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Sample records for system design materials

  1. Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, Anna C.; Whitesides, George M.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Chaikin, Paul; Dogic, Zvonimir; Glotzer, Sharon; Hammer, Daniel; Irvine, Darrell; Little, Steven R.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Parikh, Atul N.; Stupp, Samuel; Szostak, Jack

    2016-01-21

    Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.

  2. Large Caliber Gun Tube Materials Systems Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-26

    gun tube environment and current gun tube materials, properties , dimensions, and fabrication methods will be reviewed, as well as the erosion test...for a tank gun is shown in Figure 1. Any materials system can be examined in terms of PROCESSING! MANUFACTURING, STRUCTURE/COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES ...part of gun materials systems design. The list of required and desired properties is long, and a material that satisfies the list completely does not

  3. MRFM System Design for the Study of Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doran; Kim, David

    2007-03-01

    We will present an overview of our program to develop an MRFM system specialized for the study of organic materials at 4 K. The system uses the SPAM geometry and the CERMIT protocol and is predicted to be capable of imaging organic materials in 3D. The MRFM probe head design will be overviewed and progress toward system completion will be discussed.

  4. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  5. Composite Materials Design Database and Data Retrieval System Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    technology. Gaining such an understanding will facilitate the eventual development and operation of utilitarian composite materials databases ( CMDB ) designed...Significant Aspects of Materials Databases. While the components of a CMDB can be mapped to components of other types of databases, some differences...stand out and make it difficult to implement an effective CMDB on current Commercial, Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems, or general DBMSs. These are summarized

  6. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  7. Mechanical Adaptivity as a Process: Implications to New Materials and Material System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    material properties Thin Film Solids, 516, 2008, 4070 Zeus, Inc Puopolo, Vaidyanathan OSU Balazs et al. Philip Buskohl 24 Program...Implications to New Materials and Material System Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Engines Sliding Telescoping Rolling Buckling Electro-striction Electro-rheological Piezoelectric Photo-mechanical Chemo responsive Shape memory

  8. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. Materials can be discriminated by noting how the radiographic signal changes with variations in the input spectrum or inspection mode. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. With X-ray radiography, the inability to distinguish materials of a similar atomic number is especially problematic. To overcome these critical limitations, we augmented our existing inverse problem framework with two important expansions: 1) adapting the previous methodology for use with multi-modal radiography and energy-integrating detectors, and 2) applying the Cramer-Rao lower bound to select an optimal set of inspection modes for a given application a priori. Adding these expanded capabilities to our algorithmic framework with adaptive regularization, we observed improved discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically plutonium and tungsten. The combined system can estimate plutonium mass within our simulated system to within 1%. Three types of inspection modes were modeled: multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone; in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD); or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-tritium (DT) sources.

  9. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér-Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.

  10. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  11. Robotic Materials Handling in Space: Mechanical Design of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System HitchHiker Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1997-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS) that flew aboard STS-64 in September, 1994. The ROMPS robot transported pallets containing wafers of different materials from their storage racks to a furnace for thermal processing. A system of tapered guides and compliant springs was designed to deal with the potential misalignments. The robot and all the sample pallets were locked down for launch and landing. The design of the passive lockdown system, and the interplay between it and the alignment system are presented.

  12. Structural design methodologies for ceramic-based material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary pacing items for realizing the full potential of ceramic-based structural components is the development of new design methods and protocols. The focus here is on low temperature, fast-fracture analysis of monolithic, whisker-toughened, laminated, and woven ceramic composites. A number of design models and criteria are highlighted. Public domain computer algorithms, which aid engineers in predicting the fast-fracture reliability of structural components, are mentioned. Emphasis is not placed on evaluating the models, but instead is focused on the issues relevant to the current state of the art.

  13. Evolutionary Design of a Robotic Material Defect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Gary; Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Steincamp, Jim; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the post-flight inspection of SSME engines, several inaccessible regions must be disassembled to inspect for defects such as cracks, scratches, gouges, etc. An improvement to the inspection process would be the design and development of very small robots capable of penetrating these inaccessible regions and detecting the defects. The goal of this research was to utilize an evolutionary design approach for the robotic detection of these types of defects. A simulation and visualization tool was developed prior to receiving the hardware as a development test bed. A small, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robot was selected from several candidates as the proof of concept robot. The basic approach to detect the defects was to utilize Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) sensors to detect changes in contrast of an illuminated surface. A neural network, optimally designed utilizing a genetic algorithm, was employed to detect the presence of the defects (cracks). By utilization of the COTS robot and US sensors, the research successfully demonstrated that an evolutionarily designed neural network can detect the presence of surface defects.

  14. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 128.320 of this subpart, a Class II non-vital piping-system need not meet the requirements for materials and pressure design of subchapter F of this chapter. (b) Piping for salt-water service must be...

  15. Learning to Design and Analyze Materials Handling Systems: Developing Multimedia Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe aspects related to learning and learning assessment including pedagogy, cognition, pilot study and results from the study. This study is conducted for an educational module on "10 Principles of Materials Handling". This module along with another on "Analysis and Design of Integrated Materials Handling Systems" constitute…

  16. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  17. Gradient-Index Materials, Design, and Metrology for Broadband Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Peter W.

    Gradient-index (GRIN) materials have an index of refraction that varies as a function of position. Compared to traditional homogeneous optical elements, the new degrees of freedom that are available with a GRIN optical element, especially the chromatic dispersion, are very beneficial in the design of broadband imaging systems. GRIN materials allow the optical designer to improve the performance of an imaging system, or, to maintain the performance and decrease the size, weight, and/or number of elements. However, there are many challenges in the design, fabrication, and metrology of GRIN optical elements. This thesis develops a general gradient-index material model that is used to represent real and theoretical GRIN materials. The model allows for analyzing the chromatic properties of GRIN materials in a way that is familiar to the optical designer. It also serves as a framework for constraining the chromatic properties of GRIN materials during the optimization of index of refraction profiles in lens design software. The model and optimization constraints are used in design studies in the 1-5 μm infrared spectral band and 350-360 nm near-ultraviolet spectral band. These design studies demonstrate the ability of GRIN elements to improve the performance of an optical system or reduce the size, weight, and/or number of elements compared to homogeneous designs. A diffusion model with a composition-dependent diffusion coefficient is developed for fabricating gradient-index aluminum oxynitride (ALON). A method for using the diffusion model to fabricate deterministic GRIN profiles is presented. Finally, non-destructive metrology methods for the characterization of gradient-index lens blanks are investigated. Two methods are developed for determining the orientation of an axial GRIN distribution within a lens blank and these techniques are applied to a fabricated polymer GRIN blank. Improvements are made to a beam deflection technique for non-destructive characterization

  18. The design, construction and testing of a scour monitoring system using magnetostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Steven Richard

    A system for the continuous monitoring of scour has been designed, constructed and implemented. The system detects the level of scour by attaching flow to a buried post at known depths, and detecting when individual sensors become unearthed. Two bio-inspired flow sensors were designed and constructed for use on the post. The first, resembling a seal whisker, utilized the magnetostrictive materials Alfenol and Galfenol and was optimized for >0.15m/s flow. The second, resembling seaweed, used a conventional permanent magnet and was optimized for <0.15m/s flow. A small, low powered data acquisition system was designed and constructed to monitor and record the data from the sensors. A total of four scour posts were installed at two different sites; two vertically to monitor conventional scour and two horizontally to monitor lateral riverbed migration. Data from the posts was analyzed and presented and lessons learned were documented.

  19. Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

  20. Designing Printed Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of identifying the audience and determining specific objectives when designing printed instructional materials that will communicate effectively and provides detailed guidelines for dealing with such design factors as content, writing style, typography, illustrations, and page organization. (MBR)

  1. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  2. System Design and New Materials for Reversible, Solid-Oxide, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, J.A.

    2007-12-20

    High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer high electrical efficiency and a potential path to large scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide technology is capable of both power generation and hydrogen production. That makes it possible for the development of a reversible solid-oxide system that can respond to market conditions to produce electricity or hydrogen on demand. New high-temperature electrolyzer cell materials are needed to enable cost-effective hydrogen production system designs based on reversible steam electrolysis. Two test methods were established for the eventual development of the reversible, durable electrode materials: the button cell test and the oxygen electrode test. The button cell test is capable of evaluating the performance and degradation of full solid oxide cells with dual atmosphere of air and hydrogen-steam. The oxygen electrode test is capable of isolating the performance and degradation of the oxygen electrode. It has higher throughput and sensitivity than the button cell test.

  3. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-04

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  4. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  5. Designing a system for measuring the flow of material transported on belts using ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihuţ, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Excavation tailings (scraping) and extracting the useful (lignite) in surface mine pits in Mining Basin Oltenia is achieved with technological lines of excavation - transport - dump of high productivity. A correlation of working capacity of the main components of technological lines (motor rotor, high capacity transport, car dumps) is necessary for economic reasons on electricity consumption. To achieve experience in the process was chosen excavator SRS 1400 from South Jilt career in the CET Turceni. The question of coal excavated volume has a great importance in the mine pits. At the excavation is desired a density estimate for each machine production tracking, cost estimation and tracking product unit profitability of each band on various sections zones. Permanent display size excavated volume snapshots in the excavator's cabin permits to track tape loading, eliminating unproductive times and information management to determine profitability. Another important requirement is closing the loop of the machine drive system of an excavator for a uniform deposition of carbon on the strip, thus achieving automatic control of the loading belt. Such equipment is important for the system dispatching in surface mine pits. Through a system of three ultrasound transducers to determine the smart instant of coal excavated section which, coupled with the tape speed, integrated over time will determine the amount of excavated coal. The basis of the system developed is a device for determining the volume and quantity of coal excavated acting on the march and optimize the system speed excavator working order. The device is designed primarily following the careers of lignite production: rotor excavators, rubber conveyor belts and dump facilities. Newly developed system aims to achieve the following determines: the optimum energy excavation depending on the nature of excavated material - lignite, shale, clay, etc., economic times to use the excavator bucket teeth rotor, energy

  6. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  7. Design and analysis of a novel latch system implementing fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Arreola, Francisco Javier

    The use of fiber-reinforced composite materials have increased in the last four decades in high technology applications due to their exceptional mechanical properties and low weight. In the automotive industry carbon fiber have become popular exclusively in luxury cars because of its high cost. However, Carbon-glass hybrid composites offer an effective alternative to designers to implement fiber-reinforced composites into several conventional applications without a considerable price increase maintaining most of their mechanical properties. A door latch system is a complex mechanism that is under high loading conditions during car accidents such as side impacts and rollovers. Therefore, the Department of Transportation in The United States developed a series of tests that every door latch system comply in order to be installed in a vehicle. The implementation of fiber-reinforced composite materials in a door latch system was studied by analyzing the material behavior during the FMVSS No. 206 transverse test using computational efforts and experimental testing. Firstly, a computational model of the current forkbolt and detent structure was developed. Several efforts were conducted in order to create an effective and time efficient model. Two simplified models were implemented with two different contact interaction approaches. 9 composite materials were studied in forkbolt and 5 in detent including woven carbon fiber, unidirectional carbon fiber, woven carbon-glass fiber hybrid composites and unidirectional carbon-glass fiber hybrid composites. The computational model results showed that woven fiber-reinforced composite materials were stiffer than the unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite materials. For instance, a forkbolt made of woven carbon fibers was 20% stiffer than a forkbolt made of unidirectional fibers symmetrically stacked in 0° and 90° alternating directions. Furthermore, Hybrid composite materials behaved as expected in forkbolt noticing a decline

  8. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System Design for the Study of Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doran

    2008-03-01

    We will present an overview of our program to develop an MRFM system specialized for the study of organic materials at 4 K. The system uses the SPAM geometry and the CERMIT protocol and is predicted to be capable of imaging organic materials. With the system we have obtained an MRFM signal on a sample of GaAs with known characteristics. We will present the most recent results of our program to study organic materials with MRFM.

  10. Modeling, Identification, and Control Design for a Flexible Pointing System with Embedded Smart Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The research effort emphasized system identification , decentralized control design, and their applications to smart structures and flexible pointing...systems. The research effort had both theoretical and experimental ingredients. On the theoretical side, new system identification techniques for

  11. Design a Sculpting Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Artists have used a variety of materials over the years for sculpting. They have been quick to use unusual pieces of technology to make a vibrant and unique statement, just as painters have created and used a wide variety of colors and derived pigments for their canvases. In this article, the author discusses a design challenge that gives students…

  12. Development of expert systems for the design of a hot-forging process based on material workability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, R.; Prasad, Y. V. R. K.; Sarma, V. V. S.

    2003-12-01

    Most of the time (and cost) involved in planning hot forging process is related to activities strongly dependent on human expertise, intuition, and creativity, and also to iterative procedure involving extensive experimental work. In this paper, the development of an expert system for forging process design, which emphasizes materials’ workability, is discussed. Details of the forging process design expert system, its basic modules, design and implementation details, and deliverables are explained. The system uses the vast database available on the hot workability of more than 200 technologically important materials and the knowledge acquired from a materials’ expert. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) has been adopted to develop this expert system. The expert system can address three types of functions, namely, forging process design, materials information system, and forging defect analysis. The expert system will aid and prompt a novice engineer in designing a forging process by providing accurate information of the process parameters, lubricants, type of machine, die material, and type of process (isothermal versus non-isothermal) for a given material with a known specification or code and prior history.

  13. Designer quantum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa, Vanita

    Spin-based quantum information processing relies on the ability to identify and coherently manipulate quantum bits (qubits) existing in nature in the form of spin-½ particles such as electrons. The work described in this thesis is based on an alternative perspective: that these spin-½ objects, together with their interactions, can be regarded as building blocks of a variety of "designer quantum materials" with features not present for isolated single spins. Theoretical proposals are presented for two classes of spin-based designer quantum materials relevant for quantum information transport and manipulation. The first class of materials involves spin-½ networks coupled by spatially-varying exchange interactions, in which moving domain walls can produce topologically-stable "flying spin qubits," and pairs of domain walls can be used to generate and transport Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs of entangled qubits. The effective exchange between two domain-wall qubits can be tuned by adjusting the positions of the domain walls and can be ferromagnetic even when all spin-spin couplings are antiferromagnetic. The second class of designer quantum materials consists of electron spins in quantum wires with spatially-varying spin-orbit coupling. The presence of the spin-orbit interaction introduces pseudo-Zeeman couplings of the electron spins to effective magnetic fields and further enhances the building-block toolset: by periodically modulating this spin-orbit coupling in space, it is possible to create the spatial analogue of spin resonance, without the need for any real magnetic fields. The mapping of time-dependent operations onto a spatial axis suggests a new mode for quantum information processing in which gate operations are encoded into the band structure of the material.

  14. The Spacecraft Materials Selector: An Artificial Intelligence System for Preliminary Design Trade Studies, Materials Assessments, and Estimates of Environments Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Woll, S. L. B.

    2000-01-01

    Institutions need ways to retain valuable information even as experienced individuals leave an organization. Modern electronic systems have enough capacity to retain large quantities of information that can mitigate the loss of experience. Performance information for long-term space applications is relatively scarce and specific information (typically held by a few individuals within a single project) is often rather narrowly distributed. Spacecraft operate under severe conditions and the consequences of hardware and/or system failures, in terms of cost, loss of information, and time required to replace the loss, are extreme. These risk factors place a premium on appropriate choice of materials and components for space applications. An expert system is a very cost-effective method for sharing valuable and scarce information about spacecraft performance. Boeing has an artificial intelligence software package, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), to construct and operate knowledge bases to selectively recall and distribute information about specific subjects. A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft has been developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described. The knowledge base is a backward-chaining, rule-based system. The user answers a sequence of questions, and the expert system provides estimates of optical and mechanical performance of selected materials under specific environmental conditions. The initial operating capability of the system will include data for Kapton, silverized Teflon, selected paints, silicone-based materials, and certain metals. For situations where a mission profile (launch date, orbital parameters, mission duration, spacecraft orientation) is not precisely defined, the knowledge base still attempts to provide qualitative observations about materials performance and likely

  15. STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TARGET/BLANKET SYSTEM COMPONENT MATERIALS FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    W. JOHNSON; R. RYDER; P. RITTENHOUSE

    2001-01-01

    The design of target/blanket system components for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) plant is dependent on the development of materials properties data specified by the designer. These data are needed to verify that component designs are adequate. The adequacy of the data will be related to safety, performance, and economic considerations, and to other requirements that may be deemed necessary by customers and regulatory bodies. The data required may already be in existence, as in the open technical literature, or may need to be generated, as is often the case for the design of new systems operating under relatively unique conditions. The designers' starting point for design data needs is generally some form of design criteria used in conjunction with a specified set of loading conditions and associated performance requirements. Most criteria are aimed at verifying the structural adequacy of the component, and often take the form of national or international standards such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B and PV Code) or the French Nuclear Structural Requirements (RCC-MR). Whether or not there are specific design data needs associated with the use of these design criteria will largely depend on the uniqueness of the conditions of operation of the component. A component designed in accordance with the ASME B and PV Code, where no unusual environmental conditions exist, will utilize well-documented, statistically-evaluated developed in conjunction with the Code, and will not be likely to have any design data needs. On the other hand, a component to be designed to operate under unique APT conditions, is likely to have significant design data needs. Such a component is also likely to require special design criteria for verification of its structural adequacy, specifically accounting for changes in materials properties which may occur during exposure in the service environment. In such a situation it is common for the design criteria and

  16. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  17. Solar Energy: System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  18. Materials design - An undergraduate course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    General principles of systems engineering are applied to the design of materials to meet specific performance objectives. Results of ongoing reseach on processing/structure and structure/property relations in ultrahigh-strength steels are used to illustrate the formulation of quantitative microstructural objectives to achieve required property combinations, and the computer thermodynamics-based design of compositions responding to prescribed processing conditions. A class project addresses the conceptual design of a 7-component stainless bearing steel for a critical Space Shuttle application.

  19. Design and implementation of a system for laser assisted milling of advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Feng, Gaocheng; Liu, Xianli

    2016-09-01

    Laser assisted machining is an effective method to machine advanced materials with the added benefits of longer tool life and increased material removal rates. While extensive studies have investigated the machining properties for laser assisted milling(LAML), few attempts have been made to extend LAML to machining parts with complex geometric features. A methodology for continuous path machining for LAML is developed by integration of a rotary and movable table into an ordinary milling machine with a laser beam system. The machining strategy and processing path are investigated to determine alignment of the machining path with the laser spot. In order to keep the material removal temperatures above the softening temperature of silicon nitride, the transformation is coordinated and the temperature interpolated, establishing a transient thermal model. The temperatures of the laser center and cutting zone are also carefully controlled to achieve optimal machining results and avoid thermal damage. These experiments indicate that the system results in no surface damage as well as good surface roughness, validating the application of this machining strategy and thermal model in the development of a new LAML system for continuous path processing of silicon nitride. The proposed approach can be easily applied in LAML system to achieve continuous processing and improve efficiency in laser assisted machining.

  20. Translating materials design to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Langer, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Many materials-based therapeutic systems have reached the clinic or are in clinical trials. Here we describe materials design principles and the construction of delivery vehicles, as well as their adaptation and evaluation for human use.

  1. Classification and designation systems for materials: A report on the present situation, an inventory of the systems in use, and comments on the future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, Keith W.

    1996-01-01

    The different systems that are in use for the major classes of engineering materials are summarized. The work was carried out within the scope of the Versailles project on advanced materials and standards (VAMAS). An inventory of national and international standards that give specifications for the materials and international standards are included. Comments on the increasing knowledge of, and the increasing demand for, data concerning the materials performance are included. Recommendations for future activities in the standardization of classification and designation systems are given.

  2. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion...

  3. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion...

  4. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion...

  5. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion...

  6. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion...

  7. System design development for microwave and millimeter-wave materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, Lambert; Thumm, Manfred

    2002-06-01

    The most notable effect in processing dielectrics with micro- and millimeter-waves is volumetric heating of these materials, offering the opportunity of very high heating rates for the samples. In comparison to conventional heating where the heat transfer is diffusive and depends on the thermal conductivity of the material, the microwave field penetrates the sample and acts as an instantaneous heat source at each point of the sample. By this unique property, microwave heating at 2.45 GHz and 915 MHz ISM (Industrial, Medical, Scientific) frequencies is established as an important industrial technology since more than 50 years ago. Successful application of microwaves in industries has been reported e.g. by food processing systems, domestic ovens, rubber industry, vacuum drying etc. The present paper shows some outlines of microwave system development at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM by transferring properties from the higher frequency regime (millimeter-waves) to lower frequency applications. Anyway, the need for using higher frequencies like 24 GHz (ISM frequency) for industrial applications has to be carefully verified with respect to special physical/engineering advantages or to limits the standard microwave technology meets for the specific problem.

  8. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    PubMed

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems.

  9. Natural Materials and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    AREAS IN PORTFOLIO: BioMimetics - Study principles, processes, designs as well as manipulate sensors /processing systems. Mimicking of sensor denial...film and fiber – leads to new method to fabricate sensors , etc; stabilization of vaccines • Biocamouflage – regeneration of coloration assemblies...Narrowing silk focus to Spider and Silkworm only. Reducing cellulose footprint. • Biomolecular assembly/Programmable Materials – BRI program, MURI

  10. Design and development of a space station hazardous material system for assessing chemical compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congo, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    As the Space Station nears reality in funding support from Congress, NASA plans to perform over a hundred different missions in the coming decade. Incrementally deployed, the Space Station will evolve into modules linked to an integral structure. Each module will have characteristic functions, such as logistics, habitation, and materials processing. Because the Space Station is to be user friendly for experimenters, NASA is anticipating that a variety of different chemicals will be taken on-board. Accidental release of these potentially toxic chemicals and their chemical compatibility is the focus of this discourse. The Microgravity Manufacturing Processing Facility (MMPF) will contain the various facilities within the U.S. Laboratory (USL). Each facility will have a characteristic purpose, such as alloy solidification or vapor crystal growth. By examining the proposed experiments for each facility, identifying the chemical constituents, their physical state and/or changes, byproducts and effluents, those payloads can be identified which may contain toxic, explosive, or reactive compounds that require processing or containment in mission peculiar waste management systems. Synergistic reactions from mixed effluent streams is of major concern. Each experiment will have it own data file, complete with schematic, chemical listing, physical data, etc. Chemical compatibility information from various databases will provide assistance in the analysis of alternate disposal techniques (pretreatment, separate storage, etc.). Along with data from the Risk Analysis of the Proposed USL Waste Management System, accidental release of potentially toxic and catastrophic chemicals would be eliminated or reduced.

  11. Design Strategies for Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Deborah; And Others

    This manual, which is part of a series of training and information materials for managers and trainers of health staff in developing countries, is designed to assist individuals responsible for designing national health learning materials. The introduction explains the manual's purpose, organization, and use and discusses the importance of…

  12. Materials design for new superconductors.

    PubMed

    Norman, M R

    2016-07-01

    Since the announcement in 2011 of the Materials Genome Initiative by the Obama administration, much attention has been given to the subject of materials design to accelerate the discovery of new materials that could have technological implications. Although having its biggest impact for more applied materials like batteries, there is increasing interest in applying these ideas to predict new superconductors. This is obviously a challenge, given that superconductivity is a many body phenomenon, with whole classes of known superconductors lacking a quantitative theory. Given this caveat, various efforts to formulate materials design principles for superconductors are reviewed here, with a focus on surveying the periodic table in an attempt to identify cuprate analogues.

  13. Materials design for new superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Since the announcement in 2011 of the Materials Genome Initiative by the Obama administration, much attention has been given to the subject of materials design to accelerate the discovery of new materials that could have technological implications. Although having its biggest impact for more applied materials like batteries, there is increasing interest in applying these ideas to predict new superconductors. This is obviously a challenge, given that superconductivity is a many body phenomenon, with whole classes of known superconductors lacking a quantitative theory. Given this caveat, various efforts to formulate materials design principles for superconductors are reviewed here, with a focus on surveying the periodic table in an attempt to identify cuprate analogues.

  14. Miniature LIMS system designed for sensitive in situ measurements of organic deposits in materials on solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedo, Andreas; Moreno-García, Pavel; Grimaudo, Valentine; Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In situ investigation of chemical composition is of considerable interest for application in planetary missions. The possibility of bio-relevant organic chemistry on the surfaces of comets and primitive asteroids is one of the most intriguing problems of the current astrobiology. Rock-water interface existed in early small solar body history, in addition to extensive mineralogical modifications of the surface could have initiated also a rich organic and bio-organic chemistry [1]. Current space instrumentation designed for molecular detection use thermal evaporation source combined with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence, it is capable of collecting data of the volatile fraction of the investigated sample. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) is another method for molecule detection capable of vaporisation and ionisation of molecules present on a solid substrate surface, e.g. a rock. A miniature laser ablation ionisation reflectron-type time-of-flight mass analyser (LMS) developed by our group for in situ measurements of the elemental, isotopic composition can be used also for sensitive analyses of chemical compounds present on solid surfaces with high spatial resolution [3-6]. Comparing to laser ablation laser desorption analyses are conducted at laser irradiance reduced by approximately 103-104 times. In laser ablation mode, the LMS system offers high dynamic range of at least eight orders of magnitude and allows for the detection in the ppb range for metallic- and non-metallic elements. Instrument mass resolution m/Δm is about 800 at the 56Fe mass peak when the instrument is used in ablation mode. The mass resolution is increased to m/Δm >1000 when desorption studies are conducted (at ~600 m/q). We will demonstrate the instrument performance conducting molecular desorption studies of different species, e.g. organic, biotic and abiotic. Laser ablation/ionisation studies are conducted in parallel to complement the laser desorption

  15. Ozone Exposure System Designed and Used to High-Altitude Airship Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2005-01-01

    High-altitude airships can receive high doses of ozone over short mission durations. For example, in 1 year at an altitude of 70,000 ft, the ozone fluence (number arriving per unit area) can be as high as 1.2 1024 molecules/sq cm. Ozone exposure at these levels can embrittle materials or change the performance of solar cells. It is important to expose components and materials to the expected ozone dosage to determine if the ozone exposure could cause any mission-critical failures.

  16. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL--PART III, THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COGSWELL, JOHN F.; EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER (IMC) OF THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL WAS DESCRIBED. THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL PLAN WAS DEVISED BY DR. EDWIN READ AND WAS BEING DEVELOPED AT THE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. THIS REPORT DESCRIBED HOW AN IMC MIGHT OPERATE RATHER THAN HOW ONE IS OPERATING OR IS PLANNED TO OPERATE. AS…

  17. Design and Application of a Beam Testing System for Experiential Learning in Mechanics of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, R. Warsi; Rais-Rohani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that students can significantly improve their understanding and retention of topics presented in an engineering course when discussions of theoretical and mathematical approaches are combined with active-learning exercises involving hands-on physical experiments. In this paper, the design and application of a beam testing system…

  18. Design guide for composite-material flywheels: rotor dyamic considerations. Part I. System whirling and stability. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, C.W.; Ramunujam, G.

    1981-09-01

    Information to designers of flywheels is provided which will enable them to predict many aspects of the dynamic behavior of their flywheel systems when spin-tested with a quill-shaft support and driven by an air turbine. Computer programs are presented for the following dynamic analysis to obtain the results indicated: free whirling for natural frequencies versus rotational speed and the associated mode shapes; rough-type stability analysis for determining the stability limits; and forced whirling analysis for estimating the response of major components of the system to flywheel mass eccentricity and initial tilt. For the first and third kinds of analyses, two different mathematical models of the generic system are investigated. One is a seven-degree-of-freedom lumped-parameter analysis, while the other is a combined distributed- and lumped-parameter analysis. When applied to an existing flywheel system, the two models yielded numerical values for the lowest first-order forward critical speed in very close agreement with each other and with experimental results obtained in spin tests. Therefore, for the second kind of analysis, only the lumped-parameter model is implemented. Qualitative discussions as to why forced retrograde whirling is not as severe as forward whirling are also presented. The analyses are applied to the multi-material ring type flywheel systems, a constant-thickness-diskring type, and a tapered-thickness-disk type. In addition, the effects of the following flywheel design parameters on system dynamics were investigated: flywheel mass; diametral and polar mass moments of inertia; location of mass center from the lower end of the quill shaft; quill shaft length; lower turbine-bearing support stiffness; equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the external damper; flywheel dead weight; and torque applied at the turbine.

  19. Algorithms and theory for the design and programming of industrial control systems materialized with PLC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya Villena, Rafael

    According to its title, the general objective of the Thesis consists in developing a clear, simple and systematic methodology for programming type PLC devices. With this aim in mind, we will use the following elements: Codification of all variables types. This section is very important since it allows us working with little information. The necessary rules are given to codify all type of phrases produced in industrial processes. An algorithm that describes process evolution and that has been called process D.F. This is one of the most important contributions, since it will allow us, together with information codification, representing the process evolution in a graphic way and with any design theory used. Theory selection. Evidently, the use of some kind of design method is necessary to obtain logic equations. For this particular case, we will use binodal theory, an ideal theory for wired technologies, since it can obtain highly reduced schemas for relatively simple automatisms, which means a minimum number of components used. User program outline algorithm (D.F.P.). This is another necessary contribution and perhaps the most important one, since logic equations resulting from binodal theory are compatible with process evolution if wired technology is used, whether it is electric, electronic, pneumatic, etc. On the other hand, PLC devices performance characteristics force the program instructions order to validate or not the automatism, as we have proven in different articles and lectures at congresses both national and international. Therefore, we will codify any information concerning the automating process, graphically represent its temporal evolution and, applying binodal theory and D.F.P (previously adapted), succeed in making logic equations compatible with the process to be automated and the device in which they will be implemented (PLC in our case)

  20. Ergonomic approaches to designing educational materials for immersive multi-projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Lee, JaeLin; Inoue, Tetsuri

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in computer and display technologies have made it possible to present high quality virtual reality (VR) environment. To use such virtual environments effectively, research should be performed into how users perceive and react to virtual environment in view of particular human factors. We created a VR simulation of sea fish for science education, and we conducted an experiment to examine how observers perceive the size and depth of an object within their reach and evaluated their visual fatigue. We chose a multi-projection system for presenting the educational VR simulation, because this system can provide actual-size objects and produce stereo images located close to the observer. The results of the experiment show that estimation of size and depth was relatively accurate when subjects used physical actions to assess them. Presenting images within the observer's reach is suggested to be useful for education in VR environment. Evaluation of visual fatigue shows that the level of symptoms from viewing stereo images with a large disparity in VR environment was low in a short time.

  1. Integrated design of structures, controls, and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this talk we shall discuss algorithms and CAD tools for the design and analysis of structures for high performance applications using advanced composite materials. An extensive mathematical theory for optimal structural (e.g., shape) design was developed over the past thirty years. Aspects of this theory have been used in the design of components for hypersonic vehicles and thermal diffusion systems based on homogeneous materials. Enhancement of the design methods to include optimization of the microstructure of the component is a significant innovation which can lead to major enhancements in component performance. Our work is focused on the adaptation of existing theories of optimal structural design (e.g., optimal shape design) to treat the design of structures using advanced composite materials (e.g., fiber reinforced, resin matrix materials). In this talk we shall discuss models and algorithms for the design of simple structures from composite materials, focussing on a problem in thermal management. We shall also discuss methods for the integration of active structural controls into the design process.

  2. Designed materials: what and how

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Jyotirmoy; Dutta, Debasish; Ghosh, Amit K.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    2003-03-01

    Quest for a material to suit the service performance is almost as old as human civilization. So far materials engineers have developed a series of alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites to serve many of the performance requirements in a modern society. However, challenges appear when one needs to satisfy more than one boundary condition. For example, a component with negative Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) using a ductile metal was almost impossible until recently. Synthesis of various technologies such as Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) Homogenization Design Method (HDM) and mutli material Computer Aided Design (CAD) was necessary to achieve this goal. Rapid fabrication of three-dimensional shapes of engineering materials such as H13 tool steel and nickel super alloys are now possible using Direct Materials Deposition (DMD) technique as well as similar techniques such as Light Engineered New Shaping (LENS) or Directed Light Fabrication (DLF). However, DMD has closed loop capability that enables better dimension and thermal cycle control. This enables one to deposit different material at different pixels with a given height directly from a CAD drawing. The feedback loop also controls the thermal cycle. H13 tool steel is one of the difficult alloys for deposition due to residual stress accumulation from martensitic transformation. However, it is the material of choice for the die and tool industry. DMD has demonstrated successful fabrication of complicated shapes and dies and tools, even with H13 alloys. This process also offers copper chill blocks and water-cooling channels as the integral part of the tool. On the other hand ZrO2 was co-deposited with nickel super alloys using DMD. Flexibility of the process is enormous and essentially it is an enabling technology to marterialize many a design. Using DMD in conjunction with HDM and multi-material CAD, one can produce components with predetermined performance such as negative co-efficient of expansion, by

  3. Principles of Inorganic Materials Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalena, John N.; Cleary, David

    2005-04-01

    A unique interdisciplinary approach to inorganic materials design Textbooks intended for the training of chemists in the inorganic materials field often omit many relevant topics. With its interdisciplinary approach, this book fills that gap by presenting concepts from chemistry, physics, materials science, metallurgy, and ceramics in a unified treatment targeted towards the chemistry audience. Semiconductors, metal alloys and intermetallics, as well as ceramic substances are covered. Accordingly, the book should also be useful to students and working professionals in a variety of other disciplines. This book discusses a number of topics that are pertinent to the design of new inorganic materials but are typically not covered in standard solid-state chemistry books. The authors start with an introduction to structure at the mesoscopic level and progress to smaller-length scales. Next, detailed consideration is given to both phenomenological and atomistic-level descriptions of transport properties, the metal-nonmetal transition, magnetic and dielectric properties, optical properties, and mechanical properties. Finally, the authors present introductions to phase equilibria, synthesis, and nanomaterials. Other features include: Worked examples demonstrating concepts unfamiliar to the chemist Extensive references to related literature, leading readers to more in-depth coverage of particular topics Biographies introducing the reader to great contributors to the field of inorganic materials science in the twentieth century With their interdisciplinary approach, the authors have set the groundwork for communication and understanding among professionals in varied disciplines who are involved with inorganic materials engineering. Armed with this publication, students and researchers in inorganic and physical chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering will be better equipped to face today's complex design challenges. This textbook is appropriate for senior

  4. Mimicry of natural material designs and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.M.; Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

  5. Computational materials design of crystalline solids.

    PubMed

    Butler, Keith T; Frost, Jarvist M; Skelton, Jonathan M; Svane, Katrine L; Walsh, Aron

    2016-11-07

    The modelling of materials properties and processes from first principles is becoming sufficiently accurate as to facilitate the design and testing of new systems in silico. Computational materials science is both valuable and increasingly necessary for developing novel functional materials and composites that meet the requirements of next-generation technology. A range of simulation techniques are being developed and applied to problems related to materials for energy generation, storage and conversion including solar cells, nuclear reactors, batteries, fuel cells, and catalytic systems. Such techniques may combine crystal-structure prediction (global optimisation), data mining (materials informatics) and high-throughput screening with elements of machine learning. We explore the development process associated with computational materials design, from setting the requirements and descriptors to the development and testing of new materials. As a case study, we critically review progress in the fields of thermoelectrics and photovoltaics, including the simulation of lattice thermal conductivity and the search for Pb-free hybrid halide perovskites. Finally, a number of universal chemical-design principles are advanced.

  6. Design considerations for mirror materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Suresh T.

    1996-11-01

    The key requirements for an optical mirror material include low density, high Young's modulus, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, and high diffusivity. Not included among these are fracture toughness and stress corrosion constant, which control slow crack growth and long-term reliability under static or dynamic loads during manufacturing and in-service. The reliability requirement becomes crucial as the mirror size increases and/or its mission takes on strategic importance. This paper compares the critical properties of three ultralow expansion materials, namely ULETM, Zerodur and AstrositallTM. It demonstrates how these properties affect the bending rigidity and safe allowable stress for the mirror subjected to different types of loading, namely: (i) its own weight and (ii) external load. An analysis of bending rigidity, bending stress, and safe allowable stress shows that mirror blanks of two different materials can be designed to be equivalent in terms of their rigidity without any weight penalty. The lower modulus and lightweight material like ULE glass requires about 10 percent higher thickness which reduces the bending stresses 20 percent compared to those in Zerodur or Astrositall mirrors of identical size. The lower stress, according to Power law fatigue model, is highly beneficial in that it improves the mechanical reliability of ULE mirror during manufacturing, transportation, installation and in-service by two orders of magnitude over that of Zerodur and Astrositall mirrors. The fatigue and fracture data for the three materials are used to estimate the safe allowable stress for facilitating mirror design from mechanical reliability point of view.

  7. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  8. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  9. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  10. Design and Prove-Out of a Material Tracking System With a Pad Printer and Laser Etcher System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    of this system was a complete success. No bugs or errors were found during the trial run and all of the production steps were performed by actual...at Projectiles seconds Manual Trailer Tracking 63 65 64 Pour 1C0SA standard Pill Prufuctde* wth Explosive* Manual Traitor Traokinq 12 13 Take

  11. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  12. Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Weaver, James C.; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.

  13. Cybermaterials: materials by design and accelerated insertion of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Olson, Gregory B.

    2016-02-01

    Cybermaterials innovation entails an integration of Materials by Design and accelerated insertion of materials (AIM), which transfers studio ideation into industrial manufacturing. By assembling a hierarchical architecture of integrated computational materials design (ICMD) based on materials genomic fundamental databases, the ICMD mechanistic design models accelerate innovation. We here review progress in the development of linkage models of the process-structure-property-performance paradigm, as well as related design accelerating tools. Extending the materials development capability based on phase-level structural control requires more fundamental investment at the level of the Materials Genome, with focus on improving applicable parametric design models and constructing high-quality databases. Future opportunities in materials genomic research serving both Materials by Design and AIM are addressed.

  14. OLED microdisplay design and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Ghosh, Amalkumar

    2010-04-01

    AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use. The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. eMagin's largest format display is currently the SXGA design, which includes features such as a 30-bit wide RGB digital interface, automatic luminance regulation from -45 to +70°C, variable gamma control, and a dynamic range exceeding 50:000 to 1. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices. The ongoing development of reduced size pixels and larger format displays (up to WUXGA) as well as new OLED device architecture (e.g. high-brightness yellow) will be discussed. Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.

  15. Designing Online Software for Teaching the Concept of Variable That Facilitates Mental Interaction with the Material: Systemic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Natalya A.; Thompson, Ann D.; Correia, Ana-Paula; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Our case study is a response to the need for research and reporting on specific strategies employed by software designers to produce effective multimedia instructional solutions. A systemic approach for identifying appropriate software features and conducting a formative evaluation that evaluates both the overall effectiveness of the multimedia…

  16. Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) system based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.

  17. Designer Nanocrystal Materials for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Cherie

    Advances in synthetic methods allow a wide range of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to be tailored in size and shape and to be used as building blocks in the design of NC solids. However, the long, insulating ligands commonly employed in the synthesis of colloidal NCs inhibit strong interparticle coupling and charge transport once NCs are assembled into the solids state as NC arrays. We will describe the range of short, compact ligand chemistries we employ to exchange the long, insulating ligands used in synthesis and to increase interparticle coupling. These ligand exchange processes can have a dramatic influence on NC surface chemistry as well as NC organization in the solids, showing examples of short-range order. Synergistically, we use 1) thermal evaporation and diffusion and 2) wet-chemical methods to introduce extrinsic impurities and non-stoichiometry to passivate surface traps and dope NC solids. NC coupling and doping provide control over the density of states and the carrier type, concentration, mobility, and lifetime, which we characterize by a range of electronic and spectroscopic techniques. We will describe the importance of engineering device interfaces to design NC materials for solar photovoltaics.

  18. Natural Materials, Systems & Extremophiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    PORTFOLIO: The goals of this program are to: 1) study, use, mimic, or alter how biological systems accomplish a desired (from our point of view) task...and 2) enable them to task-specifically produce natural materials and systems. Both goals are to advance or create future USAF technologies...Program Constant with Additions Coming From Outside Program • Chromophores/Bioluminescence – Bio-X STT phase 1 focus. One of its discoveries are

  19. Materials management information systems.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  20. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  1. Progress in material design for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials. PMID:26598696

  2. Improved 4-chlorophenol dechlorination at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system using optimized modular cathode design with composite stainless steel and carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanying; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Hong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    This study developed and optimized a modular biocathode materials design in bioelectrochemical system (BES) using composite metal and carbon-based materials. The 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) dechlorination could be improved with such composite materials. Results showed that stainless steel basket (SSB) filled with graphite granules (GG) and carbon brush (CB) (SSB/GG/CB) was optimum for dechlorination, followed by SSB/CB and SSB/GG, with rate constant k of 0.0418 ± 0.0002, 0.0374 ± 0.0004, and 0.0239 ± 0.0002 h(-1), respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrated that the composite materials with metal can benefit the electron transfer and decrease the charge transfer resistance to be 80.4 Ω in BES-SSB/GG/CB, much lower than that in BES-SSB (1674.3 Ω), BES-GG (387.3 Ω), and BES-CB (193.8 Ω). This modular cathode design would be scalable with successive modules for BES scale-up, and may offer useful information to guide the selection and design of BES materials towards dechlorination improvement in wastewater treatment.

  3. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  4. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  5. Material constraints on high-speed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  6. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  7. Novel stable hard transparent conductors in TiO2-TiC system: Design materials from scratch

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangying; Liu, Dongyan; Dai, Xuefeng; Pan, Haijun; Wen, Xiaohong; Zuo, Liang; Qin, Gaowu

    2014-01-01

    Two new ternary compounds in the TiO2-TiC system, Ti5C2O6 and Ti3C2O2, are reported for the first time based on ab initio evolutionary algorithm. Ti5C2O6 has a tube-structure in which sp1 hybridized carbon chains run through the lattice along the b-axis; while in the Ti3C2O2 lattice, double TiO6 polyhedral are separated by the non-coplanar sp2 hybridized hexagon graphite layers along the c-axis, forming a sandwich-like structure. At ambient conditions, the two compounds are found to be mechanically and dynamically stable and intrinsic transparent conductors with high hardness (about twice harder than the conventional transparent conducting oxides). These mechanical, electronic, and optical properties make Ti5C2O6 and Ti3C2O2 ternary compounds be promising robust, hard, transparent, and conductive materials. PMID:25511583

  8. Computational design and optimization of energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Maria

    The use of density functional theory (DFT) to understand and improve energy materials for diverse applications - including energy storage, thermal management, catalysis, and photovoltaics - is widespread. The further step of using high throughput DFT calculations to design materials and has led to an acceleration in materials discovery and development. Due to various limitations in DFT, including accuracy and computational cost, however, it is important to leverage effective models and, in some cases, experimental information to aid the design process. In this talk, I will discuss efforts in design and optimization of energy materials using a combination of effective models, DFT, machine learning, and experimental information.

  9. Topology Optimization for Architected Materials Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanov, Mikhail; Guest, James K.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced manufacturing processes provide a tremendous opportunity to fabricate materials with precisely defined architectures. To fully leverage these capabilities, however, materials architectures must be optimally designed according to the target application, base material used, and specifics of the fabrication process. Computational topology optimization offers a systematic, mathematically driven framework for navigating this new design challenge. The design problem is posed and solved formally as an optimization problem with unit cell and upscaling mechanics embedded within this formulation. This article briefly reviews the key requirements to apply topology optimization to materials architecture design and discusses several fundamental findings related to optimization of elastic, thermal, and fluidic properties in periodic materials. Emerging areas related to topology optimization for manufacturability and manufacturing variations, nonlinear mechanics, and multiscale design are also discussed.

  10. Key micromechanics issues in integrated material design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays the acceleration of material discovery is essential more than ever to hold the fast evolving requirements of innovative products. This acceleration depends on our ability to set up a material design process for tailoring materials from targeted engineering performances. One of the important building block passages, in the material design journey, is the bridging of micro-scale to meso-scale through micromechanical models. Unfortunately, these models include a lot of uncertainties resulting from their inbuilt ad-hoc assumptions, which inevitably impacts the material design process performance. In the present paper, robust design methods are reviewed and subsequently applied to quantify uncertainty in micromechanical models and mitigate its impact on material design performances. This includes examining principles for evaluating the level degree of uncertainty on material design process, and their use in micromechanical models. Also, developing robust design approaches to alleviate uncertainty effects and improve the quality of the design performance. Ultimately, the limitations of these approaches are discussed and the research opportunities, to overcome the shortness of actual approaches in respect to micromechanical models, are clarified.

  11. Materials Experience as a Foundation for Materials and Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedgley, Owain; Rognoli, Valentina; Karana, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    An important body of research has developed in recent years, explaining ways in which product materials influence user experiences. A priority now is to ensure that the research findings are adopted within an educational context to deliver contemporary curricula for students studying the subject of materials and design. This paper reports on an…

  12. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  13. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  14. Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

  15. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-11-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  16. Vehicular applications of smart material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Weddle, Craig; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.

    1998-06-01

    The results of an initial investigation in the use of smart material system for automobiles are presented. For this work, a smart material system is defined as a network of embedded electromechanical devices that are able to sense and affect their environment and autonomously adapt to changes in operating conditions. The development of smart material system for production vehicles has the potential for compact, lightweight subsystems that reduce vehicle weight and improve vehicle performance. This paper presents an overview of current technology and how it contrasts with the development of highly integrated smart material systems. Automotive design requirements are examined to highlight practical constraints associated with integrating smart material technology into automobiles. Representative examples of a embedded sensor-actuator system for camless engines and a smart automotive seat are presented to illustrate the design concepts.

  17. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  18. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    PubMed

    Harding, M L

    1999-02-01

    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule.

  19. Design principles for therapeutic angiogenic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briquez, Priscilla S.; Clegg, Lindsay E.; Martino, Mikaël M.; Gabhann, Feilim Mac; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, pro-angiogenic drugs have failed to translate clinically, and therapeutic angiogenesis, which has potential in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, remains a major challenge. Physiologically, angiogenesis — the process of blood-vessel growth from existing vasculature — is regulated by a complex interplay of biophysical and biochemical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM), angiogenic factors and multiple cell types. The ECM can be regarded as the natural 3D material that regulates angiogenesis. Here, we leverage knowledge of ECM properties to derive design rules for engineering pro-angiogenic materials. We propose that pro-angiogenic materials should be biomimetic, incorporate angiogenic factors and mimic cooperative interactions between growth factors and the ECM. We highlight examples of material designs that demonstrate these principles and considerations for designing better angiogenic materials.

  20. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Prasanna V; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-21

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young's (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don't. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  1. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  2. Design and Development of a Sub-Zero Fluid System for Demonstration of Orion's Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Ahlstrom, Thomas D.; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle's Exploration Mission 2 is expected to loiter in Lunar orbit for a relatively long period of time. In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and relatively hot near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. A PCM HX allows a vehicle to store excess waste energy by thawing a phase change material such as n-pentadecane wax. During portions of the orbit that are extremely cold, the excess energy is rejected, resolidifying the wax. Due to the inherent risk of compromising the heat exchanger during multiple freeze and thaw cycles, a unique payload was designed for the International Space Station to test and demonstration the functions of a PCM HX. The payload incorporates the use of a pumped fluid system and a thermoelectric heat exchanger to promote the freezing and thawing of the PCM HX. This paper shall review the design and development undertaken to build such a system.

  3. Automatic on-line detection system design research on internal defects of metal materials based on optical fiber F-P sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Liu; Shan, Ning; Chao, Ban; Caoshan, Wang

    2016-10-01

    Metal materials have been used in aerospace and other industrial fields widely because of its excellent characteristics, so its internal defects detection is very important. Ultrasound technology is used widely in the fields of nondestructive detection because of its excellent characteristic. But the conventional detection instrument for ultrasound, which has shortcomings such as low intelligent level and long development cycles, limits its development. In this paper, the theory of ultrasound detection is analyzed. A computational method of the defects distributional position is given. The non-contact type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed and the length of origin cavity is given. The real-time on-line ultrasound detecting experiment devices for internal defects of metal materials is established based on the optical fiber F-P sensing system. The virtual instrument of automation ultrasound detection internal defects is developed based on LabVIEW software and the experimental study is carried out. The results show that this system can be used in internal defect real-time on-line locating of engineering structures effectively. This system has higher measurement precision. Relative error is 6.7%. It can be met the requirement of engineering practice. The system is characterized by simple operation, easy realization. The software has a friendly interface, good expansibility, and high intelligent level.

  4. Facet‐Engineered Surface and Interface Design of Photocatalytic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Li, Zhengquan

    2016-01-01

    The facet‐engineered surface and interface design for photocatalytic materials has been proven as a versatile approach to enhance their photocatalytic performance. This review article encompasses some recent advances in the facet engineering that has been performed to control the surface of mono‐component semiconductor systems and to design the surface and interface structures of multi‐component heterostructures toward photocatalytic applications. The review begins with some key points which should receive attention in the facet engineering on photocatalytic materials. We then discuss the synthetic approaches to achieve the facet control associated with the surface and interface design. In the following section, the facet‐engineered surface design on mono‐component photocatalytic materials is introduced, which forms a basis for the discussion on more complex systems. Subsequently, we elucidate the facet‐engineered surface and interface design of multi‐component photocatalytic materials. Finally, the existing challenges and future prospects are discussed. PMID:28105398

  5. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  6. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  7. Design of ordered bimodal mesoporous silica materials by using a mixed fluorinated-hydrogenated surfactant-based system.

    PubMed

    Michaux, F; Blin, J L; Stébé, M J

    2007-02-13

    Mesoporous silica materials have been prepared using aqueous solutions of hydrogenated-fluorinated surfactant mixtures. The phase behavior of the C18H35(OC2H4)10-C6F15C2H4(OC2H4)11OH [RH18(EO)10-RF6(EO)11] mixture in aqueous solution was first established at the temperature at which the silica source is added, i.e., 20 or 40 degrees C. We have delimited the different phase domains. Concerning the mesostructured silica, whatever the temperature at which the silica source is added, mesoporous material with a hexagonal array of their channel is formed via a cooperative templating mechanism (CTM), if the content of RF6(EO)11 in the surfactant mixture is lower than 50%. Moreover, when the silica source is added at 40 degrees C, the recovered materials exhibit a bimodal pore size distribution. The appearance of this bimodality has been related to the coexistence of hydrogenated micelles with fluorinated wormlike micelles. By contrast, the bimodality is not observed when the silica source is added at 20 degrees C.

  8. Characterization of the Material Microstructure for Reactive Material Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Fraunhofer Institut Kuazeitdynamik Ernst - Mach -I nstitut Characterization of the Material Microstructure for Reactive Material Design 2 nI Quarterly...Investigator, Head of Department - Numerical Simulation Prof. Dr. K. Thoma Director of Ernst - Mach -Institut Fraunhofer EMI 2 Report 1-13/08 Table of...2008 Freiburg, Germany Hraunhofe r-Institut fur KuzzLeldynamik , rnst- mach -Intatr Dire(tor Prof Dr. Klaus fhomna EMI Freiburg, Eckerstr 4, 79104

  9. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  10. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  11. The automated design of materials far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskin, Marc Z.

    Automated design is emerging as a powerful concept in materials science. By combining computer algorithms, simulations, and experimental data, new techniques are being developed that start with high level functional requirements and identify the ideal materials that achieve them. This represents a radically different picture of how materials become functional in which technological demand drives material discovery, rather than the other way around. At the frontiers of this field, materials systems previously considered too complicated can start to be controlled and understood. Particularly promising are materials far from equilibrium. Material robustness, high strength, self-healing and memory are properties displayed by several materials systems that are intrinsically out of equilibrium. These and other properties could be revolutionary, provided they can first be controlled. This thesis conceptualizes and implements a framework for designing materials that are far from equilibrium. We show how, even in the absence of a complete physical theory, design from the top down is possible and lends itself to producing physical insight. As a prototype system, we work with granular materials: collections of athermal, macroscopic identical objects, since these materials function both as an essential component of industrial processes as well as a model system for many non-equilibrium states of matter. We show that by placing granular materials in the context of design, benefits emerge simultaneously for fundamental and applied interests. As first steps, we use our framework to design granular aggregates with extreme properties like high stiffness, and softness. We demonstrate control over nonlinear effects by producing exotic aggregates that stiffen under compression. Expanding on our framework, we conceptualize new ways of thinking about material design when automatic discovery is possible. We show how to build rules that link particle shapes to arbitrary granular packing

  12. Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Farid, Mohammed M.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM) thermal management system was designed for an electric scooter. Passive thermal management systems using PCM can control the temperature excursions and maintain temperature uniformity in Li-ion batteries without the use of active cooling components such as a fan, a blower or a pump found in air/liquid-cooling systems. Hence, the advantages of a compact, lightweight, and energy efficient system can be achieved with this novel form of thermal management system. Simulation results are shown for a Li-ion battery sub-module consisting of nine 18650 Li-ion cells surrounded by PCM with a melting point between 41 and 44 °C. The use of aluminum foam within the PCM and fins attached to the battery module were studied to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the PCM and the low natural convection heat transfer coefficient. The comparative results of the PCM performance in the presence of Al-foam and Al-fins are shown. The battery module is also simulated for summer and winter conditions. The effect of air-cooling on the Li-ion battery was also studied. These simulation results demonstrate the successful use of the PCM as a potential candidate for thermal management solution in electric scooter applications and therefore for other electric vehicle applications.

  13. Biomimetic materials design for cardiac tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Hodge, Alexander J; Lipke, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the absence of sufficient numbers of organs for heart transplant, alternate approaches for healing or replacing diseased heart tissue are under investigation. Designing biomimetic materials to support these approaches will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three-dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue, materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell-specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three-dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation. Numerous studies have investigated the use of biomimetic materials for cardiac regeneration. Biomimetic material design will continue to exploit advances in nanotechnology to better recreate the cellular environment and advance cardiac regeneration. Overall, biomimetic materials are moving the field of cardiac regenerative medicine forward and promise to deliver new therapies in combating heart disease.

  14. Designing Interactive Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    1990-01-01

    Describes multimedia, computer-based interactive learning systems that support various forms of individualized study. Highlights include design models; user interfaces; design guidelines; media utilization paradigms, including hypermedia and learner-controlled models; metaphors and myths; authoring tools; optical media; workstations; four case…

  15. Instructional Design: System Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Sleeman, Phillip J.

    This book is intended as a source for those who desire to apply a coherent system of instructional design, thereby insuring accountability. Chapter 1 covers the instructional design process, including: instructional technology; the role of evaluation; goal setting; the psychology of teaching and learning; task analysis; operational objectives;…

  16. Handbook of Format Models for Designers of Technical Training Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Models Instruct;onal System Development Design of Instructional Materials Visual Imagery Learning Guidelines Classes of Tasks Learning Algorithms Learning ...gains can be made through the systematic application of learning principles in the design of learning packages. This report provides a handbook of...format models, based on learning principles, for use in constructing training materials for the following types of tasks common to Navy jobs

  17. Design of advanced fibrous based material systems to meet the critical challenges in water quality and carbon dioxide mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangmenyi, Gordon

    Water purification and global warming mitigation represent two of the major challenges in the 21st century. The research presented in this dissertation will describe the development of advanced fibrous systems that exhibit excellent performance in addressing the issues of water disinfection, carbon dioxide capture, and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from water. Total eradication of E. coli was achieved with fiberglass impregnated with either silver (FG-Ag), iron oxide (Fe2O3 ) modified with Ag (FG-F2O3/Ag) or copper oxide (CuO) modified with Ag (FG-CuO/Ag). The Ag modified oligodynamic nanoparticle impregnated fiberglass displayed excellent kinetic inactivation performance with extended capacity at a much lower amount of nanoparticle loading. The results support their immediate applicability in the field from a utility and cost perspective. The polyethyleneimine coated glass fibers (PEFA) for CO2 removal displayed high capacity for CO2 adsorption, up to 440 mg-CO 2/g while providing a mechanically durable and recyclable system for CO2 capture. The system offers the potential for CO2 utilization from the adsorbed CO2 from a power plant or closed environment (submarine, space shuttles or control rooms). Aminated polyacrylonitrile activated carbon fibers (N-ACF) coated on a non-woven fiberglass mat, displayed the ability to remove NOM more efficiently than granulated activated carbon or ion exchange beads at concentrations below 50 mg/L. Electrostatic attraction was found to be the dominant mechanism of NOM adsorption for the N-ACF.

  18. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  19. Technology update: Tethered aerostat structural design and material developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Requirements exist for an extremely stable, high performance, all-weather tethered aerostat system. This requirement has been satisfied by a 250,000 cubic foot captive buoyant vehicle as demonstrated by over a year of successful field operations. This achievement required significant advancements in several technology areas including composite materials design, aerostatics and aerodynamics, structural design, electro-mechanical design, vehicle fabrication and mooring operations. This paper specifically addresses the materials and structural design aspects of pressurized buoyant vehicles as related to the general class of Lighter Than Air vehicles.

  20. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  1. Library Sign Systems. Workshop Program Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgeway, Patricia M.

    These program materials from the Library Sign Systems Workshop include a news story on the workshop; notes in outline form for a speech presented by Joe Sonderman, president of a graphic designs firm; and an annotated bibliography on signs and sign systems. The news release summarizes a presentation by Dorothy Pollet and Peter Haskell, editors of…

  2. Designing Biomimetic Materials from Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Nichols, William T

    2015-01-01

    Two biomimetic design approaches that apply biological solutions to engineering problems are discussed. In the first case, motivation comes from an engineering problem and the key challenge is to find analogous biological functions and map them into engineering materials. We illustrate with an example of water pollution remediation through appropriate design of a biomimetic sponge. In the second case, a biological function is already known and the challenge is to identify the appropriate engineering problem. We demonstrate the biological approach with marine diatoms that control energy and materials at their surface providing inspiration for a number of engineering applications. In both cases, it is essential to select materials and structures at the nanoscale to control energy and materials flows at interfaces.

  3. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  4. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  5. Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Karataşli, Ozge; Kursoğlu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    In this study, marginal adaptations of different copings fabricated with CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM were analysed. Celay and Zirkonzahn groups were fabricated by MAD/CAM, LAVA and DC-Zircon groups were fabricated by CAD/CAM. Casting metal copings were used as the control group. An implant abutment that was embedded in octagonal acrylic block was used to prepare the copings. Sixteen previously established points were marked and the measurements were performed with the stereomicroscope (at × 150). The marginal fit of the samples were evaluated by calculating the mean measurements of each 16 points. The statistical analysis was performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test at 95% confidence interval. The groups can be summarized as follows in terms of marginal gap, from the lowest to highest: LAVA (24.6 ± 14.0 µm)systems may not be the most important factor for marginal adaptation.

  6. Structural and Machine Design Using Piezoceramic Materials: A Guide for Structural Design Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Cudney, Harley H.

    2000-01-01

    Using piezoceramic materials is one way the design engineer can create structures which have an ability to both sense and respond to their environment. Piezoceramic materials can be used to create structural sensors and structural actuators. Because piezoceramic materials have transduction as a material property, their sensing or actuation functions are a result of what happens to the material. This is different than discrete devices we might attach to the structure. For example, attaching an accelerometer to a structure will yield an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration at the attachment point on the structure. Using a electromagnetic shaker as an actuator will create an applied force at the attachment point. Active material elements in a structural design are not easily modeled as providing transduction at a point, but rather they change the physics of the structure in the areas where they are used. Hence, a designer must not think of adding discrete devices to a structure to obtain an effect, but rather must design a structural system which accounts for the physical principles of all the elements in the structure. The purpose of this manual is to provide practicing engineers the information necessary to incorporate piezoelectric materials in structural design and machine design. First, we will review the solid-state physics of piezoelectric materials. Then we will discuss the physical characteristics of the electrical-active material-structural system. We will present the elements of this system which must be considered as part of the design task for a structural engineer. We will cover simple modeling techniques and review the features and capabilities of commercial design tools that are available. We will then cover practical how-to elements of working with piezoceramic materials. We will review sources of piezoceramic materials and built-up devices, and their characteristics. Finally, we will provide two design examples using piezoceramic

  7. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  8. Carbon nanotube materials characterization and devices design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng

    The objective of this research is to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) materials, and explore possible device applications for these materials. In order to achieve this goal, different forms of Carbon Nanotube materials---including Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanotube Arrays, Carbon Nanotube Ribbon, Carbon Nanotube Thread, and sub-micrometer Carbon Nanotube Thread---were tested under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) using a Micromanipulator (MM). Video and sound recording of the testing in the microscope provided new understanding how thread is formed and how nanotube materials fail. As-produced and thermally treated nanotubes were also tested. The main electrical parameters measured were electrical resistivity and maximum current density. The main mechanical property measured was strength. Together, these parameters are helping to determine the strongest and most conductive forms of CNT material. Putting nanotube materials into application is the ultimate goal of this continuing research. Several aggressive application ideas were investigated in a preliminary way in this work. In biomedical applications, a bundle of CNTs was formed for use as an electrode for accurate biosensing. A simple robot was designed using CNT electrical fiber. The robot was powered by two solenoids and could act as an in-body sensor and actuator to perform some impossible tasks from the viewpoint of current medical technology. In aerospace engineering, CNT materials could replace copper wire to reduce the weight of aircraft. Based on the excellent mechanical properties of CNT materials, a challenging idea is to use CNT material to build elevators to move payloads to outer space without using rockets. This dissertation makes contributions in the characterization of nanotube materials and in the design of miniature electromagnetic devices.

  9. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    -dimensional microstructures are generated by Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) of voxelized ellipses representing the coarse grain phase. A simulated annealing algorithm is used to geometrically optimize the placement of the ellipses in the model to achieve varying user-defined configurations of spatial arrangement of the coarse grains. During the simulated annealing process, the ellipses are allowed to overlap up to a specified threshold, allowing triple junctions to form in the model. Once the simulated annealing process is complete, the remaining space is populated by smaller ellipses representing the ultra-fine grain phase. Uniform random orientations are assigned to the grains. The program generates text files that can be imported in to Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis Software for stress analysis. Finally, numerical methods and programming are applied to current issues in green engineering and hazard assessment. To understand hazards associated with materials and select safer alternatives, engineers and designers need access to up-to-date hazard information. However, hazard information comes from many disparate sources and aggregating, interpreting and taking action on the wealth of data is not trivial. In light of these challenges, a Framework for Automated Hazard Assessment based on the GreenScreen list translator is presented. The framework consists of a computer program that automatically extracts data from the GHS-Japan hazard database, loads the data into a machine-readable JSON format, transforms the JSON document in to a GreenScreen JSON document using the GreenScreen List Translator v1.2 and performs GreenScreen Benchmark scoring on the material. The GreenScreen JSON documents are then uploaded to a document storage system to allow human operators to search for, modify or add additional hazard information via a web interface.

  10. Semi materialized mediator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Soukaina; Zellou, Ahmed; Idri, Ali

    2015-02-01

    With the technological progress experienced by the world throughout the past two decades, a large number of applications and information sources have emerged. These sources are characterized by high heterogeneity making access to information scattered between these different sources, a very difficult task. In this context, the integration of information presents itself as a reliable solution for querying data uniformly present and spread over several independent, heterogeneous, distributed and scalable sources. This article is a first step in positioning our research in the context of data integration in a system of mediation. An overview of the technologies that have been developed in recent years are briefly presented and the challenge of integrating different data sources is exposed. Indeed, we will look later at integration system based on mediator. To facilitate and accelerate research in such a system, we propose in this paper a new indexing approach based on the MapReduce technology. A brief overview of this new approach and a proposed architecture are presented in this direction.

  11. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process.

  12. Adaptive strategies for materials design using uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-21

    Here, we compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  13. Adaptive strategies for materials design using uncertainties

    DOE PAGES

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; ...

    2016-01-21

    Here, we compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material withmore » desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.« less

  14. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties. PMID:26792532

  15. Materials by Design - Computational Alloy Design for Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Materials by Design - Computational Alloy Design for Corrosion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...neplurium putonun :amq icium ** Actinide series B9 90 91 92 93 94 95 Ac Th Pa u Np Pu Am 11᝻ <’J<.U4 :~t,)1 . J4 :l~I::UJ3 11’.li 1 IL4’JI boro n

  16. Integrated system design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The primary objective of the integrated system test phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a coal fueled diesel engine in its actual operating environment. The integrated system in this project is defined as a coal fueled diesel locomotive. This locomotive, shown on drawing 41D715542, is described in the separate Concept Design Report. The test locomotive will be converted from an existing oil fueled diesel locomotive in three stages, until it nearly emulates the concept locomotive. Design drawings of locomotive components (diesel engine, locomotive, flatcar, etc.) are included.

  17. Distributed System Design Checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  18. Maglev system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    Although efforts are now being made to develop magnetic levitation technologies in the United States, they have been underway for two decades in Germany and Japan. The characteristics of maglev systems being considered for implementation in the United States are speculative. A conference was held at Argonne National Laboratory on November 28--29, 1990, to discuss these characteristics and their implications for the design requirements of operational systems. This paper reviews some of the factors considered during that conference.

  19. A Bridge for Accelerating Materials by Design

    DOE PAGES

    Sumpter, Bobby G.; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Potok, Thomas E.; ...

    2015-11-25

    Recent technical advances in the area of nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and scattering/diffraction have led to unprecedented capabilities for investigating materials structural, dynamical and functional characteristics. In addition, recent advances in computational algorithms and computer capacities that are orders of magnitude larger/faster have enabled large-scale simulations of materials properties starting with nothing but the identity of the atomic species and the basic principles of quantum- and statistical-mechanics and thermodynamics. Along with these advances, an explosion of high-resolution data has emerged. This confluence of capabilities and rise of big data offer grand opportunities for advancing materials sciences but also introduce several challenges.more » In this editorial we identify challenges impeding progress towards advancing materials by design (e.g., the design/discovery of materials with improved properties/performance), possible solutions, and provide examples of scientific issues that can be addressed by using a tightly integrated approach where theory and experiments are linked through big-deep data.« less

  20. A Bridge for Accelerating Materials by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G.; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Potok, Thomas E.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-11-25

    Recent technical advances in the area of nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and scattering/diffraction have led to unprecedented capabilities for investigating materials structural, dynamical and functional characteristics. In addition, recent advances in computational algorithms and computer capacities that are orders of magnitude larger/faster have enabled large-scale simulations of materials properties starting with nothing but the identity of the atomic species and the basic principles of quantum- and statistical-mechanics and thermodynamics. Along with these advances, an explosion of high-resolution data has emerged. This confluence of capabilities and rise of big data offer grand opportunities for advancing materials sciences but also introduce several challenges. In this editorial we identify challenges impeding progress towards advancing materials by design (e.g., the design/discovery of materials with improved properties/performance), possible solutions, and provide examples of scientific issues that can be addressed by using a tightly integrated approach where theory and experiments are linked through big-deep data.

  1. A bridge for accelerating materials by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpter, Bobby G.; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Potok, Thomas; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical advances in the area of nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy and scattering/diffraction have led to unprecedented capabilities for investigating materials structural, dynamical and functional characteristics. In addition, recent advances in computational algorithms and computer capacities that are orders of magnitude larger/faster have enabled large-scale simulations of materials properties starting with nothing but the identity of the atomic species and the basic principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Along with these advances, an explosion of high-resolution data has emerged. This confluence of capabilities and rise of big data offer grand opportunities for advancing materials sciences but also introduce several challenges. In this perspective, we identify challenges impeding progress towards advancing materials by design (e.g., the design/discovery of materials with improved properties/performance), possible solutions and provide examples of scientific issues that can be addressed using a tightly integrated approach where theory and experiments are linked through big-deep data.

  2. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  3. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; ...

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less

  4. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  5. Systems metabolic engineering for chemicals and materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the enhanced production of various value-added and commodity chemicals and materials from renewable resources in the past two decades. Recently, metabolic engineering has been upgraded to the systems level (thus, systems metabolic engineering) by the integrated use of global technologies of systems biology, fine design capabilities of synthetic biology, and rational-random mutagenesis through evolutionary engineering. By systems metabolic engineering, production of natural and unnatural chemicals and materials can be better optimized in a multiplexed way on a genome scale, with reduced time and effort. Here, we review the recent trends in systems metabolic engineering for the production of chemicals and materials by presenting general strategies and showcasing representative examples.

  6. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  7. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  8. 15 CFR 922.22 - Development of designation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Designation of National Marine Sanctuaries § 922.22 Development of designation materials. (a) In designating a National Marine Sanctuary,...

  9. The Cam Shell: An Innovative Design With Materials and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Larsen, Frank M.; Kornienko, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Most of the personal audio and video recording devices currently sold on the open market all require hands to operate. Little consideration was given to designing a hands-free unit. Such a system once designed and made available to the public could greatly benefit mobile police officers, bicyclists, adventurers, street and dirt motorcyclists, horseback riders and many others. With a few design changes water sports and skiing activities could be another large area of application. The cam shell is an innovative design in which an audio and video recording device (such as palm camcorder) is housed in a body-mounted protection system. This system is based on the concept of viewing and recording at the same time. A view cam is attached to a helmet wired to a recording unit encased in a transparent body-mounted protection system. The helmet can also be controlled by remote. The operator will have full control in recording everything. However, the recording unit will be operated completely hands-free. This project will address the design considerations and their effects on material selection and manufacturing. It will enhance the understanding of the structure of materials, and how the structure affects the behavior of the material, and the role that processing play in linking the relationship between structure and properties. A systematic approach to design feasibility study, cost analysis and problem solving will also be discussed.

  10. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  11. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  12. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  13. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  14. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  15. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and material... § 25.613 Material strength properties and material design values. (a) Material strength properties must..., compliance must be shown by selecting material design values which assure material strength with...

  16. Designing magnetic systems for reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Designing magnetic system is an iterative process in which the requirements are set, a design is developed, materials and manufacturing processes are defined, interrelationships with the various elements of the system are established, engineering analyses are performed, and fault modes and effects are studied. Reliability requires that all elements of the design process, from the seemingly most straightforward such as utilities connection design and implementation, to the most sophisticated such as advanced finite element analyses, receives a balanced and appropriate level of attention. D.B. Montgomery's study of magnet failures has shown that the predominance of magnet failures tend not to be in the most intensively engineered areas, but are associated with insulation, leads, ad unanticipated conditions. TFTR, JET, JT-60, and PBX are all major tokamaks which have suffered loss of reliability due to water leaks. Similarly the majority of causes of loss of magnet reliability at PPPL has not been in the sophisticated areas of the design but are due to difficulties associated with coolant connections, bus connections, and external structural connections. Looking towards the future, the major next-devices such as BPX and ITER are most costly and complex than any of their predecessors and are pressing the bounds of operating levels, materials, and fabrication. Emphasis on reliability is a must as the fusion program enters a phase where there are fewer, but very costly devices with the goal of reaching a reactor prototype stage in the next two or three decades. This paper reviews some of the magnet reliability issues which PPPL has faced over the years the lessons learned from them, and magnet design and fabrication practices which have been found to contribute to magnet reliability.

  17. Advanced materials systems as commercial opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper shows that commercial opportunities in the materials area lie principally in materials systems, and much less in components made from differentiated individual materials. Examples are given.

  18. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    PubMed

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  19. Photonic bandgap materials: Design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramania, Ganapathi S.

    The last few decades have seen a tremendous explosion in the area of new synthetic materials. As we begin to better understand the nature of the atomic and molecular bonds it has been possible to systematically search for materials with specific properties thanks to the availability of powerful supercomputers. Due to significant advances in materials synthesis a rich variety of artificial materials whose mechanical, chemical, electronic and optical properties can be suitably tailored can now be produced. Some of the materials (plastics, synthetic fibers, ceramics, alloys etc.) can replace or substitute traditional materials; some others have managed to create new applications themselves (semiconductors, superconductors, optical fibers etc.). Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in a new material called "photonic bandgap structures" which can manipulate light in an extraordinary way opening up new possibilities in the area of optics and optoelectronics, eventually paving the way for optical computing. Proof of principle structures that demonstrates the expected property has been successfully fabricated for low frequency electromagnetic waves. However, making photonic bandgap structures that can operate at visible frequency is quite challenging. This is because photonic bandgap material are essentially periodic dielectric structures where the periodicity is on the order of the wavelength of light. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a technique for the fabrication inverse FCC photonic crystals that can operate at the visible and near infrared frequencies. The technique essentially focuses on employing self organizing systems such as monodisperse colloidal systems of polystyrene microspheres as a basis for forming periodic structure at submicron dimensions. The main aspects are first to show that the experimental procedure for fabrication developed in this dissertation actually has the desired structural property. Demonstration of structural

  20. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  1. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Initial steady-state testing identified " infant mortality" failures. The result- ing iterative development feedback was of importance to the material and...for turbine rotor blade rings ami stators. Development of ceramic injection molding technology to successfully mold high quality turbine ceramics is an...refinements, efficient parametric optimization is required. Data acquisition in this injection molding system is accomplished utilizing a Fluke dala logger

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    process has been changed to a charcoal -wicking system which eliminated adverse distortion of the components and resulted in excellent removal of the...organics prior to nitriding. With the 2.55 gm/cm3 material, this cycle resulted in some distortion and cracking of the stator. Coconut charcoal of 80-200...established for stator burnouts. This procedure has successfully eliminated the distortion noted in previous AI2O3 burnouts. The charcoal burnout is also

  3. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  4. Conveyor system moves material continuously

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    German technology and equipment is used in mining operations worldwide. A PHB Wesserhutte system is being used with face shovel, mobile crusher, crawler-mounted transfer conveyor, and shiftable conveyor which results in crushing and transporting the minerals to the processing plant in a continuous flow path. The entire process is controlled by a programmable logic controller (a mini-computer) and all systems are sequentially interlocked according to the material flow path. Working methods using the mobile crusher and conveying systems are illustrated.

  5. Materials for programmed, functional transformation in transient electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Xian; Brenckle, Mark A; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Rogers, John A

    2015-01-07

    Materials and device designs are presented for electronic systems that undergo functional transformation by a controlled time sequence in the dissolution of active materials and/or encapsulation layers. Demonstration examples include various biocompatible, multifunctional systems with autonomous behavior defined by materials selection and layout.

  6. Materials design using correlated oxides: Optical properties of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, J. M.; Biermann, S.

    2009-05-01

    Materials with strong electronic Coulomb interactions play an increasing role in modern materials applications. "Thermochromic" systems, that exhibit thermally induced changes in their optical response, provide a particularly interesting case. The optical switching associated with the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2), for example, has been proposed for use in "intelligent" windows that selectively filter radiative heat in hot weather conditions. In this work, we develop the theoretical tools for describing such a behaviour. Using a novel scheme for the calculation of the optical conductivity of correlated materials, we obtain quantitative agreement with experiments for both phases of VO2. On the example of an optimized energy-saving window setup, we further demonstrate that theoretical materials design has now come into reach, even for the particularly challenging class of correlated electron systems.

  7. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  8. Optimum weight design of functionally graded material gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhang, He; Zhou, Jingtao; Song, Guohua

    2015-11-01

    Traditional gear weight optimization methods consider gear tooth number, module, face width or other dimension parameters of gear as design variables. However, due to the complicated form and geometric features peculiar to the gear, there will be large amounts of design parameters in gear design, and the influences of gear parameters changing on gear trains, transmission system and the whole equipment have to be taken into account, which increases the complexity of optimization problem. This paper puts forward to apply functionally graded materials (FGMs) to gears and then conduct the optimization. According to the force situation of gears, the material distribution form of FGM gears is determined. Then based on the performance parameters analysis of FGMs and the practical working demands for gears, a multi-objective optimization model is formed. Finally by using the goal driven optimization (GDO) method, the optimal material distribution is achieved, which makes gear weight and the maximum deformation be minimum and the maximum bending stress do not exceed the allowable stress. As an example, the applying of FGM to automotive transmission gear is conducted to illustrate the optimization design process and the result shows that under the condition of keeping the normal working performance of gear, the method achieves in greatly reducing the gear weight. This research proposes a FGM gears design method that is able to largely reduce the weight of gears by optimizing the microscopic material parameters instead of changing the macroscopic dimension parameters of gears, which reduces the complexity of gear weight optimization problem.

  9. Advanced aerospace composite material structural design using artificial intelligent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.H.; Chen, J.L.; Hwang, W.C.

    1993-12-31

    Due to the complexity in the prediction of property and behavior, composite material has not substituted for metal widely yet, though it has high specific-strength and high specific-modulus that are more important in the aerospace industry. In this paper two artificial intelligent techniques, the expert systems and neural network technology, were introduced to the structural design of composite material. Expert System which has good ability in symbolic processing can helps us to solve problem by saving experience and knowledge. It is, therefore, a reasonable way to combine expert system technology to tile composite structural design. The development of a prototype expert system to help designer during the process of composite structural design is presented. Neural network is a network similar to people`s brain that can simulate the thinking way of people and has the ability of learning from the training data by adapting the weights of network. Because of the bottleneck in knowledge acquisition processes, the application of neural network and its learning ability to strength design of composite structures are presented. Some examples are in this paper to demonstrate the idea.

  10. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  11. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  12. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each component of a fire-extinguishing system that is in a designated fire zone must be made of...

  13. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    084206 [7] Biswas P, Tafen D N, Inam F, Cai B and Drabold D A 2009 Materials modeling by design: applications to amorphous solids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084207 [8] Rossi G and Ferrando R 2009 Searching for low-energy structures of nanoparticles: a comparison of different methods and algorithms J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084208 [9] Rogan J, Ramírez M, Muñoz V, Alejandro Valdivia J, García G, Ramírez R and Kiwi M 2009 Diversity driven unbiased search of minimum energy cluster configurations J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084209 [10] Pedersen A, Pizzagalli L and Jónsson H 2009 Finding mechanism of transitions in complex systems: formation and migration of dislocation kinks in a silicon crystal J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084210 [11] Trushin O, Jalkanen J, Granato E, Ying S C and Ala-Nissila T 2009 Atomistic studies of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial systems J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084211 [12] Fichthorn K A, Miron R A, Wang Y and Tiwary Y 2009 Accelerated molecular dynamics of thin-film growth with the bond-boost method J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084212 [13] Kara A, Trushin O, Yildirim H and Rahman T S 2009 Off-lattice self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo: application to 2D cluster diffusion on the fcc(111) surface J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084213 [14] Nandipati G, Shim Y, Amar J G, Karim A, Kara A, Rahman T S and Trushin O 2009 Parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of Ag(111) island coarsening using a large database J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084214 [15] Hamouda A, Stasevich T J, Pimpinelli A and Einstein T L 2009 Effects of impurities on surface morphology: some examples J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084215 [16] Li M, Han Y, Thiel P A and Evans J W 2009 Formation of complex wedding-cake morphologies during homoepitaxial film growth of Ag on Ag(111): atomistic, step-dynamics, and continuum modeling J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 084216 [17] Uhlík F, Gatti R and Montalenti F 2009 A fast computational method for determining equilibrium concentration

  14. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  15. Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

  16. Material Discovery and Design with Dynamic Charge Reactive Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Atomic scale computational simulations of multi-phase systems is increasingly important as our ability to simulate nanometer-sized systems becomes routine. The recently developed charge optimized many body potential (COMB) potentials have significantly enhanced our ability to carry out atomic-scale simulations of heterogeneous material systems. The formalism of this potential combines variable charge electrostatic interactions with a classical analytical bond-order potential. It therefore has the capacity to adaptively model metallic, covalent, ionic, and van der Waals bonding within the same simulation cell and dynamically determine the charges on individual atoms according to the local environment. The utility of the COMB potentials is illustrated for materials design and discovery by exploring the structure, stability, mechanical properties, and thermal properties of intermetallic systems and oxide-metal interfaces. They are also used to address key questions associated with corrosion, thin film growth, and heterogeneous catalysis.

  17. Design of radiation tolerant materials via interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Weizhong; Demkowicz, Michael J; Mara, Nathan A; Fu, Engang; Sinha, Subhasis; Rollett, Anthony D; Wang, Yongqiang; Carpenter, John S; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit

    2013-12-23

    A novel interface engineering strategy is proposed to simultaneously achieve superior irradiation tolerance, high strength, and high thermal stability in bulk nanolayered composites of a model face-centered-cubic (Cu)/body-centered-cubic (Nb) system. By synthesizing bulk nanolayered Cu-Nb composites containing interfaces with controlled sink efficiencies, a novel material is designed in which nearly all irradiation-induced defects are annihilated.

  18. Systems and Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Geoffrey

    Design, which is basically a decisionmaking process, requires certain information. Although the nature and quantity of information needed vary greatly from task to task, the designer could be greatly assisted if some means were devised to help him decide which information is essential for his particular task. In the design of buildings, the…

  19. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-07

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy.

  20. SU-E-J-210: Characterizing Tissue Equivalent Materials for the Development of a Dual MRI-CT Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom Designed Specifically for MRI Guided Radiotherapy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, A; Stafford, R; Yung, J; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging technology which will eventually require a proficient quality auditing system. Due to different principles in which MR and CT acquire images, there is a need for a multi-imaging-modality, end-to-end QA phantom for MRIgRT. The purpose of this study is to identify lung, soft tissue, and tumor equivalent substitutes that share similar human-like CT and MR properties (i.e. Hounsfield units and relaxation times). Methods: Materials of interested such as common CT QA phantom materials, and other proprietary gels/silicones from Polytek, SmoothOn, and CompositeOne were first scanned on a GE 1.5T Signa HDxT MR. Materials that could be seen on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were then scanned on a GE Lightspeed RT16 CT simulator and a GE Discovery 750HD CT scanner and their HU values were then measured. The materials with matching HU values of lung (−500 to −700HU), muscle (+40HU) and soft tissue (+100 to +300HU) were further scanned on GE 1.5T Signa HDx to measure their T1 and T2 relaxation times from varying parameters of TI and TE. Results: Materials that could be visualized on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images from a 1.5T MR unit and had an appropriate average CT number, −650, −685, 46,169, and 168 HUs were: compressed cork saturated with water, Polytek Platsil™ Gel-00 combined with mini styrofoam balls, radiotherapy bolus material, SmoothOn Dragon-Skin™ and SmoothOn Ecoflex™, respectively. Conclusion: Post processing analysis is currently being performed to accurately map T1 and T2 values for each material tested. From previous MR visualization and CT examinations it is expected that Dragon-Skin™, Ecoflex™ and bolus will have values consistent with tissue and tumor substitutes. We also expect compressed cork statured with water, and Polytek™-styrofoam combination to have approximate T1 and T2 values suitable for lung-equivalent materials.

  1. Computational materials design for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  2. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping...

  3. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  4. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    SciTech Connect

    Radle, James E; Archer, Daniel E; Carter, Robert J; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T; Britton Jr, Charles L; Lind, Randall F; Wright, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  5. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  6. Satellite system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design of the MSAT spacecraft for the LMSS is presented. The most important requirement affecting the design of MSAT is that of producing a prescribed number of multiple beams. A conceptual design for MSAT describing most major subsystem individually is developed. The design of the large UHF multiple beam antenna and its associated feed array which are the most singularly prominent features of MSAT is emphasized. The overall design is outlined, and each subsystem is discussed. The design of the feed array and the RF, control, power, propulsion, and thermal subsystem are included. The RF performace of the UHF antenna, including its beam isolation performance, is discussed. The volume and mass properties of MSAT and its Shuttle launch considerations are also included.

  7. Mechatronic system design course for undergraduate programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A.; Tutunji, T.; Al-Sharif, L.

    2011-08-01

    Technology advancement and human needs have led to integration among many engineering disciplines. Mechatronics engineering is an integrated discipline that focuses on the design and analysis of complete engineering systems. These systems include mechanical, electrical, computer and control subsystems. In this paper, the importance of teaching mechatronic system design to undergraduate engineering students is emphasised. The paper offers the collaborative experience in preparing and delivering the course material for two universities in Jordan. A detailed description of such a course is provided and a case study is presented. The case study used is a final year project, where students applied a six-stage design procedure that is described in the paper.

  8. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot < 450°C) and mechanical loading ( P = 0 N to 104 N). The proposed instrument is able to monitor the temperature and electrical output of the TEM, the actual heat flow through the module, and its mechanical load, which can be varied during the measurement. Key components of our testing setup are (i) a measuring chamber where the TEM/material is compressed between thermally shielded heating blocks equipped with a mechanical loading system and water-cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  9. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  10. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  11. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  12. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  13. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  14. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  15. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  16. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  17. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  18. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  19. 15 CFR 922.22 - Development of designation materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of designation materials. 922.22 Section 922.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Sanctuaries § 922.22 Development of designation materials. (a) In designating a National Marine Sanctuary,...

  20. 30 CFR 18.92 - Quality of material and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality of material and design. 18.92 Section... Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.92 Quality of material and design. (a) Electrically... shall be designed to facilitate maintenance and inspection. (b) MSHA shall conduct field...

  1. Space & Materials: A Second Year Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Matthew

    Design students provide a constant source of energy that moves into the mainstream of society. Their energy needs to be directed toward improving the characteristics of the built environment at every physical and economic scale of activity. Teaching design involves a broad range of decisions on how to present relevant design education content to…

  2. Design and analysis of novel photocatalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram

    The development of sustainable sources of energy to decrease our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels and the reduction of emissions causing global warming are important technological challenges of the 21st century. Production of solar fuels by photocatalysis is one potential route to reduce the impact of those problems. The most widely applied photocatalyst is TiO2 because it is stable, non-toxic and inexpensive. Still, it cannot utilize the solar spectrum efficiently as its band gap is 3.2 eV thus able to absorb only 3% of sun light. This thesis therefore explores multiple avenues towards improving the light absorption capability of semiconductor materials without loss in activity. To achieve this objective, the valence band hybridization method of band gap reduction was utilized. This technique is based on introducing new orbitals at the top of valence band of the semiconductor that can then hybridize with existing orbitals. The hybridization then raises the maximum of the valence band thereby reducing the band gap. This technique has the added advantage of increasing the mobility of oxidizing holes in the now dispersed valence band. In practice, this can be achieved by introducing N 2p or Sn 5s orbitals in the valence band of an oxide. We initially designed novel zinc gallium oxy-nitrides, with the spinel structure and band gaps in the visible region of the solar spectrum, by nitridation of a zinc gallate precursor produced by sol-gel synthesis. These spinel oxy-nitrides have band gaps of 2.5 to 2.7 eV, surface areas of 16 to 36 m 2/g, and nitrogen content less than 1.5%. They are active towards degradation of organic molecules in visible light. Density functional theory calculations show that this band gap reduction in part is associated with hybridization between the dopant N 2p states with Zn 3d orbitals at the top of the valence band. While spinel oxy-nitrides are produced under nitridation at 550°C, at higher temperatures they are consumed to form

  3. Recovery Systems Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    of the flared base-cone on a rigid body. The stabilizing effect of a Ballute operating in the wake of a model booster in the wind tunnel was reported...56 Torpedo and Mine Deceleration ...................................... 58 Parichutes for Radar Targets, Flares and ECM Jammers...268 Towing Body Wake Effects ......................................... 277 Effect of Design Parameters on Decelerator Drag

  4. Life Enhancement of Naval Systems through Advanced Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-12

    corrosion and anti-fouling paints, improved lubricants, and more durable helicopter rotor blades, as well as a variety of materials processing techniques...and improved uses of materials to reduce corrosion, wear and fatigue of systems components. DD "NIr, 1473 EDITION DOF NOV6 S 9OGSOLETE S/N 0102-014...34 or innovative use of existing materials, that is, by improved techniques for materials processing, evaluation, design, and construction. In this

  5. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  6. Design of Functional Materials based on Liquid Crystalline Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel S.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    This brief perspective focuses on recent advances in the design of functional soft materials that are based on confinement of low molecular weight liquid crystals (LCs) within micrometer-sized droplets. While the ordering of LCs within micrometer-sized domains has been explored extensively in polymer-dispersed LC materials, recent studies performed with LC domains with precisely defined size and interfacial chemistry have unmasked observations of confinement-induced ordering of LCs that do not follow previously reported theoretical predictions. These new findings, which are enabled in part by advances in the preparation of LCs encapsulated in polymeric shells, are opening up new opportunities for the design of soft responsive materials based on surface-induced ordering transitions. These materials are also providing new insights into the self-assembly of biomolecular and colloidal species at defects formed by LCs confined to micrometer-sized domains. The studies presented in this perspective serve additionally to highlight gaps in knowledge regarding the ordering of LCs in confined systems. PMID:24882944

  7. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  8. First-principles structural design of superhard materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhu, Chunye; Li, Qian; Zhang, Miao; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2013-03-21

    We reported a developed methodology to design superhard materials for given chemical systems under external conditions (here, pressure). The new approach is based on the CALYPSO algorithm and requires only the chemical compositions to predict the hardness vs. energy map, from which the energetically preferable superhard structures are readily accessible. In contrast to the traditional ground state structure prediction method where the total energy was solely used as the fitness function, here we adopted hardness as the fitness function in combination with the first-principles calculation to construct the hardness vs. energy map by seeking a proper balance between hardness and energy for a better mechanical description of given chemical systems. To allow a universal calculation on the hardness for the predicted structure, we have improved the earlier hardness model based on bond strength by applying the Laplacian matrix to account for the highly anisotropic and molecular systems. We benchmarked our approach in typical superhard systems, such as elemental carbon, binary B-N, and ternary B-C-N compounds. Nearly all the experimentally known and most of the earlier theoretical superhard structures have been successfully reproduced. The results suggested that our approach is reliable and can be widely applied into design of new superhard materials.

  9. Design and Simulation of Material-Integrated Distributed Sensor Processing with a Code-Based Agent Platform and Mobile Multi-Agent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  10. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-02-16

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques.

  11. Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

  12. Design Producibility Assessment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    68 7.11 Part Detail ............... 69 7.11 Continued.. .Part Detail ... .......... 70 iv TABLES Page TABLE 1. Producibility Rating Factors...design type. Instead, an empirical approach has been selected to calculate the MI. An examination of a large number of metal components suggest that...normally cause the 80% of the producibility problems. Table 1 shows a sample list of those factors. It is important to recognize however, that the list of

  13. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  14. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1998-11-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  15. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  16. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  17. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  18. Thermal Systems and Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    During my internship, I was involved in Boeing Thermal System/M&P, which handles maintenance and repairs of shuttle tiles, blankets, gap fillers, etc. One project I took part in was the revision of TPS-227, a repair process to tiles that entailed drilling out tile damage and using a cylindrical insert to fill the hole. The previous specification used minimal adhesive for application and when the adhesive cured, there would be several voids in the adhered material, causing an unsatisfactory bond. The testing compared several new methods and I analyzed the number of voids produced by each method to determine which one was most effective at eliminating void space. We revised the original process to apply a light adhesive coat to the top 25% of the borehole and a heavy coat to 100% of the insert. I was also responsible for maintaining the subnominal bond database, which records all unsatisfactory SIP (Strain Isolator Pad) bonds. I then archived each SIP physically for future referral data and statistics. In addition, I performed post-flight tile inspections for damages and wrote dispositions to have these tiles repaired. This also included writing a post-flight damage report for a section of Atlantis and creating summarized repair process guidelines for orbiter technicians.

  19. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  20. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  1. Control-System Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    1987-01-01

    Control-theory design package, Optimal Regulator Algorithms for Control of Linear Systems (ORACLS), developed to aid in design of controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear, time-invariant differential and difference equations. Optimal linear quadratic regulator theory, Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problem, most widely accepted method of determining optimal control policy. Provides for solution to time-in-variant continuous or discrete LQG problems. Attractive to control-system designer providing rigorous tool for dealing with multi-input and multi-output dynamic systems in continuous and discrete form. CDO version written in FORTRAN IV. VAX version written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C. ); McDonald, J.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials: Design of Optimum Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a study of optimal experiment design applied to the measure of thermal properties in functionally graded materials. As a first step, a material with linearly-varying thermal properties is analyzed, and several different tran- sient experimental designs are discussed. An optimality criterion, based on sen- sitivity coefficients, is used to identify the best experimental design. Simulated experimental results are analyzed to verify that the identified best experiment design has the smallest errors in the estimated parameters. This procedure is general and can be applied to design of experiments for a variety of materials.

  4. Designing thin film materials — Ternary borides from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Euchner, H.; Mayrhofer, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the mechanisms responsible for the exceptional properties of aluminum based nitride coatings, we apply ab initio calculations to develop a recipe for designing functional thin film materials based on ternary diborides. The combination of binary diborides, preferring different structure types, results in supersaturated metastable ternary systems with potential for phase transformation induced effects. For the exemplary cases of MxW1 − xB2 (with M = Al, Ti, V) we show by detailed ab initio calculations that the respective ternary solid solutions are likely to be experimentally accessible by modern depositions techniques. PMID:26082562

  5. WFGD system materials cost update

    SciTech Connect

    Milobowski, M.G.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is an update of the report ``Economic Comparison of Materials of Construction of Wet FGD Absorbers and Internals`` which was presented at the 1991 EPRI/EPA/DOE SO{sub 2} Control symposium. An economic comparison of the materials standardly used for fabrication of wet FGD spray towers will be presented in this paper. Costs for various materials of construction for such absorber components as spray headers, moisture separators, and gas distribution devices will also be addressed,

  6. Support systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ground support systems with the new launch processing system and new launch vehicle provided KSC with a unique challenge in system design and analysis for the Space Transportation System. Approximately 70 support systems are controlled and monitored by the launch processing system. Typical systems are main propulsion oxygen and hydrogen loading systems, environmental control life support system, hydraulics, etc. An End-to-End concept of documentation and analysis was chosen and applied to these systems. Unique problems were resolved in the areas of software analysis, safing under emergency conditions, sampling rates, and control loop analysis. New methods of performing End-to-End reliability analyses were implemented. The systems design approach selected and the resolution of major problem areas are discussed.

  7. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy`s Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item`s exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer`s requirements.

  8. Interactive Image Analysis System Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    This report describes a design for an interactive image analysis system (IIAS), which implements terrain data extraction techniques. The design... analysis system. Additionally, the system is fully capable of supporting many generic types of image analysis and data processing, and is modularly...employs commercially available, state of the art minicomputers and image display devices with proven software to achieve a cost effective, reliable image

  9. Systems and methods for treating material

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D; McNamara, Bruce K

    2014-10-21

    Systems for treating material are provided that can include a vessel defining a volume, at least one conduit coupled to the vessel and in fluid communication with the vessel, material within the vessel, and NF.sub.3 material within the conduit. Methods for fluorinating material are provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to fluorinate at least a portion of the material. Methods for separating components of material are also provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to at least partially fluorinate a portion of the material, and separating at least one fluorinated component of the fluorinated portion from the material. The materials exposed to the NF.sub.3 material can include but are not limited to one or more of U, Ru, Rh, Mo, Tc, Np, Pu, Sb, Ag, Am, Sn, Zr, Cs, Th, and/or Rb.

  10. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  11. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Solozhenko, Vladimir L

    2016-10-20

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN) with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N₂. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc.) are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure-temperature conditions are considered.

  12. Material Development to Raise Awareness of Using Smart Boards: An Example Design and Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günaydin, Serpil; Karamete, Aysen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop training material that will help raise awareness in prospective teachers regarding the benefits of using smart boards in the classroom. In this study, a Type 2 design and development research method (DDR) was used. The material was developed by applying phases of ADDIE--an instructional systems design model. The…

  13. Multiscale modeling for materials design: Molecular square catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Debarshi

    In a wide variety of materials, including a number of heterogeneous catalysts, the properties manifested at the process scale are a consequence of phenomena that occur at different time and length scales. Recent experimental developments allow materials to be designed precisely at the nanometer scale. However, the optimum design of such materials requires capabilities to predict the properties at the process scale based on the phenomena occurring at the relevant scales. The thesis research reported here addresses this need to develop multiscale modeling strategies for the design of new materials. As a model system, a new system of materials called molecular squares was studied in this research. Both serial and parallel multiscale strategies and their components were developed as parts of this work. As a serial component, a parameter estimation tool was developed that uses a hierarchical protocol and consists of two different search elements: a global search method implemented using a genetic algorithm that is capable of exploring large parametric space, and a local search method using gradient search techniques that accurately finds the optimum in a localized space. As an essential component of parallel multiscale modeling, different standard as well as specialized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques were explored and developed in order to identify a technique that is best suited to solve a membrane reactor model employing layered films of molecular squares as the heterogeneous catalyst. The coupled set of non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs) representing the continuum model was solved numerically using three different classes of methods: a split-step method using finite difference (FD); domain decomposition in two different forms, one involving three overlapping subdomains and the other involving a gap-tooth scheme; and the multiple-timestep method that was developed in this research. The parallel multiscale approach coupled continuum

  14. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  15. Evaluating Course Design Principles for Multimedia Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bernard; Cong, Chunyu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on evaluation studies of principles of course design for interactive multimedia learning materials. Design/methodology/approach: At the Defence Academy of the UK, Cranfield University has worked with military colleagues to produce multimedia learning materials for courses on "Military Knowledge". The…

  16. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  17. Systems Theory, Systems Technology, and Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1978-01-01

    John Goodlad (1958) stated that "Nowhere in education is there greater need for a conceptual system to guide decision-making than the field of curriculum." This research attempts to explore ways in which systems thinking can provide a conceptual system, to illuminate the study of curriculum and guide the design of curricula. (Author/RK)

  18. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  19. Armor systems including coated core materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  20. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  1. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Liangju

    A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    a previous report C5). The tool was initially designed using the principle f at rotation would only occur at the lubricated needle bearings and that...General Atomics Corporation, Box 81608, San Diego, California 92037 Mr. Eldor R. Herrmann, Ceramic Sys:em3, Inc., 11402 Schaefer Highway, Detroit

  3. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  4. Overall challenges in incorporating micro-mechanical models into materials design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.

    2016-10-01

    Using materials in engineering design has historically been handled using the paradigm of selecting appropriate materials from the finite set of available material databases. Recent trends, however, have moved toward the tailoring of materials that meet the overall system performance requirements, based on a process called material design. An important building block of this process is micromechanical models that relate microstructure to proprieties. Unfortunately, these models remain short and include a lot of uncertainties from assumptions and idealizations, which, unavoidably, impacts material design strategy. In this work, candidate methods to deal with micromechanical models uncertainties and their drawbacks in material design are investigated. Robust design methods for quantifying uncertainty and managing or mitigating its impact on design performances are reviewed first. These methods include principles for classifying uncertainty, mathematical techniques for evaluating its level degree, and design methods for performing and generating design alternatives, that are relatively insensitive to sources of uncertainty and flexible for admitting design changes or variations. The last section of this paper addresses the limits of the existing approaches from material modelling perspective and identifies the research opportunities to overcome the impediment of incorporating micromechanical models in material design process.

  5. Testing and design life analysis of polyurea liner materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Motlagh, Siavash

    Certainly, water pipes, as part of an underground infrastructure system, play a key role in maintaining quality of life, health, and wellbeing of human kind. As these potable water pipes reach the end of their useful life, they create high maintenance costs, loss of flow capacity, decreased water quality, and increased dissatisfaction. There are several different pipeline renewal techniques available for different applications, among which linings are most commonly used for the renewal of water pipes. Polyurea is a lining material applied to the interior surface of the deteriorated host pipe using spray-on technique. It is applied to structurally enhance the host pipe and provide a barrier coating against further corrosion or deterioration. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between stress, strain and time. The results obtained from these tests were used in predicting the strength of the polyurea material during its planned 50-year design life. In addition to this, based on the 10,000 hours experimental data, curve fitting and Findley power law models were employed to predict long-term behavior of the material. Experimental results indicated that the tested polyurea material offers a good balance of strength and stiffness and can be utilized in structural enhancement applications of potable water pipes.

  6. Materials design in the performance of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Brian R; Pajares, Antonia; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Yan; Polack, Mariano A; Lloyd, Isabel K; Rekow, E Dianne; Thompson, Van P

    2004-06-01

    Results from a systematic study of damage in material structures representing the basic elements of dental crowns are reported. Tests are made on model flat-layer specimens fabricated from various dental ceramic combinations bonded to dentin-like polymer substrates, in bilayer (ceramic/polymer) and trilayer (ceramic/ceramic/polymer) configurations. The specimens are loaded at their top surfaces with spherical indenters, in simulation of occlusal function. The onset of fracture is observed in situ using a video camera system mounted beneath the transparent polymer substrate. Critical loads to induce fracture and deformation at the ceramic top and bottom surfaces are measured as functions of layer thickness and contact duration. Radial cracking at the ceramic undersurface occurs at relatively low loads, especially in thinner layers. Fracture mechanics relations are used to confirm the experimental data trends, and to provide explicit dependencies of critical loads in terms of key variables: material-elastic modulus, hardness, strength and toughness; geometric-layer thicknesses and contact radius. Tougher, harder and (especially) stronger materials show superior damage resistance. Critical loads depend strongly (quadratically) on crown net thickness. The analytic relations provide a sound basis for the materials design of next-generation dental crowns.

  7. Asbestos penetration test system for clothing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.D.; Stampfer, J.F.; Sandoval, A.N.; Heath, C.A.; Cooper, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    For hazardous work such as asbestos abatement, there is a need to assess protective clothing fabrics and seam constructions to assure an adequate barrier against hazardous material. The penetration of aerosols through fabrics usually is measured by challenging fabric samples with an aerosol stream at a constant specified airflow. To produce the specified airflow, pressure differentials across the samples often are higher than exist in a work environment. This higher airflow results in higher aerosol velocities through the fabric and, possibly, measured penetration values not representative of those actually experienced in the field. The objective of the reported work was to develop a test method that does not require these higher airflows. The authors have designed and fabricated a new system that tests fabric samples under a low, constant, specified pressure differential across the samples. This differential is adjustable from tenths of a mm Water Gauge (hundredths of an in WG) to over 25-mm WG (1-in WG). The system operates at a pressure slightly lower than its surroundings. Although designed primarily for asbestos, the system is equally applicable to the testing of other aerosols by changing the aerosol generator and detector. Through simple modification of the sample holders, the test apparatus would be capable of evaluating seam and closure constructions.

  8. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  9. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  10. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  11. Material Compatibility with Space Storable Propellants. Design Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uney, P. E.; Fester, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of spacecraft for interplanetary missions is the compatibility of storage materials with the propellants. Serious problems can arise because many propellants are either extremely reactive or subject to catalytic decomposition, making the selection of proper materials of construction for propellant containment and control a critical requirement for the long-life applications. To aid in selecting materials and designing and evaluating various propulsion subsystems, available information on the compatibility of spacecraft materials with propellants of interest was compiled from literature searches and personal contacts. The compatibility of both metals and nonmetals with hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, nitrated hydrazine, and diborance fuels and nitrogen tetroxide, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, and Flox oxidizers was surveyed. These fuels and oxidizers encompass the wide variety of problems encountered in propellant storage. As such, they present worst case situations of the propellant affecting the material and the material affecting the propellant. This includes material attack, propellant decomposition, and the formation of clogging materials.

  12. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  13. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    75P1 Density (gm/cm3) Green Strength (psi) Molding Shrinkage r9b) Spiral Flow (inches) ASTM C373 -56 2.6 2.72 2.82 3 Point MOR...3900 > 4000 2900 L = 1-1/8" Direct Measurement 0.5 0.4 0.35 ASTM D3123-72 24 10 6.75 Test Conditions T Material 200...SPIRAL FLOW TEST ON ATTRITOR MILLED ANL 140 HOUR GRIND INJECTION MOLDING COMPOSITIONS Test Method ASTM D3123-72 Test Conditions 140 Hour Grind

  14. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  15. FFTF fuel systems design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, D.S.; Baars, R.E.; Jackson, R.J.; Weber, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to first enumerate the design considerations that were given to the fuel system, then secondly, show how these design allowances, methods, and criteria compare to the subsequent irradiation data. This comparison will show that decisions made by the design team were generally correct and, if in error, tended to be conservative. The FFTF driver fuel assemblies addressed by this paper are composed of the duct, a spacer system, and 217 fuel pins. Each of these subcomponents is described as the criteria are discussed and important parameters noted.

  16. Design of new materials for methane storage.

    PubMed

    Düren, Tina; Sarkisov, Lev; Yaghi, Omar M; Snurr, Randall Q

    2004-03-30

    One of the strategic goals of the modern automobile manufacturing industry is to replace gasoline and diesel with alternative fuels such as natural gas. In this report, we elucidate the desired characteristics of an optimal adsorbent for gas storage. The U.S. Department of Energy has outlined several requirements that adsorbents must fulfill for natural gas to become economically viable, with a key criterion being the amount adsorbed at 35 bar. We explore the adsorption characteristics of novel metal-organic materials (IRMOFs and molecular squares) and contrast them with the characteristics of two zeolites, MCM-41, and different carbon nanotubes. Using molecular simulations, we uncover the complex interplay of the factors influencing methane adsorption, especially the surface area, the capacity or free volume, the strength of the energetic interaction, and the pore size distribution. We also explain the extraordinary adsorption properties of IRMOF materials and propose new, not yet synthesized IRMOF structures with adsorption characteristics that are predicted to exceed the best experimental results to date by up to 36%.

  17. Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

  18. Cultivating Design Thinking in Students through Material Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Design thinking is a way of understanding and engaging with the world that has received much attention in academic and business circles in recent years. This article examines a hands-on learning model as a vehicle for developing design thinking capacity in students. An overview of design thinking grounds the discussion of the material-based…

  19. Engineering Materials and Machine Design Courses in ET Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley M.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine the current status of courses in engineering materials and their relationship to machine design and design project courses in mechanical engineering technology programs. Includes discussions of two recommendations of the study that were endorsed by a national conference. (TW)

  20. Characterization of elastomeric materials with application to design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1986-01-01

    Redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Booster has necessitated re-evaluation of the material used in the field joint O-ring seals. The viscoelastic characteristics of five candidate materials were determined. The five materials are: two fluorocarbon compounds, two nitrile compounds, and a silicon compound. The materials were tested in a uniaxial compression test to determine the characteristic relaxation functions. These tests were performed at five different temperatures. A master material curve was developed for each material from the experimental data. The results are compared to tensile relaxation tests. Application of these results to the design analysis is discussed in detail.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  2. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  3. Computational Materials: Modeling and Simulation of Nanostructured Materials and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides details on the structure and implementation of the Computational Materials program at the NASA Langley Research Center. Examples are given that illustrate the suggested approaches to predicting the behavior and influencing the design of nanostructured materials such as high-performance polymers, composites, and nanotube-reinforced polymers. Primary simulation and measurement methods applicable to multi-scale modeling are outlined. Key challenges including verification and validation of models are highlighted and discussed within the context of NASA's broad mission objectives.

  4. Design guide for high pressure oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.; Pohl, H. O.; Chaffee, N. H.; Guy, W. W.; Allton, C. S.; Johnston, R. L.; Castner, W. L.; Stradling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A repository for critical and important detailed design data and information, hitherto unpublished, along with significant data on oxygen reactivity phenomena with metallic and nonmetallic materials in moderate to very high pressure environments is documented. This data and information provide a ready and easy to use reference for the guidance of designers of propulsion, power, and life support systems for use in space flight. The document is also applicable to designs for industrial and civilian uses of high pressure oxygen systems. The information presented herein are derived from data and design practices involving oxygen usage at pressures ranging from about 20 psia to 8000 psia equal with thermal conditions ranging from room temperatures up to 500 F.

  5. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling Space Engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.; Gaydosh, D.J.; Kiser, J.D.; MacKay, R.A.; McDanels, D.L.; Petrasek, D.W.; Vannucci, R.D.; Bowles, K.J.; Watson, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor; however, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  6. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling space engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Dreshfield, Robert L.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Kiser, James D.; Mackay, Rebecca A.; Mcdaniels, David L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Watson, Gordon K.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor. However, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  7. Material permeance measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-05-08

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  8. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  9. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  10. Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design

    SciTech Connect

    Santurri, P.R.,; Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E.

    2008-08-26

    The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170°C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture

  11. Modeling Materials: Design for Planetary Entry, Electric Aircraft, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Alexander; Lawson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    NASA missions push the limits of what is possible. The development of high-performance materials must keep pace with the agency's demanding, cutting-edge applications. Researchers at NASA's Ames Research Center are performing multiscale computational modeling to accelerate development times and further the design of next-generation aerospace materials. Multiscale modeling combines several computationally intensive techniques ranging from the atomic level to the macroscale, passing output from one level as input to the next level. These methods are applicable to a wide variety of materials systems. For example: (a) Ultra-high-temperature ceramics for hypersonic aircraft-we utilized the full range of multiscale modeling to characterize thermal protection materials for faster, safer air- and spacecraft, (b) Planetary entry heat shields for space vehicles-we computed thermal and mechanical properties of ablative composites by combining several methods, from atomistic simulations to macroscale computations, (c) Advanced batteries for electric aircraft-we performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of advanced electrolytes for ultra-high-energy capacity batteries to enable long-distance electric aircraft service; and (d) Shape-memory alloys for high-efficiency aircraft-we used high-fidelity electronic structure calculations to determine phase diagrams in shape-memory transformations. Advances in high-performance computing have been critical to the development of multiscale materials modeling. We used nearly one million processor hours on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer to characterize electrolytes with a fidelity that would be otherwise impossible. For this and other projects, Pleiades enables us to push the physics and accuracy of our calculations to new levels.

  12. Polyoxometalate clusters, nanostructures and materials: from self assembly to designer materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Long, De-Liang; Burkholder, Eric; Cronin, Leroy

    2007-01-01

    Polyoxometalates represent a diverse range of molecular clusters with an almost unmatched range of physical properties and the ability to form structures that can bridge several length scales. The new building block principles that have been discovered are beginning to allow the design of complex clusters with desired properties and structures and several structural types and novel physical properties are examined. In this critical review the synthetic and design approaches to the many polyoxometalate cluster types are presented encompassing all the sub-types of polyoxometalates including, isopolyoxometalates, heteropolyoxometalates, and reduced molybdenum blue systems. As well as the fundamental structure and bonding aspects, the final section is devoted to discussing these clusters in the context of contemporary and emerging interdisciplinary interests from areas as diverse as anti-viral agents, biological ion transport models, and materials science.

  13. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  14. Design of meta-materials with novel thermoelastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Seth

    The development of new techniques in micro-manufacturing in recent years has enabled the fabrication of material microstructures with essentially arbitrary designs, including those with multiple constituent materials and void space in nearly any geometry. With an essentially open design space, the onus is now on the engineer to design composite materials which are optimal for their purpose. These new materials, called meta-materials or materials with architected microstructures, offer the potential to mix and match properties in a way that exceeds that of traditional composites. We concentrate on the thermal and elastic properties of isotropic meta-materials, and design microstructures with combinations of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and mass density which are not found among naturally-occurring or traditional composite materials. We also produce designs with thermal expansion far below other materials. We use homogenization theory to predict the material properties of a bulk meta-material comprised of a periodic lattice of unit cells, then use topology optimization to rearrange two constituent materials and void space within the unit cell in order to extremize an objective function which yields the combinations of properties we seek. This method is quite general and can be extended to consider additional properties of interest. We constrain the design space to satisfy material isotropy directly (2D), or to satisfy cubic symmetry (3D), from which point an isotropy constraint function is easily applied. We develop and use filtering, nonlinear interpolation, and thresholding methods to render the design problem well-posed, and as a result ensure our designs are manufacturable. We have written two computer implementations of this design methodology. The first is for creating two-dimensional designs, which can run on a serial computer in approximately half an hour. The second is a parallel implementation to allow

  15. Materials characterization and design for solar-thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarosa, M. J.; Tuffias, R. H.

    1993-11-01

    Solar-thermal propulsion relies on the convection of concentrated solar energy into kinetic energy (in the exhaust gases) in order to provide thrust. Solar radiation is focused into a blackbody cavity in which the heat is absorbed and transferred to the hydrogen fuel through a thermal absorber/heat exchanger. Performance increases are obtained by increasing the efficiency of the absorber, thereby increasing the heat transfer to the hydrogen fuel. The absorber/exchanger itself provides structural properties, which involves the severe structural constraint of needing to withstand the high internal hydrogen pressure. Thus, the absorber/exchanger becomes the critical component in the thruster, and the enabling technology for the development of a successful solar-heated hydrogen propulsion system is a combination of materials and processing. The maximum operating temperature of a solar-thermal propulsion devices is governed primarily by the strength and resistance of hydrogen degradation of the constituent materials at the operating temperature of 3000 K and above. Six candidate refractory materials were selected for investigation with regard to their potential for use in solar-thermal propulsion, with the aim of developing a properties and processing database in advance of designing, fabricating, and testing a solar-powered rocket engine (SPRE).

  16. Metrology and design of gradient-index optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Di

    Gradient-index (GRIN) materials provide interesting ways to direct light propagation inside a bulk medium. Their application in optical systems as compact optical elements offer many advantages such as convenient form factor, unique dispersion characteristics, aberration correction capabilities, etc. With the recent technological advances in the fabrication techniques for these materials, it is reasonable to speculate that arbitrary refract index distributions in GRIN media can be realized in the near future. The integration of GRIN components into optical systems requires accurate knowledge of their refractive index distribution. Numerical methods for recovering the refractive index of the material using boundary value measurements of position and slope for interrogating rays that transit the medium are described. For one-dimensional index profiles, we develop a bootstrap algorithm for recovering the refractive index in successive regions of the overall profile from the boundary value data. We then compare the reconstructed index profile obtained in this method with that of a different method based on ray displacement and show good agreement in computer simulation as well as in experimental measurement. In the case of two-dimensional refractive index distributions, we show that the path integrals describing beam deflection inside the material can be cast in the form of linear algebraic equations using a simplifying assumption that decouples unknown ray trajectories inside the medium from the refractive index. The resulting linear system is inverted numerically to recover the refractive index distribution, and the ray trajectories are subsequently ascertained through an iterative ray trace procedure. Using boundary values of ray position and slope generated from a numerical ray trace, we show that this method can achieve RMS index errors less than 0.5% of the refractive index range. In addition, we explore the application of GRIN components in designing optical

  17. Flight Design System-1 System Design Document. Volume 9: Executive logic flow, program design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The detailed logic flow for the Flight Design System Executive is presented. The system is designed to provide the hardware/software capability required for operational support of shuttle flight planning.

  18. Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational

  19. Parachute system design, analysis, and simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; Waye, D.E.; Hailey, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    For over twenty years designers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed various parachute simulation codes to model deployment, inflation, loading, trajectories, aircraft downwash and line sail. In addition to these codes, material property data bases have been acquired. Recently we have initiated project to integrate these codes and data bases into a single software tool entitled SPARSYS (Sandia PARachute SYstem Simulation). We have constructed a graphical user interface as the driver and framework for SPARSYS. In this paper we present a status report on SPARSYS describing progress in developing and incorporating independent modules, in developing an integrated trajectory package, and in developing a materials data base including high-rate-of-strain data.

  20. Designing synthetic materials to control stem cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Krishanu; Pollock, Jacob F.; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The microenvironment in which stem cells reside regulates their fate, and synthetic materials have recently been designed to emulate these regulatory processes for various medical applications. Ligands inspired by the natural extracellular matrix, cell-cell contacts, and growth factors have been incorporated into synthetic materials with precisely engineered density and presentation. Furthermore, material architecture and mechanical properties are material design parameters that provide a context for receptor-ligand interactions and thereby contribute to fate determination of uncommitted stem cells. While significant progress has been made in biomaterials development for cellular control, the design of more sophisticated and robust synthetic materials can address future challenges in achieving spatiotemporally control of cellular phenotype and in implementing histocompatible clinical therapies. PMID:17669680

  1. Designing high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Fischer, Karl F. F.; Zhang, Wenqing; Shi, Xun; Iversen, Bo B.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth-abundant elements. Moreover, the approach can be extended to several other non-cubic materials, thereby substantially accelerating the screening and design of new thermoelectric materials. PMID:26948043

  2. Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  3. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  4. Materials Design for Joinable, High Performance Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glamm, Ryan James

    An aluminum alloy compatible with friction stir welding is designed for automotive and aerospace structural applications. Current weldable automotive aluminum alloys do not possess the necessary strength to meet safety standards and therefore are not able to replace steel in the automotive body. Significant weight savings could be achieved if steel components are replaced with aluminum. Current aerospace alloys are not weldable, requiring machining of large pieces that are then riveted together. If an aerospace alloy could be friction stir welded, smaller pieces could be welded, reducing material waste. Using a systems approach for materials design, property goals are set from performance objectives. From previous research and computational predictions, a structure is designed for a prototype alloy containing dynamic precipitates to readily dissolve and re-precipitate and high stability precipitates to resist dissolution and coarsening in the weld region. It is found that a Ag modified Al-3.9Mg-0.04Cu (at. %) alloy enhanced the rate and magnitude of hardening during ageing, both beneficial effects for dynamic precipitation. In the same alloy, ageing at 350°C results in hardening from Al 3(Sc,Zr) precipitates. Efforts to effectively precipitate both populations simultaneously are unsuccessful. The Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitation hardened prototype is friction stir processed and no weak zones are found in the weld hardness profile. An aerospace alloy design is proposed, utilizing the dual precipitate structure shown in the prototype. The automotive alloy is designed using a basic strength model with parameters determined from the initial prototype alloy analysis. After ageing to different conditions, the alloy is put through a simulated heat affected zone thermal cycle with a computer controlled induction heater. The aged samples lose hardness from the weld cycle but recover hardness from a post weld heat treatment. Atom probe tomography and transmission electron

  5. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    PubMed

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  6. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  9. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  10. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  11. Sculpture: Creative Designs with Modern Materials (Tentative Course Outline).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This document reports on a course in comprehension and application of various techniques of sculpture and collage, using a contemporary point of view. Students will work with contemporary materials such as wood, metals, plaster, plastics, styrofoam, and many other cardboard basic materials suitable for creative design products. This unit will…

  12. A domain-specific design architecture for composite material design and aircraft part redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Punch, W. F., III; Keller, K. J.; Bond, W.; Sticklen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites have been targeted as a 'leapfrog' technology that would provide a unique global competitive position for U.S. industry. Composites are unique in the requirements for an integrated approach to designing, manufacturing, and marketing of products developed utilizing the new materials of construction. Numerous studies extending across the entire economic spectrum of the United States from aerospace to military to durable goods have identified composites as a 'key' technology. In general there have been two approaches to composite construction: build models of a given composite materials, then determine characteristics of the material via numerical simulation and empirical testing; and experience-directed construction of fabrication plans for building composites with given properties. The first route sets a goal to capture basic understanding of a device (the composite) by use of a rigorous mathematical model; the second attempts to capture the expertise about the process of fabricating a composite (to date) at a surface level typically expressed in a rule based system. From an AI perspective, these two research lines are attacking distinctly different problems, and both tracks have current limitations. The mathematical modeling approach has yielded a wealth of data but a large number of simplifying assumptions are needed to make numerical simulation tractable. Likewise, although surface level expertise about how to build a particular composite may yield important results, recent trends in the KBS area are towards augmenting surface level problem solving with deeper level knowledge. Many of the relative advantages of composites, e.g., the strength:weight ratio, is most prominent when the entire component is designed as a unitary piece. The bottleneck in undertaking such unitary design lies in the difficulty of the re-design task. Designing the fabrication protocols for a complex-shaped, thick section composite are currently very difficult. It is in

  13. Catalogue data system for new metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiura, Hirofumi

    In the event of realizing wide practical use of new metallic material, it is necessary that both manufacture and utilization sides on the material have common understanding and recognition for the performance. As one of the information source for that, a catalogue data system of new metallic material has been developed. In this system, 3000 cases of catalogue information from around 150 domestic companies were recorded into CD-ROM, and the information can easily be searched and processed using a personal computer. Introducing details on 36 kinds of the new metallic material recorded and 26 data items, this report summerizes the search method.

  14. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  15. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  16. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Piezoactuator design considering the optimum placement of FGM piezoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonari, Ronny C.; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Nelli Silva, Emílio C.

    2007-04-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) possess continuous variation of material properties and are characterized by spatially varying microstructures. Recently, the FGM concept has been explored in piezoelectric materials to improve properties and to increase the lifetime of piezoelectric actuators. Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are graded along the thickness of a piezoceramic FGM. Thus, the gradation of piezoceramic properties can influence the performance of piezoactuators, and an optimum gradation can be sought through optimization techniques. However, the design of these FGM piezoceramics are usually limited to simple shapes. An interesting approach to be investigated is the design of FGM piezoelectric mechanisms which essentially can be defined as a FGM structure with complex topology made of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric material that must generate output displacement and force at a certain specified point of the domain and direction. This can be achieved by using topology optimization method. Thus, in this work, a topology optimization formulation that allows the simultaneous distribution of void and FGM piezoelectric material (made of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric material) in the design domain, to achieve certain specified actuation movements, will be presented. The method is implemented based on the SIMP material model where fictitious densities are interpolated in each finite element, providing a continuum material distribution in the domain. The optimization algorithm employed is based on sequential linear programming (SLP) and the finite element method is based on the graded finite element concept where the properties change smoothly inside the element. This approach provides a continuum approximation of material distribution, which is appropriate to model FGMs. Some FGM piezoelectric mechanisms were designed to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. Examples are limited to two-dimensional models, due to FGM

  18. Design Guidelines for Digital Learning Material for Food Chemistry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Hartog, Rob; Mulder, Martin; Biemans, Harm

    This paper describes the first stage of a 4-year research project on the design, development and use of Web-based digital learning material for food chemistry education. The paper discusses design guidelines, based on principles that were selected from theories on learning and instruction, and illustrates in detail how these guidelines were used…

  19. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up. PMID:26617342

  20. Rational design of inorganic dielectric materials with expected permittivity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Congwei; Oganov, Artem R; Dong, Dong; Liu, Ning; Li, Duan; Debela, Tekalign Terfa

    2015-11-30

    Techniques for rapid design of dielectric materials with appropriate permittivity for many important technological applications are urgently needed. It is found that functional structure blocks (FSBs) are helpful in rational design of inorganic dielectrics with expected permittivity. To achieve this, coordination polyhedra are parameterized as FSBs and a simple empirical model to evaluate permittivity based on these FSB parameters is proposed. Using this model, a wide range of examples including ferroelectric, high/low permittivity materials are discussed, resulting in several candidate materials for experimental follow-up.

  1. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  2. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  3. Structure-Based Design of Functional Amyloid Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dan; Jones, Eric M.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Luo, Fang; Ivanova, Magdalena; Sievers, Stuart A.; Wang, Wenyuan; Yaghi, Omar M.; Liu, Cong; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-12-04

    We report that amyloid fibers, once exclusively associated with disease, are acquiring utility as a class of biological nanomaterials. We introduce a method that utilizes the atomic structures of amyloid peptides, to design materials with versatile applications. As a model application, we designed amyloid fibers capable of capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas, to address the global problem of excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide. By measuring dynamic separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen, we show that fibers with designed amino acid sequences double the carbon dioxide binding capacity of the previously reported fiber formed by VQIVYK from Tau protein. In a second application, we designed fibers that facilitate retroviral gene transfer. Finally, by measuring lentiviral transduction, we show that designed fibers exceed the efficiency of polybrene, a commonly used enhancer of transduction. The same procedures can be adapted to the design of countless other amyloid materials with a variety of properties and uses.

  4. Structure-Based Design of Functional Amyloid Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Dan; Jones, Eric M.; Sawaya, Michael R.; ...

    2014-12-04

    We report that amyloid fibers, once exclusively associated with disease, are acquiring utility as a class of biological nanomaterials. We introduce a method that utilizes the atomic structures of amyloid peptides, to design materials with versatile applications. As a model application, we designed amyloid fibers capable of capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas, to address the global problem of excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide. By measuring dynamic separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen, we show that fibers with designed amino acid sequences double the carbon dioxide binding capacity of the previously reported fiber formed by VQIVYK from Tau protein. In amore » second application, we designed fibers that facilitate retroviral gene transfer. Finally, by measuring lentiviral transduction, we show that designed fibers exceed the efficiency of polybrene, a commonly used enhancer of transduction. The same procedures can be adapted to the design of countless other amyloid materials with a variety of properties and uses.« less

  5. Predicting and Designing Optical Properties of Inorganic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, James M.; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-07-01

    Modern first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and related techniques enable the predictive modeling of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials without adjustable or empirical parameters. Today, atomistic calculations are an indispensable tool by which to understand the interrelationship between the underlying structure and the measured optical properties and are particularly suited for the design of new materials with desirable optical responses and performance. In this article, we discuss the first-principles design methodology, and we review recent results from the literature that exemplify the predictive power of the method for numerous inorganic materials and nanostructures. We also discuss topics of active research and future opportunities that will enable the wider adoption of atomistic simulation techniques for predictive materials design.

  6. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  7. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  8. The Teaching Materials System in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Atsumi

    An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

  9. Automating software design system DESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitsky, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Patricia D.

    1992-01-01

    'DESTA' is the acronym for the Dialogue Evolutionary Synthesizer of Turnkey Algorithms by means of a natural language (Russian or English) functional specification of algorithms or software being developed. DESTA represents the computer-aided and/or automatic artificial intelligence 'forgiving' system which provides users with software tools support for algorithm and/or structured program development. The DESTA system is intended to provide support for the higher levels and earlier stages of engineering design of software in contrast to conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems which provide low level tools for use at a stage when the major planning and structuring decisions have already been taken. DESTA is a knowledge-intensive system. The main features of the knowledge are procedures, functions, modules, operating system commands, batch files, their natural language specifications, and their interlinks. The specific domain for the DESTA system is a high level programming language like Turbo Pascal 6.0. The DESTA system is operational and runs on an IBM PC computer.

  10. Design of Redox-Active Peptides: Towards Functional Materials.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Dayn Joseph; Alcala-Torano, Rafael; Dizicheh, Zahra Bahrami; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    In nature, the majority of processes that occur in the cell involve the cycling of electrons and protons, changing the reduction and oxidation state of substrates to alter their chemical reactivity and usefulness in vivo. One of the most relevant examples of these processes is the electron transport chain, a series of oxidoreductase proteins that shuttle electrons through well-defined pathways, concurrently moving protons across the cell membrane. Inspired by these processes, researchers have sought to develop materials to mimic natural systems for a number of applications, including fuel production. The most common cofactors found in proteins to carry out electron transfer are iron sulfur clusters and porphyrin-like molecules. Both types have been studied within natural proteins, such as in photosynthetic machinery or soluble electron carriers; in parallel, an extensive literature has developed over recent years attempting to model and study these cofactors within peptide-based materials. This chapter will focus on major designs that have significantly advanced the field.

  11. The Lack of a Designated National In-Transit Visibility System Affects the Synchronization of Information Sharing and the Timely Distribution of Materials during Natural Disaster Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Global Command and Communication System GTN Global Transportation Network HUD Housing and Urban Division IG Inspector General IRRIS Intelligent...outcome will most likely produce new policies and procedures. Today, the synchronization, collaboration and integration of natural disasters extend ...and performs.” 15 In order to combat some of its logistical challenges, FEMA redesigned the LMD with the intent to model “Department of Defense

  12. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, J. T.

    2009-07-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  13. Multimedia and Cognition: Examining the Effect of Applying Cognitive Principles to the Design of Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nik; McGill, Tanya Jane

    2008-01-01

    The human cognitive system possesses a finite processing capacity, which is split into channels for various modalities, and learning can be inhibited if any of the cognitive channels is overloaded. However, although the amount of e-learning materials is increasing steadily, the design of instructional material has been largely based on intuition…

  14. Design of a californium source-driven measurement system for accountability of material recovered from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Bentzinger, D.L.; Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1998-05-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (MSRE) operated from 1965 to 1969. The fuel was a molten salt that flowed through the reactor core which consisted of uranium tetrafluoride with molten lithium and beryllium salt used as the coolant. In 1968 the fuel was switched from {sup 235}U to {sup 233}U. The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment was canceled in 1969 at which time approximately 4800 kg of salt was transferred to the fuel drain tanks. There was about 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 grams of plutonium and various fission products present in the fuel salt. The salt was allowed to solidify in the fuel drain tanks. The salt was heated on a yearly basis to recombine the fluorine gas with the uranium salt mixture. In March 1994, a gas sample was taken from the off gas system that indicated {sup 233}U had migrated from the fuel drain tank system to the off gas system. It was found that approximately 2.6 kg of uranium had migrated to the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB). The ACB is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell which is below ground level located outside the MSRE building. Therefore, there was a concern for the potential of a nuclear criticality accident, although water would have to leak into the chamber for a criticality accident to occur. Unstable carbon/fluorine compounds were also formed when the fluorine reacted with the charcoal in the charcoal bed. The purpose of the proposed measurement system was to perform an accountability measurement to determine the fissile mass of {sup 233}U in the primary vessel. The contents of the primary containment assembly will then be transferred to three smaller containers for long term storage. Calculations were performed using MCNP-DSP to determine the configuration of the measurement system. The information obtained from the time signatures can then be compared to the measurement data to determine the amount of {sup 233}U present in the primary containment assembly.

  15. Materials for Liquid Propulsion Systems. Chapter 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halchak, John A.; Cannon, James L.; Brown, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Earth to orbit launch vehicles are propelled by rocket engines and motors, both liquid and solid. This chapter will discuss liquid engines. The heart of a launch vehicle is its engine. The remainder of the vehicle (with the notable exceptions of the payload and guidance system) is an aero structure to support the propellant tanks which provide the fuel and oxidizer to feed the engine or engines. The basic principle behind a rocket engine is straightforward. The engine is a means to convert potential thermochemical energy of one or more propellants into exhaust jet kinetic energy. Fuel and oxidizer are burned in a combustion chamber where they create hot gases under high pressure. These hot gases are allowed to expand through a nozzle. The molecules of hot gas are first constricted by the throat of the nozzle (de-Laval nozzle) which forces them to accelerate; then as the nozzle flares outwards, they expand and further accelerate. It is the mass of the combustion gases times their velocity, reacting against the walls of the combustion chamber and nozzle, which produce thrust according to Newton's third law: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Solid rocket motors are cheaper to manufacture and offer good values for their cost. Liquid propellant engines offer higher performance, that is, they deliver greater thrust per unit weight of propellant burned. They also have a considerably higher thrust to weigh ratio. Since liquid rocket engines can be tested several times before flight, they have the capability to be more reliable, and their ability to shut down once started provides an extra margin of safety. Liquid propellant engines also can be designed with restart capability to provide orbital maneuvering capability. In some instances, liquid engines also can be designed to be reusable. On the solid side, hybrid solid motors also have been developed with the capability to stop and restart. Solid motors are covered in detail in chapter 11. Liquid

  16. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  17. Radiator design system computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, C. L.; Oren, J. A.; Dietz, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Minimum weight space radiator subsystems which can operate over heat load ranges wider than the capabilities of current subsystems are investigated according to projected trends of future long duration space vehicles. Special consideration is given to maximum heat rejection requirements of the low temperature radiators needed for environmental control systems. The set of radiator design programs that have resulted from this investigation are presented in order to provide the analyst with a capability to generate optimum weight radiator panels or sets of panels from practical design considerations, including transient performance. Modifications are also provided for existing programs to improve capability and user convenience.

  18. Telecommunications Systems Design Techniques Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) increasingly supports deep space missions sponsored and managed by organizations without long experience in DSN design and operation. The document is intended as a textbook for those DSN users inexperienced in the design and specification of a DSN-compatible spacecraft telecommunications system. For experienced DSN users, the document provides a reference source of telecommunication information which summarizes knowledge previously available only in a multitude of sources. Extensive references are quoted for those who wish to explore specific areas more deeply.

  19. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size.

  20. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  1. Optimal shielding design for minimum materials cost or mass

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2015-12-02

    The mathematical underpinnings of cost optimal radiation shielding designs based on an extension of optimal control theory are presented, a heuristic algorithm to iteratively solve the resulting optimal design equations is suggested, and computational results for a simple test case are discussed. A typical radiation shielding design problem can have infinitely many solutions, all satisfying the problem's specified set of radiation attenuation requirements. Each such design has its own total materials cost. For a design to be optimal, no admissible change in its deployment of shielding materials can result in a lower cost. This applies in particular to very small changes, which can be restated using the calculus of variations as the Euler-Lagrange equations. Furthermore, the associated Hamiltonian function and application of Pontryagin's theorem lead to conditions for a shield to be optimal.

  2. Optimal shielding design for minimum materials cost or mass

    DOE PAGES

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2015-12-02

    The mathematical underpinnings of cost optimal radiation shielding designs based on an extension of optimal control theory are presented, a heuristic algorithm to iteratively solve the resulting optimal design equations is suggested, and computational results for a simple test case are discussed. A typical radiation shielding design problem can have infinitely many solutions, all satisfying the problem's specified set of radiation attenuation requirements. Each such design has its own total materials cost. For a design to be optimal, no admissible change in its deployment of shielding materials can result in a lower cost. This applies in particular to very smallmore » changes, which can be restated using the calculus of variations as the Euler-Lagrange equations. Furthermore, the associated Hamiltonian function and application of Pontryagin's theorem lead to conditions for a shield to be optimal.« less

  3. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  4. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  5. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  6. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  7. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2016-05-01

    Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  8. Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

  9. SIRTF Science Operations System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William

    1999-01-01

    SIRTF Science Operations System Design William B. Green Manager, SIRTF Science Center California Institute of Technology M/S 310-6 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (626) 395 8572 Fax (626) 568 0673 bgreen@ipac.caltech.edu. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be launched in December 2001, and perform an extended series of science observations at wavelengths ranging from 20 to 160 microns for five years or more. The California Institute of Technology has been selected as the home for the SIRTF Science Center (SSC). The SSC will be responsible for evaluating and selecting observation proposals, providing technical support to the science community, performing mission planning and science observation scheduling activities, instrument calibration during operations and instrument health monitoring, production of archival quality data products, and management of science research grants. The science payload consists of three instruments delivered by instrument Principal Investigators located at University of Arizona, Cornell, and Harvard Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The SSC is responsible for design, development, and operation of the Science Operations System (SOS) which will support the functions assigned to the SSC by NASA. The SIRTF spacecraft, mission profile, and science instrument design have undergone almost ten years of refinement. SIRTF development and operations activities are highly cost constrained. The cost constraints have impacted the design of the SOS in several ways. The Science Operations System has been designed to incorporate a set of efficient, easy to use tools which will make it possible for scientists to propose observation sequences in a rapid and automated manner. The use of highly automated tools for requesting observations will simplify the long range observatory scheduling process, and the short term scheduling of science observations. Pipeline data processing will be highly automated and data

  10. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  11. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  12. Operations Monitoring Assistant System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Logic. Artificial Inteligence 25(1)::75-94. January.18. 41 -Nils J. Nilsson. Problem-Solving Methods In Artificli Intelligence. .klcG raw-Hill B3ook...operations monitoring assistant (OMA) system is designed that combines operations research, artificial intelligence, and human reasoning techniques and...KnowledgeCraft (from Carnegie Group), and 5.1 (from Teknowledze). These tools incorporate the best methods of applied artificial intelligence, and

  13. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  14. DC Magnetics Measurement System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastny, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report will detail the updates to the magnetics measurement system design and testing procedures that are required for performing static (DC) magnetics testing of future flight hardware. An older magnetics testing system had to be integrated with new procedures and hardware to meet the demands of future testing programs and accommodate an upcoming magnetics tests. The next test will be for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), which will verify that the SAFT Battery component meets its specifications for magnetic cleanliness. The satellite is scheduled to launch in 2015 with magnetics testing to be completed on the battery in November 2012.

  15. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  16. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  17. Learning from data to design functional materials without inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Young, Joshua; Lookman, Turab; Rondinelli, James M.

    2017-02-01

    Accelerating the search for functional materials is a challenging problem. Here we develop an informatics-guided ab initio approach to accelerate the design and discovery of noncentrosymmetric materials. The workflow integrates group theory, informatics and density-functional theory to uncover design guidelines for predicting noncentrosymmetric compounds, which we apply to layered Ruddlesden-Popper oxides. Group theory identifies how configurations of oxygen octahedral rotation patterns, ordered cation arrangements and their interplay break inversion symmetry, while informatics tools learn from available data to select candidate compositions that fulfil the group-theoretical postulates. Our key outcome is the identification of 242 compositions after screening ~3,200 that show potential for noncentrosymmetric structures, a 25-fold increase in the projected number of known noncentrosymmetric Ruddlesden-Popper oxides. We validate our predictions for 19 compounds using phonon calculations, among which 17 have noncentrosymmetric ground states including two potential multiferroics. Our approach enables rational design of materials with targeted crystal symmetries and functionalities.

  18. Optimal Experiment Design for Thermal Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to investigate methods to accurately verify that designed , materials meet thermal specifications. The project involved heat transfer calculations and optimization studies, and no laboratory experiments were performed. One part of the research involved study of materials in which conduction heat transfer predominates. Results include techniques to choose among several experimental designs, and protocols for determining the optimum experimental conditions for determination of thermal properties. Metal foam materials were also studied in which both conduction and radiation heat transfer are present. Results of this work include procedures to optimize the design of experiments to accurately measure both conductive and radiative thermal properties. Detailed results in the form of three journal papers have been appended to this report.

  19. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  20. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  1. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Gang, Ling; Jian, Gao; Rui-Juan, Xiao; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 51172274) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201).

  2. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    PubMed Central

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure–property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials. PMID:26323335

  3. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials.

  4. Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariola, Veikko; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun; Çetinkaya, Murat; Pacheco, Carlos; Sitti, Metin; Demirel, Melik C.

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical assembly of self-healing adhesive proteins creates strong and robust structural and interfacial materials, but understanding of the molecular design and structure-property relationships of structural proteins remains unclear. Elucidating this relationship would allow rational design of next generation genetically engineered self-healing structural proteins. Here we report a general self-healing and -assembly strategy based on a multiphase recombinant protein based material. Segmented structure of the protein shows soft glycine- and tyrosine-rich segments with self-healing capability and hard beta-sheet segments. The soft segments are strongly plasticized by water, lowering the self-healing temperature close to body temperature. The hard segments self-assemble into nanoconfined domains to reinforce the material. The healing strength scales sublinearly with contact time, which associates with diffusion and wetting of autohesion. The finding suggests that recombinant structural proteins from heterologous expression have potential as strong and repairable engineering materials.

  5. Interfacial Properties and Design of Functional Energy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Liang, Liangbo; Nicolai, Adrien; Meunier, V.

    2014-01-01

    The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality, such as efficient energy conversion/storage/transmission, over multiple length scales. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately non-covalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, e.g., lithographic approach. However, while function (e.g., charge mobility) in simple systems such as single crystals can often be predicted, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale (long-range) order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various substrates. Typically molecular self-assembly involves poorly understood non-covalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions compounded by local and/or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice (symmetry and/or topological features) and electronic structure. Thus, progress towards unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. In this mode, theory and simulation can greatly accelerate the

  6. Automated Design of Complex Dynamic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter; Dambre, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Several fields of study are concerned with uniting the concept of computation with that of the design of physical systems. For example, a recent trend in robotics is to design robots in such a way that they require a minimal control effort. Another example is found in the domain of photonics, where recent efforts try to benefit directly from the complex nonlinear dynamics to achieve more efficient signal processing. The underlying goal of these and similar research efforts is to internalize a large part of the necessary computations within the physical system itself by exploiting its inherent non-linear dynamics. This, however, often requires the optimization of large numbers of system parameters, related to both the system's structure as well as its material properties. In addition, many of these parameters are subject to fabrication variability or to variations through time. In this paper we apply a machine learning algorithm to optimize physical dynamic systems. We show that such algorithms, which are normally applied on abstract computational entities, can be extended to the field of differential equations and used to optimize an associated set of parameters which determine their behavior. We show that machine learning training methodologies are highly useful in designing robust systems, and we provide a set of both simple and complex examples using models of physical dynamical systems. Interestingly, the derived optimization method is intimately related to direct collocation a method known in the field of optimal control. Our work suggests that the application domains of both machine learning and optimal control have a largely unexplored overlapping area which envelopes a novel design methodology of smart and highly complex physical systems. PMID:24497969

  7. Computerized systems to provide materials selection advice

    SciTech Connect

    Krisher, A.S.

    1996-07-01

    The rapid advance of computer science has increased the ability to store and retrieve information. These new capabilities are beginning to be applied to the problem of providing sound advice to non-specialist engineers who make materials selection decisions. This paper presents an overview of the large scale systems which exist in finished or near finished form and are (or may soon be) available for use by the public. The paper focuses on systems which transfer knowledge taking into account the many qualifications which enter into the reasoning processes of materials/corrosion specialists. The paper discusses both the strengths and limitations of each system.

  8. Terahertz Ray System Calibration and Material Characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Blackshire, James L.; Thompson, R. Bruce

    2009-03-01

    Recently, terahertz ray imaging has emerged as one of the most promising new NDE techniques, and new systems are being developed for applications. In this work, we conducted system calibration on a new time-domain spectroscopy system, and then utilized this system to characterize glass-fiber composite plates and polyimide resin disks. Extensive experimental measurements in thru-transmission mode were made to map out the T-ray beam pattern in free space as well as to scan these two test materials. Material properties such as index of fraction and absorption coefficient are of the primary interest. Both results were shown in good agreement with known data. Using these characterized material properties, we also demonstrated accurate modeling of the T-ray signal propagating through the polyimide resin disk.

  9. Design of bonded joints in composite materials. [computerized analysis of material suitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corvelli, N.

    1972-01-01

    The primary form of joining high strength advanced composite materials is adhesive bonded joints. The stepped bonded joint is an efficient configuration where the adhesive and composite matrix are co-cured. A design procedure for this type of joint is described along with the analysis technique upon which it is based. A modified elastic analysis accounts for the nonlinear behavior of the adhesive. A computer program with minimum running time and simplified input is utilized for analysis and becomes an efficient link in an iterative design procedure. Comparisons between analytical results and test results are shown. Material properties which are needed for design and methods of measuring these properties are discussed.

  10. Cryostat system for spacecraft materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, Justin

    The main cause of spacecraft failures is due to the harsh space environment; therefore, rigorous testing of materials used in modern spacecraft is imperative to ensure proper operation during the life span of the mission. Enhancing the capabilities of ground-based test facilities allows for more accurate measurements to be taken as it better simulates the environment to which spacecraft will be exposed. The range of temperature measurements has been significantly extended for an existing space environment simulation test chamber used in the study of electron emission, sample charging and discharge, electrostatic discharge and arcing, electron transport, and luminescence of spacecraft materials. This was accomplished by incorporating a new two-stage, closed-cycle helium cryostat, which has an extended sample temperature range from 450 K, with long-term controlled stability of <0.5 K. The system was designed to maintain compatibility with an existing ultrahigh vacuum chamber (base pressure <10-7 Pa) that can simulate diverse space environments. These existing capabilities include controllable vacuum and ambient neutral gases conditions (<10-7 to 10 -1 Pa), electron fluxes (5 eV to 30 keV monoenergetic, focused, pulsed sources ranging from 10-4 to 1010 nA-cm -2), ion fluxes (<0.1 to 5 keV monoenergetic sources for inert and reactive gases with pulsing capabilities), and photon irradiation (numerous continuous and pulsed monochromatic and broadband IR/VIS/UV [0.5 to 7 eV] sources). The original sample mount accommodates one to four samples of 1 cm to 2.5 cm diameter in a low- temperature carousel, which allows rapid sample exchange and controlled exposure of the individual samples. Multiple additional sample mounts have been added to allow for standalone use for constant voltage measurements, radiation induced and conductivity tests, as well as extended capabilities for electron-induced luminescent measurements to be conducted using various material sample thicknesses

  11. Nanowire systems: technology and design

    PubMed Central

    Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amarù, Luca Gaetano; Bobba, Shashikanth; De Marchi, Michele; Sacchetto, Davide; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Nanosystems are large-scale integrated systems exploiting nanoelectronic devices. In this study, we consider double independent gate, vertically stacked nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with gate-all-around structures and typical diameter of 20 nm. These devices, which we have successfully fabricated and evaluated, control the ambipolar behaviour of the nanostructure by selectively enabling one type of carriers. These transistors work as switches with electrically programmable polarity and thus realize an exclusive or operation. The intrinsic higher expressive power of these FETs, when compared with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, enables us to realize more efficient logic gates, which we organize as tiles to realize nanowire systems by regular arrays. This article surveys both the technology for double independent gate FETs as well as physical and logic design tools to realize digital systems with this fabrication technology. PMID:24567471

  12. Turning statistical physics models into materials design engines.

    PubMed

    Miskin, Marc Z; Khaira, Gurdaman; de Pablo, Juan J; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2016-01-05

    Despite the success statistical physics has enjoyed at predicting the properties of materials for given parameters, the inverse problem, identifying which material parameters produce given, desired properties, is only beginning to be addressed. Recently, several methods have emerged across disciplines that draw upon optimization and simulation to create computer programs that tailor material responses to specified behaviors. However, so far the methods developed either involve black-box techniques, in which the optimizer operates without explicit knowledge of the material's configuration space, or require carefully tuned algorithms with applicability limited to a narrow subclass of materials. Here we introduce a formalism that can generate optimizers automatically by extending statistical mechanics into the realm of design. The strength of this approach lies in its capability to transform statistical models that describe materials into optimizers to tailor them. By comparing against standard black-box optimization methods, we demonstrate how optimizers generated by this formalism can be faster and more effective, while remaining straightforward to implement. The scope of our approach includes possibilities for solving a variety of complex optimization and design problems concerning materials both in and out of equilibrium.

  13. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  14. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  15. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  16. Long endurance materials for aluminum fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.E.; Carter, D.L.; Weber, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Appropriate selection of long endurance materials is critical to the cost effective use of fuel cell technology for near-term commercial and defense applications. To effectively transition this technology from laboratory prototype to fielded system, the durability of all fuel cell subsystems must be addressed. Material selection based upon a thorough understanding of system performance requirements, operational environments, and user interfaces not only provides high reliability and enhanced safety, but also lowers life cycle costs. This paper discusses the development of an Aluminum Fuel Cell Power System (FCPS) for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) program, focusing on the operational endurance testing that was conducted to evaluate candidate materials for cell stack, electrolyte, and coolant subsystems. The FCPS is a 15 kW closed aluminum-oxygen fuel cell system that provides up to 1.1 MWh energy. Loral has completed small-scale bench tests and is currently fabricating a full-scale system to be demonstrated in 1995. A materials/component endurance test program was established and conducted early in the design phase of the FCPS program. To date, Loral has completed over 3,000 operational test hours, with nearly 8,000 hours of accumulated exposure to KOH. Results of these tests have been incorporated into the FCPS detailed design, and are expected to significantly enhance the performance of the fielded system. This program is sponsored by ARPA Maritime Systems Technology Office under NASA contract NAS3-26715.

  17. Perspective: NanoMine: A material genome approach for polymer nanocomposites analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, He; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yichi; Schadler, Linda S.; Chen, Wei; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are a designer class of materials where nanoscale particles, functional chemistry, and polymer resin combine to provide materials with unprecedented combinations of physical properties. In this paper, we introduce NanoMine, a data-driven web-based platform for analysis and design of polymer nanocomposite systems under the material genome concept. This open data resource strives to curate experimental and computational data on nanocomposite processing, structure, and properties, as well as to provide analysis and modeling tools that leverage curated data for material property prediction and design. With a continuously expanding dataset and toolkit, NanoMine encourages community feedback and input to construct a sustainable infrastructure that benefits nanocomposite material research and development.

  18. Nonlinear systems approach to control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Consider some of the control system design methods for plants with nonlinear dynamics. If the nonlinearity is weak relative to the size of the operating region, then the linear methods apply directly. Fixed-gain design may be feasible even for significant nonlinearities. It may be possible to find a single gain which provides adequate control of the linear models at several perturbation points. If the nonlinearity is restricted to a sector, that fact may be used to obtain a fixed-gain controller. Otherwise, a gain may have to be associated with each perturbation point Pi. A gain schedule K(p(v)) is obtained by connecting the perturbation points by a function, say p(v), of the scheduling parameter v (i.e., speed). When the scheduling parameter must be multidimensional, this approach is difficult; the objective is to develop an easier procedure.

  19. Structural Design Elements in Biological Materials: Application to Bioinspiration.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Porter, Michael M; McKittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A

    2015-10-07

    Eight structural elements in biological materials are identified as the most common amongst a variety of animal taxa. These are proposed as a new paradigm in the field of biological materials science as they can serve as a toolbox for rationalizing the complex mechanical behavior of structural biological materials and for systematizing the development of bioinspired designs for structural applications. They are employed to improve the mechanical properties, namely strength, wear resistance, stiffness, flexibility, fracture toughness, and energy absorption of different biological materials for a variety of functions (e.g., body support, joint movement, impact protection, weight reduction). The structural elements identified are: fibrous, helical, gradient, layered, tubular, cellular, suture, and overlapping. For each of the structural design elements, critical design parameters are presented along with constitutive equations with a focus on mechanical properties. Additionally, example organisms from varying biological classes are presented for each case to display the wide variety of environments where each of these elements is present. Examples of current bioinspired materials are also introduced for each element.

  20. Technology-Enhanced EFL Syllabus Design and Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Long V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I am going to look at the issues of TESOL from one major critical point of view: How the use of the Internet technology might influence TESOL syllabus design and materials development. The article attempts to investigate some possibilities and opportunities provided by the Internet, focusing on the World Wide Web (WWW) as credible…

  1. Fire water systems in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sundt, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Due to corrosion problems in fire water systems offshore there is a need for a corrosion resistant material to improve the reliability of onboard fire fighting systems. Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe is seen as a cost effective and light weight alternative to metals. Through a test program run by AMAT, Advanced Materials a/s in collaboration with the Norwegian Fire and Research Laboratory (NBL, SINTEF), GRE pipes have proved to be viable materials for offshore fire water systems. The test program included furnace testing, jetfire testing and simulated explosion testing. GRE pipes (2--12 inches) from two suppliers were fire tested and evaluated. Both adhesively bonded joints and flange connections were tested. During the course of the project, application methods of passive fire protection and nozzle attachments were improved.

  2. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  3. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  4. Preliminary materials assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Presently, there are two SPS reference design concepts (one using silicon solar cells; the other using gallium arsenide solar cells). A materials assessment of both systems was performed based on the materials lists set forth in the DOE/NASA SPS Reference System Report: Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This listing identified 22 materials (plus miscellaneous and organics) used in the SPS. Tracing the production processes for these 22 materials, a total demand for over 20 different bulk materials (copper, silicon, sulfuric acid, etc.) and nealy 30 raw materials (copper ore, sand, sulfur ore, etc.) was revealed. Assessment of these SPS material requirements produced a number of potential material supply problems. The more serious problems are those associated with the solar cell materials (gallium, gallium arsenide, sapphire, and solar grade silicon), and the graphite fiber required for the satellite structure and space construction facilities. In general, the gallium arsenide SPS option exhibits more serious problems than the silicon option, possibly because gallium arsenide technology is not as well developed as that for silicon. Results are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

  5. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-05-15

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  6. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-08-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing an overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  7. Turning statistical physics models into materials design engines

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Marc Z.; Khaira, Gurdaman; de Pablo, Juan J.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success statistical physics has enjoyed at predicting the properties of materials for given parameters, the inverse problem, identifying which material parameters produce given, desired properties, is only beginning to be addressed. Recently, several methods have emerged across disciplines that draw upon optimization and simulation to create computer programs that tailor material responses to specified behaviors. However, so far the methods developed either involve black-box techniques, in which the optimizer operates without explicit knowledge of the material’s configuration space, or require carefully tuned algorithms with applicability limited to a narrow subclass of materials. Here we introduce a formalism that can generate optimizers automatically by extending statistical mechanics into the realm of design. The strength of this approach lies in its capability to transform statistical models that describe materials into optimizers to tailor them. By comparing against standard black-box optimization methods, we demonstrate how optimizers generated by this formalism can be faster and more effective, while remaining straightforward to implement. The scope of our approach includes possibilities for solving a variety of complex optimization and design problems concerning materials both in and out of equilibrium. PMID:26684770

  8. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  9. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H. C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M. F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc; Spätig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E.

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  10. Biodeterioration of materials in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The chemicals produced by the microbial processes involved in the 'biofilms' which form on the surfaces of manned spacecraft water reclamation systems encompass both metals and organic poisons; both are potential hazards to astronaut health and the growth of the plants envisioned for closed-cycle life support systems. Image analysis is here shown to be a very useful technique for the study of biofilm formation on candidate water-processor materials for Space Station Freedom. The biodeterioration of materials exposed to biofilms can be swiftly evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. CubeSat Material Limits for Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with re-entry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with re-entry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for re-entry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  12. CubeSat Material Limits For Design for Demise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with reentry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with reentry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for reentry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  13. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  14. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  15. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. C.; Adamson, P.; Ainsworth, R.; Capista, D.; Hazelwood, K.; Kourbanis, I.; Mokhov, N. V.; Morris, D. K.; Murphy, M.; Sidorov, V.; Stern, E.; Tropin, I.; Yang, M-J.

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  16. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  17. Materials issues in diagnostic systems for BPX and ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Farnum, E.H. ); Griscom, D.L. ); Mattas, R.F. ); Medley, S.S.; Young, K. M. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Wiffen, F.W. ); Wojtowicz, S.S. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (Unit

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic systems in advanced D-T-burning fusion devices will be subjected to intense fluxes and fluences of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. Materials used in these systems may suffer significant degradation of structural, optical, and electrical properties, either promptly upon irradiation or after accumulation of structural damage. Of particular concern are windows, optical fibers, reflectors, and insulators. Many materials currently specified for these components are known to degrade under anticipated operating conditions. However, careful materials selection and modification based on an appropriate irradiation testing program, when combined with optimization of design-sensitive factors such as location, shielding, and ease of replacement, should help to alleviate these materials problems. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  19. Design and development of advanced castable refractory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Bruce

    New formulations of castable refractory composite materials were studied. This technology is used to produce low cost composite concrete structures designed for high temperature stability, superior wear resistance and improved strength. An in situ fired, castable cement installation is a heterogeneous structure divided into three zones according to the temperature history and microstructure. The properties of each zone depend on the predominant bonding mode between constituents. Each zone has a characteristic microstructure that influences the integrity of the monolith. The hot side may have a highly dense and developed network of ceramic bonds between constituent particles while the cold side may never reach temperatures sufficient to drive off free water. The thermal, structural and tribological properties depend on the microstructure and the type of bonding that holds the monolith together. The phase distributions are defined by sets of metastable phase conditions driven by the local hydrated chemistry, nearest neighbor oxide compounds, impurities and sintering temperature. Equilibrium phase diagrams were used to select optimum compositions based on higher melting point phases. The phase diagrams were also used to target high temperature phase fields that are stable over wide temperature and stoichiometric ranges. Materials selection of candidate hydraulic clinkers, high temperature oxides, and reinforcement phases were based on requirements for high temperature stability. The calcium aluminate (CaO-Al2O3) and calcium dialuminate (CaO-(Al2O3)2) are common refractory clinkers used in castable refractory cements. The thermodynamics and kinetics of cement hydrate formation are well studied and suited to become the building block of a design for a superior refractory castable cement. The inert oxides mixed with the calcium aluminate clinkers are magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al 2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4) and chromic (Cr2O3). The bulk of the experiments concentrated in the Al

  20. Design of electro-active polymer gels as actuator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Suzana

    Smart materials, alternatively called active or adaptive, differ from passive materials in their sensing and activation capability. These materials can sense changes in environment such as: electric field, magnetic field, UV light, pH, temperature. They are capable of responding in numerous ways. Some change their stiffness properties (electro-rheological fluids), other deform (piezos, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive materials) or change optic properties (electrochromic polymers). Polymer gels are one of such materials which can change the shape, volume and even optical properties upon different applied stimuli. Due to their low stiffness property they are capable of having up to 100% of strain in a short time, order of seconds. Their motion resembles the one of biosystems, and they are often seen as possible artificial muscle materials. Despite their delicate nature, appropriate design can make them being used as actuator materials which can form controllable surfaces and mechanical switches. In this study several different groups of polymer gel material were investigated: (a) acrylamide based gels are sensitive to pH and electric field and respond in volume change, (b) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) gel is sensitive to pH and electric field and responds in axial strain and bending, (c) polyvinylalcohol (PVA) gel is sensitive to electric field and responds in axial strain and bending and (d) perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane, Nafion RTM, is sensitive to electric field and responds in bending. Electro-mechanical and chemo-mechanical behavior of these materials is a function of a variety of phenomena: polymer structure, affinity of polymer to the solvent, charge distribution within material, type of solvent, elasticity of polymer matrix, etc. Modeling of this behavior is a task aimed to identify what is driving mechanism for activation and express it in a quantitative way in terms of deformation of material. In this work behavior of the most promising material as

  1. Material Analysis and Processing Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The teacher developed curriculum guide provides the industrial education teacher with the objectives, equipment lists, material, supplies, references, and activities necessary to teach students of the 9th and/or 10th grade the concepts of interrelationships between material analysis and processing systems. Career information and sociological…

  2. Materials by Design-A Perspective From Atoms to Structures.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Markus J

    2013-02-01

    Biological materials are effectively synthesized, controlled, and used for a variety of purposes-in spite of limitations in energy, quality, and quantity of their building blocks. Whereas the chemical composition of materials in the living world plays a some role in achieving functional properties, the way components are connected at different length scales defines what material properties can be achieved, how they can be altered to meet functional requirements, and how they fail in disease states and other extreme conditions. Recent work has demonstrated this by using large-scale computer simulations to predict materials properties from fundamental molecular principles, combined with experimental work and new mathematical techniques to categorize complex structure-property relationships into a systematic framework. Enabled by such categorization, we discuss opportunities based on the exploitation of concepts from distinct hierarchical systems that share common principles in how function is created, linking music to materials science.

  3. Interstellar material in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    All the substance of the Earth and other terrestrial planets once existed in the form of interstellar grains and gas. A major aspect of solar system formation (and undoubtedly of star formation generally) is the complex series of processes that converted infalling interstellar grains into planets. A cryptic record of these processes is preserved in certain samples of planetary materials, such as chondritic meteorites, that were preserved in a relatively unchanged form since the beginning. It is to be expected that some of these primitive materials might contain or even consist of preserved presolar interstellar grains. The identification and study of such grains, the ancestors of our planetary system, is a matter of intense interest. Types of primitive material accessible or potentially accessible, and component of or relationship to presolar interstellar grains are discussed.

  4. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsell, Brian; Campbell, Michael; Fitton, Michael; Hurh, Patrick; Ishida, Taku; Nakadaira, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    A compact fatigue testing machine that can be easily inserted into a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue performance differences between new and irradiated material. Hot cell use has been carefully considered by limiting the size and weight of the machine, simplifying sample loading and test setup for operation via master-slave manipulator, and utilizing an efficient design to minimize maintenance. Funded from a US-Japan collaborative effort, the machine has been specifically designed to help characterize titanium material specimens. These specimens are flat cantilevered beams for initial studies, possibly utilizing samples irradiated at other sources of beam. The option to test spherically shaped samples cut from the T2K vacuum window is also available. The machine is able to test a sample to $10^7$ cycles in under a week, with options to count cycles and sense material failure. The design of this machine will be presented along with current status.

  5. ERIS adaptive optics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Soenke, Christian; Fedrigo, Enrico; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Hubin, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics facility (AOF). It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is planned for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project is currently in its Phase A awaiting for approval to continue to the next phases. The Adaptive Optics system of ERIS will include two wavefront sensors (WFS) to maximize the coverage of the proposed sciences cases. The first is a high order 40x40 Pyramid WFS (PWFS) for on axis Natural Guide Star (NGS) observations. The second is a high order 40x40 Shack-Hartmann WFS for single Laser Guide Stars (LGS) observations. The PWFS, with appropriate sub-aperture binning, will serve also as low order NGS WFS in support to the LGS mode with a field of view patrolling capability of 2 arcmin diameter. Both WFSs will be equipped with the very low read-out noise CCD220 based camera developed for the AOF. The real-time reconstruction and control is provided by a SPARTA real-time platform adapted to support both WFS modes. In this paper we will present the ERIS AO system in all its main aspects: opto-mechanical design, real-time computer design, control and calibrations strategy. Particular emphasis will be given to the system performance obtained via dedicated numerical simulations.

  6. Shape design sensitivity analysis and optimal design of structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung K.

    1987-01-01

    The material derivative concept of continuum mechanics and an adjoint variable method of design sensitivity analysis are used to relate variations in structural shape to measures of structural performance. A domain method of shape design sensitivity analysis is used to best utilize the basic character of the finite element method that gives accurate information not on the boundary but in the domain. Implementation of shape design sensitivty analysis using finite element computer codes is discussed. Recent numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy obtainable using the method. Result of design sensitivity analysis is used to carry out design optimization of a built-up structure.

  7. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  8. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-06-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  9. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials.

    PubMed

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  10. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  11. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    PubMed Central

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. PMID:27877454

  12. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This volume contains sections 4 thru 8 of Chapter 6 -- Engineered Safety Features. Topics covered include: habitability systems; containment spray systems; inservice inspection of class 2 and 3 components; safety depressurization system; and in-containment water storage system. Also included are Appendices 6A, 6B, and 6C.

  13. Bioinspiration from fish for smart material design and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, G. V.; Madden, P. G. A.; Tangorra, J. L.; Anderson, E.; Baker, T. V.

    2011-09-01

    Fish are a potentially rich source of inspiration for the design of smart materials. Fish exemplify the use of flexible materials to generate forces during locomotion, and a hallmark of fish functional design is the use of body and fin deformation to power propulsion and maneuvering. As a result of nearly 500 million years of evolutionary experimentation, fish design has a number of interesting features of note to materials engineers. In this paper we first provide a brief general overview of some key features of the mechanical design of fish, and then focus on two key properties of fish: the bilaminar mechanical design of bony fish fin rays that allows active muscular control of curvature, and the role of body flexibility in propulsion. After describing the anatomy of bony fish fin rays, we provide new data on their mechanical properties. Three-point bending tests and measurement of force inputs to and outputs from the fin rays show that these fin rays are effective displacement transducers. Fin rays in different regions of the fin differ considerably in their material properties, and in the curvature produced by displacement of one of the two fin ray halves. The mean modulus for the proximal (basal) region of the fin rays was 1.34 GPa, but this varied from 0.24 to 3.7 GPa for different fin rays. The distal fin region was less stiff, and moduli for the different fin rays measured varied from 0.11 to 0.67 GPa. These data are similar to those for human tendons (modulus around 0.5 GPa). Analysis of propulsion using flexible foils controlled using a robotic flapping device allows investigation of the effect of altering flexural stiffness on swimming speed. Flexible foils with the leading edge moved in a heave show a distinct peak in propulsive performance, while the addition of pitch input produces a broad plateau where the swimming speed is relatively unaffected by the flexural stiffness. Our understanding of the material design of fish and the control of tissue

  14. Design and Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Elizabeth; Messer, Brad; Carter, Judy; Singletary, Todd; Albasini, Colby; Smith, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Design and Data Management System (DDMS) was developed to automate the NASA Engineering Order (EO) and Engineering Change Request (ECR) processes at the Propulsion Test Facilities at Stennis Space Center for efficient and effective Configuration Management (CM). Prior to the development of DDMS, the CM system was a manual, paper-based system that required an EO or ECR submitter to walk the changes through the acceptance process to obtain necessary approval signatures. This approval process could take up to two weeks, and was subject to a variety of human errors. The process also requires that the CM office make copies and distribute them to the Configuration Control Board members for review prior to meetings. At any point, there was a potential for an error or loss of the change records, meaning the configuration of record was not accurate. The new Web-based DDMS eliminates unnecessary copies, reduces the time needed to distribute the paperwork, reduces time to gain the necessary signatures, and prevents the variety of errors inherent in the previous manual system. After implementation of the DDMS, all EOs and ECRs can be automatically checked prior to submittal to ensure that the documentation is complete and accurate. Much of the configuration information can be documented in the DDMS through pull-down forms to ensure consistent entries by the engineers and technicians in the field. The software also can electronically route the documents through the signature process to obtain the necessary approvals needed for work authorization. The workflow of the system allows for backups and timestamps that determine the correct routing and completion of all required authorizations in a more timely manner, as well as assuring the quality and accuracy of the configuration documents.

  15. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  16. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  17. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E.

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  18. Decomposing Systems Into Subsystems For Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions among systems displayed in concise format. DeMAID (Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition) is knowledge based software system for automating sequencing of subprocesses in design process and identifying possible multilevel structure for synthesis problem. Reorders and groups modules of equipment being designed on basis of links among modules, helping design manager make design decisions early in design cycle. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. Instructional Materials of the Federal Reserve System: Elementary, High School, College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    This guide lists teaching packages, audiovisual materials, and resource materials produced and published by the Federal Reserve System that are specifically designed for teachers and can be adapted easily to classroom use. Materials are listed by intended audience level: elementary, high school, or college. Materials cited are ordered directly…

  20. Galileo probe battery systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Van Ess, J. S.; Marcoux, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter will consist of a Jovian orbiter and an atmospheric entry probe. The power for the probe will be derived from two primary power sources. The main source is composed of three Li-SO2 battery modules containing 13 D-size cell strings per module. These are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years, support a 150 day clock, and a 7 hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 to 9.5 amperes for the last 30 minutes. This main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO4-Ca) for use in firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric staging events. This paper describes design development and testing of these batteries at the system level.

  1. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  2. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Germann, Timothy C.

    2014-07-08

    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  3. Tooth form design supporting system in module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Junji; Namiki, Ryou; Tanaka, Souichi; Aoyama, Shigeru

    A lot of time was spent in designing the tooth form because there was no Computer Aided Design (CAD) system suitable for designing the tooth form of gears. A CAD system to support the tooth form design to promote efficiency of the tooth form design of gears for a wristwatch was developed. This system can perform calculation of torque transmission factor of gears, automatic drawing of tooth form drawing, and engagement simulation, and by utilizing this system the tooth form can be designed in less than one fourth of the time required by the conventional method. The characteristics of the system used to calculate the torque transmission factor of a pair of gears are summarized and the displayed results are shown.

  4. The Hazardous Materials Information System. Users Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    only on hazardous materials used by the Government. Keep in mind that the HMIS is a growing system. Just because an item is not listed in the system does...NoO-0729 W. R. GRACE & CO POLYCEL I (CIC) A-A-1543 8520-00-270-0065 CONTINENTAL CHEM CORP BORAX A-A-S 7930-00-281-4731 PAUL CO PRODUCTS INC...As was written earlier, the HMIS is a growing database. Some items in the supply system have not yet been entered into HMIS. Therefore, to be sure

  5. Rational Design of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials as Nanoadjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulery, Bret D.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R.; Kumar, Devender; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-12-01

    An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The value of using polyanhydride nanovaccines was demonstrated by the induction of long-lived protection against a lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis following a single administration ten months earlier. This approach has the tantalizing potential to catalyze the development of next generation vaccines against diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  6. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  7. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  8. Strategies for designing culturally relevant client education materials.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J L; Giger, J N; Davidhizar, R

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses strategies for designing and implementing a culturally significant and appropriate client education tool for use with non-English-speaking clients or for any client in a culture different from the mainstream. These strategies include: (1) understanding the relationship between culture and behavior, (2) developing a strategic plan, (3) gathering demographic data about the setting, (4) evaluating the characteristics of the learner, and (5) developing culturally specific, unique education learning materials.

  9. Toward self-constructing materials: a systems chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2012-12-18

    To design the next generation of so-called "smart" materials, researchers will need to develop chemical systems that respond, adapt, and multitask. Because many of these features occur in living systems, we expect that such advanced artificial systems will be inspired by nature. In particular, these new materials should ultimately combine three key properties of life: metabolism, mutation, and self-replication. In this Account, we discuss our endeavors toward the design of such advanced functional materials. First, we focus on dynamic molecular libraries. These molecular and supramolecular chemical systems are based on mixtures of reversibly interacting molecules that are coupled within networks of thermodynamic equilibria. We will explain how the superimposition of combinatorial networks at different length scales of structural organization can provide valuable hierarchical dynamics for producing complex functional systems. In particular, our experimental results highlight why these libraries are of interest for the design of responsive materials and how their functional properties can be modulated by various chemical and physical stimuli. Then, we introduce examples in which these dynamic combinatorial systems can be coupled to kinetic feedback loops to produce self-replicating pathways that amplify a selected component from the equilibrated libraries. Finally, we discuss the discovery of highly functional self-replicating supramolecular assemblies that can transfer an electric signal in space and time. We show how these wires can be directly incorporated within an electronic nanocircuit by self-organization and functional feedback loops. Because the network topologies act as complex algorithms to process information, we present these systems in this order to provide context for their potential for extending the current generation of responsive materials. We propose a general description for a potential autonomous (self-constructing) material. Such a system

  10. Preliminary Design and Investigation of Integrated Compressor with Composite Material Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifeng; Müller, Norbert

    2012-06-01

    An integrated water vapor compressor with composite material wheel is developed and strength analysis using FEM is presented. The design of wound composite material allows for integrating all rotating parts of the drive that may simply reduce to only the rotor of the electrical motor, since no drive shaft is required anymore. This design can reduce the number of parts and mass, which is convenient for engineers to maintain the compressor. The electrical motors are brushless DC motors operating through a frequency drive and apply a torque on the wheels through the materials bonded in the wheel shrouds. This system allows a large amount of compression to be produced in a multi-stage compression setup. To determine the stress and vibration characteristics of this integrated compressor, numerical analysis is carried out using FEM. The simulation result shows that the integrated compressor with composite material wheel can be used in a chiller system where water as a refrigerant.

  11. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  12. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  13. Learning from data to design functional materials without inversion symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Young, Joshua; Lookman, Turab; Rondinelli, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerating the search for functional materials is a challenging problem. Here we develop an informatics-guided ab initio approach to accelerate the design and discovery of noncentrosymmetric materials. The workflow integrates group theory, informatics and density-functional theory to uncover design guidelines for predicting noncentrosymmetric compounds, which we apply to layered Ruddlesden-Popper oxides. Group theory identifies how configurations of oxygen octahedral rotation patterns, ordered cation arrangements and their interplay break inversion symmetry, while informatics tools learn from available data to select candidate compositions that fulfil the group-theoretical postulates. Our key outcome is the identification of 242 compositions after screening ∼3,200 that show potential for noncentrosymmetric structures, a 25-fold increase in the projected number of known noncentrosymmetric Ruddlesden-Popper oxides. We validate our predictions for 19 compounds using phonon calculations, among which 17 have noncentrosymmetric ground states including two potential multiferroics. Our approach enables rational design of materials with targeted crystal symmetries and functionalities. PMID:28211456

  14. Textile materials for the design of wearable antennas: a survey.

    PubMed

    Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro

    2012-11-15

    In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

  15. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  16. Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented. PMID:23202235

  17. New Perspectives in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery System Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim P.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2013-07-01

    It is highly desirable to develop technologies that recover the large amounts of waste heat generated worldwide in industrial processes, automotive transportation, diesel engine exhaust, military generators, and incinerators to increase fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 production and the environmental footprint of these applications. Recent work has investigated new thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems that can operate at higher performance levels and show a viable pathway to lightweight, small-form-factor, advanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems to recover waste heat in many of these applications. New TE materials include nanocomposite materials such as lead-antimony-silver-telluride (LAST) and lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride (LASTT) compounds. These new materials have created opportunities for high-performance, segmented-element TE devices. New higher-performance TE devices segmenting LAST/LASTT materials with bismuth telluride have been designed and fabricated. Sectioned TEG systems using these new TE devices and materials have been designed. Integrated heat exchanger/TE device system analyses of sectioned TE system designs have been performed, creating unique efficiency-power maps that provide better understanding and comparisons of design tradeoffs and nominal and off-nominal system performance conditions. New design perspectives and mathematical foundations in optimization of sectioned TE design approaches are discussed that provide insight on how to optimize such sectioned TE systems. System performance analyses using ANSYS® TE modeling capabilities have integrated heat exchanger performance models with ANSYS® TE models to extend its analysis capabilities beyond simple constant hot-side and cold-side temperature conditions. Analysis results portray external resistance effects, matched load conditions, and maximum power versus maximum efficiency points simultaneously, and show that maximum TE power occurs at external resistances slightly

  18. New robotics: design principles for intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Rolf; Iida, Fumiya; Bongard, Josh

    2005-01-01

    New robotics is an approach to robotics that, in contrast to traditional robotics, employs ideas and principles from biology. While in the traditional approach there are generally accepted methods (e. g., from control theory), designing agents in the new robotics approach is still largely considered an art. In recent years, we have been developing a set of heuristics, or design principles, that on the one hand capture theoretical insights about intelligent (adaptive) behavior, and on the other provide guidance in actually designing and building systems. In this article we provide an overview of all the principles but focus on the principles of ecological balance, which concerns the relation between environment, morphology, materials, and control, and sensory-motor coordination, which concerns self-generated sensory stimulation as the agent interacts with the environment and which is a key to the development of high-level intelligence. As we argue, artificial evolution together with morphogenesis is not only "nice to have" but is in fact a necessary tool for designing embodied agents.

  19. An efficient descriptor model for designing materials for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Fahhad H.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Lüthi, Hans P.; Tabet, Nouar; Kais, Sabre

    2015-11-01

    An efficient descriptor model for fast screening of potential materials for solar cell applications is presented. It works for both excitonic and non-excitonic solar cells materials, and in addition to the energy gap it includes the absorption spectrum (α(E)) of the material. The charge transport properties of the explored materials are modelled using the characteristic diffusion length (Ld) determined for the respective family of compounds. The presented model surpasses the widely used Scharber model developed for bulk heterojunction solar cells. Using published experimental data, we show that the presented model is more accurate in predicting the achievable efficiencies. To model both excitonic and non-excitonic systems, two different sets of parameters are used to account for the different modes of operation. The analysis of the presented descriptor model clearly shows the benefit of including α(E) and Ld in view of improved screening results.

  20. MLS/Airplane system design. RF component design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, D. B.; Stapleton, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of analysis and design conducted as part of multiyear Microwave Landing System (MLS) study are reported. Design of airborne radio frequency RF MLS components was performed. MLS omnidirectional antennas are developed using microstrip technology. A remote, low-noise, radio frequency (RF) preamplifier is designed for airborne MLS installations.

  1. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

  2. 14 CFR 23.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... Design and Construction § 23.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength... must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following...

  3. 14 CFR 23.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... Design and Construction § 23.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength... must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following...

  4. 14 CFR 23.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... Design and Construction § 23.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength... must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following...

  5. 14 CFR 23.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... Design and Construction § 23.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength... must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following...

  6. 14 CFR 23.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... Design and Construction § 23.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength... must be shown by selecting design values that ensure material strength with the following...

  7. Systems design and analysis of the microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    Systems design and analysis data were generated for microwave radiometer spacecraft concept using the Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer aided design and analysis program. Parametric analyses were conducted for perturbations off the nominal-orbital-altitude/antenna-reflector-size and for control/propulsion system options. Optimized spacecraft mass, structural element design, and on-orbit loading data are presented. Propulsion and rigid-body control systems sensitivities to current and advanced technology are established. Spacecraft-induced and environmental effects on antenna performance (surface accuracy, defocus, and boresight off-set) are quantified and structured material frequencies and modal shapes are defined.

  8. Hierarchical bioactive materials for tissue reconstruction: Integrated design and manufacturing challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollister, Scott J.

    2011-04-01

    Although the paradigm shift from synthetic implants and tissue grafts to regenerative-medicine-based tissue reconstruction has been promised for well over a decade, the reality has yet to emerge. A significant reason for this delay is that regenerative medicine reconstruction solutions involve complex systems in which bioresorbable materials are integrated with surface modifications delivering cells and growth factors. These systems must not only fill complex shapes and provide temporary mechanical function; they must deliver biologic factors that stimulate tissue growth in a controlled, safe, yet rapid manner. Finally, the materials should degrade on a timeline matched to the time it takes to grow tissues. As such, these material device systems are multifunctional and require design techniques that can address multifunctionality, coupled with multiple material manufacturing processes that can be integrated to achieve the design. In this paper, we review these design and manufacturing processes as well as the challenges to integrate these multiple design and manufacturing processes to engineer bioactive material devices.

  9. Polymer hybrid materials for planar optronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Martin; Prucker, Oswald; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Planar optronic systems made entirely from polymeric functional materials on polymeric foils are interesting architectures for monitoring and sensing applications. Key components in this regard are polymer hybrid materials with adjustable optical properties. These materials can then be processed into optical components such as waveguides for example by using embossing techniques. However, the resulting microstructures have often low mechanical or thermal stability which quickly leads to a degradation of the microstructures accompanied often by a complete loss of function. A simple and versatile way to increase the thermal and mechanical stability of polymers is to connect the individual chains to a polymer network by using thermally or photochemically reactive groups. Upon excitation, these groups form reactive intermediates such as radicals or nitrenes which then crosslink with adjacent C-H-groups through a C,H insertion reaction (CHic = C,H insertion based crosslinking). To generate waveguide structures a PDMS stamp is filled with the waveguide core material e.g. poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which is modified with a few mol% of the thermal crosslinker and hot embossed onto a foil substrate e.g. PMMA. In this one-step hot embossing process polymer ridge waveguides are formed and simultaneously the polymer becomes crosslinked. Due to the reaction across the boundary between waveguide and substrate it is also possible to combine initially incompatible polymers for the waveguide and the substrate foil. The thermomechanical properties of the obtained materials are studied.

  10. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  11. New approach to design of ceramic/polymer material compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, A.; Nestler, D.; Trautmann, M.; Wagner, G.

    2016-03-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon fibre-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite materials depends on their porosity and can be rather significant. Complex structures are difficult to produce. The integration of simple geometric structures of ceramic-matrix composite materials in complex polymer-based hybrid structures is a possible approach of realising those structures. These hybrid material compounds, produced in a cost-efficient way, combine the different advantages of the individual components in one hybrid material compound. In addition the individual parts can be designed to fit a specific application and the resulting forces. All these different advantages result in a significant reduction of not only the production costs and the production time, but also opens up new areas of application, such as the large-scale production of wear-resistant and chemically inert, energy dampening components for reactors or in areas of medicine. The low wettability of the ceramic component however is a disadvantage of this approach. During the course of this contribution, different C/C composite materials with a specific porosity were produced, while adjusting the resin/hardening agent-ratio, as well as the processing parameters. After the production, different penetration tests were conducted with a polymer component. The final part of the article is comprised of the microstructural analysis and the explanation of the mechanical relationships.

  12. Interface problems between material recycling systems and plants.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Oguchi, M; Otsubo, K

    1992-01-01

    A most important problem to creating a CELSS system to be used in space, for example, for a Lunar Base or Manned Mars mission, seems to be how to design and operate the various material recycling systems to be used on the missions. Recent studies of a Lunar Base habitat have identified examples of CELSS configurations to be used for the Plant Cultivation Module. Material recycling subsystems to be installed in the Plant Cultivation Modules are proposed to consist of various sub-systems, such as dehumidifiers, oxygen separation systems, catalytic wet oxidation systems, nitrogen adjusting systems, including tanks, and so on. The required performances of such various material recycling subsystems are determined based on precise metabolic data of derived from the various species of plants to be selected and investigated. The plant metabolic data, except that for wheat and potato, has not been fully collected at the present time. Therefore, much additional plant cultivation data is required to determine the performances of each material recycling subsystem introduced in Plant Cultivation Modules.

  13. New Perspectives in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery System Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2013-02-12

    Abstract: Large amounts of waste heat are generated worldwide in industrial processes, automotive transportation, diesel engine exhaust, military generators, and incinerators because 60-70% of the fuel energy is typically lost in these processes. There is a strong need to develop technologies that recover this waste heat to increase fuel efficiency and minimize fuel requirements in these industrial processes, automotive and heavy vehicle engines, diesel generators, and incinerators. There are additional requirements to reduce CO2 production and environmental footprints in many of these applications. Recent work with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program office has investigated new thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems that can operate at higher performance levels and show a viable pathway to lightweight, small form-factor, advanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems to recover waste heat in many of these applications. New TE materials include nano-composite materials such as lead-antimony-silver-telluride (LAST) and lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride (LASTT) compounds. These new materials have created opportunities for high-performance, segmented-element TE devices. New higher-performance TE devices segmenting LAST/LASTT materials with bismuth telluride have been designed and fabricated. Sectioned TEG systems using these new TE devices and materials have been designed. Integrated heat exchanger/TE device system analyses of sectioned TE system designs have been performed creating unique efficiency-power maps that provide better understandings and comparisons of design tradeoffs and nominal and off-nominal system performance conditions. New design perspectives in optimization of sectioned TE design approaches are discussed that provide insight on how to optimize such sectioned TE systems. System performance analyses using ANSYS® TE modeling capabilities have integrated heat exchanger performance models with ANSYS® TE models to extend

  14. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  15. Measurement System for Energetic Materials Decomposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Measurement System for Energetic Materials Decomposition This DURIP grant was used to purchase: 1. Q600 SDT Simultaneous DSC-TGA 2... Decomposition Report Title This DURIP grant was used to purchase: 1. Q600 SDT Simultaneous DSC-TGA 2. Pfeiffer Vacuum Benchtop Thermostar Mass...Spectrometer 3. Vision Research Phantom V12.1-8G-M high speed camera These instruments have been used to evaluate and study decomposition and

  16. Active Materials for Photonic Systems (AMPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    market . Overall Program Summary The overall objective of the Active Materials for Photonic Systems (AMPS) program was to develop and demonstrate...mode fiber, with alignment tolerances of several microns functions well for data communications , single mode fiber is required for several significant...in the laser/optics community . Boeing and MCNC have signed a memorandum of agreement for commercialization and are actively seeking partners for

  17. Hierarchically porous materials: synthesis strategies and structure design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Yu; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Sanchez, Clément; Su, Bao-Lian

    2017-01-23

    Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest. A large series of synthesis methods have been developed. This review addresses recent advances made in studies of this topic. After identifying the advantages and problems of natural hierarchically porous materials, synthetic hierarchically porous materials are presented. The synthesis strategies used to prepare hierarchically porous materials are first introduced and the features of synthesis and the resulting structures are presented using a series of examples. These involve templating methods (surfactant templating, nanocasting, macroporous polymer templating, colloidal crystal templating and bioinspired process, i.e. biotemplating), conventional techniques (supercritical fluids, emulsion, freeze-drying, breath figures, selective leaching, phase separation, zeolitization process, and replication) and basic methods (sol-gel controlling and post-treatment), as well as self-formation phenomenon of porous hierarchy. A series of detailed examples are given to show methods for the synthesis of hierarchically porous structures with various chemical compositions (dual porosities: micro-micropores, micro-mesopores, micro-macropores, meso-mesopores, meso-macropores, multiple porosities: micro-meso-macropores and meso-meso-macropores). We hope that this review will be helpful for those entering the field and also for those in the field who want quick access to helpful reference information about the synthesis of new hierarchically porous materials and

  18. Systems, Devices, and Materials for Digital Optical Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Mark Alan

    The massive parallelism and flexibility of three -dimensional optical communication may allow the development of new parallel computers free from the constraints of planar electronic technology. To bring the optical computer from possibility to reality, however, requires technological and scientific development in new optical systems, devices, and materials. We present here research results in each of these areas. First described is a prototype optical information processing system using CdS/liquid crystal spatial light modulators for optical logic and memory. This system has been developed as the first step in the implementation of a fine-grained, globally-interconnected optical processing element array. Notable system features include the implementation of programmable electronic control and the analysis of the optical power distribution within the processor, both directly applicable to the design of new and more advanced optical information processing systems. Next presented is the design and initial performance data for a new spatial light modulator combining an array of silicon phototransistors with the electro-optic material (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O _3, opening new possibilities for "intelligent" optical logic, memory, and switching devices. Important to the optimal performance of this Si/PLZT device is the fabrication of embedded electrodes in the electro-optic material, reducing the device operating voltage and switching energy while improving the uniformity of the optical modulation. An extensive computer model of embedded electrode performance and details of the electrode fabrication by reactive ion beam etching and electroless Ni deposition are presented. Finally, in the area of optical materials development we present initial results in the RF magnetron deposition of electro -optic PLZT on r-plane sapphire. This work is important to the fabrication of a monolithic, Si/PLZT-on-sapphire spatial light modulator, promising superior performance to devices using

  19. Design Molecular Recognition Materials for Chiral Sensors, Separtations and Catalytic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, S.; Nenoff, T.M.; Provencio, P.; Qiu, Y.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Thoma, S.G.; Zhang, J.

    1998-11-01

    The goal is the development of materials that are highly sensitive and selective for chid chemicals and biochemical (such as insecticides, herbicides, proteins, and nerve agents) to be used as sensors, catalysts and separations membranes. Molecular modeling methods are being used to tailor chiral molecular recognition sites with high affinity and selectivity for specified agents. The work focuses on both silicate and non-silicate materials modified with chirally-pure fictional groups for the catalysis or separations of enantiomerically-pure molecules. Surfactant and quaternary amine templating is being used to synthesize porous frameworks, containing mesopores of 30 to 100 angstroms. Computer molecukw modeling methods are being used in the design of these materials, especially in the chid surface- modi~ing agents. Molecular modeling is also being used to predict the catalytic and separations selectivities of the modified mesoporous materials. The ability to design and synthesize tailored asymmetric molecular recognition sites for sensor coatings allows a broader range of chemicals to be sensed with the desired high sensitivity and selectivity. Initial experiments target the selective sensing of small molecule gases and non-toxic model neural compounds. Further efforts will address designing sensors that greatly extend the variety of resolvable chemical species and forming a predictive, model-based method for developing advanced sensors.

  20. Predictive modeling of infrared detectors and material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkie, Benjamin

    Detectors sensitive to thermal and reflected infrared radiation are widely used for night-vision, communications, thermography, and object tracking among other military, industrial, and commercial applications. System requirements for the next generation of ultra-high-performance infrared detectors call for increased functionality such as large formats (> 4K HD) with wide field-of-view, multispectral sensitivity, and on-chip processing. Due to the low yield of infrared material processing, the development of these next-generation technologies has become prohibitively costly and time consuming. In this work, it will be shown that physics-based numerical models can be applied to predictively simulate infrared detector arrays of current technological interest. The models can be used to a priori estimate detector characteristics, intelligently design detector architectures, and assist in the analysis and interpretation of existing systems. This dissertation develops a multi-scale simulation model which evaluates the physics of infrared systems from the atomic (material properties and electronic structure) to systems level (modulation transfer function, dense array effects). The framework is used to determine the electronic structure of several infrared materials, optimize the design of a two-color back-to-back HgCdTe photodiode, investigate a predicted failure mechanism for next-generation arrays, and predict the systems-level measurables of a number of detector architectures.

  1. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    PubMed

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls.

  2. GALACSI system design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströbele, S.; La Penna, P.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Dorn, R.; Fedrigo, E.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-Y.; Pettazzi, L.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Muradore, R.

    2012-07-01

    GALACSI is one of the Adaptive Optics (AO) systems part of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It will use the VLT 4-Laser Guide Stars system, high speed and low noise WaveFront Sensor cameras (<1e-, 1000Hz) the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the SPARTA Real Time Computer to sharpen images and enhance faint object detectability of the MUSE Instrument. MUSE is an Integral Field Spectrograph working at wavelengths from 465nm to 930nm. GALACSI implements 2 different AO modes; in Wide Field Mode (WFM) it will perform Ground Layer AO correction and enhance the collected energy in a 0.2" by 0.2" pixel by a factor 2 at 750nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1' by 1'. The 4 LGSs and one tip tilt reference star (R-mag <17.5) are located outside the MUSE FoV. Key requirements are to provide this performance and a very good image stability for a 1hour long integration time. In Narrow Field Mode (NFM) Laser Tomography AO will be used to reconstruct and correct the turbulence for the center field using the 4 LGSs at 15" off axis and the Near Infra Red (NIR) light of one reference star on axis for tip tilt and focus sensing. In NFM GALACSI will provide a moderate Strehl Ratio of 5% (goal 10%) at 650nm. The NFM hosts several challenges and many subsystems will be pushed to their limits. The opto mechanical design and error budgets of GALACSI is described here.

  3. Taguchi statistical design and analysis of cleaning methods for spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Chung, S.; Kazarians, G. A.; Blosiu, J. O.; Beaudet, R. A.; Quigley, M. S.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we have extensively tested various cleaning protocols. The variant parameters included the type and concentration of solvent, type of wipe, pretreatment conditions, and various rinsing systems. Taguchi statistical method was used to design and evaluate various cleaning conditions on ten common spacecraft materials.

  4. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of GIS-Based Learning Materials in an Introductory Geoscience Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Wallace, Michelle K.; McAuliffe, Carla M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates student learning that occurred with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based module on plate tectonics and geologic hazards. Examines factors in the design and implementation of the materials that impacted student learning. Reports positive correlations between student' spatial ability and performance. Includes 17 references.…

  5. Porous materials with high negative Poisson’s ratios—a mechanism based material design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangwon; Ju, Jaehyung; Kim, Doo-Man

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to tailor functional materials with customized anisotropic properties—stiffness and yield strain, we propose porous materials consisting of flexible mesostructures designed from the deformation of a re-entrant auxetic honeycomb and compliant mechanisms. Using an analogy between compliant mechanisms and a cellular material’s deformation, we can tailor the in-plane properties of mesostructures; low stiffness and high strain in one direction and high stiffness and low strain in the other direction. An analytical model is developed to obtain the effective moduli and yield strains of the porous materials by combining the kinematics of a rigid link mechanism and deformation of flexure hinges. A numerical technique is implemented with the analytical model for the nonlinear constitutive relations of the mesostructures and their strain-dependent Poisson’s ratios. A finite element analysis (FEA) is used to validate the analytical and numerical models. The designed moduli and yield strain of porous materials with an aluminum alloy are 2 GPa and 0.28% in one direction and 0.2 MPa and 28% in the other direction. These porous materials with mesostructures have high negative Poisson’s ratios, {\

  6. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  7. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  8. Smart dynamic system design: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Mike J.; Skelton, Robert T.

    1994-05-01

    A dynamic system with satisfactory performance generally consists of a mechanical system (the plant) and a controller that drives the mechanical system to meet certain performance requirements. Traditionally the control engineer designs the controller only after the plant design is completed. This two-step approach to plant and controller design does not provide the best system design because the dynamics of the plant and the dynamics of the controller often oppose each other. This paper presents an application of the iterative system equivalent optimal mix algorithm to perform a smart design of a nine-member truss substructure and its accompanying controller. The objective of the design algorithm is to reduce the amount of energy used by the controller to maintain control performance, subject to the structure design constraints. Two unique features of the algorithm are that each iteration of the design problem is stated as a convex quadratic programming problem, and the control effort monotonically converges to its final value.

  9. Two examples of intelligent systems based on smart materials

    SciTech Connect

    Unsworth, J.

    1994-12-31

    Two intelligent systems are described which are based on smart materials. The operation of the systems also rely on conventional well known technologies such as electronics, signal conditioning, signal processing, microprocessors and engineering design. However without the smart materials the development and integration into the intelligent systems would not have been possible. System 1 is a partial discharge monitor for on-line continuous checking of the condition of electrical power transformers. The ultrasonic and radio frequency detectors in this system rely on special piezoelectric composite integrated with a compact annular metal ring. Partial discharges set up ultrasonic and radio frequency signals which are received by the integrated detectors. The signals are amplified, conditioned, signal processed, the time interval between the two signals measured and the level of partial discharge activity averaged and assessed for numerous pairs and alarms triggered on remote control panels if the level is dangerous. The system has the capability of initiating automatic shutdown of the transformer once it is linked into the control computers of the electrical power authority. System 2 is called a Security Cradle and is an intelligent 3D shield designed to use the properties of electro active polymers to prevent hardware hackers from stealing valuable of sensitive information from memory devices (e.g., EPROMS) housed in computer or microprocessor installations.

  10. Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawse, James N.

    2002-12-01

    In the past decade, combinatorial and high throughput experimental methods have revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing researchers to conduct more experiments in a week than was previously possible in a year. Now high throughput experimentation is rapidly spreading from its origins in the pharmaceutical world to larger industrial research establishments such as GE and DuPont, and even to smaller companies and universities. Consequently, researchers need to know the kinds of problems, desired outcomes, and appropriate patterns for these new strategies. Editor James Cawse's far-reaching study identifies and applies, with specific examples, these important new principles and techniques. Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development progresses from methods that are now standard, such as gradient arrays, to mathematical developments that are breaking new ground. The former will be particularly useful to researchers entering the field, while the latter should inspire and challenge advanced practitioners. The book's contents are contributed by leading researchers in their respective fields. Chapters include: -High Throughput Synthetic Approaches for the Investigation of Inorganic Phase Space -Combinatorial Mapping of Polymer Blends Phase Behavior -Split-Plot Designs -Artificial Neural Networks in Catalyst Development -The Monte Carlo Approach to Library Design and Redesign This book also contains over 200 useful charts and drawings. Industrial chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and physicists working in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry will find James Cawse's study to be an invaluable resource.

  11. Meteorological radar facility. Part 1: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassaw, L. L., Jr.; Hamren, S. D.; Mullins, W. H.; Schweitzer, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of information regarding systems design of space shuttles used in meteorological radar probes is presented. Necessary radar equipment is delineated, while space system elements, calibration techniques, antenna systems and other subsystems are reviewed.

  12. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  13. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  14. Design of a scientific probe for obtaining Mars surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Miles; Deyerl, Eric; Gibson, Tim; Langberg, Bob; Yee, Terrance (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to return a 1 Kg Martian soil sample from the surface of Mars to a mothership in a 60 km Mars orbit. Given here is information on the mission profile, the structural design and component placement, thermal control and guidance, propulsion systems, orbital mechanics, and specialized structures.

  15. Design of a scientific probe for obtaining Mars surface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Miles; Deyerl, Eric; Gibson, Tim; Langberg, Bob; Yee, Terrance

    1990-06-01

    The objective is to return a 1 Kg Martian soil sample from the surface of Mars to a mother-ship in a 60 km Mars orbit. Given here is information on the mission profile, the structural design and component placement, thermal control and guidance, propulsion systems, orbital mechanics, and specialized structures.

  16. Designing Digital Control Systems With Averaged Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1990-01-01

    Rational criteria represent improvement over "cut-and-try" approach. Recent development in theory of control systems yields improvements in mathematical modeling and design of digital feedback controllers using time-averaged measurements. By using one of new formulations for systems with time-averaged measurements, designer takes averaging effect into account when modeling plant, eliminating need to iterate design and simulation phases.

  17. Molecular Design of Benzodithiophene-Based Organic Photovoltaic Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huifeng; Ye, Long; Zhang, Hao; Li, Sunsun; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-06-22

    Advances in the design and application of highly efficient conjugated polymers and small molecules over the past years have enabled the rapid progress in the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology as a promising alternative to conventional solar cells. Among the numerous OPV materials, benzodithiophene (BDT)-based polymers and small molecules have come to the fore in achieving outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) and breaking 10% efficiency barrier in the single junction OPV devices. Remarkably, the OPV device featured by BDT-based polymer has recently demonstrated an impressive PCE of 11.21%, indicating the great potential of this class of materials in commercial photovoltaic applications. In this review, we offered an overview of the organic photovoltaic materials based on BDT from the aspects of backbones, functional groups, alkyl chains, and device performance, trying to provide a guideline about the structure-performance relationship. We believe more exciting BDT-based photovoltaic materials and devices will be developed in the near future.

  18. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  19. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    PubMed

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  20. Military turbojet component design and validation with thermostructural composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spriet, P.; Boury, D.; Habarou, G.

    1995-12-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) materials based on a concept providing both high temperature capabilities and high mechanical strength can meet new turbojet requirements. They have the potential to enhance performance and durability of pertinent parts. Lab characterization performed on test samples showed that SEPCARBINOX {reg_sign} C/SiC composites with adequate finishing treatments can sustain temperatures up to 600 - 650{degrees}C for long duration and CERASEP {reg_sign} SiC/SiC composites can sustain temperatures up to 1200{degrees}C. A large amount of R&D activities at SEP on CMC components over the last 10 years have demonstrated a good potential for C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites and brought design experience and methodology for developments. In the future, engines should be able to take advantage of an improved thermostructural material specifically developed for turbojet environment.

  1. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  2. Software For Design Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1991-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) computer program is prototype of expert software system for analysis and design of regenerative, physical/chemical life-support systems that revitalize air, reclaim water, produce food, and treat waste. Incorporates both conventional software for quantitative mathematical modeling of physical, chemical, and biological processes and expert system offering user stored knowledge about materials and processes. Constructs task tree as it leads user through simulated process, offers alternatives, and indicates where alternative not feasible. Also enables user to jump from one design level to another.

  3. Smart Optical Material Characterization System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for characterizing optical materials, using steps and equipment for generating a coherent laser light, filtering the light to remove high order spatial components, collecting the filtered light and forming a parallel light beam, splitting the parallel beam into a first direction and a second direction wherein the parallel beam travelling in the second direction travels toward the material sample so that the parallel beam passes through the sample, applying various physical quantities to the sample, reflecting the beam travelling in the first direction to produce a first reflected beam, reflecting the beam that passes through the sample to produce a second reflected beam that travels back through the sample, combining the second reflected beam after it travels back though the sample with the first reflected beam, sensing the light beam produced by combining the first and second reflected beams, and processing the sensed beam to determine sample characteristics and properties.

  4. Materials and Design Criteria for Kevlar-29 Ribbon Parachutes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    I AFWAL-TR-81-31 38 MATERIALS AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR KEVLAR-29 RIBBON PARACHUTES William R. Pinnell Crew Escape and Subsystems Branch Vehicle...nations. This tehr:ical report hlis beer. reviewea and is approved for publication. ILLIA4 R. PINNELL R. HAkLEY WAVK•R Project Engineer/Scientist Group...1 March 1980 RIBO PARACHUTES ~~oITNUg 7 AUTHOR(&) 11. CONYIIACT ON GIIA"#T N U3I~s) William R. Pinnell F, ;AFOOLMuING ORGQANIZATION %AEAOO31 Q A&OA

  5. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  6. Turbine Aerodynamic Design System Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Presentation outline includes the following: 1. Volute manifold design and analysis methodology. 2. Meanline modification for compatibility with engine analysis code. Objective is to develop a manifold design methodology for turbines and pumps, and to enable rapid screening of candidate flow paths.

  7. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total

  8. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  9. SRM nozzle design breakthroughs with advanced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdoyes, Michel

    1993-06-01

    The weight reduction-related performance and cost of the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) units' critical nozzle components are undergoing revolutionary improvements through the use of 3D-woven carbon/carbon and carbon/alumina composite materials. These can be used to fabricate the SRM's nozzle throat nondegradable insulators, thermostructural insulator, and exit cones. Additional developments are noted among nozzle-related structural components for additional rocket propulsion systems, including a three-piece extendible nozzle.

  10. Molecular design of aminopolynitroazole-based high-energy materials.

    PubMed

    Ghule, Vikas D; Srinivas, Dharavath; Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Jadhav, Pandurang M; Tewari, Surya P

    2012-07-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) was employed to calculate the energetic properties of several aminopolynitroazoles. The calculations were performed to study the effect of amino and nitro substituents on the heats of formation, densities, detonation performances, thermal stabilities, and sensitivity characteristics of azoles. DFT-B3LYP, DFT-B3PW91, and MP2 methods utilizing the basis sets 6-31 G* and 6-311 G (2df, 3p) were adopted to predict HOFs via designed isodesmic reactions. All of the designed aminopolynitroazoles had heats of formation of >220 kJ mol(-1). The crystal densities of the aminopolynitroazoles were predicted with the cvff force field. All of the energetic azoles had densities of >1.83 g/cm(3). The detonation velocities and pressures were evaluated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equations, utilizing the predicted densities and heats of formation. It was found that aminopolynitroazoles have a detonation velocity of about 9.1 km/s and detonation pressure of 36 GPa. The bond dissociation energies for the C-NO(2) and N-NO(2) bonds were analyzed to investigate the stabilities of the designed molecules. The charge on the nitro group was used to assess impact sensitivity in the present study. The results obtained imply that the designed molecules are stable and are expected to be candidates for high-energy materials (HEMs).

  11. Integrated Design of Antibodies for Systems Biology Using Ab Designer.

    PubMed

    Pisitkun, Trairak; Dummer, Patrick; Somparn, Poorichaya; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Knepper, Mark A

    2014-03-24

    In the current era of large-scale biology, systems biology has evolved as a powerful approach to identify complex interactions within biological systems. In addition to high throughput identification and quantification techniques, methods based on high-quality mono-specific antibodies remain an essential element of the approach. To assist the large-scale design and production of peptide-directed antibodies for systems biology studies, we developed a fully integrated online application, AbDesigner (http://helixweb.nih.gov/AbDesigner/), to help researchers select optimal peptide immunogens for antibody generation against relatively disordered regions of target proteins. Here we describe AbDesigner in terms of its features, comparing it to other software tools, and use it to design three antibodies against kidney disease-related proteins in human, viz. nephrin, podocin, and apolipoprotein L1.

  12. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    SciTech Connect

    Capell, B.M.; Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Berte, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations.

  13. Engineering design aspects of the heat-pipe power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capell, B. M.; Houts, M. G.; Poston, D. I.; Berte, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Heat-pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space power system designed at Los Alamos that can provide up to 1,000 kWt for many space nuclear applications. The design of the reactor is simple, modular, and adaptable. The basic design allows for the use of a variety of power conversion systems and reactor materials (including the fuel, clad, and heat pipes). This paper describes a project that was undertaken to develop a database supporting many engineering aspects of the HPS design. The specific tasks discussed in this paper are: the development of an HPS materials database, the creation of finite element models that will allow a wide variety of investigations, and the verification of past calculations.

  14. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  15. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  16. Making intelligent systems team players: Overview for designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guide and companion to the NASA Technical Memorandum 104738, 'Making Intelligent Systems Team Players,' Volumes 1 and 2. The first two volumes of this Technical Memorandum provide comprehensive guidance to designers of intelligent systems for real-time fault management of space systems, with the objective of achieving more effective human interaction. This report provides an analysis of the material discussed in the Technical Memorandum. It clarifies what it means for an intelligent system to be a team player, and how such systems are designed. It identifies significant intelligent system design problems and their impacts on reliability and usability. Where common design practice is not effective in solving these problems, we make recommendations for these situations. In this report, we summarize the main points in the Technical Memorandum and identify where to look for further information.

  17. Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection, Volume 1, Abridged

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    A summary version of Volume 1, presenting the basic encapsulation systems, their purposes and requirements, and the characteristics of the most promising candidate systems and materials, as identified and evaluated by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is presented. In this summary version considerable detail and much supporting and experimental information has necessarily been omitted. A reader interested in references and literature citations, and in more detailed information on specific topics, should consult Reference 1, JPL Document No. 5101-177, JPL Publication 81-102, DOE/JPL-1012-60 (JPL), June 1, 1982.

  18. Advanced composite materials for optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2013-09-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been well established in optomechanical systems for several decades. The other three classes of composites; metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon matrix composites (CAMCs) are making significant inroads. The latter include carbon/carbon (C/C) composites (CCCs). The success of composites has resulted in increasing use in consumer, industrial, scientific, and aerospace/defense optomechanical applications. Composites offer significant advantages over traditional materials, including high stiffnesses and strengths, near-zero and tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), tailorable thermal conductivities (from very low to over twice that of copper), and low densities. In addition, they lack beryllium's toxicity problems. Some manufacturing processes allow parts consolidation, reducing machining and joining operations. At present, PMCs are the most widely used composites. Optomechanical applications date from the 1970s. The second High Energy Astrophysical Observatory spacecraft, placed in orbit in 1978, had an ultrahigh-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy) optical bench metering structure. Since then, fibers and matrix materials have advanced significantly, and use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) has increased steadily. Space system examples include the Hubble Space Telescope metering truss and instrument benches, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), James Webb Space Telescope and many others. Use has spread to airborne applications, such as SOFIA. Perhaps the most impressive CFRP applications are the fifty-four 12m and twelve 7m moveable ground-based ALMA antennas. The other three classes of composites have a number of significant advantages over PMCs, including no moisture absorption or outgassing of organic compounds. CCC and CMC components have flown on a variety of spacecraft. MMCs have been used in space, aircraft, military and industrial

  19. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  20. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  1. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  2. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  3. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  4. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  5. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  6. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  7. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  8. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material strength properties and design....613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based on... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  9. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material strength properties and design... § 29.613 Material strength properties and design values. (a) Material strength properties must be based... be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability—...

  10. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  11. Web-Based Tools for Designing and Developing Teaching Materials for Integration of Information Technology into Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2006-01-01

    Educational software for teachers is an important, yet usually ignored, link for integrating information technology into classroom instruction. This study builds a web-based teaching material design and development system. The process in the system is divided into four stages, analysis, design, development, and practice. Eight junior high school…

  12. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan

    ) and strength (400--1400MPa): Y-TZP zirconia, InCeram alumina and Empress II glass-ceramic. Explicit relations for the critical loads P to produce these different damage modes in bilayer and trilayer structures are developed in terms of basic material properties (modulus E, strength, hardness H and toughness T) and geometrical variables (thickness d and contact sphere radius r). These experimentally validated relations are used to design of optimal material combinations for improved fracture resistance and to predict mechanical performance of current dental materials.

  13. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  14. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B.; Saxena, Surendra K.; LeBeau, James M.; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives. PMID:26681142

  15. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B; Saxena, Surendra K; LeBeau, James M; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-18

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  16. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Lebeau, James M.; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  17. Spin Dynamics in Novel Materials Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Howard

    chemically tuning the organic ligand. We are therefore interested in exploring the resonance properties of this materials system to lay the groundwork for future spin pumping applications. Third, we have made preliminary measurements of spin pumping in hybrid and all-organic bilayer structures. As mentioned above, FMR-driven spin pumping is method for generating pure spin currents with no associated charge motion. This can be detected in a number of ways, one of which is monitoring the FMR characteristics of two ferromagnets in close contact, where spins injected from one magnet into the other changes the linewidth. In conjunction with the magnetic resonance measurements, we have started to investigate the FMR properties of these bilayer systems.

  18. Optimal Design of Honeycomb Material Used to Mitigate Head Impact

    PubMed Central

    Caccese, Vincent; Ferguson, James R.; Edgecomb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact resistance of honeycomb structure with the purpose to mitigate impact forces. The objective is to aid in the choice of optimal parameters to minimize the thickness of the honeycomb structure while providing adequate protection to prevent injury due to head impact. Studies are presented using explicit finite element analysis representing the case of an unprotected drop of a rigid impactor onto a simulated floor consisting of vinyl composition tile and concrete. Analysis of honeycomb material to reduce resulting accelerations is also presented where parameters such as honeycomb material modulus, wall thickness, cell geometry and structure depth are compared to the unprotected case. A simplified analysis technique using a genetic algorithm is presented to demonstrate the use of this method to select a minimum honeycomb depth to achieve a desired acceleration level at a given level of input energy. It is important to select a minimum material depth in that smaller dimensions lead toward more aesthetic design that increase the likelihood of that the device is used. PMID:23976812

  19. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  20. MATERIAL PROCESSING FOR SELF-ASSEMBLING MACHINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. LACKNER; D. BUTT; C. WENDT

    1999-06-01

    We are developing an important aspect of a new technology based on self-reproducing machine systems. Such systems could overcome resource limitations and control the deleterious side effects of human activities on the environment. Machine systems capable of building themselves promise an increase in industrial productivity as dramatic as that of the industrial revolution. To operate successfully, such systems must procure necessary raw materials from their surroundings. Therefore, next to automation, most critical for this new technology is the ability to extract important chemicals from readily available soils. In contrast to conventional metallurgical practice, these extraction processes cannot make substantial use of rare elements. We have designed a thermodynamically viable process and experimentally demonstrated most steps that differ from common practice. To this end we had to develop a small, disposable vacuum furnace system. Our work points to a viable extraction process.