and which instruments are most crucial for constraining masses, star formation histories, and dust properties. We compare the simulations directly to the observations, examining how unique a diagnostic an interacting galaxy SED can be. Finally, we compare and discuss how well the many simple star formation estimating relations (using 24 micron flux, for example) succeed and why.

  6. Structural, thermodynamic, mechanical, and magnetic properties of FeW system

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Q. Q.; Fan, J. L.; Han, Y.; Gong, H. R.

    2014-09-07

    The Fe-W system is systematically investigated through a combined use of first-principles calculation, cluster expansion, special quasirandom structures, and experiments. It is revealed that the ferromagnetic state of BCC Fe-W solid solution has lower heat of formation than its nonmagnetic state within the entire composition range, and intermetallic λ-Fe{sub 2}W and μ-Fe{sub 7}W{sub 6} phases are energetically favorable with negative heats of formation. Calculations also show that the Fe-W solid solution has much lower coefficient of thermal expansion than its mechanical mixture, and that the descending sequence of temperature-dependent elastic moduli of each Fe-W solid solution is E > G > B. Moreover, magnetic state should have an important effect on mechanical properties of Fe-W phases, and electronic structures can provide a deeper understanding of various properties of Fe-W. The derived results agree well with experimental observations, and can clarify two experimental controversies regarding structural stability and magnetic property of Fe-W phases in the literature.

  7. Measurement of the biophysical properties of porcine adipose-derived stem cells by a microperfusion system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianye; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yunhai; Gao, Dayong; Zhou, Ping; Cao, Yunxia

    2014-12-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are an accessible source of adult stem cells with capacities for self-renewal and differentiation into various cell types, have a promising potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. To meet the clinical demand for ADSCs, cryopreservation has been applied for long-term ADSC preservation. To optimize the addition, removal, freezing, and thawing of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) applied to ADSCs, we measured the transport properties of porcine ADSCs (pADSCs). The cell responses of pADSCs to hypertonic phosphate-buffered saline and common CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, and glycerol were measured by a microperfusion system at temperatures of 28, 18, 8, and -2°C. We determined the osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb), hydraulic conductivity (Lp), and CPA permeability (Ps) at various temperatures in a two-parameter model. Then, we quantitatively analyzed the effect of temperature on the transport properties of the pADSC membrane. Biophysical parameters were used to optimize CPA addition, removal, and freezing processes to minimize excessive shrinkage of pADSCs during cryopreservation. The biophysical properties of pADSCs have a great potential for effective optimization of cryopreservation procedures.

  8. Advances in star-shaped π-conjugated systems: properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Tomasz; Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw; Ledwon, Przemyslaw

    2014-06-01

    Until recently π-conjugated organic materials are based mainly on linear systems. Recent years, however, have brought about increasing interest in molecules boasting a dendritic, branched, or star-shaped architecture. This tendency is a direct result of the ongoing search for materials with progressively better properties. Such compounds, featuring novel, 3D architectures, exhibit a multitude of interesting qualities, making them stand out from well-known materials. The direction of star-shaped compound application is determined by whether they are able to form aggregates, π-stacks. This feature is a source of some astounding properties, coveted in numerous applications. Among this class of compounds high charge mobility, high fluorescence efficiency, and good charge separation are all found. Depending on the structure of the core, the molecule may adopt various types of symmetry. Similarly, the conjugation of orbitals may extend over the whole structure or be interrupted at chosen segments. The number of papers pertaining to star-shaped oligomers and polymers is ascending with each year, evidencing a growing interest in them. Consequently, this Review focuses particularly on the most recent reports concerning modification of the structure and properties of the aforementioned type of compounds, as well as on the development of devices based on them.

  9. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  10. Retrievals of Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems using Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Wang, J.; Homeyer, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents innovative algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and newly derived empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements in Wang et al. (2015) during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). With composite gridded NEXRAD radar reflectivity, four-dimensional (space-time) ice cloud microphysical properties of DCSs are retrieved, which is not possible from either in situ sampling at a single altitude or from vertical pointing radar measurements. For this study, aircraft in situ measurements provide the best-estimated ice cloud microphysical properties for validating the radar retrievals. Two statistical comparisons between retrieved and aircraft in situ measured ice microphysical properties are conducted from six selected cases during MC3E. For the temporal-averaged method, the averaged ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm) from aircraft in situ measurements are 0.50 g m-3 and 1.51 mm, while the retrievals from radar reflectivity have negative biases of 0.12 g m-3 (24%) and 0.02 mm (1.3%) with correlations of 0.71 and 0.48, respectively. For the spatial-averaged method, the IWC retrievals are closer to the aircraft results (0.51 vs. 0.47 g m-3) with a positive bias of 8.5%, whereas the Dm retrievals are larger than the aircraft results (1.65 mm vs. 1.51 mm) with a positive bias of 9.3%. The retrieved IWCs decrease from ~0.6 g m-3 at 5 km to ~0.15 g m-3 at 13 km, and Dm values decrease from ~2 mm to ~0.7 mm at the same levels. In general, the aircraft in situ measured IWC and Dm values at each level are within one standard derivation of retrieved properties. Good agreements between microphysical properties measured from aircraft and retrieved from radar reflectivity measurements indicate the reasonable accuracy of our retrievals.

  11. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5204 - Review and approval of a designated contractor's personal property management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... followed as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section. (d) At a minimum of every three years after the... by the property administrator that all major system deficiencies identified in the review or...

  13. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND THE WATER QUALITY COMPONENTS IN THE NEUSE RIVER-PAMLICO SOUND ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field observations carried out in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound Estuarine System (NRE-PS), North Carolina, USA were used to develop optical algorithms for assessing inherent optical properties, IOPs (absorption and backscattering) associated with water quality components (WQC).

  14. Transport, geometrical, and topological properties of stealthy disordered hyperuniform two-phase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2016-12-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have attracted considerable recent attention, since they behave like crystals in the manner in which they suppress large-scale density fluctuations, and yet also resemble statistically isotropic liquids and glasses with no Bragg peaks. One important class of such systems is the classical ground states of "stealthy potentials." The degree of order of such ground states depends on a tuning parameter χ. Previous studies have shown that these ground-state point configurations can be counterintuitively disordered, infinitely degenerate, and endowed with novel physical properties (e.g., negative thermal expansion behavior). In this paper, we focus on the disordered regime (0 < χ < 1/2) in which there is no long-range order and control the degree of short-range order. We map these stealthy disordered hyperuniform point configurations to two-phase media by circumscribing each point with a possibly overlapping sphere of a common radius a: the "particle" and "void" phases are taken to be the space interior and exterior to the spheres, respectively. The hyperuniformity of such two-phase media depends on the sphere sizes: While it was previously analytically proven that the resulting two-phase media maintain hyperuniformity if spheres do not overlap, here we show numerically that they lose hyperuniformity whenever the spheres overlap. We study certain transport properties of these systems, including the effective diffusion coefficient of point particles diffusing in the void phase as well as static and time-dependent characteristics associated with diffusion-controlled reactions. Besides these effective transport properties, we also investigate several related structural properties, including pore-size functions, quantizer error, an order metric, and percolation thresholds. We show that these transport, geometrical, and topological properties of our two-phase media derived from decorated stealthy ground states are distinctly

  15. Electrical properties of frog skeletal muscle fibers interpreted with a mesh model of the tubular system.

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, R T; Eisenberg, R S; Valdiosera, R

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the construction, derivation, and test of a mesh model for the electrical properties of the transverse tubular system (T-system) in skeletal muscle. We model the irregular system of tubules as a random network of miniature transmission lines, using differential equations to describe the potential between the nodes and difference equations to describe the potential at the nodes. The solution to the equations can be accurately represented in several approximate forms with simple physical and graphical interpretations. All the parameters of the solution are specified by impedance and morphometric measurements. The effect of wide circumferential spacing between T-system openings is analyzed and the resulting restricted mesh model is shown to be approximated by a mesh with an access resistance. The continuous limit of the mesh model is shown to have the same form as the disk model of the T-system, but with a different expression for the tortuosity factor. The physical meaning of the tortuosity factor is examined, and a short derivation of the disk model is presented that gives results identical to the continuous limit of the mesh model. Both the mesh and restricted mesh models are compared with experimental data on the impedance of muscle fibers of the frog sartorius. The derived value for the resistivity of the lumen of the tubules is not too different from that of the bathing solution, the difference probably arising from the sensitivity of this value to errors in the morphometric measurements. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:831857

  16. Differential flatness properties and multivariable adaptive control of ovarian system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos

    2016-12-01

    The ovarian system exhibits nonlinear dynamics which is modeled by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The paper proposes adaptive fuzzy control based on differential flatness theory for the complex dynamics of the ovarian system. It is proven that the dynamic model of the ovarian system, having as state variables the LH and the FSH hormones and their derivatives, is a differentially flat one. This means that all its state variables and its control inputs can be described as differential functions of the flat output. By exploiting differential flatness properties the system's dynamic model is written in the multivariable linear canonical (Brunovsky) form, for which the design of a state feedback controller becomes possible. After this transformation, the new control inputs of the system contain unknown nonlinear parts, which are identified with the use of neurofuzzy approximators. The learning procedure for these estimators is determined by the requirement the first derivative of the closed-loop's Lyapunov function to be a negative one. Moreover, Lyapunov stability analysis shows that H-infinity tracking performance is succeeded for the feedback control loop and this assures improved robustness to the aforementioned model uncertainty as well as to external perturbations. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control scheme is confirmed through simulation experiments.

  17. Adapting the design of Anesthesia Information Management Systems to innovations depicted in Industrial Property documents.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, B; Tzavaras, A; Zogogianni, D; Botsivaly, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and the current development status of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS). For this system, the physical and technical advances, depicted in relevant, recently published Industrial Property documents, have been taken into account. Additional innovative sensors create further data-load to be managed. Novel wireless data-transmission modes demand eventually compliance to further proper standards, so that interoperability between AIMS and the existing Hospital Information Systems is being sustained. We attempted to define, the state-of-the-art concerning the functions, the design-prerequisites and the relevant standards and of an "emerging" AIMS that is combining hardware innovation, real-time data acquisition, processing and displaying and lastly enabling the necessary interoperability with the other components of the existing Hospital Information Systems. Finally, we report based on this approach, about the design and implementation status, of our "real-world" system under development and discuss the multifarious obstacles encountered during this still on-going project.

  18. Theoretical models of the spectrophotometric properties of atmosphereless bodies surfaces in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarniello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    In space missions remote sensing represents one of the most powerful tools for the observations of planetary objects. It allows to infer physical and chemical properties both of surfaces and atmospheres by spectroscopic and photometric analysis. However data produced by remote sensing observations need to be interpreted by physical models which describe the interaction between light and observed media. In this work we have applied the Hapke's solution to the radiative transfer equation to data from the VIMS spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft, orbiting in the Saturn's system. This allowed us to determine the spectrophotometric properties of the major icy moons. In particular the composition of Mimas, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Enceladus has been investigated. For the two latter moons also photometric properties have been studied. It comes out that the surfaces of these satellites can be modeled with water ice particles (40-70 μm in size) e minimal amounts (generally < 1%) of organic contaminants, like tholins and amorphous carbon. A similar approach has been applied to the study of the Saturn's rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division), whose spectral characteristics can be obtained with the same paradigm of composition. At the same time we have applied the Hapke's model to laboratory spectra of pyroxenes powders with well-known composition and physical properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the spectral and photometric output of these minerals to be compared with data from space missions. Moreover it was investigated how geometric and compositional effects can modify spectral signatures (for example the band depth). A further step of this investigation was the application of the Hapke's model to retrieve medium optical constants. The last part of this thesis concerns the development of an IDL routine to simulate light scattering in particulate media with a Montecarlo method. Preliminary results are reported.

  19. First-Principles Study for Thermodynamic Properties of Solid {KNO}2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qiang; Ding, Jing; Wei, Xiaolan; Jiang, Gan; Yang, Xiaoxi

    2015-11-01

    To enable us better understand the performance of molten salt energy storage in a solar thermal power system, thermodynamic properties of the solid {KNO}2 system at ambient pressure and temperatures between 0 K and 711 K are determined by first-principles simulation based on density functional perturbation theory calculations with plane waves and pseudopotentials. Thermodynamic parameters of the Debye temperature, specific heat capacity at constant volume, phonon transfer speed, phonon mean free path, and phonon thermal conductivity as a function of temperature are estimated. The results show that the calculated phonon thermal conductivity is in good agreement with experimental values, but the calculated specific heat capacity at constant volume is lower than measured values. The isometric specific heat capacity of {KNO}2 is 75.03 {J}{\\cdot }{mol}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1}, and the phonon thermal conductivity is 2.37 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} at ambient temperature.

  20. Study of the superconducting properties of the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Musheer H.; Qidwai, A. A.; Zia-Ul-haq, S. M.; Binsaif, Rashid

    1990-01-01

    High Temperature Superconductivity in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O System has been observed and has attracted considerable attention in 1988. The 80 K superconductivity phase has been identified to have a composition of Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox, while the 110 K phase as reported in the literature has a possible composition of Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3Ox. Researchers present here a study of the electrical properties of bulk samples of the slowly cooled and rapidly quenched 2:1:2:2 system. The samples used in this study were prepared from appropriate amounts of Bi2O3, CuO, SrCO3, CaCO3.

  1. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  2. Self-organized criticality as a fundamental property of neural systems

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Janina; Gross, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The neural criticality hypothesis states that the brain may be poised in a critical state at a boundary between different types of dynamics. Theoretical and experimental studies show that critical systems often exhibit optimal computational properties, suggesting the possibility that criticality has been evolutionarily selected as a useful trait for our nervous system. Evidence for criticality has been found in cell cultures, brain slices, and anesthetized animals. Yet, inconsistent results were reported for recordings in awake animals and humans, and current results point to open questions about the exact nature and mechanism of criticality, as well as its functional role. Therefore, the criticality hypothesis has remained a controversial proposition. Here, we provide an account of the mathematical and physical foundations of criticality. In the light of this conceptual framework, we then review and discuss recent experimental studies with the aim of identifying important next steps to be taken and connections to other fields that should be explored. PMID:25294989

  3. Study of the superconducting properties of the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Musheer H.; Naqvi, S. M. M. R.; Zia-Ul-haq, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    High Temperature Superconductivity in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O System has been observed and has attracted considerable attention in 1988. The 80 K superconductivity phase has been identified to have a composition of Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox, while the 110 K phase as reported in the literature has a possible composition of Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O(x). Researchers present here a study of the electrical properties of bulk samples of the slowly cooled and rapidly quenched 2:1:2:2 system. The samples used in this study were prepared from appropriate amounts of Bi2O3, CuO, SrCO3, CaCO3.

  4. Asymptotic properties of solutions of nonlinear systems of dynamic equations on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítovec, Jiří

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study asymptotic properties of solutions of nonlinear dynamic systems on time scales of the form yΔ(t) = f (t, y(t)), where f : 𝕋 × ℝn → ℝn, and 𝕋 is a time scale. For a given set Ω ⊂ 𝕋 × ℝn, we formulate conditions for function f which guarantee that at least one solution y of the above system stays in Ω. Unlike previous papers, we assume the set Ω in more general shape or we formulate the conditions guaranteeing an existence of bounded solution in easier and better verifiable form. Thanks to this, we can find a wider range of equations with bounded solutions. The example illustrating this type of equations is added.

  5. Mechanical properties of the fiberglass prepreg system used for the National Transonic Facility replacement blade set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wallace, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of mechanical and physical properties characterization testing for the fiber glass prepreg system used to fabricate 15 of the replacement set of 25 fan blades for the National Transonic Facility. The fan blades were fabricated to be identical to the original blade set with the exception that the 7576 style E glass cloth used for the replacement set has a different surface finish than the original 7576 cloth. The 7781 E glass cloth and resin system were unchanged. The data are presented for elevated, room, and cryogenic temperatures. The results are compared with data from the original blade set and evaluated against selected structural design criteria. Test experience is described along with recommendations for future testing of these materials if required.

  6. Self-organized criticality as a fundamental property of neural systems.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Janina; Gross, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The neural criticality hypothesis states that the brain may be poised in a critical state at a boundary between different types of dynamics. Theoretical and experimental studies show that critical systems often exhibit optimal computational properties, suggesting the possibility that criticality has been evolutionarily selected as a useful trait for our nervous system. Evidence for criticality has been found in cell cultures, brain slices, and anesthetized animals. Yet, inconsistent results were reported for recordings in awake animals and humans, and current results point to open questions about the exact nature and mechanism of criticality, as well as its functional role. Therefore, the criticality hypothesis has remained a controversial proposition. Here, we provide an account of the mathematical and physical foundations of criticality. In the light of this conceptual framework, we then review and discuss recent experimental studies with the aim of identifying important next steps to be taken and connections to other fields that should be explored.

  7. Dissipative exciton transfer in donor bridge acceptor systems: numerical renormalization group calculation of equilibrium properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Sabine; Tong, Ning-Hua; Bulla, Ralf

    2006-07-01

    We present a detailed model study of exciton transfer processes in donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems. Using a model which includes the intermolecular Coulomb interaction and the coupling to a dissipative environment we calculate the phase diagram, the absorption spectrum as well as dynamic equilibrium properties with the numerical renormalization group. This method is non-perturbative and therefore allows one to cover the full parameter space, especially the case when the intermolecular Coulomb interaction is of the same order as the coupling to the environment and perturbation theory cannot be applied. For DBA systems with up to six sites we found a transition to the localized phase (self-trapping) depending on the coupling to the dissipative environment. We discuss various criteria which favour delocalized exciton transfer.

  8. Impact of strain on the electronic properties of InAs/GaSb quantum well systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L.; Mueller, S.; Wu, Q.-S.; Tschirky, T.; Ensslin, K.; Wegscheider, W.; Troyer, M.; Soluyanov, A. A.; Ihn, T.

    2017-03-01

    Electron-hole hybridization in InAs/GaSb double quantum well structures leads to the formation of a mini-band-gap. We experimentally and theoretically studied the impact of strain on the transport properties of this material system. Thinned samples were mounted to piezoelectric elements to exert strain along the [011] and [001] crystal directions. When the Fermi energy is tuned through the minigap, the resistivity at the charge neutrality point is found to be susceptible to external strain. In the electron and hole regimes, strain influences the Landau level structure. By analyzing the intrinsic strain from the epitaxial growth and the external strain from the piezo elements and combining our experimental results with numerical simulations of strained and unstrained quantum wells, we can illustrate why the InAs/GaSb material system is regularly found to be semimetallic.

  9. A new arginine-based dental adhesive system: formulation, mechanical and anti-caries properties.

    PubMed

    Geraldeli, Saulo; Soares, Eveline F; Alvarez, Andres J; Farivar, Tanaz; Shields, Robert C; Sinhoreti, Mario A C; Nascimento, Marcelle M

    2017-08-01

    Secondary caries at the margins of composite restorations has been attributed to adhesive failure and consequent accumulation of cariogenic biofilms. To develop and evaluate an etch-and-rinse adhesive system containing arginine for sustainable release and recharge without affecting its mechanical properties. Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria generates ammonia, which neutralizes glycolytic acids and creates a neutral environmental pH that is less favorable to the growth of caries pathogens, thus reducing the caries risk at the tooth-composite interface. Experimental adhesives were formulated with methacrylate monomers and arginine at 5%, 7%, and 10% or no arginine (control). Adhesives were tested for: (i) mechanical properties of true stress (FS and UTS), modulus of elasticity (E), degree of conversion (DC), Knoop hardness number (KHN) and dentin microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS), (ii) arginine release and recharge, and (iii) antibacterial activities. Data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. FS and UTS results showed no statistically significant differences between the 7% arginine-adhesive and control, while the results for E, DC, KHN and μ-TBS showed no difference among all groups. The 7% arginine-adhesive showed a high release rate of arginine (75.0μmol/cm(2)) at 2h, and a more sustainable, controlled release rate (up to 0.2μmol/cm(2)) at 30days. Incorporation of 7% arginine did not affect the physical and mechanical properties of the adhesive. Arginine was released from the adhesive at a rate and concentration that exhibited antibacterial effects, regardless of shifts in biofilm conditions such as sugar availability and pH. Secondary caries is recognized as the main reason for failure of dental restorations. The development of an arginine-based adhesive system has the potential to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of secondary caries in adhesive restorations in a very economical fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Optical and magnetic properties of free-standing silicene, germanene and T-graphene system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Suman; Bandyopadhyay, Arka; Dhar, Namrata; Jana, Debnarayan

    2017-05-01

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials is always intriguing in their own right. For all of these elemental 2D materials, a generic characteristic feature is that all the atoms of the materials are exposed on the surface, and thus tuning the structure and physical properties by surface treatments becomes very easy and straightforward. The discovery of graphene have fostered intensive research interest in the field of graphene like 2D materials such as silicene and germanene (hexagonal network of silicon and germanium, respectively). In contrast to the planar graphene lattice, the silicene and germanene honeycomb lattice is slightly buckled and composed of two vertically displaced sublattices.The magnetic properties were studied by introducing mono- and di-vacancy (DV), as well as by doping phosphorus and aluminium into the pristine silicene. It is observed that there is no magnetism in the mono-vacancy system, while there is large significant magnetic moment present for the DV system. The optical anisotropy of four differently shaped silicene nanodisks has revealed that diamond-shaped (DS) silicene nanodisk possesses highest static dielectric constant having no zero-energy states. The study of optical properties in silicene nanosheet network doped by aluminium (Al), phosphorus (P) and aluminium-phosphorus (Al-P) atoms has revealed that unlike graphene, no new electron energy loss spectra (EELS) peak occurs irrespective of doping type for parallel polarization. Tetragonal graphene (T-graphene) having non-equivalent (two kinds) bonds and non-honeycomb structure shows Dirac-like fermions and high Fermi velocity. The higher stability, large dipole moment along with high-intensity Raman active modes are observed in N-doped T-graphene. All these theoretical results may shed light on device fabrication in nano-optoelectronic technology and material characterization techniques in T-graphene, doped silicene, and germanene.

  11. Physical Properties and Behavior of a Dense, Viscous Brine in Porous Medium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, L. M.; Johnson, D. N.; Pedit, J. A.; Farthing, M. W.; Miller, C. T.

    2006-12-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are both a long-term source of groundwater contamination and a health risk to humans at low concentrations. The challenges of DNAPL remediation have led to the study of a novel mobilization-based strategy known as Brine-Based Remediation Technology (BBRT), which utilizes a dense brine to control the mobilized contaminant phase. Due to the unique application of such brines in the subsurface, there are many open issues addressing the behavior and properties of these brines in porous medium systems. To begin to address some of the open issues, a three-dimensional laboratory experiment was performed to monitor in situ density during brine barrier establishment and removal. Using a calcium bromide solution, this experiment demonstrated that a brine barrier density could be effectively established, sufficiently maintained to support common DNAPLs, and substantially recovered through active flushing. This experiment also demonstrated that highly viscous brines mound around injection wells, suggesting that an understanding of the effects of viscosity is required in flow and transport modeling. Since many flow and transport models fail to account for the physical properties of these brines, constitutive relations describing density and viscosity as a function of solute concentration were defined and incorporated into SUTRA, a model for saturated-unsaturated, variable-density groundwater flow with solute transport, to predict flow and transport of calcium bromide in a porous medium system.

  12. Thermal characterization of static and dynamical properties of the confined molecular systems interacting through dispersion force.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sergio Luis L M; Ogino, Michihiko; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the thermal properties of liquid methylcyclohexane and racemic sec-butylcyclohexane, as representatives of a molecular system with only dispersion-force intermolecular interactions, confined in the pores (thickness/diameter d = 12, 6, 1.1 nm) of silica gels by adiabatic calorimetry. The results imply a heterogeneous picture for molecular aggregate under confinement consisting of an interfacial region and an inner pore one. In the vicinity of a glass-transition temperature T(g,bulk) of bulk liquid, two distinguishable relaxation phenomena were observed for the confined systems and their origins were attributed to the devitrification, namely glass transition, processes of (1) a layer of interfacial molecules adjacent to the pore walls and (2) the molecules located in the middle of the pore. A third glass-transition phenomenon was observed at lower temperatures and ascribed to a secondary relaxation process. The glass transition of the interfacial-layer molecules was found to proceed at temperatures rather above T(g,bulk), whereas that of the molecules located in the inner pore region occurred at temperatures below T(g,bulk). We discuss the reason why the molecules located in different places in the pores reveal the respectively different dynamical properties.

  13. Stochastic system identification of skin properties: linear and wiener static nonlinear methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Hunter, Ian W

    2012-10-01

    Wiener static nonlinear system identification was used to study the linear dynamics and static nonlinearities in the response of skin and underlying tissue under indentation in vivo. A device capable of measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of bulk skin tissue was developed and it incorporates a custom-built Lorentz force actuator that measures the dynamic compliance between the input force (<12 N) and the output displacement (<20 mm). A simple linear stochastic system identification technique produced a variance accounted for (VAF) of 75-81% and Wiener static nonlinear techniques increased the VAF by 5%. Localized linear techniques increased the VAF to 85-95% with longer tests. Indentation experiments were conducted on 16 test subjects to determine device sensitivity and repeatability. Using the device, the coefficient of variation of test metrics was found to be as low as 2% for a single test location. The measured tissue stiffness was 300 N/m near the surface and 4.5 kN/m for high compression. The damping ranged from 5 to 23 N s/m. The bulk skin properties were also shown to vary significantly with gender and body mass index. The device and techniques used in this research can be applied to consumer product analysis, medical diagnosis and tissue research.

  14. High-Pressure Induced New Phases and Properties in Typical Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tian

    2013-06-01

    High pressure introduces new phases by the rearrangement of atoms and reconfigurations of electronic states in materials, often with new physical and chemical phenomena. Study of the new phases in typical molecular systems under high pressure is an interesting subject, such as energy storage materials of solid hydrogen and polymeric nitrogen, hydrogen-rich compound with high-Tc superconductivity under high pressure, high pressure induced metallization of hydrogen, etc. High-pressure structures and pressure-induced phase transitions in the typical molecular solids, such as solid iodine, CHBr3, N2/CN, HBr/HCl, hydrogen-rich compounds (H2S, ZrH2, AsH3, BaReH9, etc.), and group IVA hydrides (Si2H6, Ge2H6, Sn2H6, etc.) are investigated extensively by means of first-principles density functional theory and extensive prediction strategies (molecular dynamics simulation, simulated annealing, soft mode phase transition, random structure-searching method and evolutionary methodology etc.). The new structures and new properties derived from pressure-induced phase transitions in these typical molecular systems have been observed. It is showed that high pressure provides a path for producing new materials with new properties.

  15. Measuring the retina optical properties using a structured illumination imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, A.; Nguyen, T. A.; Ibrahim, M.; Nguyen, Q. D.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2011-03-01

    Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) may experience a reduction in retinal oxygen saturation (SO2). Close monitoring with a fundus ophthalmoscope can help in the prediction of the progression of disease. In this paper we present a noninvasive instrument based on structured illumination aimed at measuring the retina optical properties including oxygen saturation. The instrument uses two wavelngths one in the NIR and one visible, a fast acquisition camera, and a splitter system that allows for contemporaneous collection of images at two different wavelengths. This scheme greatly reduces eye movement artifacts. Structured illumination was achieved in two different ways, firstly several binary illumination masks fabricated using laser micro-machining were used, a near-sinusoidal projection pattern is ultimately achieved at the image plane by appropriate positioning of the binary masks. Secondarily a sinusoidal pattern printed on a thin plastic sheet was positioned at image plane of a fundus ophthalmoscope. The system was calibrated using optical phantoms of known optical properties as well as an eye phantom that included a 150μm capillary vessel containing different concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.

  16. Block Copolymer Modified Epoxy Amine System for Reactive Rotational Molding: Structures, Properties and Processability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Eva; Nony, Fabien; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas; Gérard, Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Poly(styrene-butadiene-methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and poly(methylmethacrylate-butyle-acrylate-methylmethacrylate) (MAM) triblock copolymers have been dissolved in liquid DGEBA epoxy resin which is subsequently polymerized by meta-xylene diamine (MXDA) or Jeffamine EDR-148. A chemorheology study of these formulations by plate-plate rheology and by thermal analysis has allowed to conclude that the addition of these copolymer blocks improve the reactive rotational moulding processability without affecting the processing time. Indeed, it prevents the pooling of the formulation at the bottom of the mould and a too rapid build up of resin viscosity of these thermosetting systems. The morphology of the cured blends examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows an increase of fracture surface area and thereby a potential increase of the toughness with the modification of epoxy system. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMA) and opalescence of final material show that the block PMMA, initially miscible, is likely to induce phase separation from the epoxy-amine matrix. Thereby, the poor compatibilisation between the toughener and the matrix has a detrimental effect on the tensile mechanical properties. The compatibilisation has to be increased to improve in synergy the processability and the final properties of these block copolymer modified formulations. First attempts could be by adapting the length and ratio of each block.

  17. Cryogenic Thermoelectric Properties of the Bismuth-Magnesium and Bismuth-Antimony-Magnesium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orovets, Christine; Jin, Hyungyu; Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    There is a need to increase the Figure of Merit of thermoelectric materials used in low temperature cooling applications. Band structure calculations show that substitutional magnesium in bismuth can form sharp density of states peaks, suggesting the presence of a resonant level. Single crystal samples of (Bi1-xSbx)1-yMgy (0 <= x <= 12% and 0 <= y <= 0.7% nominally) were synthesized in evacuated ampoules. The composition of each ingot was analyzed using x-ray diffraction, and transport properties were measured using a Thermal Transport Option (TTO) in a Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS) from 300K to 2K. It is apparent that the addition of magnesium strongly influences thermopower; the data for Bi90Sb10Mg0.7 shows a second minimum in thermopower at 20K, in addition to the expected minimum at approximately 50-60K. This could be due to the resonant scattering at the cryogenic temperatures which arises from the excess density of states. The addition of magnesium also appears to decrease thermal conductivity below 30K. We present systematic experimental approaches and the results to elucidate the role of magnesium in bismuth and bismuth-antimony systems.

  18. A humidity controlled Nephelometer system to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishya, Aditya; O'Dowd, Colin; Jennings, S. Gerard

    2010-05-01

    A Humidograph system has been designed to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols for different air-masses and for different seasons in the marine environment. Since ambient marine aerosols are likely to be found in a metastable state, and in accordance with recommendations of WMO/GAW to sample dry aerosol, a drying unit (Nafion based) is placed just after the inlet to dry the aerosols to a relative humidity (RH) < 40% so as not to misinterpret the optical properties of hygroscopic aerosols if they are on the descending branch of the hysteresis curve. The flow after the dryer is split into two, one going to a 3-wavelength TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer, and the other to a Gore-Tex based humidifier followed by a single-wavelength TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer. The humidifier is used to vary the RH from 40% to 90%. While the TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer will operate at RH < 40%, the TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer will operate under varying RH conditions. Software developed in LabVIEW is used to control the hardware components and to log the data in a predefined format. Results of the performance of the Humidograph system in the laboratory and at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are presented.

  19. The Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers): Development and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Geigges, Julian; Voss, Andreas; Weinhold, Jan; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the theoretical background, development, and psychometric properties of the German and English versions of the Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers). It assesses how the members of a personal social system experience their situation within that system. It is designed as a research tool for interventions in which only one member of the system participates (e.g., Family Constellation Seminars). The EXIS.pers was created to measure change on the individual level relating to one's own important personal social system. In Study 1, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for latent variable identification of the original German EXIS.pers (n = 179). In Studies 2 and 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the dimensionality of the German (n = 634) and English (n = 310) EXIS.pers. Internal consistencies and cross-cultural structural equivalence were assessed. EFA indicated that a four-factor model provided best fit for the German EXIS.pers. For both the German and English EXIS.pers, CFA provided the best fit for a five-factor bi-level model that included a general factor (Experience In Personal Social Systems) and four dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, Confidence). Good internal consistencies, external associations, and cross-cultural structural equivalence were demonstrated. This study provides first evidence for the German and English EXIS.pers as an economical and reliable measure of an individual's experience within his or her personal social systems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  20. Hopf bifurcation analysis for a dissipative system with asymmetric interaction: Analytical explanation of a specific property of highway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasuyuki; Saito, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    A dissipative system with asymmetric interaction, the optimal velocity model, shows a Hopf bifurcation concerned with the transition from a homogeneous motion to the formation of a moving cluster, such as the emergence of a traffic jam. We investigate the properties of Hopf bifurcation depending on the particle density, using the dynamical system for the traveling cluster solution of the continuum system derived from the original discrete system of particles. The Hopf bifurcation is revealed as a subcritical one, and the property explains well the specific phenomena in highway traffic: the metastability of jamming transition and the hysteresis effect in the relation of car density and flow rate.

  1. Hopf bifurcation analysis for a dissipative system with asymmetric interaction: Analytical explanation of a specific property of highway traffic.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yasuyuki; Saito, Satoshi; Ishiwata, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    A dissipative system with asymmetric interaction, the optimal velocity model, shows a Hopf bifurcation concerned with the transition from a homogeneous motion to the formation of a moving cluster, such as the emergence of a traffic jam. We investigate the properties of Hopf bifurcation depending on the particle density, using the dynamical system for the traveling cluster solution of the continuum system derived from the original discrete system of particles. The Hopf bifurcation is revealed as a subcritical one, and the property explains well the specific phenomena in highway traffic: the metastability of jamming transition and the hysteresis effect in the relation of car density and flow rate.

  2. Genome Properties: a system for the investigation of prokaryotic genetic content for microbiology, genome annotation and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Haft, Daniel H; Selengut, Jeremy D; Brinkac, Lauren M; Zafar, Nikhat; White, Owen

    2005-02-01

    The presence or absence of metabolic pathways and structures provide a context that makes protein annotation far more reliable. Compiling such information across microbial genomes improves the functional classification of proteins and provides a valuable resource for comparative genomics. We have created a Genome Properties system to present key aspects of prokaryotic biology using standardized computational methods and controlled vocabularies. Properties reflect gene content, phenotype, phylogeny and computational analyses. The results of searches using hidden Markov models allow many properties to be deduced automatically, especially for families of proteins (equivalogs) conserved in function since their last common ancestor. Additional properties are derived from curation, published reports and other forms of evidence. Genome Properties system was applied to 156 complete prokaryotic genomes, and is easily mined to find differences between species, correlations between metabolic features and families of uncharacterized proteins, or relationships among properties. Genome Properties can be found at http://www.tigr.org/Genome_Properties http://www.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/CMR2/genome_properties_references.spl.

  3. Tuning the piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the AlN system via alloying with YN and BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in microelectromechanical systems often require multifunctional materials, which are designed so as to optimize more than one property. Using density functional theory calculations for alloyed nitride systems, we illustrate how co-alloying a piezoelectric material (AlN) with different nitrides helps tune both its piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. Wurtzite AlN-YN alloys display increased piezoelectric response with YN concentration, accompanied by mechanical softening along the crystallographic c direction. Both effects increase the electromechanical coupling coefficients relevant for transducers and actuators. Resonator applications, however, require superior stiffness, thus leading to the need to decouple the increased piezoelectric response from the softened lattice. We show that co-alloying of AlN with YN and BN results in improved elastic properties while retaining some of the piezoelectric enhancements from YN alloying. This finding may lead to new avenues for tuning the design properties of piezoelectrics through composition-property maps.

  4. V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

  5. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  6. Terrestrial bodies orbiter, LUNAR - A system for detailed global measurements of a planet's properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Lunar Polar Orbiter, to be launched by a Delta vehicle in 1980, is designed to perform a global exploration of such moon properties as the gravity field, figure, and surface composition, as well as a lunar resource survey. The paper reviews the mission, spacecraft, and data system concepts in terms of baseline mission sequence, choice of orbits, spacecraft configuration requirements, mission sequence requirements and data system and operations. Scientific experiments planned for the Orbiter mission include geophysical altimetry and gravity experiments, heat flow experiment, magnetic field experiments, measurements of the moon's natural gamma-ray spectrum, X-ray fluorescence of lunar surface materials, sunlight reflectance spectroscopy, and spectro-stereo imaging. Characteristics of instruments designed for use in these investigations are examined. Through the use of advanced sensors and data-system techniques, coupled with well-developed spacecraft systems, the mission promises to return a very large quantity and variety of lunar data at a cost comparable with that of simpler missions in the past.

  7. Hydrogen release properties of lithium alanate for application to fuel cell propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    In this paper the results of an experimental study on LiAlH 4 (lithium alanate) as hydrogen source for fuel cell propulsion systems are reported. The compound examined in this work was selected as reference material for light metal hydrides, because of its high hydrogen content (10.5 wt.%) and interesting desorption kinetic properties at moderate temperatures. Thermal dynamic and kinetic of hydrogen release from this hydride were investigated using a fixed bed reactor to evaluate the effect of heating procedure, carrier gas flow rate and sample form. The aim of this study was to characterize the lithium alanate decomposition through the reaction steps leading to the formation of Li 3AlH 6 and LiH. A hydrogen tank was designed and realized to contain pellets of lithium alanate as feeding for a fuel cell propulsion system based on a 2-kW Polymeric Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) stack. The fuel cell system was integrated into the power train comprising DC-DC converter, energy storage systems and electric drive for moped applications (3 kW). The experiments on the power train were conducted on a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on specific driving cycles. In particular the efficiencies of individual components and overall power train were analyzed evidencing the energy requirements of the hydrogen storage material.

  8. Sealing properties of different obturation systems applied over apically fractured rotary nickel-titanium files.

    PubMed

    Altundasar, Emre; Sahin, Cem; Ozcelik, Bahar; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the sealing properties of cold laterally compacted gutta percha and Thermafil applied over different apically fractured rotary nickel-titanium files. Extracted human premolars were prepared by using ProTaper (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) or ProFile (Dentsply-Maillefer) systems (n = 40 for each), after which half of the specimens in each subgroup were subjected to instrument separation at the apical level. For each rotary system, roots with and without apically separated instruments (n = 10 for each) were filled with the two obturation systems and the levels of fluid conductance were recorded. In the absence of instrument separation, the leakage of Thermafil (Dentsply Maillefer) was significantly less than that achieved with cold lateral compaction (p < 0.05), whereas Thermafil yielded similar amounts of leakage in roots prepared with the ProTaper and ProFile systems (p < 0.05). Roots with fractured ProTaper instruments displayed significantly less leakage than those filled without ProTaper fragments, regardless of the obturation technique used (p < 0.05). However, intracanal separation of ProFile instruments increased the leakage (p < 0.05), but the obturation method did not influence fluid conduction (p > 0.05). These results reveal the variability of leakage associated with apically fractured ProFile and ProTaper files and different obturation methods used.

  9. Does the Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristiane Urcina Joanna Oliveira; Cordova, Cláudio Olavo de Almeida; Nóbrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of mushrooms for therapeutic and medicinal purposes, in particular, use of the species Agaricus blazei Murrill, a basidiomycota of Brazilian origin. The objective of this study was to identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of A. blazei Murrill on the immune system. We undertook an integrative review of indexed publications published between 2000 and 2009, using the following question as a guideline: "What evidence can be found in the literature regarding the influence of A. blazei Murrill on the immune system?" Fourteen studies verified that there is in vitro and in vivo research demonstrating this mushroom's influence on the immune system. All research was characterized as evidence level 7 (preclinical study [animals/in vitro]). The research shows that A. blazei Murrill functions through bioactive compounds via mechanisms that are not yet entirely clear, although it has been shown that they promote action on the innate and adaptive immunological response, activation of the complement system, and synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and even aid in diapedesis. Despite broad scientific evidence demonstrating relevant immunomodulatory properties of A. blazei Murrill, randomized clinical trials with human subjects are still needed in order for the mushroom to be put into clinical practice.

  10. The characterization of dielectric properties of platinum-Nafion-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Seok

    reflected and then detected by a receiver. The time interval or frequency change between emission and detection is measured as an indicator for the distance. The purpose of this project is to conduct fundamental study into the material properties with an emphasis on polarization-related phenomena. This project specifically focuses on the power generating properties of the hybrid PNP composite device and its application. This device is a new system being applied for the first time because of its potential for generating power. The specific aspects of the devices being studied in the project encompass both macroscopic and microscopic properties of hybrid PNP composite. The microscopic properties include electrical property as measured by impedance spectroscopy and dielectric response characteristics to examine the power generating mechanism of induced polarization for PNP composite device. The produced current and power efficiency by mechanical deformation operation are compared.

  11. Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Low-Dimensional Heterogeneous Systems: Materials and Device Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Mahesh Raj

    Due to the aggressive miniaturization of memory and logic devices, the current technologies based on silicon have nearly reached their ultimate size limit. One method to maintain the trend in device scaling observed by Moore's law is to create a heterostructure from existing materials and utilize the underlying electronic and optical properties. Another radical approach is the conceptualization of a new device design paradigm. The central objective of this thesis is to use both of these approaches to address issues associated with the aggressive scaling of memory and logic devices such as leakage current, leakage power, and minimizing gate oxide thickness and threshold voltage. In the first part of the dissertation, an atomistic, empirical tight binding method was used to perform a systematic investigation of the effect of physical (shape and size), and material dependent (heterogenity and strain) properties on the device related electronic and optical properties of the Germanium (Ge)/Silicon (Si) nanocrystal (NC) or quantum dot (QD). The device parameters pertaining to Ge-core/Si-shell NC-based floating gate memory and optical devices such as confinement energy, retention lifetimes and optical intensities are captured and analyzed. For both the memory and optical device applications, regardless of the shape and size, the Ge-core is found to play an important role in modifying the confinement energy and carrier dynamics. However, the variation in the thickness of outer Si-shell layer had no or minimal effect on the overall device parameters. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a systematic study of the effect of atomistic heterogeneity on the vibrational properties of quasi-2D systems and recently discovered 2D materials such as graphene, while investigating their applicabilities in future devices applications. At first, we investigate the vibrational properties of an experimentally observed misoriented bilayer graphene (MBG) system, a

  12. Some physical properties predicted for the putative Planet Nine of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, I.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Nothing is known as yet about the physical properties of the putative Planet Nine (P9), which is hypothesized to orbit at the fringes of the solar system. Two groups of observers are using the eight-meter Subaru telescope to search for P9. Early estimates and predictions are important to characterize this hypothetic planet. We here predict some properties to compare them with the observed physical properties when Planet Nine has been unambiguously detected comparisons between the predicted and observed physical properties. Aims: We estimate the size, apparent observable brightness, shortest rotation period, and extension of the stable orbital region of possible satellites of P9. Methods: Using the predicted mass and adopting a possible mean bulk density range of P9, we computed its radius and assumed a domain for its geometric albedo. We then determined the apparent magnitude along its elliptic orbit. By testing different plausible physical models of a sub-Neptune class planet, we estimated the regions of stability and destruction versus rotational breakup in the radius-rotational period plane. In this plane the shortest rotational period is constrained by the possible size range of P9 and the separation curves. We applied quantitative measures of the stability domain of possible satellites orbiting P9 to quantify the search region in which to find possible satellite companions of the putative trans-Neptunian giant planet of our solar system. Results: Its predicted apparent magnitude even near aphelion allows discovering P9 with eight-meter class telescopes. P9 is stable against rotational breakup for stronger material if the period is longer than ~6 h, and for weaker material if the period is longer than ~13 h. The Szebehely stability domain for possible satellites of the hypothetical P9 is very large: for a small satellite it extents to ~1.7 au from the planet, and the longest orbital period of the satellite in this orbit is ~396 yr. For a possible twin

  13. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymeric composites: Experimental methods and new systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Felix Nhanchau

    Filler- (e.g., particulate or fiber) reinforced structural polymers or polymeric composites have changed the way things are made. Today, they are found, for example, in air/ground transportation vehicles, sporting goods, ballistic barrier applications and weapons, electronic packaging, musical instruments, fashion items, and more. As the demand increases, so does the desire to have not only well balanced mechanical properties, but also light weight and low cost. This leads to a constant search for novel constituents and additives, new fabrication methods and analytical techniques. To achieve new or improved composite materials requires more than the identification of the right reinforcements to be used with the right polymer matrix at the right loading. Also, an optimized adhesion between the two phases and a toughened matrix system are needed. This calls for new methods to predict, modify and assess the level of adhesion, and new developments in matrix tougheners to minimize compromises in other mechanical/thermal properties. Furthermore, structural optimization, associated with fabrication (e.g., avoidance of fiber-fiber touching or particle aggregation), and sometimes special properties, such as electrical conductivity or magnetic susceptibility are necessary. Finally, the composite system's durability, often under hostile conditions, is generally mandatory. The present study researches new predictive and experimental methods for optimizing and characterizing filler-matrix adhesion and develops a new type of epoxy tougheners. Specifically, (1) a simple thermodynamic parameter evaluated by UNIFAC is applied successfully to screen out candidate adhesion promoters, which is necessary for optimization of the physio-chemical interactions between the two phases; (2) an optical-acoustical mechanical test assisted with an acoustic emission technique is developed to de-convolute filler debonding/delamination among many other micro failure events, and (3) novel core

  14. Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Properties in Low-Temperature Bi-Nb-O System Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haifa; Shang, Shuying; Zheng, Liuyang; Li, Panpan; Li, Haiqin; Luo, Hongying; Kong, Jizhou

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature Bi-Nb-O system photocatalysts were prepared by a citrate method using homemade water-soluble niobium precursors. The structures, morphologies, and optical properties of Bi-Nb-O system photocatalysts with different compositions were investigated deeply. All the Bi-Nb-O powders exhibit appreciably much higher photocatalytic efficiency of photo-degradation of methyl violet (MV), especially for Bi-Nb-O photocatalysts sintered at 750 °C (BNO750), only 1.5 h to completely decompose MV, and the obtained first-order rate constant (k) is 1.94/h. A larger degradation rate of Bi-Nb-O photocatalysts sintered at 550 °C (BNO550) can be attributed to the synergistic effect between β-BiNbO4 and Bi5Nb3O15. Bi5Nb3O15 with small particle size on β-BiNbO4 surface can effectively short the diffuse length of electron. BNO750 exhibits the best photocatalytic properties under visible-light irradiation, which can be attributed to its better crystallinity and the synergistic effect between β-BiNbO4 and α-BiNbO4. The small amount of α-BiNbO4 loading on surface of β-BiNbO4 can effectively improve the electron and hole segregation and migration. Holes are the main active species of Bi-Nb-O system photocatalysts in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation.

  15. Reactive nitrogen in turfgrass systems: relations to soil physical, chemical, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Caiyan; Bowman, Daniel; Rufty, Thomas; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Turfgrass systems contribute to the loading of reactive N to water and air via runoff, leaching, and gas emission. Yet, a comprehensive approach has never been developed to assess N loss potential from turfgrass systems. We used pools and production of reactive N (inorganic N, extractable organic N, and NO) to estimate N loss potential and hypothesized that this potential could be predicated by basic soil properties. A total of 68 soil samples were taken from 17 bermudagrass sites in North Carolina. Basic soil properties were analyzed, including soil C and N, C:N ratio, microbial biomass, moisture, pH, and percent silt/clay/sand. Soil samples varied most widely in texture, followed by soil C and N, microbial biomass, moisture, pH, and C:N ratio. The pools of extractable organic N and inorganic N were comparable, indicating that soluble organic N should be considered as a pathway of N loss from turfgrass. Turfgrass with large pools and production of reactive N was characterized by high soil C and N, microbial biomass, and moisture. Because soil C and N accumulate over time after turfgrass establishment, turfgrass age could be a suitable practical indicator of N loss potential and thus could be used to implement changes in management. Pools and production of reactive N in liquid and gas phases were well correlated, suggesting that if a turfgrass system has a high potential of N loss via leaching and runoff, it may also be of a high potential for NO emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Prochaska, J. X.; Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; Ellison, S.; López, S.; Becker, G. D.; Berg, T. A. M.; Christensen, L.; Denney, K. D.; Hamann, F.; Pâris, I.; Vestergaard, M.; Worseck, G.

    2016-11-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyse the spectra of 100 quasars with 3.5 < zem < 4.5, observed with X-shooter/Very Large Telescope in the context of the XQ-100 Legacy Survey. We detect an ˜8σ excess in the C IV number density within 10 000 km s- 1 of the quasar emission redshift with respect to the random occurrence of NALs. This excess does not show a dependence on the quasar bolometric luminosity and it is not due to the redshift evolution of NALs. It extends far beyond the standard 5000 km s- 1 cut-off traditionally defined for associated absorption lines. We propose to modify this definition, extending the threshold to 10 000 km s- 1 when weak absorbers (equivalent width < 0.2 Å) are also considered. We infer N V is the ion that better traces the effects of the quasar ionization field, offering the best statistical tool to identify intrinsic systems. Following this criterion, we estimate that the fraction of quasars in our sample hosting an intrinsic NAL system is 33 per cent. Lastly, we compare the properties of the material along the quasar line of sight, derived from our sample, with results based on close quasar pairs investigating the transverse direction. We find a deficiency of cool gas (traced by C II) along the line of sight connected to the quasar host galaxy, in contrast with what is observed in the transverse direction.

  17. Physical properties of new collimator cone system for stereotactic radiation therapy developed in samsung medical center.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Ahn, Y C; Oh, D G; Choi, D R; Ju, S G; Yeo, I H; Huh, S J

    2000-09-01

    A new collimator cone system has been developed at the Samsung Medical Center that overcomes some of the limitations of present commercially supplied collimator cones. The physical properties of the newly developed cone system are described in this report. The new cones have relatively larger aperture sizes (3.0-7.0 cm in diameter) and are 16 cm in length. Each new cone is fabricated with cerrobend alloy melted and poured into a stainless steel housing that is permanently fixed to a mounting plate. The mounting plate of the new cone is designed to insert into the wedge mount slot of the gantry head. The mechanical accuracy of the central axis of the cone pointing to the isocenter was tested using film, a steel ball positioned at the isocenter by the mechanical isocenter device. For the evaluation of beam flatness and penumbra, off-axis ratios at 5 cm depth were measured by film dosimetry using polystyrene phantom. The average error of the mechanical isocenter was 0.27 mm (+/- 0.16 mm). The beam flatness was excellent in the central region of the beam, and the average penumbra width was 3.35 mm (+/- 0.25 mm). The new cone design has more clearance between the patient's head and the gantry, and can more easily be removed from the gantry head because it slides in and out of the wedge slot. This facilitates changing cone sizes during one treatment session, and makes the process of double exposure port films easier. A new collimator cone system for stereotactic radiation therapy has been developed. The mechanical accuracy and physical properties are satisfactory for clinical use, and the new design permits a wider range of clinical applications for stereotactic radiation therapy.

  18. Considerations of Alloy 617 Application in the Gen IV Nuclear Reactor Systems - Part II: Metallurgical Property Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju

    2010-01-01

    Alloy 617 is currently considered as a leading candidate material for high temperature components in the Gen IV Nuclear Reactor Systems. Because of the unprecedented severe working conditions beyond its commercial service experience required by the Gen IV systems, the alloy faces various challenges in both mechanical and metallurgical properties. Following a previous paper discussing the mechanical property challenges, this paper is focused on the challenges and issues in metallurgical properties of the alloy for the intended nuclear application. Considerations are given in details about its metallurgical stability and aging evolution, aging effects on mechanical properties, potential Co hazard, and internal oxidation. Some research and development activities are suggested with discussions on viability to satisfy the Gen IV Nuclear Reactor System needs.

  19. The rheological properties of self-emulsifying systems, water and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Newton, J M; Bazzigialuppi, M; Podczeck, F; Booth, S; Clarke, A

    2005-10-01

    The rheological properties of mixtures of equal parts of a range of ratios of a self-emulsifying system (MP) and water (W) added to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), have been measured by an extrusion capillary rheometer. These measurements allow assessment of both the shear and tension components of flow plus the elastic behaviour of the wet powder masses, although the results for the estimation of shear stress require careful interpretation due to the limitation of the measuring system and the assumptions made in their derivation. The results indicate that there are three regions of behaviour of the systems, which are all significantly different from the mixtures containing only W and MCC. At low MP contents (1.5--23%), the masses increase in their resistance to shear and elongational flow and have lower elasticity. These similarities in behaviour occur in spite of considerable increase in the viscosity of the MPW mixtures and a change to non-Newtonian flow of the fluid. The behaviour of the 46% MP system is intermediate between these systems and the high MP concentrations (69, 80 and 92%). These latter systems show less resistance to shear and elongational flow than the first group of concentrations, but show considerably higher levels of elasticity. As the resistance to shear decreases, so does the impairment of the surface of the extrudate. There is clear evidence of a systematic change in behaviour of the wet powder masses as the values for the angle of entry of the wet mass into the die when plotted against the ratio of the resistance to die entry (upstream pressure loss) to the shear stress within the die, is linear on a log/log scale. Also, the values of compliance of the systems as a function of shear stress fall on a common curve. Changes in the ratio of the MPW to MCC for a system for a single level of MP (46%) resulted in a change in the values of the rheological parameters but not the type of behaviour. As all these wet powder masses had been shown

  20. Spatial resolution properties of digital autoradiography systems for pre-clinical alpha particle imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Benard, Francois; Celler, Anna; Ruth, Thomas; Schaffer, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Attaching alpha-emitting radionuclides to cancer-targeting agents increases the anti-tumor effects of targeted cancer therapies. The success of alpha therapy for treating bone metastases has increased interest in using targeted alpha therapy (TAT) to treat a broad spectrum of metastatic cancers. Estimating radiation doses to targeted tumors, including small (<250 μm) clusters of cancer cells, and to non-targeted tissues is critical in the pre-clinical development of TATs. However, accurate quantification of heterogeneous distributions of alpha-emitters in small metastases is not possible with existing pre-clinical in-vivo imaging systems. Ex-vivo digital autoradiography using a scintillator in combination with an image intensifier and a charged coupled device (CCD) has gained interest for pre-clinical ex-vivo alpha particle imaging. We present a simulation-based analysis of the fundamental spatial resolution limits of digital autoradiography systems. Spatial resolution was quantified in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and Wagner's equivalent aperture. We modeled systems operating in either particle-counting (PC) or energy-integrating (EI) mode using a cascaded systems approach that accounts for: 1) the stopping power of alpha particles; 2) the distance alpha particles travel within the scintillator; 3) optical blur, and; 4) binning in detector elements. We applied our analysis to imaging of astatine-211 using an LYSO scintillator with thickness ranging from 10 μm to 20 μm. Our analysis demonstrates that when these systems are operated in particle-counting mode with a centroid-calculation algorithm, the effective apertures of 35 μm can be achieved, which suggests that digital autoradiography may enable quantifying the uptake of alpha emitters in tumors consisting of a few cancer cells. Future work will investigate the image noise and energy-resolution properties of digital autoradiography systems.