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Sample records for system needle protein

  1. Cutting edge: Mouse NAIP1 detects the type III secretion system needle protein.

    PubMed

    Rayamajhi, Manira; Zak, Daniel E; Chavarria-Smith, Joseph; Vance, Russell E; Miao, Edward A

    2013-10-15

    The NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Inadvertent injection of the T3SS rod protein and flagellin into the cytosol is detected through murine NAIP2 and NAIP5/6, respectively. In this study, we identify the agonist for the orphan murine NAIP1 receptor as the T3SS needle protein. NAIP1 is poorly expressed in resting mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages; however, priming with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid induces it and confers needle protein sensitivity. Further, overexpression of NAIP1 in immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages by retroviral transduction enabled needle detection. In contrast, peritoneal cavity macrophages basally express NAIP1 and respond to needle protein robustly, independent of priming. Human macrophages are known to express only one NAIP gene, which detects the needle protein, but not rod or flagellin. Thus, murine NAIP1 is functionally analogous to human NAIP. PMID:24043898

  2. Characterization of the Interaction between the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Tip Protein SipD and the Needle Protein PrgI by Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement*

    PubMed Central

    Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Tang, Chun; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2011-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria that cause major diseases and mortality worldwide require the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and cause infections. A structural component of the T3SS is the needle apparatus, which consists of a base, an external needle, and a tip complex. In Salmonella typhimurium, the external needle is assembled by the polymerization of the needle protein PrgI. On top of this needle sits a tip complex, which is partly formed by the tip protein SipD. How SipD interacts with PrgI during the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus remains unknown. The central region of PrgI forms an α-helical hairpin, whereas SipD has a long central coiled-coil, which is a defining structural feature of other T3SS tip proteins as well. Using NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, we have identified a specific region on the SipD coiled-coil that interacts directly with PrgI. We present a model of how SipD might dock at the tip of the needle based on our paramagnetic relaxation enhancement results, thus offering new insight about the mechanism of assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. PMID:21138848

  3. Self-Chaperoning of the Type III Secretion System needle tip proteins IpaD and BipD

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Espina, Marianela; Olive, Andrew; Deane, Janet E.; Birket, Susan; Field, Terry; Picking, William D.; Blocker, Ariel; Galyov, Edouard E.; Picking, Wendy L.; Lea, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria expressing type III secretion systems (T3SS) have been responsible for the deaths of millions worldwide, acting as key virulence elements in diseases ranging from plague to typhoid fever. The T3SS is composed of a basal body, which traverses both bacterial membranes, and an external needle through which effector proteins are secreted. We report multiple crystal structures of two proteins that sit at the tip of the needle and are essential for virulence; IpaD from Shigella flexneri and BipD from Burkholderia pseudomallei. The structures reveal that the N-terminal domains of the molecules are intra-molecular chaperones that prevent premature oligomerization, as well as sharing structural homology with proteins involved in eukaryotic actin rearrangement. Crystal packing has allowed us to construct a model for the tip complex that is supported by mutations designed using the structure. PMID:17077085

  4. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Lefebre, Matthew D.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion. PMID:24379359

  5. Mutations in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion System Needle Protein, YscF, That Specifically Abrogate Effector Translocation into Host Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alison J.; Mecsas, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The trafficking of effectors, termed Yops, from Yersinia spp. into host cells is a multistep process that requires the type III secretion system (TTSS). The TTSS has three main structural parts: a base, a needle, and a translocon, which work together to ensure the polarized movement of Yops directly from the bacterial cytosol into the host cell cytosol. To understand the interactions that take place at the interface between the tip of the TTSS needle and the translocon, we developed a screen to identify mutations in the needle protein YscF that separated its function in secretion from its role in translocation. We identified 25 translocation-defective (TD) yscF mutants, which fall into five phenotypic classes. Some classes exhibit aberrant needle structure and/or reduced levels of Yop secretion, consistent with known functions for YscF. Strikingly, two yscF TD classes formed needles and secreted Yops normally but displayed distinct translocation defects. Class I yscF TD mutants showed diminished pore formation, suggesting incomplete pore insertion and/or assembly. Class II yscF TD mutants formed pores but showed nonpolar translocation, suggesting unstable needle-translocon interactions. These results indicate that YscF functions in Yop secretion and translocation can be genetically separated. Furthermore, the identification of YscF residues that are required for the assembly of the translocon and/or productive interactions with the translocon has allowed us to initiate the mapping of the needle-translocon interface. PMID:17071752

  6. The Structure of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) Ruler Protein Suggests a Molecular Mechanism for Needle Length Sensing.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Fernández, Lucia; Wasney, Gregory A; Vuckovic, Marija; Reffuveille, Fany; Hancock, Robert E W; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2016-01-22

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial flagellum are related pathogenicity-associated appendages found at the surface of many disease-causing bacteria. These appendages consist of long tubular structures that protrude away from the bacterial surface to interact with the host cell and/or promote motility. A proposed "ruler" protein tightly regulates the length of both the T3SS and the flagellum, but the molecular basis for this length control has remained poorly characterized and controversial. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS as a model system, we report the first structure of a T3SS ruler protein, revealing a "ball-and-chain" architecture, with a globular C-terminal domain (the ball) preceded by a long intrinsically disordered N-terminal polypeptide chain. The dimensions and stability of the globular domain do not support its potential passage through the inner lumen of the T3SS needle. We further demonstrate that a conserved motif at the N terminus of the ruler protein interacts with the T3SS autoprotease in the cytosolic side. Collectively, these data suggest a potential mechanism for needle length sensing by ruler proteins, whereby upon T3SS needle assembly, the ruler protein's N-terminal end is anchored on the cytosolic side, with the globular domain located on the extracellular end of the growing needle. Sequence analysis of T3SS and flagellar ruler proteins shows that this mechanism is probably conserved across systems. PMID:26589798

  7. The response of type three secretion system needle proteins MxiHDelta5, BsaLDelta5, and PrgIDelta5 to temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brooke S; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; Middaugh, C Russell

    2008-11-15

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a specialized supramolecular injectisome composed of 25 or more proteins which form basal and extracellular domains and share gross architectural similarities with bacterial flagella. The extracellular component of the "needle complex" is primarily composed of a single monomeric subunit organized in a helical array surrounding a hollow pore and protrudes from the bacterial membrane. It is through this surface appendage that virulence factors are translocated to the host cell cytoplasm and thereby subvert normal host cell functions. We present here a comprehensive biophysical analysis of the dynamic conformational behavior of the truncated monomeric needle subunit proteins MxiH(Delta5) (Shigella flexneri), BsaL(Delta5) (Burkholderia pseudomallei), and PrgI(Delta5) (Salmonella typhimurium) as well as their thermal stability over a pH range of 3-8. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates the secondary structure is largely alpha helical in all three proteins, and surprisingly thermally labile with transition midpoints in the range of 35-50 degrees C over the pH range of 3-8. Additionally, at the concentrations examined, the very broad thermal transitions were >90% reversible. Second derivative UV absorbance spectroscopy data indicates some disruption of the protein's tertiary structure occurs at temperatures in the range of 29-46 degrees C. The difference in the pH of maximal stability for each of the proteins and the variation for each protein with respect to both secondary and tertiary structural elements is striking. It appears, that at physiological temperatures all three proteins experience intermediate non-native molten globule like states in which they display significant secondary structure in the absence of extensive tertiary interactions. Because of the size difference between the inner pore of the needle and the fully folded needle proteins, it seems clear that the needle subunits must be secreted in a partially or

  8. Structural Characterization of the Yersinia pestis Type III Secretion System Needle Protein YscF in Complex with Its Heterodimeric Chaperone YscE/YscG

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ping; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Cherry, Scott; Waugh, David S.

    2008-05-03

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. Effector proteins are injected through a hollow needle structure composed of the protein YscF. YscG and YscE act as 'chaperones' to prevent premature polymerization of YscF in the cytosol of the bacterium prior to assembly of the needle. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YscEFG protein complex at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Overall, the structure is similar to that of the analogous PscEFG complex from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system, but there are noteworthy differences. The structure confirms that, like PscG, YscG is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat family of proteins. YscG binds tightly to the C-terminal half of YscF, implying that it is this region of YscF that controls its polymerization into the needle structure. YscE interacts with the N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat motif of YscG but makes very little direct contact with YscF. Its function may be to stabilize the structure of YscG and/or to participate in recruiting the complex to the secretion apparatus. No electron density could be observed for the 49 N-terminal residues of YscF. This and additional evidence suggest that the N-terminus of YscF is disordered in the complex with YscE and YscG. As expected, conserved residues in the C-terminal half of YscF mediate important intra- and intermolecular interactions in the complex. Moreover, the phenotypes of some previously characterized mutations in the C-terminal half of YscF can be rationalized in terms of the structure of the heterotrimeric YscEFG complex.

  9. Structural and Functional Similarity between the Bacterial Type III Secretion System Needle Protein PrgI and the Eukaryotic Apoptosis Bcl-2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Powers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function. Methodology/Principal Findings The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS). A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI. Conclusions/Significance A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in ligand binding sites

  10. Structural characterization of the Yersinia pestis type III secretion system needle protein YscF in complex with its heterodimeric chaperone YscE/YscG

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Cherry, Scott; Waugh, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. Effector proteins are injected through a hollow needle structure composed of the protein YscF. YscG and YscE act as "chaperones" to prevent premature polymerization of YscF in the cytosol of the bacterium prior to assembly of the needle. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YscEFG protein complex at 1.8 Å resolution. Overall, the structure is similar to that of the analogous PscEFG complex from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS, but there are noteworthy differences. The structure confirms that, like PscG, YscG is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) family of proteins. YscG binds tightly to the C-terminal half of YscF, implying that it is this region of YscF that controls its polymerization into the needle structure. YscE interacts with the N-terminal TPR motif of YscG but makes very little direct contact with YscF. Its function may be to stabilize the structure of YscG and/or to participate in recruiting the complex to the secretion apparatus. No electron density could be observed for the N-terminal 49 residues of YscF. This and additional evidence suggest that the N-terminus of YscF is disordered in the complex with YscE and YscG. As expected, conserved residues in the C-terminal half of YscF mediate important intra- and intermolecular interactions in the complex. Moreover, the phenotypes of some previously characterized mutations in the C-terminal half of YscF can be rationalized in terms of the structure of the heterotrimeric YscEFG complex. PMID:18281060

  11. Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2012-05-20

    Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunit-subunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be α-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen.

  12. Mutations in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Needle Protein Gene pscF Confer Resistance to Phenoxyacetamide Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Bowlin, Nicholas O.; Williams, John D.; Knoten, Claire A.; Torhan, Matthew C.; Tashjian, Tommy F.; Li, Bing; Aiello, Daniel; Mecsas, Joan; Hauser, Alan R.; Peet, Norton P.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a clinically important virulence mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that secretes and translocates effector toxins into host cells, impeding the host's rapid innate immune response to infection. Inhibitors of T3SS may be useful as prophylactic or adjunctive therapeutic agents to augment the activity of antibiotics in P. aeruginosa infections, such as pneumonia and bacteremia. One such inhibitor, the phenoxyacetamide MBX 1641, exhibits very responsive structure-activity relationships, including striking stereoselectivity, in its inhibition of P. aeruginosa T3SS. These features suggest interaction with a specific, but unknown, protein target. Here, we identify the apparent molecular target by isolating inhibitor-resistant mutants and mapping the mutation sites by deep sequencing. Selection and sequencing of four independent mutants resistant to the phenoxyacetamide inhibitor MBX 2359 identified the T3SS gene pscF, encoding the needle apparatus, as the only locus of mutations common to all four strains. Transfer of the wild-type and mutated alleles of pscF, together with its chaperone and cochaperone genes pscE and pscG, to a ΔpscF P. aeruginosa strain demonstrated that each of the single-codon mutations in pscF is necessary and sufficient to provide secretion and translocation that is resistant to a variety of phenoxyacetamide inhibitor analogs but not to T3SS inhibitors with different chemical scaffolds. These results implicate the PscF needle protein as an apparent new molecular target for T3SS inhibitor discovery and suggest that three other chemically distinct T3SS inhibitors interact with one or more different targets or a different region of PscF. PMID:24468789

  13. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-08-27

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  14. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  15. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  16. Type III Secretion Needle Proteins Induce Cell Signaling and Cytokine Secretion via Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Danielle L.; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  17. Threading the Needle: Getting Selenocysteine Into Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) requires that UGA be recognized as a sense rather than a nonsense codon. This is accomplished by the concerted action of a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, SECIS binding protein 2, and a ternary complex of the Sec specific elongation factor, Sec-tRNASec, and GTP. The mechanism by which they alter the canonical protein synthesis reaction has been elusive. Here we present an overview of the mechanistic perspective on Sec incorporation, highlighting recent advances in the field. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 881–892. PMID:19747061

  18. Solution structure of monomeric BsaL, the type III secretion needle protein of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Yu; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2006-06-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria that are important human pathogens possess type III secretion systems as part of their required virulence factor repertoire. During the establishment of infection, these pathogens coordinately assemble greater than 20 different proteins into a macromolecular structure that spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and, in many respects, resembles and functions like a syringe. This type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) is used to inject proteins into a host cell's membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular processes. The external portion of the TTSA is a needle that is composed of a single type of protein that is polymerized in a helical fashion to form an elongated tube with a central channel of 2-3 nm in diameter. TTSA needle proteins from a variety of bacterial pathogens share sequence conservation; however, no atomic structure for any TTSA needle protein is yet available. Here, we report the structure of a TTSA needle protein called BsaL from Burkholderia pseudomallei determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The central part of the protein assumes a helix-turn-helix core domain with two well-defined alpha-helices that are joined by an ordered, four-residue linker. This forms a two-helix bundle that is stabilized by interhelix hydrophobic contacts. Residues that flank this presumably exposed core region are not completely disordered, but adopt a partial helical conformation. The atomic structure of BsaL and its sequence homology with other TTSA needle proteins suggest potentially unique structural dynamics that could be linked with a universal mechanism for control of type III secretion in diverse gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  19. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  20. The Structure of the Salmonella typhimurium Type III Secretion System Needle Shows Divergence from the Flagellar System

    PubMed Central

    Galkin, Vitold E.; Schmied, Wolfgang H.; Schraidt, Oliver; Marlovits, Thomas C.; Egelman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is essential for the infectivity of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS contains proteins that form a channel in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as an extracellular needle that is used for transporting and injecting effector proteins into a host cell. The homology between the T3SS and the bacterial flagellar system has been firmly established, based upon both sequence similarities between respective proteins in the two systems and the structural homology of the higher-order assemblies. It has previously been shown that the Shigella flexneri needle has a helical symmetry of ~ 5.6 subunits per turn, which is quite similar to that of the most intensively studied flagellar filament, from Salmonella typhimurium, which has ~ 5.5 subunits per turn. We now show that the S. typhimurium needle, expected by homology arguments to be more similar to the S. typhimurium flagellar filament than is the needle from Shigella, actually has ~ 6.3 subunits per turn. It is not currently understood how host cell contact, made at the tip of the needle, is communicated to the secretory system at the base. In contrast to the S. typhimurium flagellar filament, which shows a nearly crystalline order, the S. typhimurium needle has a highly variable symmetry, which could be used to transmit information about host cell contact. PMID:20060835

  1. A Needle-Free Injection System (INJEX™) with lidocaine for epidural needle insertion: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gozdemir, Muhammet; Demircioglu, Ruveyda Irem; Karabayirli, Safinaz; Sert, Huseyin; Muslu, Bunyamin; Usta, Burhanettin; Yazici, Ummugulsum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Local anesthetic infiltration is also a process of a painful process itself. INJEX™ technology, known as “Needle-free” drug delivery system, was designed for reducing the pain associated with cutaneous procedures. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate the application of lidocaine with INJEX™ system and 27-gauge needle. Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients were allocated to receive either INJEX group or 27-gauge needle group. Local anesthetic infiltration was applied two minutes before epidural needle insertion. Results: Mean VAS, at the time of local anesthetic injection was 0 for group I and 2 for group II. When the effect of epidural needle insertion was compared, the mean VAS score was one versus two for Group-I versus Group-II, respectively. Lidocaine applied with the INJEX™ system before epidural needle insertion significantly reduced the intensity of pain during that procedure and was least effective the lidocaine applied with the 27-gauge needle and patients felt less pain during at the time of local anesthetic injection in Group-I. Conclusion: Needle-free delivery of lidocaine is an effective, easy to-use and noninvasive method of providing local anesthesia for the epidural needle insertion. PMID:27375728

  2. NMR Model of PrgI-SipD Interaction and its Implications in the Needle-Tip Assembly of the Salmonella Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Lefebre, Matthew; Chatterjee, Srirupa; McShan, Andrew C.; Guo, Da-Chuan; Tang, Chun; Galan, Jorge E.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins into human cells to initiate infections. The structural component of the T3SS contains a needle and a needle tip. The needle is assembled from PrgI needle protomers and the needle tip is capped with several copies of the SipD tip protein. How a tip protein docks on the needle is unclear. A crystal structure of a PrgI-SipD fusion protein docked on the PrgI needle results in steric clash of SipD at the needle tip when modeled on the recent atomic structure of the needle. Thus, there is currently no good model of how SipD is docked on the PrgI needle tip. Previously, we showed by NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) methods that a specific region in the SipD coiled-coil is the binding site for PrgI. Others have hypothesized that a domain of the tip protein – the N-terminal α-helical hairpin, has to swing away during the assembly of the needle apparatus. Here, we show by PRE methods that a truncated form of SipD lacking the α-helical hairpin domain binds more tightly to PrgI. Further, PRE-based structure calculations revealed multiple PrgI binding sites on the SipD coiled-coil. Our PRE results together with the recent NMR-derived atomic structure of the Salmonella needle suggest a possible model of how SipD might dock at the PrgI needle tip. SipD and PrgI are conserved in other bacterial T3SSs, thus our results have wider implication in understanding other needle-tip complexes. PMID:24951833

  3. Robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, Joachim; Kronreif, Gernot

    2015-02-01

    Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance -- even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions.

  4. Helical packing of needles from functionally altered Shigella type III secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Frank S; Daniell, Sarah; Kenjale, Roma; Saurya, Saroj; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; Booy, Frank; Lea, Susan M; Blocker, Ariel

    2005-11-25

    Gram-negative bacteria commonly interact with eukaryotic host cells using type III secretion systems (TTSSs or secretons), which comprise cytoplasmic, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle-like structure protruding 60 nm beyond the bacterial surface. The TTSS is activated to transfer bacterial proteins directly into a host cell only upon physical contact with the target cell. We showed previously that the monomer of the Shigella flexneri needle, MxiH, assembles into a helical structure with parameters similar to those defining the architecture of the extracellular components of bacterial flagella. By analogy with flagella, which are known to exist in different helical states, we proposed that changes in the helical packing of the needle might be used to sense host cell contact. Here, we show that, on the contrary, mutations within MxiH that lock the TTSS into altered secretion states do not detectably alter the helical packing of needles. This implies that either: (1) host cell contact is signalled through the TTSS via helical changes in the needle that are significantly smaller than those linked to structural changes in the flagellar filament and therefore too small to be detected by our analysis methods or (2) that signal transduction in this system occurs via a novel molecular mechanism. PMID:16243352

  5. Single amino acid substitutions on the needle tip protein IpaD increased Shigella virulence.

    PubMed

    Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Schiavolin, Lionel; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-07-01

    Infection of colonic epithelial cells by Shigella is associated with the type III secretion system, which serves as a molecular syringe to inject effectors into host cells. This system includes an extracellular needle used as a conduit for secreted proteins. Two of these proteins, IpaB and IpaD, dock at the needle tip to control secretion and are also involved in the insertion of a translocation pore into host cell membrane allowing effector delivery. To better understand the function of IpaD, we substituted thirteen residues conserved among homologous proteins in other bacterial species. Generated variants were tested for their ability to surface expose IpaB and IpaD, to control secretion, to insert the translocation pore, and to invade host cells. In addition to a first group of seven ipaD variants that behaved similarly to the wild-type strain, we identified a second group with mutations V314D and I319D that deregulated secretion of all effectors, but remained fully invasive. Moreover, we identified a third group with mutations Y153A, T161D, Q165L and Y276A, that exhibited increased levels of translocators secretion, pore formation, and cell entry. Altogether, our results offer a better understanding of the role of IpaD in the control of Shigella virulence.

  6. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many

  7. Polymerization of a single protein of the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica into needles punctures eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoiczyk, Egbert; Blobel, Günter

    2001-01-01

    A number of pathogenic, Gram-negative bacteria are able to secrete specific proteins across three membranes: the inner and outer bacterial membrane and the eukaryotic plasma membrane. In the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica, the primary structure of the secreted proteins as well as of the components of the secretion machinery, both plasmid-encoded, is known. However, the mechanism of protein translocation is largely unknown. Here we show that Y. enterocolitica polymerizes a 6-kDa protein of the secretion machinery into needles that are able to puncture the eukaryotic plasma membrane. These needles form a conduit for the transport of specific proteins from the bacterial to the eukaryotic cytoplasm, where they exert their cytotoxic activity. In negatively stained electron micrographs, the isolated needles were 60–80 nm long and 6–7 nm wide and contained a hollow center of about 2 nm. Our data indicate that it is the polymerization of the 6-kDa protein into these needles that provides the force to perforate the eukaryotic plasma membrane. PMID:11287645

  8. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  9. Formulation and immunogenicity studies of type III secretion system needle antigens as vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brooke S; Markham, Aaron P; Esfandiary, Reza; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial infections caused by Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei are currently difficult to prevent due to the lack of a licensed vaccine. Here we present formulation and immunogenicity studies for the three type III secretion system (TTSS) needle proteins MxiH(Δ5), PrgI(Δ5), and BsaL(Δ5) (each truncated by five residues at its C terminus) as potential candidates for vaccine development. These antigens are found to be thermally stabilized by the presence of carbohydrates and polyols. Additionally, all adsorb readily to aluminum hydroxide apparently through a combination of hydrogen bonds and/or Van der Waals forces. The interaction of these proteins with the aluminum-based adjuvant changes with time resulting in varying degrees of irreversible binding. Peptide maps of desorbed protein, however, suggest that chemical changes are not responsible for this irreversible association. The ability of MxiH(Δ5) and PrgI(Δ5) to elicit strong humoral immune responses was tested in a murine model. When administered intramuscularly as monomers, the needle components exhibited dose dependent immunogenic behavior. The polymerized version of MxiH was exceptionally immunogenic even at low doses. The responses of both monomeric and polymerized forms were boosted by adsorption to an aluminum salt adjuvant.

  10. Formulation and Immunogenicity studies of Type III Secretion System needle antigens as Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Brooke S.; Markham, Aaron P.; Esfandiary, Reza; Picking, Wendy L.; Picking, William D.; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Middaugh, C. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections caused by Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium and Burkholderia pseudomallei are currently difficult to prevent due to the lack of a licensed vaccine. Here we present formulation and immunogenicity studies for the three type III secretion system (TTSS) needle proteins MxiHΔ5, PrgIΔ5 and BsaLΔ5 (each truncated by five residues at its C terminus) as potential candidates for vaccine development. These antigens are found to be thermally stabilized by the presence of carbohydrates and polyols. Additionally, all adsorb readily to aluminum hydroxide apparently through a combination of hydrogen bonds and/or Van der Waals forces. The interaction of these proteins with the aluminum-based adjuvant changes with time to resulting in varying degrees of irreversible binding. Peptide maps of desorbed protein, however, suggest that chemical changes are not responsible for this irreversible association. The ability of MxiHΔ5 and PrgIΔ5 to elicit strong humoral immune responses was tested in a murine model. When administered intramuscularly as monomers, the needle components exhibited dose dependent immunogenic behavior. The polymerized version of MxiH was exceptionally immunogenic even at low doses. The responses of both monomeric and polymerized forms were boosted by adsorption to an aluminum salt adjuvant. PMID:20845448

  11. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-02-15

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75{+-}0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced

  12. Robot-assisted needle placement in open MRI: system architecture, integration and validation.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, S P; Pieper, S; Chinzei, K; Hata, N; Haker, S J; Kacher, D F; Fichtinger, G; Tempany, C M; Kikinis, R

    2007-01-01

    In prostate cancer treatment, there is a move toward targeted interventions for biopsy and therapy, which has precipitated the need for precise image-guided methods for needle placement. This paper describes an integrated system for planning and performing percutaneous procedures with robotic assistance under MRI guidance. A graphical planning interface allows the physician to specify the set of desired needle trajectories, based on anatomical structures and lesions observed in the patient's registered pre-operative and pre-procedural MR images, immediately prior to the intervention in an open-bore MRI scanner. All image-space coordinates are automatically computed, and are used to position a needle guide by means of an MRI-compatible robotic manipulator, thus avoiding the limitations of the traditional fixed needle template. Automatic alignment of real-time intra-operative images aids visualization of the needle as it is manually inserted through the guide. Results from in-scanner phantom experiments are provided. PMID:17364655

  13. Genetic Dissection of the Signaling Cascade that Controls Activation of the Shigella Type III Secretion System from the Needle Tip

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, I.; Martinez-Argudo, I.; Blocker, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) for virulence. The Shigella T3SS consists of a hollow needle, made of MxiH and protruding from the bacterial surface, anchored in both bacterial membranes by multimeric protein rings. Atop the needle lies the tip complex (TC), formed by IpaD and IpaB. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, T3S is initiated leading to formation of a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane, which is made of IpaB and IpaC. Through the needle and pore channels, further bacterial proteins are translocated inside the host cell to meditate its invasion. IpaD and the needle are implicated in transduction of the host cell-sensing signal to the T3S apparatus. Furthermore, the sensing-competent TC seems formed of 4 IpaDs topped by 1 IpaB. However, nothing further is known about the activation process. To investigate IpaB’s role during T3SS activation, we isolated secretion-deregulated IpaB mutants using random mutagenesis and a genetic screen. We found ipaB point mutations in leading to defects in secretion activation, which sometimes diminished pore insertion and host cell invasion. We also demonstrated IpaB communicates intramolecularly and intermolecularly with IpaD and MxiH within the TC because mutations affecting these interactions impair signal transduction. PMID:27277624

  14. Design of a multi-needle Langmuir probe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkeng, T. A.; Jacobsen, K. S.; Bekkeng, J. K.; Pedersen, A.; Lindem, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Moen, J. I.

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a Langmuir probe instrument for sounding rockets capable of performing high-speed absolute electron density measurements, and thereby be able to detect sub-meter ionospheric plasma density structures. The system comprises four cylindrical probes with a diameter of 0.51 mm and a length of 25 mm, each operated at a different fixed bias voltage in the electron saturation region. The probe diameter was chosen significantly less than the Debye shielding length to avoid complex sheath effects but large enough to ensure a probe area sufficiently large to accurately measure the electron currents drawn by the probes (in the range 1 nA to 1 µA). The crucial feature of the University of Oslo's multi-needle Langmuir probe (m-NLP) is that it is possible to determine the electron density without the need to know the spacecraft potential and the electron temperature Te. The m-NLP instrument covers a density range from ne = 109 m-3 to 1012 m-3, with sampling rates up to 9 kHz. The m-NLP instrument was successfully tested on the ICI-2 (Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) sounding rocket flight from Svalbard on 5 December 2008.

  15. Mechanically assisted 3D prostate ultrasound imaging and biopsy needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Williams, Jackie; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Karnik, Vaishali; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are currently limited to using 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging to guide the biopsy needle. Being limited to 2D causes ambiguity in needle guidance and provides an insufficient record to allow guidance to the same suspicious locations or avoid regions that are negative during previous biopsy sessions. We have developed a mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound imaging and needle tracking system, which supports a commercially available TRUS probe and integrated needle guide for prostate biopsy. The mechanical device is fixed to a cart and the mechanical tracking linkage allows its joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting the weight of the ultrasound probe. The computer interface is provided in order to track the needle trajectory and display its path on a corresponding 3D TRUS image, allowing the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate. The system has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe in order to generate 3D image for 3D navigation. Using the system, 3D TRUS prostate images can be generated in approximately 10 seconds. The system reduces most of the user variability from conventional hand-held probes, which make them unsuitable for precision biopsy, while preserving some of the user familiarity and procedural workflow. In this paper, we describe the 3D TRUS guided biopsy system and report on the initial clinical use of this system for prostate biopsy.

  16. Crystal Structure of PrgI-SipD: Insight into a Secretion Competent State of the Type Three Secretion System Needle Tip and its Interaction with Host Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lunelli, Michele; Hurwitz, Robert; Lambers, Jutta; Kolbe, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many infectious Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, require a Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) to translocate virulence factors into host cells. The T3SS consists of a membrane protein complex and an extracellular needle together that form a continuous channel. Regulated secretion of virulence factors requires the presence of SipD at the T3SS needle tip in S. typhimurium. Here we report three-dimensional structures of individual SipD, SipD in fusion with the needle subunit PrgI, and of SipD:PrgI in complex with the bile salt, deoxycholate. Assembly of the complex involves major conformational changes in both SipD and PrgI. This rearrangement is mediated via a π bulge in the central SipD helix and is stabilized by conserved amino acids that may allow for specificity in the assembly and composition of the tip proteins. Five copies each of the needle subunit PrgI and SipD form the T3SS needle tip complex. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and crystal structure analysis we found that the T3SS needle tip complex binds deoxycholate with micromolar affinity via a cleft formed at the SipD:PrgI interface. In the structure-based three-dimensional model of the T3SS needle tip, the bound deoxycholate faces the host membrane. Recently, binding of SipD with bile salts present in the gut was shown to impede bacterial infection. Binding of bile salts to the SipD:PrgI interface in this particular arrangement may thus inhibit the T3SS function. The structures presented in this study provide insight into the open state of the T3SS needle tip. Our findings present the atomic details of the T3SS arrangement occurring at the pathogen-host interface. PMID:21829362

  17. The N Terminus of Type III Secretion Needle Protein YscF from Yersinia pestis Functions To Modulate Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Jessen Condry, Danielle L.; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The type III secretion system is employed by many pathogens, including the genera Yersinia, Shigella, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella, to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. The injectisome needle is formed by the polymerization of a single protein, e.g., YscF (Yersinia pestis), PscF (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), PrgI (Salmonella enterica SPI-1), SsaG (Salmonella enterica SPI-2), or MxiH (Shigella flexneri). In this study, we demonstrated that the N termini of some needle proteins, particularly the N terminus of YscF from Yersinia pestis, influences host immune responses. The N termini of several needle proteins were truncated and tested for the ability to induce inflammatory responses in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells). Truncated needle proteins induced proinflammatory cytokines to different magnitudes than the corresponding wild-type proteins, except SsaG. Notably, N-terminally truncated YscF induced significantly higher activation of NF-κB and/or AP-1 and higher induction of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that a function of the N terminus of YscF is interference with host sensing of YscF, consistent with Y. pestis pathogenesis. To directly test the ability of the N terminus of YscF to suppress cytokine induction, a YscF-SsaG chimera with 15 N-terminal amino acids from YscF added to SsaG was constructed. The chimeric YscF-SsaG induced lower levels of cytokines than wild-type SsaG. However, the addition of 15 random amino acids to SsaG had no effect on NF-κB/AP-1 activation. These results suggest that the N terminus of YscF can function to decrease cytokine induction, perhaps contributing to a favorable immune environment leading to survival of Y. pestis within the eukaryotic host. PMID:25644012

  18. Modeling of Drug Delivery by A Pump Driven Micro-Needle Array System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Pan, Min; Feng, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micro-needles were proposed as one of the alternatives to deliver drugs painlessly passing through stratum corneum in recent years. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to characterize the in fusion flow of a hollow micro-needle array driven by a micro-pump. Methods: By assuming the injection of each micro-needle undergoes a spherical expansion and diffusion, the model is able to calculate the time-varying expansion radius, and the diffusion boundary, provided that the material properties and the micro-needle system parameters are known. Results and Conclusion: The calculation results show that the expansion caused by the infusion of micro-needles stops and the flow rate drops to zero in a short time. However, the diffusion boundary is much bigger than the expansion and the infusion continues if the surrounding material is absorptive. The experimental results of jet infusion through a single needle in silicon rubber and polyacrylamide gel agree with the calculation results qualitatively. PMID:27347217

  19. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  20. Physical evaluation of a needle photostimulable phosphor based CR mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Nicholas W.; Lemmens, Kim; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Needle phosphor based computed radiography (CR) systems promise improved image quality compared to powder phosphor based CR units for x-ray screening mammography. This paper compares the imaging performance of needle CR cassettes, powder based CR cassettes and a well established amorphous selenium (a-Se) based flat panel based mammography system, using consistent beam qualities. Methods: Detector performance was assessed using modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Mammography system performance was assessed against levels from the European Guidelines, including threshold gold thickness (c-d), relative signal difference to noise (SdNR) and mean glandular dose, for automatic exposure control settings suggested by the manufacturers. The needle based Agfa HM5.0 CR detector was compared against the single sided readout Agfa MM3.0R and dual sided readout Fuji Profect CS powder CR plates using a 28 kV Mo/Rh spectrum, while a 28 kV W/Rh spectrum was used to compare the Agfa HM5.0 against the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration a-Se based system. Results: MTF at 5 mm{sup -1} was 0.16 and 0.24 for the needle CR detector in the fast and slow scan directions, respectively, indicating a slight improvement ({approx}20%) over the two powder CR systems but remained 50% lower than the result at 5 mm{sup -1} for the a-Se detector ({approx}0.55). Structured screen noise was lower for the needle phosphor compared to the powder plates. CR system gain, estimated from the measured absorption fraction and NNPS results, was 6.3 for the (single sided) needle phosphor and 5.1 and 7.2 for the single sided and dual sided powder phosphor systems. Peak DQE at {approx}100 {mu}Gy was 0.47 for the needle system compared to peak DQE figures of 0.33 and 0.46 for the single sided readout powder plates and dual sided readout plates. The high frequency DQE (at 5 mm{sup -1}) was 0.19 for the needle CR plates, a factor of

  1. Cancer cell profiling by barcoding allows multiplexed protein analysis in fine needle aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Ullal, Adeeti V.; Peterson, Vanessa; Agasti, Sarit S.; Tuang, Suan; Juric, Dejan; Castro, Cesar M.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry-based clinical diagnoses require invasive core biopsies and use a limited number of protein stains to identify and classify cancers. Here, we introduce a technology that allows analysis of hundreds of proteins from minimally invasive fine needle aspirates (FNA), which contain much smaller numbers of cells than core biopsies. The method capitalizes on DNA-barcoded antibody sensing where barcodes can be photo-cleaved and digitally detected without any amplification steps. Following extensive benchmarking in cell lines, this method showed high reproducibility and achieved single cell sensitivity. We used this approach to profile ~90 proteins in cells from FNAs and subsequently map patient heterogeneity at the protein level. Additionally, we demonstrate how the method could be used as a clinical tool to identify pathway responses to molecularly targeted drugs and to predict drug response in patient samples. This technique combines specificity with ease of use to offer a new tool for understanding human cancers and designing future clinical trials. PMID:24431113

  2. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  3. Debris and irrigant extrusion potential of 2 rotary systems and irrigation needles.

    PubMed

    Altundasar, Emre; Nagas, Emre; Uyanik, Ozgur; Serper, Ahmet

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded irrigant using 2 Ni-Ti rotary systems. Forty mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Flower arrangement foam cubes were weighed with a precision balance before being attached to the apical portions of all teeth. In group 1, preparation was completed with ProTaper files. In group 2 canals were prepared with RaCe files. In groups 1 and 2, the irrigant was delivered with a 30-gauge conventional dental needle. In groups 3 and 4, teeth were prepared as in groups 1 and 2 with the exception that the irrigant was delivered with a side-vented irrigation needle. The weight of the extruded material (irrigant and debris) for each group was calculated by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weights of the foams used for periapical modeling. Obtained data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, with P equals .05 as the level for statistical significance. ProTaper files used with regular needle irrigation had the highest fluid extrusion. The lowest irrigant extrusion was observed with the RaCe system combined with a side-vented irrigation needle. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that irrigation needle and rotary instruments have an effect on the amount of extruded root canal irrigant.

  4. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology PMID:26119166

  5. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Yeon, Seongchan; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology. PMID:26119166

  6. Electromagnetic thermotherapy system with needle arrays: a practical tool for the removal of cancerous tumors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Kang, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Thermotherapy has been a promising method to treat tumor. In recent years, electromagnetic thermotherapy (EMT) has been extensively investigated and holds the potential for a variety of medical applications including for cancer treatment when combined with minimally invasive surgery approach. In this study, an alternating electromagnetic frequency was provided by an EMT system to heat up stainless steel needle arrays which were inserted into the target tumor to a high temperature, therefore leading to local ablation of the tumor. A new two-section needle-array apparatus was further demonstrated to encompass the tumor to prevent the tumor cells to spread after the treatment process. By using the needle-array insertion apparatus, there is no limitation of the treatment area; this method could, therefore, be applied for tumors that are larger than 6 cm. It was first successfully demonstrated in the in vitro experiments on porcine livers. Then an in vivo experiment was directly conducted on pigs. The two-section needle array incorporated with the needle-array apparatus and EMT was demonstrated to be promising for no-touch isolation treatment of cancerous tumors.

  7. Needle-probe system for the measurement of tissue refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zysk, Adam M.; Adie, Steven G.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Leigh, Matthew S.; Paduch, Alexandre; Nguyen, Freddy T.; Sampson, David D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    Needle-based devices, which are in wide clinical use for needle biopsy procedures, may be augmented by suitable optical techniques for the localization and diagnosis of diseased tissue. Tissue refractive index is one optical contrast mechanism with diagnostic potential. In the case of mammary tissue, for example, recent research indicates that refractive index variations between tissue types may be useful for the identification of cancerous tissue. While many coherence-based forward-sensing devices have been developed to detect scattering changes, none have demonstrated refractive index measurement capabilities. We present a novel needle-based device that is capable of simultaneously measuring refractive index and scattering. Coupled to the sample arm of an optical coherence tomography system, the needle device detects the scattering response and optical pathlength through tissue residing in a fixed-width channel. Near-infrared measurements of tissues and materials with known optical properties using a prototype device will be presented. This work demonstrates the feasibility of integrated in vivo measurement of refractive index and scattering in conjunction with existing clinical needle-based devices.

  8. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection.

  9. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection. PMID:22194233

  10. Treatment feasibility study of osteoporosis using minimal invasive laser needle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongyeon; Ko, Chang-Yong; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Park, Sunwook; Kim, Han-Sung; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-02-01

    Although the mechanism of laser stimulation effect in bone has not completely understood, laser stimulation is recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis due to positive treatment efficacy. In this study, a minimal invasive laser needle system (MILNS) was developed using a fine hollow needle in order to stimulate directly bone site by guiding an optical fiber. In order to evaluate the MILNS as a treatment method, in-vivo animal experiment study was performed using osteopenic mice. Twelve virginal ICR mice were employed and divided two groups: SHAM-group and LASERgroup. SHARM-group was stimulated by only fine hollow needle and LASER-group by fine hollow needle combined with laser stimulation. All mice were served in-vivo micro-CT images before and after treatment. Three dimensional (3D) structural parameters and vBMD (volume bone mineral density, g/cm3) in the trabecular bone were measured. After 2 weeks of stimulation, the vBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.N in LASER-group were significantly higher than those in SHAM-group (p<0.05). Potentially, this study suggested that the MILNS might prevent the bone loss and maintains the bone mineral density of osteopenic mice.

  11. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  12. Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Chaney, Eric J.; Spillman, Darold R.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in optical imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enable us to observe tissue microstructure at high resolution and in real time. Currently, core-needle biopsies are guided by external imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for breast and lung masses, respectively. These image-guided procedures are frequently limited by spatial resolution when using ultrasound imaging, or by temporal resolution (rapid real-time feedback capabilities) when using x-ray CT. One feasible approach is to perform OCT within small gauge needles to optically image tissue microstructure. However, to date, no system or core-needle device has been developed that incorporates both three-dimensional OCT imaging and tissue biopsy within the same needle for true OCT-guided core-needle biopsy. We have developed and demonstrate an integrated core-needle biopsy system that utilizes catheter-based 3-D OCT for real-time image-guidance for target tissue localization, imaging of tissue immediately prior to physical biopsy, and subsequent OCT imaging of the biopsied specimen for immediate assessment at the point-of-care. OCT images of biopsied ex vivo tumor specimens acquired during core-needle placement are correlated with corresponding histology, and computational visualization of arbitrary planes within the 3-D OCT volumes enables feedback on specimen tissue type and biopsy quality. These results demonstrate the potential for using real-time 3-D OCT for needle biopsy guidance by imaging within the needle and tissue during biopsy procedures. PMID:22741064

  13. What's the point of the type III secretion system needle?

    PubMed Central

    Blocker, Ariel J.; Deane, Janet E.; Veenendaal, Andreas K. J.; Roversi, Pietro; Hodgkinson, Julie L.; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work by several groups has significantly expanded our knowledge of the structure, regulation of assembly, and function of components of the extracellular portion of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Gram-negative bacteria. This perspective presents a structure-informed analysis of functional data and discusses three nonmutually exclusive models of how a key aspect of T3SS biology, the sensing of host cells, may be performed. PMID:18458349

  14. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.

    PubMed

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

  15. Getting a camel through the eye of a needle: the import of folded proteins by peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Warriner, Stuart L; Baker, Alison

    2010-02-12

    Peroxisomes are a family of organelles which have many unusual features. They can arise de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum by a still poorly characterized process, yet possess a unique machinery for the import of their matrix proteins. As peroxisomes lack DNA, their function, which is highly variable and dependent on developmental and/or environmental conditions, is determined by the post-translational import of specific metabolic enzymes in folded or oligomeric states. The two classes of matrix targeting signals for peroxisomal proteins [PTS1 (peroxisomal targeting signal 1) and PTS2] are recognized by cytosolic receptors [PEX5 (peroxin 5) and PEX7 respectively] which escort their cargo proteins to, or possibly across, the peroxisome membrane. Although the membrane translocation mechanism remains unclear, it appears to be driven by thermodynamically favourable binding interactions. Recycling of the receptors from the peroxisome membrane requires ATP hydrolysis for two linked processes: ubiquitination of PEX5 (and the PEX7 co-receptors in yeast) and the function of two peroxisome-associated AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) ATPases, which play a role in recycling or turnover of the ubiquitinated receptors. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on peroxisome matrix protein import from yeast, plant and mammalian model systems, and discusses some of the gaps in our understanding of this remarkable protein transport system.

  16. Differences in the electrostatic surfaces of the type III secretion needle proteins PrgI, BsaL, and MxiH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ouellette, Andrew N; Egan, Chet W; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Im, Wonpil; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2007-08-31

    Gram-negative bacteria use a needle-like protein assembly, the type III secretion apparatus, to inject virulence factors into target cells to initiate human disease. The needle is formed by the polymerization of approximately 120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. We previously reported the structure of the BsaL needle monomer from Burkholderia pseudomallei by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and others have determined the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri MxiH needle. Here, we report the NMR structure of the PrgI needle protein of Salmonella typhimurium, a human pathogen associated with food poisoning. PrgI, BsaL, and MxiH form similar two helix bundles, however, the electrostatic surfaces of PrgI differ radically from those of BsaL or MxiH. In BsaL and MxiH, a large negative area is on a face formed by the helix alpha1-alpha2 interface. In PrgI, the major negatively charged surface is not on the "face" but instead is on the "side" of the two-helix bundle, and only residues from helix alpha1 contribute to this negative region. Despite being highly acidic proteins, these molecules contain large basic regions, suggesting that electrostatic contacts are important in needle assembly. Our results also suggest that needle-packing interactions may be different among these bacteria and provide the structural basis for why PrgI and MxiH, despite 63% sequence identity, are not interchangeable in S. typhimurium and S. flexneri.

  17. Differences in the electrostatic surfaces of the type III secretion needle proteins PrgI, BsaL, and MxiH

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Ouellette, Andrew N.; Egan, Chet W.; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Im, Wonpil; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2007-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use a needle-like protein assembly, the type III secretion apparatus, to inject virulence factors into target cells to initiate human disease. The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. We previously reported the structure of the BsaL needle monomer from Burkholderia pseudomallei by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and others have determined the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri MxiH needle. Here, we report the NMR structure of the PrgI needle protein of Salmonella typhimurium, a human pathogen associated with food poisoning. PrgI, BsaL, and MxiH form similar two helix bundles, however, the electrostatic surfaces of PrgI differ radically from those of BsaL or MxiH. In BsaL and MxiH, a large negative area is on a face formed by the helix α1-α2 interface. In PrgI, the major negatively charged surface is not on the “face” but instead is on the “side” of the two helix bundle, and only residues from helix α1 contribute to this negative region. Despite being highly acidic proteins, these molecules contain large basic regions, suggesting that electrostatic contacts are important in needle assembly. Our results also suggest that needle packing interactions may be different among these bacteria and provide the structural basis for why PrgI and MxiH, despite 63% sequence identity, are not interchangeable in S. typhimurium and S. flexneri. PMID:17617421

  18. Toward a miniaturized needle steering system with path planning for obstacle avoidance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seong Young; Rodriguez y Baena, Ferdinando

    2013-04-01

    Percutaneous intervention is among the preferred diagnostic and treatment options in surgery today. Recently, a biologically inspired needle steering system was proposed, where a novel "programmable bevel" is employed to control the tip angle as a function of the offset between interlocked needle segments. The new device, codenamed soft tissue intervention and neurosurgical guide (STING), can steer along arbitrary curvilinear trajectories within a compliant medium, and be controlled by means of an embedded position sensor. In this study, we provide details of our latest attempt to miniaturize the STING, with the design and manufacture of a 4-mm outer diameter (OD) two-part prototype that includes unique features, such as a bespoke trocar and insertion mechanism, which ensure that the segments do not come apart or buckle during the insertion process. It is shown that this prototype can steer around tight bends (down to a radius of curvature of ~70 mm), a performance which is comparable to the best systems in this class. With the need to comply with the specific mechanical constraints of STING, this paper also introduces a novel path planner with obstacle avoidance, which can produce a differentiable trajectory that satisfies constraints on both the maximum curvature of the final trajectory and its derivative. In vitro results in gelatin for the integrated prototype and path planner demonstrate accurate 2-D trajectory following (0.1 mm tracking error, with 0.64 mm standard deviation), with significant scope for future improvements. PMID:23193445

  19. A Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek; Sushkov, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω when IΩ << Nℏ , where I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle. In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. Supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation, Simons Foundation, and the National Science Foundation.

  20. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. PMID:27232012

  1. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, N ℏ≫I Ω (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin N ℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t-3 /2. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  2. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  3. Robotic system for MRI-guided prostate biopsy: feasibility of teleoperated needle insertion and ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Song, Sang-Eun; Krieger, Axel; Cho, Nathan Bongjoon; Tokuda, Junichi; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with robotic assistance has the potential to improve on clinical outcomes of biopsy and local treatment of prostate cancer. Methods We report the workspace optimization and phantom evaluation of a five Degree of Freedom (DOF) parallel pneumatically actuated modular robot for MRI-guided prostate biopsy. To shorten procedure time and consequently increase patient comfort and system accuracy, a prototype of a MRI-compatible master–slave needle driver module using piezo motors was also added to the base robot. Results Variable size workspace was achieved using appropriate link length, compared with the previous design. The 5-DOF targeting accuracy demonstrated an average error of 2.5mm (STD=1.37mm) in a realistic phantom inside a 3T magnet with a bevel-tip 18G needle. The average position tracking error of the master–slave needle driver was always below 0.1mm. Conclusion Phantom experiments showed sufficient accuracy for manual prostate biopsy. Also, the implementation of teleoperated needle insertion was feasible and accurate. These two together suggest the feasibility of accurate fully actuated needle placement into prostate while keeping the clinician supervision over the task. PMID:21698389

  4. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI sensor interface is integrated into an MRI robot control system. By leveraging the complementary features of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation, a pneumatically actuated haptic master robot is also developed to render force associated with needle placement interventions to the clinician. An aluminum load cell is implemented and calibrated to close the impedance control loop of the master robot. A force-position control algorithm is developed to control the hybrid actuated system. Teleoperated needle insertion is demonstrated under live MR imaging, where the slave robot resides in the scanner bore and the user manipulates the master beside the patient outside the bore. Force and position tracking results of the master-slave robot are demonstrated to validate the tracking performance of the integrated system. It has a position tracking error of 0.318mm and sine wave force tracking error of 2.227N. PMID:25126446

  5. Augmented Reality on a C-Arm System: A Preclinical Assessment for Percutaneous Needle Localization.

    PubMed

    Racadio, John M; Nachabe, Rami; Homan, Robert; Schierling, Ross; Racadio, Judy M; Babić, Draženko

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To compare the navigational accuracy and radiation dose during needle localization of targets for augmented reality (AR) with and without motion compensation (MC) versus those for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) with real-time fluoroscopy navigation in a pig model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Three operators each localized 15 targets (bone fragments) approximately 7 cm deep in the paraspinal muscles of nine Yorkshire pigs by using each of the three modalities (AR with and without MC and cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy). Target depth, accuracy (distance between needle tip and target), and radiation dose (dose-area product [DAP]) were recorded for each procedure. Correlation between accuracy and depth of target was assessed by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Two-way analysis of variance was used for differentiating accuracy and DAPs across navigation techniques and operator backgrounds. Results There was no correlation between depth of target and accuracy. There was no significant difference in accuracy between modalities (mean distance, 3.0 mm ± 1.9 [standard deviation] for cone-beam CT with fluoroscopy, 2.5 mm ± 2.0 for AR, and 3.2 mm ± 2.7 for AR with MC [P = .33]). There was, however, a significant difference in fluoroscopy radiation dose (10.4 Gy · cm(2) ± 10.6 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 2.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 2.4 for AR, and 3.3 Gy · cm(2) ± 4.6 for AR with MC [P < .05]) and therefore in total procedural radiation dose (20.5 Gy · cm(2) ± 13.4 for cone-beam CT fluoroscopy, 12.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 5.3 for AR, 13.6 Gy · cm(2) ± 7.4 for AR with MC [P < .05]). Conclusion Use of an AR C-arm system reduces radiation dose while maintaining navigational accuracy compared with cone-beam CT fluoroscopy during image-guided percutaneous needle placement in a pig model. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Electromagnetic thermotherapy for deep organ ablation by using a needle array under a synchronized-coil system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Kang, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Thermal ablation by using electromagnetic thermotherapy (EMT) has been a promising cancer modality in recent years. It has relatively few side effects and has therefore been extensively investigated for a variety of medical applications in internal medicine and surgery. The EMT system applies a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field to heat up the needles which are inserted into the target tumor to cause tumor ablation. In this study, a new synchronized-coil EMT system was demonstrated, which was equipped with two synchronized coils and magnetic field generators to provide a long-range, penetrated electromagnetic field to effectively heat up the needles. The heating effect of the needles at the center of the two coils was first explored. The newly designed two-section needle array combined with the synchronized-coil EMT system was thus demonstrated in the in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. Experimental data showed that the developed system is promising for minimally invasive surgery since it might provide superior performance for thermotherapy in cancer treatment.

  7. Portable optical epidural needle-a CMOS-based system solution and its circuit design.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Mandell, M Susan; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chang, Yin; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Epidural anesthesia is a common anesthesia method yet up to 10% of procedures fail to provide adequate analgesia. This is usually due to misinterpreting the tactile information derived from the advancing needle through the complex tissue planes. Incorrect placement also can cause dural puncture and neural injury. We developed an optic system capable of reliably identifying tissue planes surrounding the epidural space. However the new technology was too large and cumbersome for practical clinical use. We present a miniaturized version of our optic system using chip technology (first generation CMOS-based system) for logic functions. The new system was connected to an alarm that was triggered once the optic properties of the epidural were identified. The aims of this study were to test our miniaturized system in a porcine model and describe the technology to build this new clinical tool. Our system was tested in a porcine model and identified the epidural space in the lumbar, low and high thoracic regions of the spine. The new technology identified the epidural space in all but 1 of 46 attempts. Experimental results from our fabricated integrated circuit and animal study show the new tool has future clinical potential.

  8. Portable Optical Epidural Needle-A CMOS-Based System Solution and Its Circuit Design

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Mandell, M. Susan; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chang, Yin; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Epidural anesthesia is a common anesthesia method yet up to 10% of procedures fail to provide adequate analgesia. This is usually due to misinterpreting the tactile information derived from the advancing needle through the complex tissue planes. Incorrect placement also can cause dural puncture and neural injury. We developed an optic system capable of reliably identifying tissue planes surrounding the epidural space. However the new technology was too large and cumbersome for practical clinical use. We present a miniaturized version of our optic system using chip technology (first generation CMOS-based system) for logic functions. The new system was connected to an alarm that was triggered once the optic properties of the epidural were identified. The aims of this study were to test our miniaturized system in a porcine model and describe the technology to build this new clinical tool. Our system was tested in a porcine model and identified the epidural space in the lumbar, low and high thoracic regions of the spine. The new technology identified the epidural space in all but 1 of 46 attempts. Experimental results from our fabricated integrated circuit and animal study show the new tool has future clinical potential. PMID:25162150

  9. Shigella IpaD has a dual role: signal transduction from the type III secretion system needle tip and intracellular secretion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roehrich, A Dorothea; Guillossou, Enora; Blocker, Ariel J; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein injection devices essential for the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with eukaryotic cells. While Shigella assembles its T3SS when the environmental conditions are appropriate for invasion, secretion is only activated after physical contact with a host cell. First, the translocators are secreted to form a pore in the host cell membrane, followed by effectors which manipulate the host cell. Secretion activation is tightly controlled by conserved T3SS components: the needle tip proteins IpaD and IpaB, the needle itself and the intracellular gatekeeper protein MxiC. To further characterize the role of IpaD during activation, we combined random mutagenesis with a genetic screen to identify ipaD mutant strains unable to respond to host cell contact. Class II mutants have an overall defect in secretion induction. They map to IpaD's C-terminal helix and likely affect activation signal generation or transmission. The Class I mutant secretes translocators prematurely and is specifically defective in IpaD secretion upon activation. A phenotypically equivalent mutant was found in mxiC. We show that IpaD and MxiC act in the same intracellular pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that IpaD has a dual role and acts at two distinct locations during secretion activation.

  10. Design of a Teleoperated Needle Steering System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Accurate needle placement plays a key role in success of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. During percutaneous interventions, the prostate gland rotates and deforms which may cause significant target displacement. In these cases straight needle trajectory is not sufficient for precise targeting. Although needle spinning and fast insertion may be helpful, they do not entirely resolve the issue. We propose robot-assisted bevel-tip needle steering under MRI guidance as a potential solution to compensate for the target displacement. MRI is chosen for its superior soft tissue contrast in prostate imaging. Due to the confined workspace of the MRI scanner and the requirement for the clinician to be present inside the MRI room during the procedure, we designed a MRI-compatible 2-DOF haptic device to command the needle steering slave robot which operates inside the scanner. The needle steering slave robot was designed to be integrated with a previously developed pneumatically actuated transperineal robot for MRI-guided prostate needle placement. We describe design challenges and present the conceptual design of the master and slave robots and the associated controller. PMID:24649480

  11. Comparison of fine needle aspiration biopsy and paraffin embedded tissue sections for measuring AgNOR proteins.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, S; Eroz, R; Cucer, N; Oktay, M; Türkeli, M

    2015-07-01

    Paraffin embedded tissue sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are important methods for diagnosis. We compared thyroid tissue obtained by FNAB to paraffin embedded sections to determine whether there were differences in detection of the amounts of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) proteins. Twenty-two patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. Slides were prepared with both FNAB tissue and 3 μm sections of paraffin embedded tissue, and stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per individual were evaluated; total AgNOR number/nucleus (TAn/TNn) and total AgNOR area/nuclear area (TAa/TNa) of individual cells were determined. Mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values were 4.800 ± 1.118 and 13.382 ± 2.612, respectively, for FNAB samples; corresponding values were 2.406 ± 0.649 and 8.49 ± 0.893, respectively, for paraffin embedded sections. The differences between FNAB materials and paraffin embedded tissue sections were significant for the mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values. Significant differences in the amounts of AgNOR protein detected were found between FNAB and paraffin embedded tissue sections.

  12. Differential p53 protein expression in breast cancer fine needle aspirates: the potential for in vivo monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ball, H M-L; Hupp, T R; Ziyaie, D; Purdie, C A; Kernohan, N M; Thompson, A M

    2001-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the least invasive method of sampling breast cancer in vivo and provides material for breast cancer diagnosis. FNA has also been used to examine cellular markers to predict and monitor the effects of therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of using FNA material compared with resected cancer for Western blotting studies of the p53 pathway, a key to tumour response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Paired samples of breast cancer FNAs collected pre-operatively and post-operatively were compared with tissue samples obtained at the time of surgical resection. Western blots were probed for p53 using the antibodies DO12 and DO1, and for levels of downstream proteins p21/WAF1 and p27. The protein extracted by FNA was sufficient for up to 5 Western blot studies. p53 expression and phosphorylation did not differ significantly pre- and post-operatively, indicating that intra-operative manipulation does not affect p53 expression or downstream activation in breast cancer. However, expression of p53, p21 and p27 varied between individual patients suggesting a range of p53 pathway activation in breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the cancer cells accounted for the protein expression detected on Western blots. FNA yields adequate protein for Western blotting studies and could be used as a method to monitor p53 activity in vivo before and during anti-cancer treatment possibly providing early evidence of tumour response to therapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710820

  13. Coupled transport protein systems.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  14. Flow dynamics of extrusion needle vacuuming in a closed vitrectomy system.

    PubMed

    Danis, R P; Thompson, J T

    1990-02-01

    The dynamics of pressure, flow, and ocular volume relationships were examined with respect to extrusion needle use in simulated vitrectomy. Glass-stoppered bottles used with infusion lines with drip chambers lowered the intraocular pressure 4 to 7 inches below the fluid level in the bottle, varying with the amount of fluid in the bottle. Compared with flow rates using the regular tip needle with the steel infusion cannula, the disposable infusion cannula lowered the flow rate by about 25% and the tapered tip extrusion needle decreased outflow by 40% to 50%. Tracer dilution rates were decreased by the use of the disposable infusion port or the aphakic model eye; however, 2 minutes of infusion at a 30-inch bottle height dilution was still sufficient to wash out the tracer to less than 5% of the original concentration.

  15. Real-time ultrasound-guided PCNL using a novel SonixGPS needle tracking system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Long, Qingzhi; Chen, Xingfa; He, Dalin; Dalin, He; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    SonixGPS is a successful ultrasound guidance position system. It helps to improve accuracy in performing complex puncture operations. This study firstly used SonixGPS to perform kidney calyx access in PCNL to investigate its effectiveness and safety. This was a prospectively randomized controlled study performed from September 2011 to October 2012. A total of 97 patients were prospectively randomized into two groups using random number generated from SAS software. 47 Patients were enrolled in conventional ultrasound-guided (US-guided) group and 50 patients were classified into SonixGPS-guided group. Nine patients were lost during follow-up. Hence, a total of 88 patients were qualified and analyzed. Preoperative examinations included urine analysis, urine culture, kidney function, coagulation profile and routine analysis of blood. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the degree of hydronephrosis. The intraoperative findings, including blood loss, operating time, time to successful puncture, the number of attempts for successful puncture and hospital stay were recorded. The stone clearance rate and complications were analyzed. The present study showed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data, preoperative markers, stone clearance rate and the stone composition. However, the time to successful puncture, the number of trials for successful puncture, operating time and hospital length of stay were significantly decreased in the SonixGPS-guided group. Furthermore, the hemoglobin decrease was also obviously lower in the SonixGPS group than that in conventional US-guided group. SonixGPS needle tacking system guided PCNL is safe and effective in treating upper urinary tract stones. This novel technology makes puncturing more accuracy and can significantly decrease the incidence of relative hemorrhage and accelerate recovery. PMID:24965272

  16. Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes. PMID:21092296

  17. The effects of a minimally invasive laser needle system on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heesung; Son, Taeyoon; Lee, Aeju; Youn, Inchan; Seo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Han Sung; Jung, Byungjo

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) on the acute progression of arthritis. Previous studies showed controversial clinical results regarding the effects of low-level laser therapy on arthritis, with the outcomes depending upon stimulation parameters such as laser wavelength and dosage. Based on the positive effects of MILNS on osteoporotic mice, we hypothesized that MILNS could potentially suppress the progression of arthritis owing to its biostimulation effects. Eight C57BL/6 mice with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis were used as acute progression arthritis models and divided into the laser and control groups (n = 4 each). In the laser group, after minimally invasive laser stimulation, laser speckle contrast images (LSCIs) were obtained every 6 h for a total of 108 h. The LSCIs in the control group were obtained without laser stimulation. The effects of MILNS on the acute progression of arthritis were indirectly evaluated by calculating the paw area and the average laser speckle index (LSI) at the arthritis-induced area. Moreover, the macrophage population was estimated in the arthritis-induced area. Compared to the control group, the laser group showed (1) lower relative variations of the paw area, (2) lower average LSI in the arthritis-induced area, and (3) lower macrophage population in the arthritis-induced area. These results indicate that MILNS may suppress the acute progression of CFA-induced arthritis in mice and may thus be used as a potential treatment modality of arthritis in clinics.

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  19. Needle Federated Search Engine

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  20. Needle Phobia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lynda S

    2016-01-01

    Venipuncture is generally associated with some degree of pain, discomfort, and/or apprehension. Yet most patients accept it with tolerance, even nonchalance. A few, not only pediatric patients, exhibit a higher degree of anxiety and face the procedure with tears, tension, and a variety of bargaining techniques (ie, stick on the count of 3; use only this vein). But for 1 group of people, venipuncture is associated with such fear that avoidance of the procedure is practiced. The end results are detrimental to the patient and may have an impact on society as well. These are patients the American Psychiatric Association classifies as needle phobic. What can a nurse with no training in psychiatry do to assist these patients? To form an appropriate professional response, it's beneficial for practitioners to recognize the different pathways that lead to needle phobia and the issues related to the disorder. PMID:27598066

  1. Three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction and cysteine-mediated crosslinking provide a model of the type III secretion system needle tip complex

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Martin; Shen, Da-Kang; Makino, Fumiaki; Kato, Takayuki; Roehrich, A Dorothea; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel; Walker, Matthew L; Murillo, Isabel; Liu, Xia; Pain, Maria; Brown, James; Frazer, Gordon; Mantell, Judith; Mina, Petros; Todd, Thomas; Sessions, Richard B; Namba, Keiichi; Blocker, Ariel J

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are found in many Gram-negative bacteria. They are activated by contact with eukaryotic cells and inject virulence proteins inside them. Host cell detection requires a protein complex located at the tip of the device's external injection needle. The Shigella tip complex (TC) is composed of IpaD, a hydrophilic protein, and IpaB, a hydrophobic protein, which later forms part of the injection pore in the host membrane. Here we used labelling and crosslinking methods to show that TCs from a ΔipaB strain contain five IpaD subunits while the TCs from wild-type can also contain one IpaB and four IpaD subunits. Electron microscopy followed by single particle and helical image analysis was used to reconstruct three-dimensional images of TCs at ∼20 Å resolution. Docking of an IpaD crystal structure, constrained by the crosslinks observed, reveals that TC organisation is different from that of all previously proposed models. Our findings suggest new mechanisms for TC assembly and function. The TC is the only site within these secretion systems targeted by disease-protecting antibodies. By suggesting how these act, our work will allow improvement of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25353930

  2. Structure of a type III secretion needle at 7-Å resolution provides insights into its assembly and signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takashi; Cheung, Martin; Blanco, Amandine; Kato, Takayuki; Blocker, Ariel J.; Namba, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria form injection devices that deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells during infection. They span both bacterial membranes and the extracellular space to connect with the host cell plasma membrane. Their extracellular portion is a needle-like, hollow tube that serves as a secretion conduit for effector proteins. The needle of Shigella flexneri is approximately 50-nm long and 7-nm thick and is made by the helical assembly of one protein, MxiH. We provide a 7-Å resolution 3D image reconstruction of the Shigella needle by electron cryomicroscopy, which resolves α-helices and a β-hairpin that has never been observed in the crystal and solution structures of needle proteins, including MxiH. An atomic model of the needle based on the 3D-density map, in comparison with that of the bacterial-flagellar filament, provides insights into how such a thin tubular structure is stably assembled by intricate intermolecular interactions. The map also illuminates how the needle-length control protein functions as a ruler within the central channel during export of MxiH for assembly at the distal end of the needle, and how the secretion-activation signal may be transduced through a conformational change of the needle upon host-cell contact. PMID:22388746

  3. Performance and suitability assessment of a real-time 3D electromagnetic needle tracking system for interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boutaleb, Samir; Fillion, Olivier; Bonillas, Antonio; Hautvast, Gilion; Binnekamp, Dirk; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate insertion and overall needle positioning are key requirements for effective brachytherapy treatments. This work aims at demonstrating the accuracy performance and the suitability of the Aurora® V1 Planar Field Generator (PFG) electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) for real-time treatment assistance in interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Material and methods The system's performance was characterized in two distinct studies. First, in an environment free of EM disturbance, the boundaries of the detection volume of the EMTS were characterized and a tracking error analysis was performed. Secondly, a distortion analysis was conducted as a means of assessing the tracking accuracy performance of the system in the presence of potential EM disturbance generated by the proximity of standard brachytherapy components. Results The tracking accuracy experiments showed that positional errors were typically 2 ± 1 mm in a zone restricted to the first 30 cm of the detection volume. However, at the edges of the detection volume, sensor position errors of up to 16 mm were recorded. On the other hand, orientation errors remained low at ± 2° for most of the measurements. The EM distortion analysis showed that the presence of typical brachytherapy components in vicinity of the EMTS had little influence on tracking accuracy. Position errors of less than 1 mm were recorded with all components except with a metallic arm support, which induced a mean absolute error of approximately 1.4 mm when located 10 cm away from the needle sensor. Conclusions The Aurora® V1 PFG EMTS possesses a great potential for real-time treatment assistance in general interstitial brachytherapy. In view of our experimental results, we however recommend that the needle axis remains as parallel as possible to the generator surface during treatment and that the tracking zone be restricted to the first 30 cm from the generator surface. PMID:26622231

  4. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs and chest wall (pleural membrane). A larger, hollow needle is then placed gently through the skin ... the needle. A smaller cutting needle inside the hollow one is used to collect tissue samples. During ...

  5. Past, present, and future for surgical needles and needle holders.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Rodeheaver, G T

    1993-11-01

    During the last two decades, major advances in surgical needle and needle holder technology have markedly improved surgical wound repair. These advances include quantitative tests for surgical needle and needle holders performance, high nickel maraging stainless steels, compound curved needles, needle sharpening methods, laser-drilled holes for swages, needle:suture ratios of 1:1, and the atraumatic needle holder.

  6. Quantification of prostate deformation due to needle insertion during TRUS-guided biopsy: comparison of hand-held and mechanically stabilized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Bax, Jeffrey; Fenster, Aaron; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. To overcome the limitations of 2D TRUS-guided biopsy systems when targeting pre-planned locations, systems have been developed with 3D guidance to improve the accuracy of cancer detection. Prostate deformation due to needle insertion and biopsy gun firing is a potential source of error that can cause target misalignments during biopsies. We use non-rigid registration of 2D TRUS images to quantify the deformation during the needle insertion and the biopsy gun firing procedure, and compare this effect in biopsies performed using a handheld TRUS probe with those performed using a mechanically assisted 3D TRUS guided biopsy system. Although the mechanically assisted biopsy system had a mean deformation approximately 0.2 mm greater than that of the handheld approach, it yielded a lower relative increase of deformation near the needle axis during the needle insertion stage and greater deformational stability of the prostate during the biopsy gun firing stage. We also analyzed the axial and lateral components of the tissue motion; our results indicated that the motion is weakly biased in the direction orthogonal to the needle, which is less than ideal from a targeting standpoint given the long, narrow cylindrical shape of the biopsy core.

  7. Maxillofacial Changes in Melnick-Needles Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque do Nascimento, Leilane Larissa; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Quintela, Mariana; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies. Conclusion. Knowledge of this rare syndrome on the part of dentists is important due to the fact that this condition involves severe abnormalities of the stomatognathic system that cause an impact on the development of the entire face as well as functional and esthetic impairments. PMID:27478655

  8. Maxillofacial Changes in Melnick-Needles Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque do Nascimento, Leilane Larissa; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Quintela, Mariana; Teixeira, Victor Perez; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies. Conclusion. Knowledge of this rare syndrome on the part of dentists is important due to the fact that this condition involves severe abnormalities of the stomatognathic system that cause an impact on the development of the entire face as well as functional and esthetic impairments. PMID:27478655

  9. The Common Structural Architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium Type Three Secretion Needles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Laube, Britta; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS), or injectisome, is a macromolecular infection machinery present in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a basal body, anchored in both bacterial membranes, and a hollow needle through which effector proteins are delivered into the target host cell. Two different architectures of the T3SS needle have been previously proposed. First, an atomic model of the Salmonella typhimurium needle was generated from solid-state NMR data. The needle subunit protein, PrgI, comprises a rigid-extended N-terminal segment and a helix-loop-helix motif with the N-terminus located on the outside face of the needle. Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7-Å cryo-electron microscopy density map. The subunit protein, MxiH, contains an N-terminal α-helix, a loop, another α-helix, a 14-residue-long β-hairpin (Q51–Q64) and a C-terminal α-helix, with the N-terminus facing inward to the lumen of the needle. In the current study, we carried out solid-state NMR measurements of wild-type Shigella flexneri needles polymerized in vitro and identified the following secondary structure elements for MxiH: a rigid-extended N-terminal segment (S2-T11), an α-helix (L12-A38), a loop (E39-P44) and a C-terminal α-helix (Q45-R83). Using immunogold labeling in vitro and in vivo on functional needles, we located the N-terminus of MxiH subunits on the exterior of the assembly, consistent with evolutionary sequence conservation patterns and mutagenesis data. We generated a homology model of Shigella flexneri needles compatible with both experimental data: the MxiH solid-state NMR chemical shifts and the state-of-the-art cryoEM density map. These results corroborate the solid-state NMR structure previously solved for Salmonella typhimurium PrgI needles and establish that Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium subunit proteins adopt a conserved structure and orientation in their assembled state

  10. Protective Humoral Immunity Elicited by a Needle-Free Malaria Vaccine Comprised of a Chimeric Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein and a Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist, Flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Carapau, Daniel; Mitchell, Robert; Nacer, Adéla; Shaw, Alan; Othoro, Caroline; Frevert, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Immunization with Plasmodium sporozoites can elicit high levels of sterile immunity, and neutralizing antibodies from protected hosts are known to target the repeat region of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein on the parasite surface. CS-based subunit vaccines have been hampered by suboptimal immunogenicity and the requirement for strong adjuvants to elicit effective humoral immunity. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that signal through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can function as potent adjuvants for innate and adaptive immunity. We examined the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins containing a TLR5 agonist, flagellin, and either full-length or selected epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. Mice immunized with either of the flagellin-modified CS constructs, administered intranasally (i.n.) or subcutaneously (s.c.), developed similar levels of malaria-specific IgG1 antibody and interleukin-5 (IL-5)-producing T cells. Importantly, immunization via the i.n. but not the s.c. route elicited sporozoite neutralizing antibodies capable of inhibiting >90% of sporozoite invasion in vitro and in vivo, as measured using a transgenic rodent parasite expressing P. falciparum CS repeats. These findings demonstrate that functional sporozoite neutralizing antibody can be elicited by i.n. immunization with a flagellin-modified P. falciparum CS protein and raise the potential of a scalable, safe, needle-free vaccine for the 40% of the world's population at risk of malaria. PMID:24042110

  11. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  12. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Schürmann, Wolfgang; Renneberg, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellular washing fluid and needle homogenates had the same catalytic properties, i.e. temperature optimum at 50°C, pH optimum in the range of pH 5 to 6 and low affinity for guaiacol (apparent Km = 40 millimolar) and H2O2 (apparent Km = 1-3 millimolar). Needle homogenates contained ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase, but not glutathione peroxidase activity. None of these activities was detected in the extracellular washing fluid. Ascorbate and glutathione related enzymes were freeze sensitive; ascorbate peroxidase was labile in the absence of ascorbate. The significance of extracellular antioxidants for the detoxification of injurious oxygen species is discussed. PMID:16667703

  13. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  14. Comparison of CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Manual and CT-Guided Robotic Positioning System for In Vivo Needle Placements in Swine Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelis, F.; Takaki, H.; Laskhmanan, M.; Durack, J. C.; Erinjeri, J. P.; Getrajdman, G. I.; Maybody, M.; Sofocleous, C. T.; Solomon, S. B.; Srimathveeravalli, G.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo compare CT fluoroscopy-guided manual and CT-guided robotic positioning system (RPS)-assisted needle placement by experienced IR physicians to targets in swine liver.Materials and MethodsManual and RPS-assisted needle placement was performed by six experienced IR physicians to four 5 mm fiducial seeds placed in swine liver (n = 6). Placement performance was assessed for placement accuracy, procedure time, number of confirmatory scans, needle manipulations, and procedure radiation dose. Intra-modality difference in performance for each physician was assessed using paired t test. Inter-physician performance variation for each modality was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test.ResultsPaired comparison of manual and RPS-assisted placements to a target by the same physician indicated accuracy outcomes was not statistically different (manual: 4.53 mm; RPS: 4.66 mm; p = 0.41), but manual placement resulted in higher total radiation dose (manual: 1075.77 mGy/cm; RPS: 636.4 mGy/cm; p = 0.03), required more confirmation scans (manual: 6.6; RPS: 1.6; p < 0.0001) and needle manipulations (manual: 4.6; RPS: 0.4; p < 0.0001). Procedure time for RPS was longer than manual placement (manual: 6.12 min; RPS: 9.7 min; p = 0.0003). Comparison of inter-physician performance during manual placement indicated significant differences in the time taken to complete placements (p = 0.008) and number of repositions (p = 0.04) but not in other study measures (p > 0.05). Comparison of inter-physician performance during RPS-assisted placement suggested statistically significant differences in procedure time (p = 0.02) and not in other study measures (p > 0.05).ConclusionsCT-guided RPS-assisted needle placement reduced radiation dose, number of confirmatory scans, and needle manipulations when compared to manual needle placement by experienced IR physicians, with equivalent accuracy.

  15. A needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards.

    PubMed

    Marks, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Today's health-system pharmacists and those in independent practice face risks, including exposure to potent cytotoxic drugs via needlesticks, that are associated with preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations for immediate use. Healthcare givers who administer such medications also risk exposure to needlesticks. Those hazards can be minimized when the pharmacist thoroughly understands and complies with current standard operating procedures for preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations and the healthcare giver uses a needle-free system for drug reconstitution and administration. The components of an overall needlestick risk-reduction strategy to ensure safety in the preparation (and eventual administration) of intravenous compounded sterile preparations should therefore include the use of needle-free connection and administration devices as well as hand-hygiene training, aseptic technique competency evaluation and training, and the maximum use of commercially available or ready-to-use dosage forms. This article, which focuses on the pharmacist's use of a needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions, uses as an example the Vial2Bag (Medimop Medical Projects, Ltd., [a subsidiary of West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc., Exton, Pennsylvania], Ra'anana, Israel), which complies with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards. Features of that system are summarized for easy reference. PMID:24881111

  16. A needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards.

    PubMed

    Marks, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Today's health-system pharmacists and those in independent practice face risks, including exposure to potent cytotoxic drugs via needlesticks, that are associated with preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations for immediate use. Healthcare givers who administer such medications also risk exposure to needlesticks. Those hazards can be minimized when the pharmacist thoroughly understands and complies with current standard operating procedures for preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations and the healthcare giver uses a needle-free system for drug reconstitution and administration. The components of an overall needlestick risk-reduction strategy to ensure safety in the preparation (and eventual administration) of intravenous compounded sterile preparations should therefore include the use of needle-free connection and administration devices as well as hand-hygiene training, aseptic technique competency evaluation and training, and the maximum use of commercially available or ready-to-use dosage forms. This article, which focuses on the pharmacist's use of a needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions, uses as an example the Vial2Bag (Medimop Medical Projects, Ltd., [a subsidiary of West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc., Exton, Pennsylvania], Ra'anana, Israel), which complies with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards. Features of that system are summarized for easy reference.

  17. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion. PMID:21170164

  18. Getting needled!

    PubMed

    Lythgoe, Jeanne

    2013-09-01

    Anxiety and stress in pregnancy can become severe and disabling, negatively impacting on both the short and long term outcomes for mother and baby. Women often seek alternative treatments for such problems, acupuncture being a popular choice. It has been shown to have an effect on the limbic system and on serotonin production, leading to increased feelings of wellbeing. Women having acupuncture in pregnancy have reported increased self esteem and control of symptoms, leading to improved wellbeing. With appropriate training, midwives may be in a good position to offer acupuncture to support women suffering with anxiety, improving outcomes for women and babies. PMID:24163921

  19. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  20. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cabreros, Sarah S.; Jimenez, Nina M.; Greer, Joseph D.; Adebar, Troy K.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle. PMID:26413379

  1. [Intrapulmonary Sewing Needle].

    PubMed

    Hisama, Naoya; Tsunemitsu, Nobumasa; Yasumasu, Tetsuo; Yamasaki, Takashi; Uchida, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Intrapulmonary aberrant needles are rarely encountered in clinical practice. A 82-year-old woman, though she was asymptomatic, was referred to our department due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography showed a foreign body suspected to be a sewing needle in the left upper lobe. The needle was successfully removed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:27246130

  2. Gene expression profiles derived from fine needle aspiration correlate with response to systemic chemotherapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Christos; Powles, Trevor J; Dowsett, Mitch; Jazaeri, Amir A; Feldman, Andrew L; Assersohn, Laura; Gadisetti, Chandramouli; Libutti, Steven K; Liu, Edison T

    2002-01-01

    Background Drug resistance in breast cancer is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. In this study we used cDNA microarray technology to examine gene expression profiles obtained from fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary breast tumors before and after systemic chemotherapy. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of obtaining representative expression array profiles from limited amounts of tissue and to identify those expression profiles that correlate with treatment response. Methods Repeat presurgical FNA samples were taken from six patients who were to undergo primary surgical treatment. Additionally, a group of 10 patients who were to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent two FNAs before chemotherapy (adriamycin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2) followed by another FNA on day 21 after the first cycle. Total RNA was amplified with T7 Eberwine's procedure and labeled cDNA was hybridized onto a 7600-feature glass cDNA microarray. Results We identified candidate gene expression profiles that might distinguish tumors with complete response to chemotherapy from tumors that do not respond, and found that the number of genes that change after one cycle of chemotherapy was 10 times greater in the responding group than in the non-responding group. Conclusion This study supports the suitability of FNA-derived cDNA microarray expression profiling of breast cancers as a comprehensive genomic approach for studying the mechanisms of drug resistance. Our findings also demonstrate the potential of monitoring post-chemotherapy changes in expression profiles as a measure of pharmacodynamic effect and suggests that these approaches might yield useful results when validated by larger studies. PMID:12052255

  3. Precise mass detector based on “W needle - C nanowire” nanomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashenko, S. Y.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Mukhin, I. S.; Lysak, V. V.; Averkiev, D. A.; Sapozhnikov, I. D.; Golubok, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Nanomechanical system (NMS) based on amorphous carbon nanowhiskers localized on the top of tungsten tip were fabricated and investigated. The whiskers were grown in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber using focused electron beam technique. The manipulation of SiO2 and TiO2 nanospheres was provided in SEM by means of dielectrophoretic force. Oscillation trajectories and amplitude-frequency characteristic of the oscillator were visualized at low pressure using a scanning electron microscope. The estimation of mass sensitivity of NMS was conducted.

  4. Transfemoral liver biopsy using a Quick-Core biopsy needle system in living donor liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen Qiang; Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Gwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Eunsil

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transfemoral liver biopsy with a Quick-Core biopsy needle in select living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. Eight LDLT recipients underwent 9 transfemoral liver biopsy sessions. Six patients had undergone modified right lobe (mRL) LDLT, and 2 patients had undergone dual-left lobe LDLT. The indications for transfemoral liver biopsy were a hepatic vein (HV) at an acute angle to the inferior vena cava (IVC) on the coronal plane and a thin (<10-mm) liver parenchyma surrounding the HV to be biopsied on enhanced computed tomography. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the right inferior HV in the mRL or the left HV in the right-sided left lobe with a cranial orientation was negotiated with a 5-Fr catheter via the common femoral vein. Then, a stiffening cannula was introduced into the HV over a stiff guide wire. Needle passage was then performed with an 18- or 19-gauge Quick-Core biopsy needle. Technical success was achieved in all sessions without major complications. The median number of needle passages was 4 (range = 2-6). The median total length of obtained liver specimens in each session was 44 mm (range = 24-75 mm). The median number of portal tracts was 18 (range = 10-29), and the obtained liver specimens were adequate for histological diagnosis in all sessions. In conclusion, transfemoral liver biopsy with a Quick-Core biopsy needle is an effective and safe alternative for obtaining a liver specimen when standard transjugular liver biopsy is not feasible because of an unfavorable HV angle with respect to the IVC and/or a thin liver parenchyma surrounding the HV. PMID:24916429

  5. The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

    2013-09-01

    In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

  6. Needles in the blue sea: sub-species specificity in targeted protein biomarker analyses within the vast oceanic microbial metaproteome.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A; Dorsk, Alexander; Post, Anton F; McIlvin, Matthew R; Rappé, Michael S; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Moran, Dawn M

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics has great potential for studies of marine microbial biogeochemistry, yet high microbial diversity in many locales presents us with unique challenges. We addressed this challenge with a targeted metaproteomics workflow for NtcA and P-II, two nitrogen regulatory proteins, and demonstrated its application for cyanobacterial taxa within microbial samples from the Central Pacific Ocean. Using METATRYP, an open-source Python toolkit, we examined the number of shared (redundant) tryptic peptides in representative marine microbes, with the number of tryptic peptides shared between different species typically being 1% or less. The related cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus shared an average of 4.8 ± 1.9% of their tryptic peptides, while shared intraspecies peptides were higher, 13 ± 15% shared peptides between 12 Prochlorococcus genomes. An NtcA peptide was found to target multiple cyanobacteria species, whereas a P-II peptide showed specificity to the high-light Prochlorococcus ecotype. Distributions of NtcA and P-II in the Central Pacific Ocean were similar except at the Equator likely due to differential nitrogen stress responses between Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. The number of unique tryptic peptides coded for within three combined oceanic microbial metagenomes was estimated to be ∼4 × 10(7) , 1000-fold larger than an individual microbial proteome and 27-fold larger than the human proteome, yet still 20 orders of magnitude lower than the peptide diversity possible in all protein space, implying that peptide mapping algorithms should be able to withstand the added level of complexity in metaproteomic samples.

  7. Spectral-domain low coherence interferometry/optical coherence tomography system for fine needle breast biopsy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, N. V.; Mujat, M.; Ustun, T.; Ferguson, R. D.; Danthu, V.; Hammer, D. X.

    2009-02-01

    A novel technology and instrumentation for fine needle aspiration (FNA) breast biopsy guidance is presented. This technology is based on spectral-domain low coherence interferometry (SD-LCI). The method, apparatus, and preliminary in vitro/in vivo results proving the viability of the method and apparatus are presented in detail. An advanced tissue classification algorithm, preliminarily tested on breast tissue specimens and a mouse model of breast cancer is presented as well. Over 80% sensitivity and specificity in differentiating all tissue types and 93% accuracy in differentiating fatty tissue from fibrous or tumor tissue was obtained with this technology and apparatus. These results suggest that SD-LCI could help for more precise needle placement during the FNA biopsy and therefore could substantially reduce the number of the nondiagnostic aspirates and improve the sensitivity and specificity of the FNA procedures.

  8. Identifying the hub proteins from complicated membrane protein network systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Zhen; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Gu, Quan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2010-05-01

    The so-called "hub proteins" are those proteins in a protein-protein interaction network system that have remarkably higher interaction relations (or degrees) than the others. Therefore, the information of hub proteins can provide very useful insights for selecting or prioritizing targets during drug development. In this paper, by combining the multi-agent-based method with the graphical spectrum analysis and immune-genetic algorithm, a novel simulator for identifying the hub proteins from membrane protein interaction networks is proposed. As a demonstration of using the simulator, two hub membrane proteins, YPL227C and YIL147C, were identified from a complicated network system consisting of 1500 membrane proteins. Meanwhile, along with the two identified hub proteins, their molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components were also revealed. It is anticipated that the hub-protein-simulator may become a very useful tool for system biology and drug development, particularly in deciphering unknown protein functions, determining protein complexes, and in identifying the key targets from a complicated disease system. PMID:20507268

  9. The Salmonella Type III Secretion System Inner Rod Protein PrgJ Is Partially Folded*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dalian; Lefebre, Matthew; Kaur, Kawaljit; McDowell, Melanie A.; Gdowski, Courtney; Jo, Sunhwan; Wang, Yu; Benedict, Stephen H.; Lea, Susan M.; Galan, Jorge E.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2012-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential in the pathogenesis of many bacteria. The inner rod is important in the assembly of the T3SS needle complex. However, the atomic structure of the inner rod protein is currently unknown. Based on computational methods, others have suggested that the Salmonella inner rod protein PrgJ is highly helical, forming a folded 3 helix structure. Here we show by CD and NMR spectroscopy that the monomeric form of PrgJ lacks a tertiary structure, and the only well-structured part of PrgJ is a short α-helix at the C-terminal region from residues 65–82. Disruption of this helix by glycine or proline mutation resulted in defective assembly of the needle complex, rendering bacteria incapable of secreting effector proteins. Likewise, CD and NMR data for the Shigella inner rod protein MxiI indicate this protein lacks a tertiary structure as well. Our results reveal that the monomeric forms of the T3SS inner rod proteins are partially folded. PMID:22654099

  10. Needle breakage: incidence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Malamed, Stanley F; Reed, Kenneth; Poorsattar, Susan

    2010-10-01

    Since the introduction of nonreusable, stainless steel dental local anesthetic needles, needle breakage has become an extremely rare complication of dental local anesthetic injections. But although rare, dental needle breakage can, and does, occur. Review of the literature and personal experience brings into focus several commonalities which, when avoided, can minimize the risk of needle breakage with the fragment being retained from occurring.

  11. Modeling, Production, and Testing of an Echogenic Needle for Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Bigeleisen, Paul E; Hess, Aaron; Zhu, Richard; Krediet, Annelot

    2016-06-01

    We have designed, produced, and tested an echogenic needle based on a sawtooth pattern where the height of the tooth was 1.25 times the wavelength of the ultrasound transducer. A numeric solution to the time-independent wave equation (Helmholtz equation) was used to create a model of backscattering from a needle. A 21-gauge stainless steel prototype was manufactured and tested in a water bath. Backscattering from the needle was compared to theoretical predications from our model. Based on these results, an 18-gauge prototype needle was fabricated from stainless steel and tested in a pig cadaver. This needle was compared to a commercial 18-gauge echogenic needle (Pajunk Medical Systems, Tucker, GA) by measuring the brightness of the needle relative to the background of sonograms of a needle in a pig cadaver. The backscattering from the 21-gauge prototype needle reproduced the qualitative predictions of our model. At 30° and 45° of insonation, our prototype performed equivalently to the Pajunk needle. At 60°, our prototype was significantly brighter than the Pajunk needle (P = .017). In conclusion, we chose a model for the design of an echogenic needle and modeled it on the basis of a solution to the Helmholtz equation. A prototype needle was tested in a water bath and compared to the model prediction. After verification of our model, we designed an 18-gauge needle, which performed better than an existing echogenic needle (Pajunk) at 60° of insonation. Our needle will require further testing in human trials.

  12. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  13. Correlation of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System [TI-RADS] and fine needle aspiration: experience in 1,000 nodules

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Antonio; Falsarella, Priscila Mina; Rocha, Rafael Dahmer; Lima, João Paulo Bacellar Costa; Iani, Matheus Jorge; Vieira, Fábio Augusto Cardillo; de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Hidal, Jairo Tabacow; Francisco, Miguel José; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To correlate the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and the Bethesda system in reporting cytopathology in 1,000 thyroid nodules. Methods A retrospective study conducted from November 2011 to February 2014 that evaluated 1,000 thyroid nodules of 906 patients who underwent ultrasound exam and fine needle aspiration. Results A significant association was found between the TI-RADS outcome and Bethesda classification (p<0.001). Most individuals with TI-RADS 2 or 3 had Bethesda 2 result (95.5% and 92.5%, respectively). Among those classified as TI-RADS 4C and 5, most presented Bethesda 6 (68.2% and 91.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The proportion of malignancies among TI-RADS 2 was 0.8%, and TI-RADS 3 was 1.7%. Among those classified as TI-RADS 4A, proportion of malignancies was 16.0%, 43.2% in 4B, 72.7% in 4C and 91.3% among TI-RADS 5 (p<0.001), showing clear association between TI-RADS and biopsy results. Conclusion The TI-RADS is appropriate to assess thyroid nodules and avoid unnecessary fine needle aspiration, as well as to assist in making decision about when this procedure should be performed. PMID:27462883

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of MxiH, a subunit of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system needle

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, Janet E.; Cordes, Frank S.; Roversi, Pietro; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel

    2006-03-01

    A monodisperse truncation mutant of MxiH, the subunit of the S. flexneri type III secretion system needle, has been crystallized. SeMet derivatives and a uranyl derivative have undergone preliminary crystallographic analysis. A monodisperse truncation mutant of MxiH, the subunit of the needle from the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system (TTSS), has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of native and selenomethionine-labelled MxiH{sub CΔ5} and diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 183.4, b = 28.1, c = 27.8 Å, β = 96.5°. An anomalous difference Patterson map calculated with the data from the SeMet-labelled crystals revealed a single peak on the Harker section v = 0. Inspection of a uranyl derivative also revealed one peak in the isomorphous difference Patterson map on the Harker section v = 0. Analysis of the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold non-crystallographic symmetry axis approximately along a. The calculated Matthews coefficient is 1.9 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} for two molecules per asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of 33%.

  15. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    PubMed

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

  16. Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells.

    PubMed

    Galán, Jorge E; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Marlovits, Thomas C; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the field of bacterial pathogenesis in recent years is the discovery that many pathogens utilize complex nanomachines to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. These effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular functions for the pathogen's benefit. One of these protein-delivery machines is the type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SSs are widespread in nature and are encoded not only by bacteria pathogenic to vertebrates or plants but also by bacteria that are symbiotic to plants or insects. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a supramolecular structure that mediates the passage of the secreted proteins across the bacterial envelope. Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. The central role of T3SSs in pathogenesis makes them great targets for novel antimicrobial strategies.

  17. Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Jorge E.; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Marlovits, Thomas C.; Wagner, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the field of bacterial pathogenesis in recent years is the discovery that many pathogens utilized complex nanomachines to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. These effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular functions for the pathogen’s benefit. One of these protein-delivery machines is the type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SSs are widespread in nature and are encoded not only by bacteria pathogenic to vertebrates or plants, but also by bacteria that are symbiotic to plants or insects. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a supramolecular structure that mediates the passage of the secreted proteins across the bacterial envelope. Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. The central role of T3SSs in pathogenesis makes them great targets for novel antimicrobial strategies. PMID:25002086

  18. Evaluation of diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound scoring system to select thyroid nodules requiring fine needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Hajizadeh, Tohid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The large number of patients that require fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to discriminate malignant from benign thyroid nodules is a practical problem especially in iodine deficient area. To obtain an ultrasound (US) score and for predicting malignant nodules and reduce the number of unnecessary and expensive FNAB. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 thyroid nodules observed from August 2009 to August 2011 that had underwent FNAB were evaluated by US for echogenicity, peripheral halo, microcalcifications and intranodular vascularity. Results: showed that nodules with two ultrasonographic features (US score = 4) were characterized by a 67.9% sensitivity and a 87% specificity for prediction of malignant thyroid nodules. Conclusion: According to our data, we suggest FNAB for nodules with US score ≥ 4. The practical use of this US score may help reduce unnecessary and expensive FNAB especially in iodine-deficient areas. PMID:24040471

  19. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-02-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems.

  20. The Missing Needles: A Smooth Extension of Buffon's Needle Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Raymond J., Jr.; Pollino, Benedict

    1989-01-01

    Describes the "Buffon's Needle" problem, which is calculating the probability that a needle will cross one of two separated lines. Calculates the probability when the length of the needle is greater than the space of the two lines. Provides an analytic solution and the results of a computer simulation. (YP)

  1. Lab in a needle for epidural space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, B.; Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Amorizzo, E.; Mercieri, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work relies on the development of a sensorized medical needle with an all-optical guidance (Lab in a Needle) system for epidural space identification. The device is based on the judicious integration of a Fiber Bragg grating sensor inside the lumen of an epidural needle to discriminate between different types of tissue and thus providing continuous and real time measurements of the pressure experienced by the needle tip during its advancement. Experiments carried out on an epidural training phantom demonstrate the validity of our approach for the correct and effective identification of the epidural space.

  2. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  3. Buffon's Needle--A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Derek; Roberts, Tony

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation of Buffon's needle problem. The problem considers the probability that a needle will cross a line when the needle is thrown in a random way onto the parallel lines a certain distance apart. The paper provides the algorithm and computer program. (YP)

  4. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    PubMed

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

  5. Needle ban vetoed.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    An appropriations bill with seven provisions, one of which barred the District of Columbia from spending money on needle-exchange programs, was vetoed by President Clinton. He called it objectionable and disruptive to the District's preventions efforts. The bill previously passed the House by a slim margin. Republicans objected to a contentious provision of the bill dealing with medicinal marijuana.

  6. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  7. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  8. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  9. Three-dimensional needle-tip localization by electric field potential and camera hybridization for needle electromyography exam robotic simulator.

    PubMed

    He, Siyu; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    As one of neurological tests, needle electromygraphy exam (NEE) plays an important role to evaluate the conditions of nerves and muscles. Neurology interns and novice medical staff need repetitive training to improve their skills in performing the exam. However, no training systems are able to reproduce multiple pathological conditions to simulate real needle electromyogram exam. For the development of a robotic simulator, three components need to be realized: physical modeling of upper limb morphological features, position-dependent electromyogram generation, and needle localization; the latter is the focus of this study. Our idea is to couple two types of sensing mechanism in order to acquire the needle-tip position with high accuracy. One is to segment the needle from camera images and calculate its insertion point on the skin surface by a top-hat transform algorithm. The other is voltage-based depth measurement, in which a conductive tissue-like phantom was used to realize both needle-tip localization and physical sense of needle insertion. For that, a pair of electrodes was designed to generate a near-linear voltage distribution along the depth direction of the tissue-like phantom. The accuracy of the needle-tip position was investigated by the electric field potential and camera hybridization. The results showed that the needle tip could be detected with an accuracy of 1.05±0.57 mm. PMID:27382339

  10. Three-dimensional needle-tip localization by electric field potential and camera hybridization for needle electromyography exam robotic simulator

    PubMed Central

    He, Siyu; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    As one of neurological tests, needle electromygraphy exam (NEE) plays an important role to evaluate the conditions of nerves and muscles. Neurology interns and novice medical staff need repetitive training to improve their skills in performing the exam. However, no training systems are able to reproduce multiple pathological conditions to simulate real needle electromyogram exam. For the development of a robotic simulator, three components need to be realized: physical modeling of upper limb morphological features, position-dependent electromyogram generation, and needle localization; the latter is the focus of this study. Our idea is to couple two types of sensing mechanism in order to acquire the needle-tip position with high accuracy. One is to segment the needle from camera images and calculate its insertion point on the skin surface by a top-hat transform algorithm. The other is voltage-based depth measurement, in which a conductive tissue-like phantom was used to realize both needle-tip localization and physical sense of needle insertion. For that, a pair of electrodes was designed to generate a near-linear voltage distribution along the depth direction of the tissue-like phantom. The accuracy of the needle-tip position was investigated by the electric field potential and camera hybridization. The results showed that the needle tip could be detected with an accuracy of 1.05±0.57 mm. PMID:27382339

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  12. A Substrate-Fusion Protein Is Trapped inside the Type III Secretion System Channel in Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Dohlich, Kim; Zumsteg, Anna Brotcke; Goosmann, Christian; Kolbe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC). The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion. PMID:24453973

  13. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  14. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide.

  15. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  16. Needle enzyme electrodes for biological studies.

    PubMed

    Churchouse, S J; Battersby, C M; Mullen, W H; Vadgama, P M

    1986-01-01

    Needle enzyme electrodes have been produced for measurement of glucose and lactate. They comprise glutaraldehyde-crosslinked oxidases immobilised over less than 1.1 mm od needle-type sensors for H2O2. To obtain selectivity in blood, an underlying polyethersulphone membrane was used which excluded electrochemical interferents from the working (Pt) electrode. Linearity for the systems was extended to cover the clinical range by the use of outer low permeability polyurethane membranes. This type of external membrane also reduced the stirring dependence of electrodes. The glucose needle electrode was used in unstirred whole blood samples and gave an acceptable correlation with the routine spectrophotometric method (y = 0.954x + 0.202, r = 0.991, n = 48). PMID:3632730

  17. Limited retention of micro-organisms using commercialized needle filters.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, W; McCarthy, G; Mawhinney, T; Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E

    2015-03-01

    A study was undertaken to compare a commercialized needle filter with a 0.2-μm filtered epidural set and a non-filtered standard needle. No culturable bacteria were detected following filtration through the 0.2-μm filter. Bacterial breakthrough was observed with the filtered needle (pore size 5 μm) and the non-filtered needle. Filtered systems (0.2 μm) should be employed to achieve total bacterial retention. This highlights that filtration systems with different pore sizes will have varying ability to retain bacteria. Healthcare professionals need to know what type/capability of filter is implied on labels used by manufacturers, and to assess whether the specification has the desired functionality to prevent bacterial translocation through needles.

  18. Vancouver's needle exchange program.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, J; Turvey, J; Blatherwick, J

    1990-01-01

    To stem the spread of HIV among intravenous drug users, and between them and their sexual partners and offspring, Vancouver initiated a multifaceted "ways and means" needle exchange program in March of 1989. As of the end of October, over 2,600 users have registered. The needle exchange rate has increased steadily, reaching a peak of 98% in November. Increases have also been noted in the number of regular users, and requests for referral to addition, medical, social and HIV-related services. Outreach services, especially using a van, have expanded program availability. Success in terms of clientele response is accredited primarily to the nonjudgemental, nonintrusive approach. The main problems have been the lack of addiction treatment services, financial and personnel constraints created by the large enrollment, and difficulties with Federal/Provincial funding. Funding for evaluation has been requested.

  19. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  20. Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

    This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

  1. Implementation of a Rotational Ultrasound Biomicroscopy System Equipped with a High-Frequency Angled Needle Transducer — Ex Vivo Ultrasound Imaging of Porcine Ocular Posterior Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Juho; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle transducer is designed and implemented in order to minimize the space required. It was applied to ex vivo ultrasound imaging of porcine posterior ocular tissues through a minimal incision hole of 1 mm in diameter. The retina and sclera for the one eye were visualized in the relative rotating angle range of 270° ∼ 330° and at a distance range of 6 ∼ 7 mm, whereas the tissues of the other eye were observed in relative angle range of 160° ∼ 220° and at a distance range of 7.5 ∼ 9 mm. The layer between retina and sclera seemed to be bent because the distance between the transducer tip and the layer was varied while the transducer was rotated. Certin features of the rotation system such as the optimal scanning angle, step angle and data length need to be improved for ensure higher accuracy and precision. Moreover, the focal length should be considered for the image quality. This implementation represents the first report of a rotational scanning UBM system. PMID:25254305

  2. Molecular ruler determines needle length for the Salmonella Spi-1 injectisome.

    PubMed

    Wee, Daniel H; Hughes, Kelly T

    2015-03-31

    The type-III secretion (T3S) systems of bacteria are part of self-assembling nanomachines: the bacterial flagellum that enables cells to propel themselves through liquid and across hydrated surfaces, and the injectisome that delivers pathogenic effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Although the flagellum and injectisome serve different purposes, they are evolutionarily related and share many structural similarities. Core features to these T3S systems are intrinsic length control mechanisms for external cellular projections: the hook of the flagellum and the injectisome needle. We present evidence that the Spi-1 injectisome, like the Salmonella flagellar hook, uses a secreted molecular ruler, InvJ, to determine needle length. This result supports a universal length control mechanism using molecular rulers for T3S systems. PMID:25775540

  3. Molecular ruler determines needle length for the Salmonella Spi-1 injectisome.

    PubMed

    Wee, Daniel H; Hughes, Kelly T

    2015-03-31

    The type-III secretion (T3S) systems of bacteria are part of self-assembling nanomachines: the bacterial flagellum that enables cells to propel themselves through liquid and across hydrated surfaces, and the injectisome that delivers pathogenic effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Although the flagellum and injectisome serve different purposes, they are evolutionarily related and share many structural similarities. Core features to these T3S systems are intrinsic length control mechanisms for external cellular projections: the hook of the flagellum and the injectisome needle. We present evidence that the Spi-1 injectisome, like the Salmonella flagellar hook, uses a secreted molecular ruler, InvJ, to determine needle length. This result supports a universal length control mechanism using molecular rulers for T3S systems.

  4. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  5. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders.

  6. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  7. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  8. Dynamics of translational friction in needle-tissue interaction during needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a distributed approach to account for dynamic friction during needle insertion in soft tissue is presented. As is well known, friction is a complex nonlinear phenomenon. It appears that classical or static models are unable to capture some of the observations made in systems subjected to significant frictional effects. In needle insertion, translational friction would be a matter of importance when the needle is very flexible, or a stop-and-rotate motion profile at low insertion velocities is implemented, and thus, the system is repeatedly transitioned from a pre-sliding to a sliding mode and vice versa. In order to characterize friction components, a distributed version of the LuGre model in the state-space representation is adopted. This method also facilitates estimating cutting force in an intra-operative manner. To evaluate the performance of the proposed family of friction models, experiments were conducted on homogeneous artificial phantoms and animal tissue. The results illustrate that our approach enables us to represent the main features of friction which is a major force component in needle-tissue interaction during needle-based interventions.

  9. Computer simulation of protein systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osguthorpe, D. J.; Dauber-Osguthorpe, P.; Wolff, J.; Kitson, D. H.; Hagler, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ligand binding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is discussed. This is an extremely important enzyme, as it is the target of several drugs (inhibitors) which are used clinically as antibacterials, antiprotozoals and in cancer chemotherapy. DHFR catalyzes the NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) dependent reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, which is used in several pathways of purine and pyrimidine iosynthesis, including that of thymidylate. Since DNA synthesis is dependent on a continuing supply of thymidylate, a blockade of DHFR resulting in a depletion of thymidylate can lead to the cessation of growth of a rapidly proliferating cell line. DHFR exhibits a significant species to species variability in its sensitivity to various inhibitors. For example, trimethoprim, an inhibitor of DHFR, binds to bacterial DHFR's 5 orders of magnitude greater than to vertebrate DHFR's. The structural mechanics, dynamics and energetics of a family of dihydrofolate reductases are studied to rationalize the basis for the inhibitor of these enyzmes and to understand the molecular basis of the difference in the binding constants between the species. This involves investigating the conformational changes induced in the protein on binding the ligand, the internal strain imposed by the enzyme on the ligand, the restriction of fluctuations in atom positions due to binding and the consequent change in entropy.

  10. Performance of needle valves.

    PubMed

    Hutton, P; Boaden, R W

    1986-08-01

    The pressure-flow characteristics of needle valves used on anaesthetic equipment were investigated. It was found that, under normal conditions of use, the valves behaved in a manner similar to convergent nozzles with sonic velocity at the throat. This means that, once the valve has been set, the mass flow rate of gas is effectively independent of the downstream changes in resistance and compliance encountered in normal anaesthetic practice. The error in a preset flow induced by the permissible variations in the upstream pipeline pressure was measured.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  12. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River.

  13. Protein expression in the baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Payton, M; Radford, K R

    2001-05-01

    Insect cell-recombinant baculovirus co-cultures offer a protein production system that complements microbial systems by providing recombinant proteins in soluble form and with most post-translational modifications. Moreover, the large size of the viral genome enables cloning of large segments of DNA and consequent expression of complex protein aggregates. This unit describes methods associated with the large-scale production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system. A method for large-scale production of viral stocks is described and methods for titration of virus are provided (a plaque assay and an end-point assay). Once viral stocks have been prepared and titered, a protocol for testing the virus in small-scale cultures is provided to determine the kinetics of expression, which allows evaluation of various cell culture and infection conditions aimed at developing optimal levels of protein production (e.g., comparisons of different host cell lines, media, and environmental parameters). Support protocols provide instructions for preparing culture samples for protein analysis by SDS-PAGE and discuss analytical methods for monitoring nutrient levels in cell culture fluids. Once optimal process parameters are identified, protocols describe production of the target protein on a large scale in fermentors using either regular batch production in bioreactors or a fed-batch procedure of production in perfusion cultures. Techniques for harvesting cultures from bioreactors are also provided.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of MxiH, a subunit of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system needle

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Janet E.; Cordes, Frank S.; Roversi, Pietro; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    A monodisperse truncation mutant of MxiH, the subunit of the needle from the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system (TTSS), has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of native and selenomethionine-labelled MxiHCΔ5 and diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 183.4, b = 28.1, c = 27.8 Å, β = 96.5°. An anomalous difference Patterson map calculated with the data from the SeMet-labelled crystals revealed a single peak on the Harker section v = 0. Inspection of a uranyl derivative also revealed one peak in the isomorphous difference Patterson map on the Harker section v = 0. Analysis of the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold non-crystallographic symmetry axis approximately along a. The calculated Matthews coefficient is 1.9 Å3 Da−1 for two molecules per asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of 33%. PMID:16511329

  15. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Toward robotic needle steering in lung biopsy: a tendon-actuated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Saunders, Justin R.; Swaney, Philip J.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2011-03-01

    Needle tip dexterity is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles. By providing intraoperative compensation for trajectory error and lesion motion, tendon-driven biopsy needles may reach smaller or deeper nodules in fewer attempts, thereby reducing trauma. An image-guided robotic system that uses these needles also has the potential to reduce radiation exposure to the patient and physician. In this paper, we discuss the design, workflow, kinematic modeling, and control of both the needle and a compact and inexpensive robotic prototype that can actuate the tendon-driven needle for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT) guidance. In a free-space targeting experiment using a discrete proportional control law with digital camera feedback, we show a position error of less than 1 mm achieved using an average of 8.3 images (n=3).

  2. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions. PMID:23713523

  3. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  8. YscP and YscU Switch the Substrate Specificity of the Yersinia Type III Secretion System by Regulating Export of the Inner Rod Protein YscI▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sarah E.; Jin, Jin; Lloyd, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic yersiniae utilize a type III secretion system to inject antihost factors, called Yops, directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. The Yops are injected via a needle-like structure, comprising the YscF protein, on the bacterial surface. While the needle is being assembled, Yops cannot be secreted. YscP and YscU switch the substrate specificity of the secretion system to enable Yop export once the needle attains its proper length. Here, we demonstrate that the inner rod protein YscI plays a critical role in substrate specificity switching. We show that YscI is secreted by the type III secretion system and that YscI secretion by a yscP mutant is abnormally elevated. Furthermore, we show that mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of YscU reduce YscI secretion by the yscP null strain. We also demonstrate that mutants expressing one of three forms of YscI (those with mutations Q84A, L87A, and L96A) secrete substantial amounts of Yops yet exhibit severe defects in needle formation. In the absence of YscP, mutants with the same changes in YscI assemble needles but are unable to secrete Yops. Together, these results suggest that the formation of the inner rod, not the needle, is critical for substrate specificity switching and that YscP and YscU exert their effects on substrate export by controlling the secretion of YscI. PMID:18424518

  9. Habitat conditions and phenological tree traits overrule the influence of tree genotype in the needle mycobiome-Picea glauca system at an arctic treeline ecotone.

    PubMed

    Eusemann, Pascal; Schnittler, Martin; Nilsson, R Henrik; Jumpponen, Ari; Dahl, Mathilde B; Würth, David G; Buras, Allan; Wilmking, Martin; Unterseher, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Plant-associated mycobiomes in extreme habitats are understudied and poorly understood. We analysed Illumina-generated ITS1 sequences from the needle mycobiome of white spruce (Picea glauca) at the northern treeline in Alaska (USA). Sequences were obtained from the same DNA that was used for tree genotyping. In the present study, fungal metabarcoding and tree microsatellite data were compared for the first time. In general, neighbouring trees shared more fungal taxa with each other than trees growing in further distance. Mycobiomes correlated strongly with phenological host traits and local habitat characteristics contrasting a dense forest stand with an open treeline site. Genetic similarity between trees did not influence fungal composition and no significant correlation existed between needle mycobiome and tree genotype. Our results suggest the pronounced influence of local habitat conditions and phenotypic tree traits on needle-inhabiting fungi. By contrast, the tree genetic identity cannot be benchmarked as a dominant driver for needle-inhabiting mycobiomes, at least not for white spruce in this extreme environment. PMID:27144386

  10. Mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems for protein-, DNA- and RNA-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vajdy, Michael; Srivastava, Indresh; Polo, John; Donnelly, John; O'Hagan, Derek; Singh, Manmohan

    2004-12-01

    Almost all vaccinations today are delivered through parenteral routes. Mucosal vaccination offers several benefits over parenteral routes of vaccination, including ease of administration, the possibility of self-administration, elimination of the chance of injection with infected needles, and induction of mucosal as well as systemic immunity. However, mucosal vaccines have to overcome several formidable barriers in the form of significant dilution and dispersion; competition with a myriad of various live replicating bacteria, viruses, inert food and dust particles; enzymatic degradation; and low pH before reaching the target immune cells. It has long been known that vaccination through mucosal membranes requires potent adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity, as well as delivery systems to decrease the rate of dilution and degradation and to target the vaccine to the site of immune function. This review is a summary of current approaches to mucosal vaccination, and it primarily focuses on adjuvants as immunopotentiators and vaccine delivery systems for mucosal vaccines based on protein, DNA or RNA. In this context, we define adjuvants as protein or oligonucleotides with immunopotentiating properties co-administered with pathogen-derived antigens, and vaccine delivery systems as chemical formulations that are more inert and have less immunomodulatory effects than adjuvants, and that protect and deliver the vaccine through the site of administration. Although vaccines can be quite diverse in their composition, including inactivated virus, virus-like particles and inactivated bacteria (which are inert), protein-like vaccines, and non-replicating viral vectors such as poxvirus and adenovirus (which can serve as DNA delivery systems), this review will focus primarily on recombinant protein antigens, plasmid DNA, and alphavirus-based replicon RNA vaccines and delivery systems. This review is not an exhaustive list of all available protein, DNA and RNA vaccines, with related

  11. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation) test system is a device intended to measure protein fractions in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and...

  13. Finding the Needle in the Haystack: High-Fidelity Models of Planetary Systems for Simulating Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincowski, Andrew; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Christopher C.; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Nesvold, Erika; Haystacks Team

    2015-01-01

    Future missions to characterize exoplanets will require instruments tailored to the problem of finding a habitable exoplanet: suppressing the bright star while still directly observing planets at small angular separations. This problem is compounded by interplanetary dust, which will likely be a significant source of astrophysical background noise. Instrument parameters must be constrained with detailed performance simulations, which must then be analyzed to determine if the instruments are capable of discerning the desired exoplanet characteristics. One valuable characteristic is the mass of the planet. A constraint on a planet's mass can quickly show if it is likely to be a rocky terrestrial planet, which may have the potential to form life as we know it. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the masses of small planets with traditional indirect techniques (e.g. radial velocity).A planet's gravitational effects on nearby interplanetary dust (or 'exozodi') can be more easily observed than the planet itself. A single observation of a planetary disk could constrain the mass of an exoplanet if the dust distribution varies sufficiently to be distinguished by future instruments. The NASA Haystacks team (PI: A. Roberge) has completed preliminary high-fidelity spectral image cubes of our entire Solar System at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, including star & planet spectra and scattered light from dust. In addition to these models, we present new planetary system architectures designed to test whether we can distinguish between mini-Neptune-mass planets and Earth-mass planets by their effects on the dust structure. These spectral image cubes will be processed through instrument simulators, allowing comparison of known disk structure with simulated observations of the disk. The results will help inform future exoplanet telescope missions in development (e.g. WFIRST/AFTA and ATLAST).Spectral image cubes will be available for download from a NASA website once

  14. Physiologic effects of dry needling.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

    2013-08-01

    During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids.

  15. Electrochemical Process Makes Fine Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical process makes fine tungsten needles for use as microscopic probes or field-emission cathodes. Etching vessel filled with dense, inert lower liquid covered by less-dense, caustic etching solution. Newly formed needle breaks off upper part of wire in etchant and falls into can in inert liquid below. Improved process does not require close monitoring and left unattended for an indefinite time.

  16. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    PubMed

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  17. Cytosolic Selection Systems To Study Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Mueller-Schickert, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe biosensors that provide readouts for protein stability in the cytosolic compartment of prokaryotes. These biosensors consist of tripartite sandwich fusions that link the in vitro stability or aggregation susceptibility of guest proteins to the in vivo resistance of host cells to the antibiotics kanamycin, spectinomycin, and nourseothricin. These selectable markers confer antibiotic resistance in a wide range of hosts and are easily quantifiable. We show that mutations within guest proteins that affect their stability alter the antibiotic resistances of the cells expressing the biosensors in a manner that is related to the in vitro stabilities of the mutant guest proteins. In addition, we find that polyglutamine tracts of increasing length are associated with an increased tendency to form amyloids in vivo and, in our sandwich fusion system, with decreased resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that our approach allows the in vivo analysis of protein stability in the cytosolic compartment without the need for prior structural and functional knowledge. PMID:25266385

  18. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  19. Improvement of needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Y; Kato, K; Yabuhara, T; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses radio frequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia for brain tumors with a developed needle type applicator made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). The problem with the heating method of interstitial hyperthermia is the small heating area. So, we proposed a new heating method using a needle type electrode made of SMA which consists of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) for expanding the heating area. Here, we proposed the heating method that the leading end of needle type electrode was divided into four parts and the leading end spreads in four directions with a temperature rise. First, the proposed RF interstitial hyperthermia system with the SMA needle was presented. Second, the results obtained by the experimental heating of the agar phantom by using the developed SMA needle type applicator were presented. Third, comparing experimental results, we discussed the heating properties of the developed system. Finally, from these results, it is confirmed that the developed needle type applicator made of SMA is useful for wide heating by invasive hyperthermia.

  20. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) as a Tool for Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms for Maturation of the Shigella Type III Secretion Needle Tip Complex

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Picking, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) provides a powerful tool for monitoring intermolecular interactions and a sensitive technique for studying Å-level protein conformational changes. One system that has particularly benefited from the sensitivity and diversity of FRET measurements is the maturation of the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) needle tip complex. The Shigella T3SA delivers effector proteins into intestinal cells to promote bacterial invasion and spread. The T3SA is comprised of a basal body that spans the bacterial envelope and a needle with an exposed tip complex that matures in response to environmental stimuli. FRET measurements demonstrated bile salt binding by the nascent needle tip protein IpaD and also mapped resulting structural changes which led to the recruitment of the translocator IpaB. At the needle tip IpaB acts as a sensor for host cell contact but prior to secretion, it is stored as a heterodimeric complex with the chaperone IpgC. FRET analyses showed that chaperone binding to IpaB’s N-terminal domain causes a conformational change in the latter. These FRET analyses, with other biophysical methods, have been central to understanding T3SA maturation and will be highlighted, focusing on the details of the FRET measurements and the relevance to this particular system. PMID:23203116

  1. Closed-loop asymmetric-tip needle steering under continuous intraoperative MRI guidance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar A; van Katwijk, Tim; Li, Gang; Moreira, Pedro; Shang, Weijian; Misra, Sarthak; Fischer, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent image contrast for various types of tissues, making it a suitable choice over other imaging modalities for various image-guided needle interventions. Furthermore, robot-assistance is maturing for surgical procedures such as percutaneous prostate and brain interventions. Although MRI-guided, robot-assisted needle interventions are approaching clinical usage, they are still typically open-loop in nature due to the lack of continuous intraoperative needle tracking. Closed-loop needle-based procedures can improve the accuracy of needle tip placement by correcting the needle trajectory during insertion. This paper proposes a system for robot-assisted, flexible asymmetric-tipped needle interventions under continuous intraoperative MRI guidance. A flexible needle's insertion depth and rotation angle are manipulated by an MRI-compatible robot in the bore of the MRI scanner during continuous multi-planar image acquisition to reach a desired target location. Experiments are performed on gelatin phantoms to assess the accuracy of needle placement into the target location. The system was able to successfully utilize live MR imaging to guide the path of the needle, and results show an average total targeting error of 2.5±0.47mm, with an average in-plane error of 2.09±0.33mm. PMID:26737384

  2. Scientific basis for selecting surgical needles and needle holders for wound closure.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Towler, M A; Rodeheaver, G T; Becker, D G; Lombardi, S A; Thacker, J G

    1990-07-01

    Standardized reproducible tests have been devised to determine surgical needle sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Three comparable groups of reverse cutting edge needles were selected from different manufacturers for measurement of these needle performance parameters. This testing demonstrated that needle diameter, manufacturing process, needle material composition, cross-sectional design, and the manufacturer were all important determinants of surgical needle performance. In addition, the biomechanics of curved surgical needle bending has been related to the clamping moment of surgical needle holders. This relationship identifies the surgical needle holder that can be used with surgical needles without deformation. The results of these studies provide a scientific basis for the selection of surgical needles and needle holders for use in surgery.

  3. N-terminus of IpaB provides a potential anchor to the Shigella type III secretion system tip complex protein IpaD.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Nicholas E; Arizmendi, Olivia; Patil, Mrinalini K; Toth, Ronald T; Middaugh, C Russell; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2013-12-10

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri , providing a conduit through which host-altering effectors are injected directly into a host cell to promote uptake. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is composed of a basal body, external needle, and regulatory tip complex. The nascent needle is a polymer of MxiH capped by a pentamer of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). Exposure to bile salts (e.g., deoxycholate) causes a conformational change in IpaD and promotes recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip. It has been proposed that IpaB senses contact with host cell membranes, recruiting IpaC and inducing full secretion of T3SS effectors. Although the steps of T3SA maturation and their external triggers have been identified, details of specific protein interactions and mechanisms have remained difficult to study because of the hydrophobic nature of the IpaB and IpaC translocator proteins. Here, we explored the ability for a series of soluble N-terminal IpaB peptides to interact with IpaD. We found that DOC is required for the interaction and that a region of IpaB between residues 11-27 is required for maximum binding, which was confirmed in vivo. Furthermore, intramolecular FRET measurements indicated that movement of the IpaD distal domain away from the protein core accompanied the binding of IpaB11-226. Together, these new findings provide important new insight into the interactions and potential mechanisms that define the maturation of the Shigella T3SA needle tip complex and provide a foundation for further studies probing T3SS activation.

  4. The evolution of the protein synthesis system. I - A model of a primitive protein synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1977-01-01

    A model is developed to describe the evolution of the protein synthesis system. The model is comprised of two independent autocatalytic systems, one including one gene (A-gene) and two activated amino acid polymerases (O and A-polymerases), and the other including the addition of another gene (N-gene) and a nucleotide polymerase. Simulation results have suggested that even a small enzymic activity and polymerase specificity could lead the system to the most accurate protein synthesis, as far as permitted by transitions to systems with higher accuracy.

  5. a Computational Approach to Explore Protein Translocation Through Type III Secretion Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Im, Wonpil

    2010-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria initiate infections by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) that is comprised of a basal body, a needle, and a tip. The needle channel is formed by the assembly of a single needle protein. To explore the export mechanisms of MxiH needle protein through the needle of Shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent. Interestingly, the electronegative channel interior creates an energy barrier for MxiH to enter the channel, while the same may facilitate the ejection of the effectors into host cells. Structurally-known basal regions and ATPase underneath the basal region have also such electronegative interior, while effector proteins have considerable electronegative patches on their surfaces. Based on these observations, we propose a repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein translocation through the TTSA. This mechanism is supported by the suggestion that an ATPase is required for protein translocation through these nanomachines, which may provide the energy to overcome the initial electrostatic energy barrier. A similar mechanism may be applicable to macromolecular channels in other secretion systems or viruses through which proteins or nucleic acids are transported.

  6. A Repulsive Electrostatic Mechanism for Protein Export through the Type III Secretion Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Weis, David D.; De Guzman, Roberto N.; Im, Wonpil

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Many Gram-negative bacteria initiate infections by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion apparatus, which is comprised of a basal body, a needle, and a tip. The needle channel is formed by the assembly of a single needle protein. To explore the export mechanisms of MxiH needle protein through the needle of Shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent. The trajectories reveal a screwlike rotation motion during the export of nativelike helix-turn-helix conformations. Interestingly, the channel interior with excessive electronegative potential creates an energy barrier for MxiH to enter the channel, whereas the same may facilitate the ejection of the effectors into host cells. Structurally known basal regions and ATPase underneath the basal region also have electronegative interiors. Effector proteins also have considerable electronegative potential patches on their surfaces. From these observations, we propose a repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein translocation through the type III secretion apparatus. Based on this mechanism, the ATPase activity and/or proton motive force could be used to energize the protein translocation through these nanomachines. A similar mechanism may be applicable to macromolecular channels in other secretion systems or viruses through which proteins or nucleic acids are transported. PMID:20141759

  7. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  8. A decline in HIV-infected needles returned to New Haven's needle exchange program: client shift or needle exchange?

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, E H; Khoshnood, K; Heimer, R

    1994-01-01

    The New Haven needle exchange program experienced a significant decline in the fraction of returned needles containing human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA. Is this decline due to the operations of the needle exchange or to a shift in clients? Analysis of demographic and behavioral data revealed that only one variable, the race of participating clients, changed significantly over time. However, HIV-1 prevalences in needles given to Whites and to non-Whites were not statistically different. Thus, client shift cannot be responsible for the decline in the observed HIV prevalence in needles. Instead, needle circulation times were a significant predictor of HIV prevalence. PMID:7998644

  9. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  10. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  11. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  12. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S A; Fung, A Y C; Zaider, M

    2002-08-21

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with 1-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. PMID:12222865

  13. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  14. Local gene expression and immune responses of vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free injector.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Tamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Miki; Shibata, Yasunori; Udagawa, Haruhide; Okada, Hiroaki

    2010-08-30

    The vaginal mucosa is the most common site of initiation of virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including HIV and papillomavirus. Thus, in order to prevent or treat these infections, strong vaginal immunity is required as the first line of defense. In this study, to establish a less invasive, safe, convenient and effective immunization method, we examined the local (skin and vagina) gene transfection efficiency of a non-needle jet injector for daily insulin injection. In the skin experiment, the needle-free injector resulted in a marked increase in marker gene expression, compared to the conventional needle-syringe injection. In addition, intradermal DNA vaccination using the needle-free injector dramatically induced IFN-gamma and antibody systemic responses in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability of the needle-free injector as a vaginal vaccination tool in rabbits. Vaginal gene expression using the needle-free injector was significantly greater than that using needle-syringe injection. Moreover, intravaginal vaccination by the needle-free injector promoted vaginal IgA secretion and IFN-gamma mRNA expression in the blood lymphocytes, to a degree significantly higher than that by needle-syringe injection. In conclusion, local vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free jet injector is a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of mucosal infectious diseases.

  15. Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, Jean-Denis Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh

    2009-09-15

    Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. The Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.

  16. Protein Export According to Schedule: Architecture, Assembly, and Regulation of Type III Secretion Systems from Plant- and Animal-Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:22688814

  17. Final Report for Organic Partitioning Resulting from Operation of an INTEC Double-needle Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Michael B. Heiser

    2003-09-01

    The double needle sampler testing is a continuation of previous test series that investigated the fate of organic species in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) system at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This test series was designed to investigate the effects of operation of the double needle sampling systems on volatile organic constituents in an acidic feed matrix.

  18. Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?

    PubMed Central

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. PMID:21360796

  19. [Needle implantations--clinical report].

    PubMed

    Esswein, W

    1977-04-01

    In the last four years 27 patients with edentulous lower jaw were treated with implantation of rows of tantalum needles; 25 of them were followed up clinically and radiologically. After an average of two years and seven months where the success rate was found to be 72%. Reasons for failure were thought to be mistakes in operative technique, insufficient oral hygiene of the patients and less than optimal aftercare. These needle implants have proved their value also in cases with marked atrophy of the lower jaw where other prosthetic-surgical methods aimed at improving the prosthesis site have failed.

  20. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood. PMID:17664592

  1. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630 Section 862.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation)...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630 Section 862.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation)...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630 Section 862.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation)...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630 Section 862.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation)...

  5. Needle path planning and steering in a three-dimensional non-static environment using two-dimensional ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Abayazid, Momen; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion is commonly performed in minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation cancer treatment. During such procedures, accurate needle tip placement is critical for correct diagnosis or successful treatment. Accurate placement of the needle tip inside tissue is challenging, especially when the target moves and anatomical obstacles must be avoided. We develop a needle steering system capable of autonomously and accurately guiding a steerable needle using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images. The needle is steered to a moving target while avoiding moving obstacles in a three-dimensional (3D) non-static environment. Using a 2D ultrasound imaging device, our system accurately tracks the needle tip motion in 3D space in order to estimate the tip pose. The needle tip pose is used by a rapidly exploring random tree-based motion planner to compute a feasible needle path to the target. The motion planner is sufficiently fast such that replanning can be performed repeatedly in a closed-loop manner. This enables the system to correct for perturbations in needle motion, and movement in obstacle and target locations. Our needle steering experiments in a soft-tissue phantom achieves maximum targeting errors of 0.86 ± 0.35 mm (without obstacles) and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm (with a moving obstacle). PMID:26279600

  6. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy

  7. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  8. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering.

  9. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  17. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  18. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  19. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  20. Interaction Trap/Two-Hybrid System to Identify Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Finley, Russell L.; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Gyuris, Jeno; Brent, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid method (or interaction trap) is a powerful technique for detecting protein interactions. The procedure is performed using transcriptional activation of a dual reporter system in yeast to identify interactions between a protein of interest (the bait protein) and the candidate proteins for interaction. The method can be used to screen a protein library for interactions with a bait protein or to test for association between proteins that are expected to interact based on prior evidence. Interaction mating facilitates the screening of a library with multiple bait proteins. PMID:18228339

  1. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  2. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  3. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  4. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The “robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy” (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles’ operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot’s movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle “collision-free reachable workspace” (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor

  5. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-04-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

  6. Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP), a Secretion-Enhancing Tag for Mammalian Protein Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Reuten, Raphael; Nikodemus, Denise; Oliveira, Maria B; Patel, Trushar R; Brachvogel, Bent; Breloy, Isabelle; Stetefeld, Jörg; Koch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems to ensure the formation of disulfide bridges and proper glycosylation. Although many proteins can be expressed easily, some proteins, sub-domains, and mutant protein versions can cause problems. Here, we investigated expression levels of recombinant extracellular, intracellular as well as transmembrane proteins tethered to different polypeptides in mammalian cell lines. Strikingly, fusion of proteins to the prokaryotic maltose-binding protein (MBP) generally enhanced protein production. MBP fusion proteins consistently exhibited the most robust increase in protein production in comparison to commonly used tags, e.g., the Fc, Glutathione S-transferase (GST), SlyD, and serum albumin (ser alb) tag. Moreover, proteins tethered to MBP revealed reduced numbers of dying cells upon transient transfection. In contrast to the Fc tag, MBP is a stable monomer and does not promote protein aggregation. Therefore, the MBP tag does not induce artificial dimerization of tethered proteins and provides a beneficial fusion tag for binding as well as cell adhesion studies. Using MBP we were able to secret a disease causing laminin β2 mutant protein (congenital nephrotic syndrome), which is normally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, this study establishes MBP as a versatile expression tag for protein production in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:27029048

  7. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy with a vacuum test tube.

    PubMed

    Fornage, B D

    1988-11-01

    A simple, low-cost, automatic aspiration system that makes use of vacuum test tubes designed for the drawing of venous blood has been used for real-time ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 13 cysts (breast), an abscess (liver), and five solid (breast, liver, thyroid) masses. Because it allows the operator to perform aspiration with one hand while holding the real-time US transducer with the other, and because creation of the suction is associated with no significant displacement of the needle, this approach has allowed sampling of lesions less than 1 cm in diameter. No complications have occurred.

  8. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  9. The MULTICOM protein tertiary structure prediction system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jilong; Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Adhikari, Badri; Deng, Xin; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of genomics and proteomics data aided by the rapid progress of next-generation sequencing technologies, computational prediction of protein three-dimensional structure is an essential part of modern structural genomics initiatives. Prediction of protein structure through understanding of the theories behind protein sequence-structure relationship, however, remains one of the most challenging problems in contemporary life sciences. Here, we describe MULTICOM, a multi-level combination technique, intended to predict moderate- to high-resolution structure of a protein through a novel approach of combining multiple sources of complementary information derived from the experimentally solved protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. The MULTICOM web server is freely available at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/multicom_toolbox/.

  10. Improved Feed Protein Fractional Schemes for Formulating Rations With the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate predictions of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplies are necessary to optimize performance while minimizing losses of excess nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the original Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) protei...

  11. Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

    2001-12-01

    Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force.

  12. The tandem affinity purification method: an efficient system for protein complex purification and protein interaction identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Song, Yuan; Li, Yuhua; Chang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hua; An, Lizhe

    2010-08-01

    Isolation and identification of protein partners in multi-protein complexes are important in gaining further insights into the cellular roles of proteins and determining the possible mechanisms by which proteins have an effect in the molecular environment. The tandem affinity purification (TAP) method was originally developed in yeast for the purification of protein complexes and identification of protein-protein interactions. With modifications to this method and many variations in the original tag made over the past few years, the TAP system could be applied in mammalian, plant, bacteria and other systems for protein complex analysis. In this review, we describe the application of the TAP method in various organisms, the modification in the tag, the disadvantages, the developments and the future prospects of the TAP method. PMID:20399864

  13. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the

  14. Activated protein C anticoagulant system dysfunction and thrombophilia in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuma, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia that is common among Caucasians is caused by genetic polymorphisms of coagulation factor V Leiden (R506Q) and prothrombin G20210A. Unlike that in Caucasians, thrombophilia that is common in the Japanese and Chinese involve dysfunction of the activated protein C (APC) anticoagulant system caused by abnormal protein S and protein C molecules. Approximately 50% of Japanese and Chinese individuals who develop venous thrombosis have reduced activities of protein S. The abnormal sites causing the protein S molecule abnormalities are distributed throughout the protein S gene, PROS1. One of the most common abnormalities is protein S Tokushima (K155E), which accounts for about 30% of the protein S molecule abnormalities in the Japanese. Whether APC dysfunction occurs in other Asian countries is an important aspect of mapping thrombophilia among Asians. International surveys using an accurate assay system are needed to determine this.

  15. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations.

  16. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  17. Enhanced Visualization of Fine Needles Under Sonographic Guidance Using a MEMS Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yufeng; Miao, Jianmin; Vu, Kien Fong

    2015-01-01

    Localization of a needle tip is important for biopsy examinations in clinics. However, the needle tip is sometimes difficult to discern under the guidance of sonography due to its poor visibility. A mini actuator that radiates a low-intensity ultrasound wave was manufactured using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. Interference between the radiated and diagnostic ultrasound pulses was observed as bright lines in the B-mode ultrasound image, from which the mini actuator could be recognized with ease. Because the distance between the mini actuator and the needle tip is fixed, the needle tip can be determined despite its inconsistent appearance in the sonography. Both gel phantom and ex vivo tissue evaluation showed that the needle tip can be determined reliably utilizing the acoustic interference pattern. PMID:25647740

  18. Effects of needle tip bevel and aspiration procedure on the morphology and developmental capacity of bovine compact cumulus oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Bols, P E; Ysebaert, M T; Van Soom, A; de Kruif, A

    1997-04-15

    Effects of the needle tip bevel and the aspiration procedure on the morphology of cumulusoocyte-complexes (COCs) and the developmental capacity of the oocytes after IVF were studied in 2 in vitro oocyte pick-up (OPU) simulations using a disposable ovum pick-up needle guidance system. In Experiment 1, the influence of the length of the needle bevel was investigated using a short and a long bevelled 20-g disposable needle. After being aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries, the retrieved COCs were divided into 3 categories: 1) oocytes surrounded by a compact cumulus, 2) oocytes with an expanded cumulus, 3) partially naked oocytes. In Experiment 2, the influence of 5 different levels of aspiration vacuum for 3 different needle diameters (18-g, 19-g, 20-g) and 2 different needle bevels (long, short) was tested on the recovery and on the morphology of the cumulus investment of a fixed number of previously scored compact cumulus oocytes complexes (CCOCs), retrieved after slicing slaughterhouse ovaries. The re-retrieved COCs were allocated to Categories 1 and 3. The results show that the length of the needle bevel has a significant effect on oocyte recovery, in favor of the long-bevelled needle. As soon as higher aspiration vacua are used, a decrease of the number of CCOCs can be observed, which is less prominent for the short-bevelled needle compared to the long-bevelled one. The final number of blastocysts is similar for both needle types. In Experiment 2, the disposable needle system proved to be highly effective since nearly 80% of the CCOCs were retrieved. At low aspiration vacuum, up to 90% of the CCOCs withstand the aspiration procedure undamaged. Increasing the aspiration vacuum results in a decrease of the number of CCOCs, which is less pronounced using thinner needles. Averaged over all needle types, the prevalence of blastocysts expressed relative to the number of recovered oocytes decreases with higher aspiration vacuum. PMID:16728071

  19. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  20. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  1. Performance benchmarking of four cell-free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gagoski, Dejan; Polinkovsky, Mark E; Mureev, Sergey; Kunert, Anne; Johnston, Wayne; Gambin, Yann; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    Over the last half century, a range of cell-free protein expression systems based on pro- and eukaryotic organisms have been developed and have found a range of applications, from structural biology to directed protein evolution. While it is generally accepted that significant differences in performance among systems exist, there is a paucity of systematic experimental studies supporting this notion. Here, we took advantage of the species-independent translation initiation sequence to express and characterize 87 N-terminally GFP-tagged human cytosolic proteins of different sizes in E. coli, wheat germ (WGE), HeLa, and Leishmania-based (LTE) cell-free systems. Using a combination of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis, we assessed the expression yields, the fraction of full-length translation product, and aggregation propensity for each of these systems. Our results demonstrate that the E. coli system has the highest expression yields. However, we observe that high expression levels are accompanied by production of truncated species-particularly pronounced in the case of proteins larger than 70 kDa. Furthermore, proteins produced in the E. coli system display high aggregation propensity, with only 10% of tested proteins being produced in predominantly monodispersed form. The WGE system was the most productive among eukaryotic systems tested. Finally, HeLa and LTE show comparable protein yields that are considerably lower than the ones achieved in the E. coli and WGE systems. The protein products produced in the HeLa system display slightly higher integrity, whereas the LTE-produced proteins have the lowest aggregation propensity among the systems analyzed. The high quality of HeLa- and LTE-produced proteins enable their analysis without purification and make them suitable for analysis of multi-domain eukaryotic proteins.

  2. High-Throughput Baculovirus Expression System for Membrane Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Kalathur, Ravi C; Panganiban, Marinela; Bruni, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The ease of use, robustness, cost-effectiveness, and posttranslational machinery make baculovirus expression system a popular choice for production of eukaryotic membrane proteins. This system can be readily adapted for high-throughput operations. This chapter outlines the techniques and procedures for cloning, transfection, small-scale production, and purification of membrane protein samples in a high-throughput manner. PMID:27485337

  3. Controlled and Extended Release of a Model Protein from a Microsphere-Hydrogel Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Christian R; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J

    2015-11-01

    In extended ocular drug delivery applications, it is necessary to exert control over the release characteristics of the drug. Design considerations must be made to limit the initial burst (IB) and ensure complete release of drug from the drug delivery system (DDS). In this study, ovalbumin was used as a model protein to explore the effects on release of polymer formulation and fabrication technique in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Furthermore, the effect on release of suspending these microspheres in an injectable, thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel was determined. To characterize release, ovalbumin was radiolabeled with iodine-125. Regardless of polymer formulation or fabrication technique, pulsatile release was achieved with a second burst occurring after ~70 days for microspheres alone. Suspending PLGA 75:25 microspheres within hydrogel reduced the IB by ~75%, delayed the second burst by 28 days, and extended release out to ~200 days with steadier, consistent release throughout compared to microspheres alone. The combined microsphere-hydrogel DDS remains injectable through small-gauge needles and may have many applications, namely ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment.

  4. Effective isotope labeling of proteins in a mammalian expression system.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Mallika; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Isotope labeling of biologically interesting proteins is a prerequisite for structural and dynamics studies by NMR spectroscopy. Many of these proteins require mammalian cofactors, chaperons, or posttranslational modifications such as myristoylation, glypiation, disulfide bond formation, or N- or O-linked glycosylation; and mammalian cells have the necessary machinery to produce them in their functional forms. Here, we describe recent advances in mammalian expression, including an efficient adenoviral vector-based system, for the production of isotopically labeled proteins. This system enables expression of mammalian proteins and their complexes, including proteins that require posttranslational modifications. We describe a roadmap to produce isotopically labeled (15)N and (13)C posttranslationally modified proteins, such as the outer domain of HIV-1 gp120, which has four disulfide bonds and 15 potential sites of N-linked glycosylation. These methods should allow NMR spectroscopic analysis of the structure and function of posttranslationally modified and secreted, cytoplasmic, or membrane-bound proteins.

  5. Review: Milk Proteins as Nanocarrier Systems for Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, Florian; Schmitt, Joachim J

    2015-11-01

    Milk proteins and milk protein aggregates are among the most important nanovehicles in food technology. Milk proteins have various functional properties that facilitate their ability to carry hydrophobic nutraceutical substances. The main functional transport properties that were examined in the reviewed studies are binding of molecules or ions, surface activity, aggregation, gelation, and interaction with other polymers. Hydrophobic binding has been investigated using caseins and isolated β-casein as well as whey proteins. Surface activity of caseins has been used to create emulsion-based carrier systems. Furthermore, caseins are able to self-assemble into micelles, which can incorporate molecules. Gelation and interaction with other polymers can be used to encapsulate molecules into protein networks. The release of transported substances mainly depends on pH and swelling behavior of the proteins. The targeted use of nanocarrier systems requires specific knowledge about the binding mechanisms between the proteins and the carried substances in a certain food matrix. PMID:26467442

  6. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  7. A saposin-lipoprotein nanoparticle system for membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Frauenfeld, Jens; Löving, Robin; Armache, Jean-Paul; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Guettou, Fatma; Moberg, Per; Zhu, Lin; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Flayhan, Ali; Briggs, John A G; Garoff, Henrik; Löw, Christian; Cheng, Yifan; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-04-01

    A limiting factor in membrane protein research is the ability to solubilize and stabilize such proteins. Detergents are used most often for solubilizing membrane proteins, but they are associated with protein instability and poor compatibility with structural and biophysical studies. Here we present a saposin-lipoprotein nanoparticle system, Salipro, which allows for the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a lipid environment that is stabilized by a scaffold of saposin proteins. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on two purified membrane protein complexes as well as by the direct solubilization and nanoparticle incorporation of a viral membrane protein complex from the virus membrane. Our approach facilitated high-resolution structural studies of the bacterial peptide transporter PeptTSo2 by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and allowed us to stabilize the HIV envelope glycoprotein in a functional state.

  8. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  9. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  10. Reliable protein production in a Pseudomonas fluorescens expression system.

    PubMed

    Retallack, Diane M; Jin, Hongfan; Chew, Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    A bottleneck to product development can be reliable expression of active target protein. A wide array of recombinant proteins in development, including an ever growing number of non-natural proteins, is being expressed in a variety of expression systems. A Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform has been developed specifically for recombinant protein production. The development of an integrated molecular toolbox of expression elements and host strains, along with automation of strain screening is described. Examples of strain screening and scale-up experiments show rapid development of expression strains producing a wide variety of proteins in a soluble active form.

  11. Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin

    SciTech Connect

    Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2009-04-22

    Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15--20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

  12. [Clinical experiences of RUAN's needling method for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Zhen; Ruan, Bu-Qing

    2013-07-01

    The theoretical basis and needling techniques of RUAN's needling method in treatment of insomnia are introduced in this paper. Ruan's needling method follows the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, stresses the theory of taking brain as the marrow sea in treatment of insomnia acupuncture. The characteristics of his needling method are that emphasis on acupoints, including positioning accuracy and proper compatibility; think highly of needling method that combines with perpendicular needling, oblique needling, parallel needling, deep needling and shallow needling; emphasis on manipulation and identify qi under the needle to decide reinforcing or reducing method by arrival of qi, excess or deficiency. And the clinical observation of RUAN' s needling method on 30 cases of insomnia is attached. PMID:24032204

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  14. Network Clustering Revealed the Systemic Alterations of Mitochondrial Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun-Jung; Park, Wook-Ha; Yang, Jae-Seong; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Sanguk; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein repertoire varies depending on the cellular state. Protein component modifications caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion are related to a wide range of human diseases; however, little is known about how nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (mt proteome) changes under such dysfunctional states. In this study, we investigated the systemic alterations of mtDNA-depleted (ρ0) mitochondria by using network analysis of gene expression data. By modularizing the quantified proteomics data into protein functional networks, systemic properties of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. We discovered that up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were organized into two predominant subnetworks that exhibited distinct biological processes. The down-regulated network modules are involved in typical mitochondrial functions, while up-regulated proteins are responsible for mtDNA repair and regulation of mt protein expression and transport. Furthermore, comparisons of proteome and transcriptome data revealed that ρ0 cells attempted to compensate for mtDNA depletion by modulating the coordinated expression/transport of mt proteins. Our results demonstrate that mt protein composition changed to remodel the functional organization of mitochondrial protein networks in response to dysfunctional cellular states. Human mt protein functional networks provide a framework for understanding how cells respond to mitochondrial dysfunctions. PMID:21738461

  15. Protein salting-out: phase equilibria in two-protein systems.

    PubMed

    Coen, C J; Prausnitz, J M; Blanch, H W

    1997-03-20

    The phase behavior of two aqueous binary protein mixtures, lysozyme-chymotrypsin and lysozyme-ovalbumin, was determined in ammonium sulfate solutions. Protein concentrations were determined in both phases as a function of pH and ionic strength. For lysozyme-chymotrypsin mixtures, the observed phase behavior was similar to that for each individual protein; the presence of the second protein had little influence. The phase behavior of lysozyme-ovalbumin mixtures, however, was different from that of the respective single-protein systems. Lysozyme and ovalbumin are found together in egg whites; their association is both pH and ionic-strength dependent. The association of proteins is a key determinant of protein solubility in salt solutions.

  16. Estimating needle-tissue interaction forces for hollow needles using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Shrikanth, V.; Bharadwaj, Amrutur; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Bobji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Brachytherapy and neurological procedures can benefit from real-time estimation of needle-tissue interaction forces, specifically for robotic or robot-assisted procedures. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors provide advantages of very small size and electromagnetic immunity for use in measurement of the forces directly at the needle tip. This has advantages compared to measurements at the needle shaft which require extensive models of the friction between needle and tissues with varying depth. This paper presents the measurement of tip forces for a hollow needle and compensation for bending when encountering regions of varying stiffness in phantoms with multiple layers prepared using Polydimethylsiloxane.

  17. IR-UV photochemistry of protein-nucleic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, J.; Edwards, G.

    1995-12-31

    UV light has often been used to induce the formation of covalent bonds between DNA (or RNA) and tightly-bound protein molecules. However, the internal photoreactions of nucleic acids and proteins limit the yield and complicate the analysis of intermolecular crosslinks. In an ongoing search for improved reaction specificity or new photoreactions in these systems, we have employed UV photons from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser and mid-IR photons from the Vanderbilt FEL. Having crosslinked several protein-nucleic acid systems with nanosecond UV laser pulses, we are currently studying the effect of various IR wavelengths on a model system (gene 32 protein and poly[dT]). We have found that irradiation with sufficiently intense FEL macropulses creates an altered form of gene 32 protein which was not observed with UV-only irradiation. The electrophoretic nobility of the product is consistent with the formation of a specific protein-protein crosslink. No evidence of the non-specific protein damage typically induced by UV light is found. The yield of the new photoproduct is apparently enhanced by exposure to FEL macropulses which are synchronized with UV laser pulses. With ideal exposure parameters, the two-color reaction effectively competes with UV-only reactions. Experiments designed to determine the reaction mechanism and to demonstrate FEL-induced reactions in other protein-nucleic acid systems are currently underway.

  18. Development of a Split SNAP-CLIP Double Labeling System for Tracking Proteins Following Dissociation from Protein-Protein Complexes in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Mie, Masayasu; Naoki, Tatsuhiko; Kobatake, Eiry

    2016-08-16

    The split SNAP-tag protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) is a useful tool for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in living cells. In contrast to conventional methods employed for imaging PPIs, the split SNAP-tag PCA enables tracking of proteins following dissociation from protein-protein complexes. A limitation of this system, however, is that it only allows for labeling and tracking of one of the proteins forming the protein-protein complex. To track both proteins forming a protein-protein complex, each protein needs to be appropriately labeled. In this study, a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system is developed and applied for tracking of each protein forming a protein-protein complex. As a proof-of concept, FM protein for PPIs and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) for translocation are introduced to a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system. The results show a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system enables labeling of both proteins in a protein-protein complex and subsequent tracking of each of the proteins following dissociation from the protein-protein complexes in living cells.

  19. Smart surgical needle actuated by shape memory alloys for percutaneous procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konh, Bardia

    . Design parameters influencing the steerability include the needle's diameter, wire diameter, pre-strain, and its offset from the needle. A simplified model was developed to decrease the computation time in iterative analyses of the optimization algorithm. In the fourth part of this work a design of an active needling system was proposed where actuation forces of SMAs as well as shape memory polymers (SMPs) were incorporated. SMP elements provide two major additional advantages to the design: (i) recovery of the SMP's plastic deformation by heating the element above its glass transition temperature, and (ii) achieving a higher needle deflection by having a softer stage of SMP at higher temperatures with less amount of actuation force. Finally, in the fifth and last part of this study, an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation in LS-DYNA software was used to model the solid-fluid interactions between the needle and tissue. A 150mm long needle was considered to bend within the tissue due to the interacting forces on its asymmetric bevel tip. Some additional assumptions were made to maintain a reasonable computational time, with no need of parallel processing, while having practical accuracies. Three experimental tests of needle steering in a soft phantom were performed to validate the simulation. Results: The finite element model of the active needle was first validated experimentally with developed prototypes. Several design parameters affecting the needle's deflection such as the needle's Young's modulus, the SMA's pre-strain and its offset from the neutral axis of the cannula were studied using the FE model. Then by the integration of the SMA characteristics with the automated optimization schemes an improved design of the active needle was obtained. Real-time experiments with different prototypes showed that the quickest response and the maximum deflection were achieved by the needle with two sections of actuation compared to a single section of actuation. Also the

  20. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  1. [Textual research on the fire needle and the fire needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Zhu, J P; Zhang, Q C

    2016-03-01

    There are different names of the fire needle therapy in the Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) such as Zu-zhen (), Cui-zhen (,), Fan-zhen (), Huo-cui (), Cui (,,), Cuici ,), Fan zhen jie ci (). It is claimed that the lance needle, the round sharp needle and the long needle recorded in this Classic are puncturing tools for the fire needle therapy. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing expanded the indications for the fire needle therapy and Huo-zhen () firstly appeared in the Jin kui yu han jing(Classic of the Jade Box and Golden Chamber). The application of the fire needle therapy had been further expanded to a lot of internal and external disorders form the Wei-Jin-Southern and Northern Dynasties to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are more detailed records on the manipulation and the tools of the fire needle therapy during this period. In the 1970s, Huo zhen liao fa () was proposed and still in use today. However the Bai-zhen (plain needle) in ancient literature is equal to the filiform needle and should not be regarded as the former name of the fire needle. PMID:27255194

  2. MEGADOCK: an all-to-all protein-protein interaction prediction system using tertiary structure data.

    PubMed

    Ohue, Masahito; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is important for understanding cellular structure and function and structure-based drug design. However, the development of an effective method to conduct exhaustive PPI screening represents a computational challenge. We have been investigating a protein docking approach based on shape complementarity and physicochemical properties. We describe here the development of the protein-protein docking software package "MEGADOCK" that samples an extremely large number of protein dockings at high speed. MEGADOCK reduces the calculation time required for docking by using several techniques such as a novel scoring function called the real Pairwise Shape Complementarity (rPSC) score. We showed that MEGADOCK is capable of exhaustive PPI screening by completing docking calculations 7.5 times faster than the conventional docking software, ZDOCK, while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy. When MEGADOCK was applied to a subset of a general benchmark dataset to predict 120 relevant interacting pairs from 120 x 120 = 14,400 combinations of proteins, an F-measure value of 0.231 was obtained. Further, we showed that MEGADOCK can be applied to a large-scale protein-protein interaction-screening problem with accuracy better than random. When our approach is combined with parallel high-performance computing systems, it is now feasible to search and analyze protein-protein interactions while taking into account three-dimensional structures at the interactome scale. MEGADOCK is freely available at http://www.bi.cs.titech.ac.jp/megadock. PMID:23855673

  3. Seed storage proteins as a system for teaching protein identification by mass spectrometry in biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed, requiring more time and expertise than instructors of large laboratory classes can devote. We have developed an experimental module for our Biochemistry Laboratory course that engages students in MS-based protein identification following protein separation by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, a technique that is usually taught in this type of course. The module is based on soybean seed storage proteins, a relatively simple mixture of proteins present in high levels in the seed, allowing the identification of the main protein bands by MS/MS and in some cases, even by peptide mass fingerprinting. Students can identify their protein bands using software available on the Internet, and are challenged to deduce post-translational modifications that have occurred upon germination. A collection of mass spectral data and tutorials that can be used as a stand-alone computer-based laboratory module were also assembled.

  4. Development of Micro Lancet Needle Made of Biodegradable Polymer for Medical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Seiji; Izumi, Hayato; Aoki, Toshiro; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    The aim of this paper is development of micro lancet needle made of biodegradable polymer (Poly Lactic Acid, called as PLA). This device is applicable to a blood test system for diabetics. Since PLA naturally degrades itself in tissues, this material is safe for human body. To achieve the purpose of this study, we focused on wet chemical anisotropic etching process of silicon negative groove, and micromolding process of PLA. Resistance force during inserting a fabricated needle to an artificial skin of silicone rubber is investigated experimentally. The effects of thinning needle, sharpening tip, vibrating it during insertion, pitching out the inserted object surface, etc., for decreasing the resistance force are confirmed.

  5. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  6. Transport, assembly, and dynamics in systems of interacting proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elowitz, Michael Bernard

    1999-10-01

    Many of the functions performed by cells are controlled by networks of interacting proteins. This thesis explores optical techniques for monitoring and perturbing protein networks and measuring protein diffusion. In addition, it discusses the design of simple artificial genetic networks. A useful tool for tagging proteins in diverse organisms is the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which absorbs blue light and emits green light. We report the discovery of a new state of this protein in which it absorbs green light and emits red light. It can be switched to this new state with a pulse of blue light. This effect is useful for marking proteins in a certain region and following their subsequent movement. We use this technique to measure diffusion of proteins inside living bacterial cells. The apparent diffusion coefficient we obtain for GFP is about ten times lower than its value in water. This reflects the crowded conditions in bacterial cytoplasm and places a constraint on the response time of diffusion-based signalling networks. We next turn to systems of motor proteins and microtubules. We show how motor protein forces can be estimated from spiral motions of pinned filaments in motility assays. Then we explore spatially and temporally localized inactivation of specific proteins using Chromophore-Assisted Laser Inactivation (CALI). In this method, dyes are attached to target proteins, allowing them to be inactivated by controlled pulses of light. By inactivating motor proteins with this technique, we can locally disrupt an in vitro assembly process. Finally, we address the problem of constructing an artificial genetic network in order to see whether simple, artificial systems behave as expected from detailed modeling of their components. We analyze the expected behavior of an oscillator built of bacterial transcriptional repressors, and lay the groundwork for its actual construction.

  7. Feedback Control for Steering Needles Through 3D Deformable Tissue Using Helical Paths

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Kris; Alterovitz, Ron; Chentanez, Nuttapong; Okamura, Allison; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Bevel-tip steerable needles are a promising new technology for improving accuracy and accessibility in minimally invasive medical procedures. As yet, 3D needle steering has not been demonstrated in the presence of tissue deformation and uncertainty, despite the application of progressively more sophisticated planning algorithms. This paper presents a feedback controller that steers a needle along 3D helical paths, and varies the helix radius to correct for perturbations. It achieves high accuracy for targets sufficiently far from the needle insertion point; this is counterintuitive because the system is highly under-actuated and not locally controllable. The controller uses a model predictive control framework that chooses a needle twist rate such that the predicted helical trajectory minimizes the distance to the target. Fast branch and bound techniques enable execution at kilohertz rates on a 2GHz PC. We evaluate the controller under a variety of simulated perturbations, including imaging noise, needle deflections, and curvature estimation errors. We also test the controller in a 3D finite element simulator that incorporates deformation in the tissue as well as the needle. In deformable tissue examples, the controller reduced targeting error by up to 88% compared to open-loop execution. PMID:21179401

  8. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data. PMID:27165321

  9. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  10. An affinity-directed protein missile system for targeted proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Luke J.; Macartney, Thomas; Bozatzi, Polyxeni; Hornberger, Annika; Rojas-Fernandez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) protein serves to recruit the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α) protein under normoxia to the CUL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase for its ubiquitylation and degradation through the proteasome. In this report, we modify VHL to engineer an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system to direct specific endogenous target proteins for proteolysis in mammalian cells. The proteolytic AdPROM construct harbours a cameloid anti-green fluorescence protein (aGFP) nanobody that is fused to VHL for either constitutive or tetracycline-inducible expression. For target proteins, we exploit CRISPR/Cas9 to rapidly generate human kidney HEK293 and U2OS osteosarcoma homozygous knock-in cells harbouring GFP tags at the VPS34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) and protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1, aka FAM83G) loci, respectively. Using these cells, we demonstrate that the expression of the VHL-aGFP AdPROM system results in near-complete degradation of the endogenous GFP-VPS34 and PAWS1-GFP proteins through the proteasome. Additionally, we show that Tet-inducible destruction of GFP-VPS34 results in the degradation of its associated partner, UVRAG, and reduction in levels of cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. PMID:27784791

  11. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  12. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described.

  13. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cellmer, Troy; Bratko, Dusan; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey

    2005-06-20

    Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the thermodynamics of folding for a Miyazawa-Jernigan model 64-mer in isolation to results obtained in the presence of additional chains. The melting temperature falls as the chain concentration increases. In multi-chain systems, free-energy landscapes for folding show an increased preference for misfolded states. Misfolding is accompanied by an increase in inter-protein interactions; however, near the folding temperature, the transition from folded chains to misfolded and associated chains isentropically driven. A majority of the most probable inter-protein contacts are also native contacts, suggesting that native topology plays a role in early stages of aggregation.

  14. Systems Biology of Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Bunk, Boyke; Fürch, Tobias; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter

    Over the last two decades the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed to a useful alternative protein production host. Multiple vector systems for high yield intra- and extracellular protein production were constructed. Strong inducible promoters were combined with DNA sequences for optimised ribosome binding sites, various leader peptides for protein export and N- as well as C-terminal affinity tags for affinity chromatographic purification of the desired protein. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production were successfully tested. For further system biology based control and optimisation of the production process the genomes of two B. megaterium strains were completely elucidated, DNA arrays designed, proteome, fluxome and metabolome analyses performed and all data integrated using the bioinformatics platform MEGABAC. Now, solid theoretical and experimental bases for primary modeling attempts of the production process are available.

  15. A novel lipoprotein nanoparticle system for membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfeld, Jens; Löving, Robin; Armache, Jean-Paul; Sonnen, Andreas; Guettou, Fatma; Moberg, Per; Zhu, Lin; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Flayhan, Ali; Briggs, John A.G.; Garoff, Henrik; Löw, Christian; Cheng, Yifan; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are of outstanding importance in biology, drug discovery and vaccination. A common limiting factor in research and applications involving membrane proteins is the ability to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins. Although detergents represent the major means for solubilizing membrane proteins, they are often associated with protein instability and poor applicability in structural and biophysical studies. Here, we present a novel lipoprotein nanoparticle system that allows for the reconstitution of membrane proteins into a lipid environment that is stabilized by a scaffold of Saposin proteins. We showcase the applicability of the method on two purified membrane protein complexes as well as the direct solubilization and nanoparticle-incorporation of a viral membrane protein complex from the virus membrane. We also demonstrate that this lipid nanoparticle methodology facilitates high-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins in a lipid environment by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and allows for the stabilization of the HIV-envelope glycoprotein in a functional state. PMID:26950744

  16. An effective system for detecting protein-protein interaction based on in vivo cleavage by PPV NIa protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nuoyan; Huang, Xiahe; Yin, Bojiao; Wang, Dan; Xie, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Detection of protein-protein interaction can provide valuable information for investigating the biological function of proteins. The current methods that applied in protein-protein interaction, such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull down etc., often cause plenty of working time due to the burdensome cloning and purification procedures. Here we established a system that characterization of protein-protein interaction was accomplished by co-expression and simply purification of target proteins from one expression cassette within E. coli system. We modified pET vector into co-expression vector pInvivo which encoded PPV NIa protease, two cleavage site F and two multiple cloning sites that flanking cleavage sites. The target proteins (for example: protein A and protein B) were inserted at multiple cloning sites and translated into polyprotein in the order of MBP tag-protein A-site F-PPV NIa protease-site F-protein B-His(6) tag. PPV NIa protease carried out intracellular cleavage along expression, then led to the separation of polyprotein components, therefore, the interaction between protein A-protein B can be detected through one-step purification and analysis. Negative control for protein B was brought into this system for monitoring interaction specificity. We successfully employed this system to prove two cases of reported protien-protein interaction: RHA2a/ANAC and FTA/FTB. In conclusion, a convenient and efficient system has been successfully developed for detecting protein-protein interaction.

  17. Making recombinant proteins in animals--different systems, different applications.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Michael K; Lacroix, Dan; Pothier, François; Sirard, Marc-André

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors represent a powerful tool to address the growing need for therapeutic recombinant proteins. The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active recombinant proteins in an efficient and economic manner has stimulated a great deal of interest in this area. As a result, genetically modified animals of several species, expressing foreign proteins in various tissues, are currently being developed. However, the generation of transgenic animals is a cumbersome process and remains problematic in the application of this technology. The advantages and disadvantages of different transgenic systems in relation to other bioreactor systems are discussed.

  18. Learning Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion Skills through an Edutainment Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wing-Yin; Ni, Dong; Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is essential in many of minimally invasive surgeries or procedures, such as biopsy, drug delivery, spinal anaesthesia, etc. Accurate and safe needle insertion is a difficult task due to the high requirement of hand-eye coordination skills. Many proposed virtual reality (VR) based training systems put their emphasis on realistic simulation instead of pedagogical efficiency. The lack of schematic training scenario leads to boredom of repetitive operations. To solve this, we present our novel training system with the integration of game elements in order to retain the trainees' enthusiasm. Task-oriented scenarios, time attack scenarios and performance evaluation are introduced. Besides, some state-of-art technologies are also presented, including ultrasound simulation, needle haptic rendering as well as a mass-spring-based needle-tissue interaction simulation. These works are shown to be effective to keep the trainees up with learning.

  19. An automated optimization tool for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy with divergent needle pattern.

    PubMed

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Denis de Senneville, B; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Lagendijk, J J W; van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A

    2015-10-01

    Focal high-dose-rate (HDR) for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest as an alternative to whole gland therapy as it may contribute to the reduction of treatment related toxicity. For focal treatment, optimal needle guidance and placement is warranted. This can be achieved under MR guidance. However, MR-guided needle placement is currently not possible due to space restrictions in the closed MR bore. To overcome this problem, a MR-compatible, single-divergent needle-implant robotic device is under development at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht: placed between the legs of the patient inside the MR bore, this robot will tap the needle in a divergent pattern from a single rotation point into the tissue. This rotation point is just beneath the perineal skin to have access to the focal prostate tumor lesion. Currently, there is no treatment planning system commercially available which allows optimization of the dose distribution with such needle arrangement. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic inverse dose planning optimization tool for focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with needle insertions in a divergent configuration. A complete optimizer workflow is proposed which includes the determination of (1) the position of the center of rotation, (2) the needle angulations and (3) the dwell times. Unlike most currently used optimizers, no prior selection or adjustment of input parameters such as minimum or maximum dose or weight coefficients for treatment region and organs at risk is required. To test this optimizer, a planning study was performed on ten patients (treatment volumes ranged from 8.5 cm(3)to 23.3 cm(3)) by using 2-14 needle insertions. The total computation time of the optimizer workflow was below 20 min and a clinically acceptable plan was reached on average using only four needle insertions. PMID:26378657

  20. An automated optimization tool for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy with divergent needle pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borot de Battisti, M.; Maenhout, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; van Vulpen, M.; Moerland, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Focal high-dose-rate (HDR) for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest as an alternative to whole gland therapy as it may contribute to the reduction of treatment related toxicity. For focal treatment, optimal needle guidance and placement is warranted. This can be achieved under MR guidance. However, MR-guided needle placement is currently not possible due to space restrictions in the closed MR bore. To overcome this problem, a MR-compatible, single-divergent needle-implant robotic device is under development at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht: placed between the legs of the patient inside the MR bore, this robot will tap the needle in a divergent pattern from a single rotation point into the tissue. This rotation point is just beneath the perineal skin to have access to the focal prostate tumor lesion. Currently, there is no treatment planning system commercially available which allows optimization of the dose distribution with such needle arrangement. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic inverse dose planning optimization tool for focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with needle insertions in a divergent configuration. A complete optimizer workflow is proposed which includes the determination of (1) the position of the center of rotation, (2) the needle angulations and (3) the dwell times. Unlike most currently used optimizers, no prior selection or adjustment of input parameters such as minimum or maximum dose or weight coefficients for treatment region and organs at risk is required. To test this optimizer, a planning study was performed on ten patients (treatment volumes ranged from 8.5 cm3to 23.3 cm3) by using 2-14 needle insertions. The total computation time of the optimizer workflow was below 20 min and a clinically acceptable plan was reached on average using only four needle insertions.

  1. YopR impacts type III needle polymerization in Yersinia species

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Bill; Berube, Bryan J.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Summary A hallmark of Yersinia type III machines is the presence of needles extending from the bacterial surface. Needles perform two functions, serving as the conduits for the transport of effectors into immune cells but also acting as a sensor. The polymerized needle protein, YscF, is thought to perceive threshold levels of environmental calcium ions to trigger secretion. yopR (yscH) is a gene downstream of yscEFG, encoding the chaperones and principal building blocks of the needle. Here we investigated the contribution of YopR towards type III secretion and pathogenesis. Yersinia pestis KIM D27 mutants lacking yopR were defective for virulence in a mouse model of septicemic plague. yopR variants of Yersinia enterocolitica W22703 displayed a reduced ability to inject effectors into macrophages and required lower calcium concentrations to activate type III secretion than wild-type yersiniae. Further, yopR mutants failed to assemble YscF into needle complexes and instead secreted YscF into the medium. These results imply that YopR may be involved in controlling the secretion of YscF, thereby impacting the assembly of type III machines. An alternative possibility, that YopR participates directly in the polymerization of YscF, seems less likely as YopR is not associated with purified needles. PMID:19968786

  2. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  3. A General System for Studying Protein-Protein Interactions in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Auberry, Deanna L; Buchanan, Michelle V; Cannon, Bill; Daly, Don S.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Foote, Linda J; Hervey, IV, William Judson; Hooker, Brian; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Kennel, Steve J; Lankford, Patricia K; Larimer, Frank W; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; McDonald, W Hayes; McKeown, Catherine K; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Owens, Elizabeth T; Schmoyer, Denise D; Shah, Manesh B; Wiley, Steven; Wang, Yisong; Gilmore, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Abstract One of the most promising methods for large-scale studies of protein interactions is isolation of an affinity-tagged protein with its in vivo interaction partners, followed by mass spectrometric identification of the copurified proteins. Previous studies have generated affinity-tagged proteins using genetic tools or cloning systems that are specific to a particular organism. To enable protein-protein interaction studies across a wider range of Gram-negative bacteria, we have developed a methodology based on expression of affinity-tagged bait proteins from a medium copy-number plasmid. This construct is based on a broad-host-range vector backbone (pBBR1MCS5). The vector has been modified to incorporate the Gateway DEST vector recombination region, to facilitate cloning and expression of fusion proteins bearing a variety of affinity, fluorescent, or other tags. We demonstrate this methodology by characterizing interactions among subunits of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex in two metabolically versatile Gram-negative microbial species of environmental interest, Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Results compared favorably with those for both plasmid and chromosomally encoded affinity-tagged fusion proteins expressed in a model organism, Escherichia coli.

  4. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

  5. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  6. A Numbering System for MFS Transporter Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna; Sands, Zara A.; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest classes of secondary active transporters and is widely expressed in many domains of life. It is characterized by a common 12-transmembrane helix motif that allows the selective transport of a vast range of diverse substrates across the membrane. MFS transporters play a central role in many physiological processes and are increasingly recognized as potential drug targets. Despite intensive efforts, there are still only a handful of crystal structures and therefore homology modeling is likely to be a necessary process for providing models to interpret experiments for many years to come. However, the diversity of sequences and the multiple conformational states these proteins can exist in makes the process significantly more complicated, especially for sequences for which there is very little sequence identity to known templates. Inspired by the approach adopted many years ago for GPCRs, we have analyzed the large number of MFS sequences now available alongside the current structural information to propose a series of conserved contact points that can provide additional guidance for the homology modeling process. To enable cross-comparison across MFS models we also present a numbering scheme that can be used to provide a point of reference within each of the 12 transmembrane regions. PMID:27314000

  7. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  8. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  18. PIRSF family classification system for protein functional and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Arighi, Cecilia N; Huang, Hongzhan; Barker, Winona C; Wu, Cathy H

    2006-01-01

    The PIRSF protein classification system (http://pir.georgetown.edu/pirsf/) reflects evolutionary relationships of full-length proteins and domains. The primary PIRSF classification unit is the homeomorphic family, whose members are both homologous (evolved from a common ancestor) and homeomorphic (sharing full-length sequence similarity and a common domain architecture). PIRSF families are curated systematically based on literature review and integrative sequence and functional analysis, including sequence and structure similarity, domain architecture, functional association, genome context, and phyletic pattern. The results of classification and expert annotation are summarized in PIRSF family reports with graphical viewers for taxonomic distribution, domain architecture, family hierarchy, and multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree. The PIRSF system provides a comprehensive resource for bioinformatics analysis and comparative studies of protein function and evolution. Domain or fold-based searches allow identification of evolutionarily related protein families sharing domains or structural folds. Functional convergence and functional divergence are revealed by the relationships between protein classification and curated family functions. The taxonomic distribution allows the identification of lineage-specific or broadly conserved protein families and can reveal horizontal gene transfer. Here we demonstrate, with illustrative examples, how to use the web-based PIRSF system as a tool for functional and evolutionary studies of protein families.

  19. PROTEINS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF THE HONEYBEE, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Micas, André Fernando Ditondo; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Laure, Helen Julie; Rosa, José Cesar; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-09-01

    The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous). Gene ontology functional analysis revealed that the higher proportions of the identified proteins have molecular functions related to catalytic and structural molecule activities, are involved in metabolic biological processes, and pertain to the protein class of structural or cytoskeletal proteins and hydrolases. It is noteworthy that 26.7% of the identified proteins, including five cuticular proteins, were revealed as protein species resulting from allelic isoforms or derived from posttranslational modifications. Also, 66.7% of the identified cuticular proteins were expressed in more than one developmental phase, thus indicating that they are part of the larval, pupal, and adult cuticle. Our data provide experimental support for predicted honeybee gene products and new information on proteins expressed in the developing integument. PMID:27160491

  20. PROTEINS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF THE HONEYBEE, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Micas, André Fernando Ditondo; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Laure, Helen Julie; Rosa, José Cesar; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-09-01

    The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous). Gene ontology functional analysis revealed that the higher proportions of the identified proteins have molecular functions related to catalytic and structural molecule activities, are involved in metabolic biological processes, and pertain to the protein class of structural or cytoskeletal proteins and hydrolases. It is noteworthy that 26.7% of the identified proteins, including five cuticular proteins, were revealed as protein species resulting from allelic isoforms or derived from posttranslational modifications. Also, 66.7% of the identified cuticular proteins were expressed in more than one developmental phase, thus indicating that they are part of the larval, pupal, and adult cuticle. Our data provide experimental support for predicted honeybee gene products and new information on proteins expressed in the developing integument.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Ultrasound-Guided 3D Needle Steering in Biological Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abayazid, Momen; Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering bevel-tip flexible needles under ultrasound guidance towards stationary and moving targets in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. We use three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound to track the needle tip during the procedure. Methods Our system uses a fast sampling-based path planner to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We then use a novel control algorithm to steer the needle along the path in a manner that reduces the number of needle rotations, thus reducing tissue damage. We present experimental results for needle insertion procedures for both stationary and moving targets and obstacles for up to 90 mm of needle insertion. Results We obtained a mean targeting error of 0.32 ± 0.10 mm and 0.38 ± 0.19 mm in gelatin-based phantom and biological tissue, respectively. Conclusions The achieved submillimeter accuracy suggests that our approach is sufficient to target the smallest lesions (ϕ2 mm) that can be detected using state-of-the-art ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:24562744

  2. [Spectroscopic characteristics of DC excited atmospheric pressure glow discharges generated in a needle-plate electrode device and a needle-water electrode one].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Chen; Bao, Wen-Ting; Jia, Peng-Ying; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Di, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Glow discharge characteristics in two discharge devices, i.e. in a needle-plate electrode geometry and a needle-water electrode one were compared by using spectroscopic method. Results show that the different emission regions were found in both discharges generated by the two devices. From the cathode to the anode, there are a cathode glow region, cathode dark glow, a positive column, and an anode glow region. The anode dark region can be clearly discerned in the glow discharge in the needle-plate electrode device, while it almost cannot be found in the needle-water electrode discharge. Comparing the current-voltage characteristics of the two glow discharges, it was found that the voltage across the electrodes decreases with increasing the discharge current in both discharge devices, while the voltage in the needle-water glow discharge is higher than that of the needle-plate one at the same current value. The current-voltage curves have a negative slope and their current densities lie in the range from 10-5 to 10-4 A? cm-2, which indicates that a normal glow discharge mechanism was involved in the two discharges. Comparing the optical spectra scanning from 300nm to 800nm and emitted from the whole normal glow discharge in the two electrode devices, similar spectral lines from the two discharges can be found on the optical emission spectrum, including the second positive system of nitrogen molecules (337.1nm) and the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391.4nm). However, the intensity ratio of spectral lines is different. The intensity ratio (391.4nm to 337.1nm) and vibrational temperature were investigated at different locations. It was found that the intensity ratio of the needle-water electrode discharge is larger than that of the needle-plate electrode discharge at the same location. Furthermore, the vibrational temperature in the needle-water electrode discharge is higher than that of the needle-plate one at the same location. PMID:24783524

  3. Rapid protein crystallization by a micro osmotic screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Po-Hsiung; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2007-03-01

    This work presents a micro osmotic screening system that grows protein crystals in hours while consuming only micrograms of samples. Throughout the crystallization process, water can be driven in or out of a protein solution (across a semi-permeable membrane) to adjust its concentrations as desired. With the bi-directional and adjustable flow control realized by osmosis, each protein sample can be screened for crystallization conditions over a highly extended range. In the prototype demonstration, 6 × 8 screening arrays having an overall size of 20 × 24 × 2.5 mm3 were fabricated and characterized with crystallization experiments. In these experiments, crystallization conditions for four proteins, including lysozyme, catalase, thaumatin and xylanase, were identified within 2-6 h while consuming less than 20 µl of sample solution for each protein. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that diffraction-quality crystals may be grown and harvested from the prototype system. As such, this osmotic system pioneers a new class of rapid screening schemes for high-throughput protein crystallization. A portion of this paper was presented at the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, November 2006.

  4. MEGADOCK: An All-to-All Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction System Using Tertiary Structure Data

    PubMed Central

    Ohue, Masahito; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is important for understanding cellular structure and function and structure-based drug design. However, the development of an effective method to conduct exhaustive PPI screening represents a computational challenge. We have been investigating a protein docking approach based on shape complementarity and physicochemical properties. We describe here the development of the protein-protein docking software package “MEGADOCK” that samples an extremely large number of protein dockings at high speed. MEGADOCK reduces the calculation time required for docking by using several techniques such as a novel scoring function called the real Pairwise Shape Complementarity (rPSC) score. We showed that MEGADOCK is capable of exhaustive PPI screening by completing docking calculations 7.5 times faster than the conventional docking software, ZDOCK, while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy. When MEGADOCK was applied to a subset of a general benchmark dataset to predict 120 relevant interacting pairs from 120 x 120 = 14,400 combinations of proteins, an F-measure value of 0.231 was obtained. Further, we showed that MEGADOCK can be applied to a large-scale protein-protein interaction-screening problem with accuracy better than random. When our approach is combined with parallel high-performance computing systems, it is now feasible to search and analyze protein-protein interactions while taking into account three-dimensional structures at the interactome scale. MEGADOCK is freely available at http://www.bi.cs.titech.ac.jp/megadock. PMID:23855673

  5. Needle-Free Dermal Delivery of a Diphtheria Toxin CRM197 Mutant on Potassium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Schiffter, Heiko A; Carlisle, Robert C; Rollier, Christine S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    Injections with a hypodermic needle and syringe (HNS) are the current standard of care globally, but the use of needles is not without limitation. While a plethora of needle-free injection devices exist, vaccine reformulation is costly and presents a barrier to their widespread clinical application. To provide a simple, needle-free, and broad-spectrum protein antigen delivery platform, we developed novel potassium-doped hydroxyapatite (K-Hap) microparticles with improved protein loading capabilities that can provide sustained local antigen presentation and release. K-Hap showed increased protein adsorption over regular hydroxyapatite (P < 0.001), good structural retention of the model antigen (CRM197) with 1% decrease in α-helix content and no change in β-sheet content upon adsorption, and sustained release in vitro. Needle-free intradermal powder inoculation with K-Hap-CRM197 induced significantly higher IgG1 geometric mean titers (GMTs) than IgG2a GMTs in a BALB/c mouse model (P < 0.001) and induced IgG titer levels that were not different from the current clinical standard (P > 0.05), namely, alum-adsorbed CRM197 by intramuscular (i.m.) delivery. The presented results suggest that K-Hap microparticles may be used as a novel needle-free delivery vehicle for some protein antigens.

  6. Needle-Free Dermal Delivery of a Diphtheria Toxin CRM197 Mutant on Potassium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Schiffter, Heiko A; Carlisle, Robert C; Rollier, Christine S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    Injections with a hypodermic needle and syringe (HNS) are the current standard of care globally, but the use of needles is not without limitation. While a plethora of needle-free injection devices exist, vaccine reformulation is costly and presents a barrier to their widespread clinical application. To provide a simple, needle-free, and broad-spectrum protein antigen delivery platform, we developed novel potassium-doped hydroxyapatite (K-Hap) microparticles with improved protein loading capabilities that can provide sustained local antigen presentation and release. K-Hap showed increased protein adsorption over regular hydroxyapatite (P < 0.001), good structural retention of the model antigen (CRM197) with 1% decrease in α-helix content and no change in β-sheet content upon adsorption, and sustained release in vitro. Needle-free intradermal powder inoculation with K-Hap-CRM197 induced significantly higher IgG1 geometric mean titers (GMTs) than IgG2a GMTs in a BALB/c mouse model (P < 0.001) and induced IgG titer levels that were not different from the current clinical standard (P > 0.05), namely, alum-adsorbed CRM197 by intramuscular (i.m.) delivery. The presented results suggest that K-Hap microparticles may be used as a novel needle-free delivery vehicle for some protein antigens. PMID:25809632

  7. Needle-Free Dermal Delivery of a Diphtheria Toxin CRM197 Mutant on Potassium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffter, Heiko A.; Carlisle, Robert C.; Rollier, Christine S.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Injections with a hypodermic needle and syringe (HNS) are the current standard of care globally, but the use of needles is not without limitation. While a plethora of needle-free injection devices exist, vaccine reformulation is costly and presents a barrier to their widespread clinical application. To provide a simple, needle-free, and broad-spectrum protein antigen delivery platform, we developed novel potassium-doped hydroxyapatite (K-Hap) microparticles with improved protein loading capabilities that can provide sustained local antigen presentation and release. K-Hap showed increased protein adsorption over regular hydroxyapatite (P < 0.001), good structural retention of the model antigen (CRM197) with 1% decrease in α-helix content and no change in β-sheet content upon adsorption, and sustained release in vitro. Needle-free intradermal powder inoculation with K-Hap–CRM197 induced significantly higher IgG1 geometric mean titers (GMTs) than IgG2a GMTs in a BALB/c mouse model (P < 0.001) and induced IgG titer levels that were not different from the current clinical standard (P > 0.05), namely, alum-adsorbed CRM197 by intramuscular (i.m.) delivery. The presented results suggest that K-Hap microparticles may be used as a novel needle-free delivery vehicle for some protein antigens. PMID:25809632

  8. Biopsy needle detection in transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ayvaci, Alper; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Soatto, Stefano; Kruecker, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Using the fusion of pre-operative MRI and real time intra-procedural transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than the routinely performed TRUS only guided biopsy. In several situations of the MRI/TRUS fusion guided biopsy, it is important to know the exact location of the deployed biopsy needle, which is imaged in the TRUS video. In this paper, we present a method to automatically detect and segment the biopsy needle in TRUS. To achieve this goal, we propose to combine information from multiple resources, including ultrasound probe stability, TRUS video background model, and the prior knowledge of needle orientation and position. The proposed algorithm was tested on TRUS video sequences which have in total more than 25,000 frames. The needle deployments were successfully detected and segmented in the sequences with high accuracy and low false-positive detection rate.

  9. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  10. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  11. An illuminated flute needle for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davison, C N; Rosen, P H

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a simple self-illuminated flute needle for internal drainage of subretinal fluid during three-port vitrectomy. This instrument facilitates visualization and drainage through peripheral retinal breaks.

  12. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  13. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  14. Science off the Sphere: Knitting Needles

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit uses knitting needles and water droplets to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between N...

  15. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation.

  16. Route of nicotine administration influences in vivo dopamine neuron activity: habituation, needle injection, and cannula infusion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiang; Li, Wei; Doyon, William M; Doyon, William; Dani, John A

    2010-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether the nature of the administration alters DA neuron activity and DA concentrations in the NAc. Using unhabituated naïve freely moving rats, microdialysis measurements showed that nicotine administered via needle injection caused greater DA release in the NAc than the same dose administered via an implanted chronic cannula. After habituation to the needle injections, however, there was no significant difference in DA signaling between the needle and cannula routes of administration. Consistent with these microdialysis results after habituation, our in vivo tetrode unit recordings showed no significant difference in midbrain DA neuron activity in response to nicotine delivered by needle or cannula as long as predictive cues were avoided

  17. Investigating Bacterial Protein Synthesis Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gagarinova, Alla; Emili, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is essential for bacterial growth and survival. Its study in Escherichia coli helped uncover features conserved among bacteria as well as universally. The pattern of discovery and the identification of some of the longest-known components of the protein synthesis machinery, including the ribosome itself, tRNAs, and translation factors proceeded through many stages of successively more refined biochemical purifications, finally culminating in the isolation to homogeneity, identification, and mapping of the smallest unit required for performing the given function. These early studies produced a wealth of information. However, many unknowns remained. Systems biology approaches provide an opportunity to investigate protein synthesis from a global perspective, overcoming the limitations of earlier ad hoc methods to gain unprecedented insights. This chapter reviews innovative systems biology approaches, with an emphasis on those designed specifically for investigating the protein synthesis machinery in E. coli.

  18. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system

    PubMed Central

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S.; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein–protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  19. Effect of thinning on anatomical adaptations of Norway spruce needles.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Roman; Volarík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2011-10-01

    Conifers and other trees are constantly adapting to changes in light conditions, water/nutrient supply and temperatures by physiological and morphological modifications of their foliage. However, the relationship between physiological processes and anatomical characteristics of foliage has been little explored in trees. In this study we evaluated needle structure and function in Norway spruce families exposed to different light conditions and transpiration regimes. We compared needle characteristics of sun-exposed and shaded current-year needles in a control plot and a thinned plot with 50% reduction in stand density. Whole-tree transpiration rates remained similar across plots, but increased transpiration of lower branches after thinning implies that sun-exposed needles in the thinned plot were subjected to higher water stress than sun-exposed needles in the control plot. In general, morphological and anatomical needle parameters increased with increasing tree height and light intensity. Needle width, needle cross-section area, needle stele area and needle flatness (the ratio of needle thickness to needle width) differed most between the upper and lower canopy. The parameters that were most sensitive to the altered needle water status of the upper canopy after thinning were needle thickness, needle flatness and percentage of stele area in needle area. These results show that studies comparing needle structure or function between tree species should consider not only tree height and light gradients, but also needle water status. Unaccounted for differences in needle water status may have contributed to the variable relationship between needle structure and irradiance that has been observed among conifers. PMID:21891783

  20. In-plane ultrasonic needle tracking using a fiber-optic hydrophone

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Wenfeng Desjardins, Adrien E.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ginsberg, Yuval; David, Anna L.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient guidance of needles to procedural targets is critically important during percutaneous interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is widely used for real-time image guidance in a variety of clinical contexts, but with this modality, uncertainties about the location of the needle tip within the image plane lead to significant complications. Whilst several methods have been proposed to improve the visibility of the needle, achieving accuracy and compatibility with current clinical practice is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, the authors present a method for directly visualizing the needle tip using an integrated fiber-optic ultrasound receiver in conjunction with the imaging probe used to acquire B-mode ultrasound images. Methods: Needle visualization and ultrasound imaging were performed with a clinical ultrasound imaging system. A miniature fiber-optic ultrasound hydrophone was integrated into a 20 gauge injection needle tip to receive transmissions from individual transducer elements of the ultrasound imaging probe. The received signals were reconstructed to create an image of the needle tip. Ultrasound B-mode imaging was interleaved with needle tip imaging. A first set of measurements was acquired in water and tissue ex vivo with a wide range of insertion angles (15°–68°) to study the accuracy and sensitivity of the tracking method. A second set was acquired in an in vivo swine model, with needle insertions to the brachial plexus. A third set was acquired in an in vivo ovine model for fetal interventions, with insertions to different locations within the uterine cavity. Two linear ultrasound imaging probes were used: a 14–5 MHz probe for the first and second sets, and a 9–4 MHz probe for the third. Results: During insertions in tissue ex vivo and in vivo, the imaged needle tip had submillimeter axial and lateral dimensions. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of the needle tip was found to depend on the insertion angle. With

  1. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  2. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  3. Trigger point needling: techniques and outcome.

    PubMed

    Vulfsons, Simon; Ratmansky, Motti; Kalichman, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    In this review we provide the updates on last years' advancements in basic science, imaging methods, efficacy, and safety of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The latest studies confirmed that dry needling is an effective and safe method for the treatment of MTrPs when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists. Recent basic studies have confirmed that at the site of an active MTrP there are elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, known to be associated with persistent pain states and myofascial tenderness and that this local milieu changes with the occurrence of local twitch response. Two new modalities, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance elastography, were recently introduced allowing noninvasive imaging of MTrPs. MTrP dry needling, at least partially, involves supraspinal pain control via midbrain periaqueductal gray matter activation. A recent study demonstrated that distal muscle needling reduces proximal pain by means of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Therefore, in a patient too sensitive to be needled in the area of the primary pain source, the treatment can be initiated with distal needling.

  4. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:23703429

  5. Identification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kelly A.; Beare, Paul A.; Brown, Wendy C.; Heinzen, Robert A.; Broschat, Shira L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. Results By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141) of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work. PMID:22140462

  6. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering.

  7. Needle puncture in rabbit functional spinal units alters rotational biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Robert A.; Bell, Kevin M.; Quan, Bichun; Nuzhao, Yao; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Kang, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An in vitro biomechanical study for rabbit lumbar functional spinal units (FSUs) using a robot-based spine testing system. Objective To elucidate the effect of annular puncture with a 16G needle on mechanical properties in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Summary of Background Data Needle puncture of the intervertebral disc has been shown to alter mechanical properties of the disc in compression, torsion, and bending. The effect of needle puncture in FSUs, where intact spinal ligaments and facet joints may mitigate or amplify these changes in the disc, on spinal motion segment stability subject to physiological rotations remains unknown. Methods Rabbit FSUs were tested using a robot testing system whose force/moment and position precision were assessed to demonstrate system capability. Flexibility testing methods were developed by load-to-failure testing in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Subsequent testing methods were used to examine a 16G needle disc puncture and No. 11 blade disc stab (positive control for mechanical disruption). Flexibility testing was used to assess segmental range-of-motion (°), neutral zone stiffness (Nm/°) and width (° and Nm), and elastic zone stiffness before and after annular injury. Results The robot-based system was capable of performing flexibility testing on FSUs—mean precision of force/moment measurements and robot system movements were less than 3% and 1%, respectively, of moment-rotation target values. Flexibility moment targets were 0.3 Nm for flexion and axial rotation and 0.15 Nm for extension and lateral bending. Needle puncture caused significant (p<0.05) changes only in flexion/extension range-of-motion and neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) compared to pre-intervention. No.11 blade-stab significantly increased range-of-motion in all motions, decreased neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) in flexion/extension, and increased elastic zone stiffness in

  8. Systems biology of recombinant protein production using Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Borgmeier, Claudia; Bunk, Boyke; Stammen, Simon; Scherling, Christian; Meinhardt, Friedhelm; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used production host for recombinant proteins in both academia and industry. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium represents an increasingly used alternative for high yield intra- and extracellular protein synthesis. During the past two decades, multiple tools including gene expression plasmids and production strains have been developed. Introduction of free replicating and integrative plasmids into B. megaterium is possible via protoplasts transformation or transconjugation. Using His(6)- and StrepII affinity tags, the intra- or extracellular produced proteins can easily be purified in one-step procedures. Different gene expression systems based on the xylose controlled promoter P(xylA) and various phage RNA polymerase (T7, SP6, K1E) driven systems enable B. megaterium to produce up to 1.25g of recombinant protein per liter. Biomass concentrations of up to 80g/l can be achieved by high cell density cultivations in bioreactors. Gene knockouts and gene replacements in B. megaterium are possible via an optimized gene disruption system. For a safe application in industry, sporulation and protease-deficient as well as UV-sensitive mutants are available. With the help of the recently published B. megaterium genome sequence, it is possible to characterize bottle necks in the protein production process via systems biology approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome data. The bioinformatical platform (Megabac, http://www.megabac.tu-bs.de) integrates obtained theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21943898

  9. Automatic shape-based level set segmentation for needle tracking in 3-D TRUS-guided prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Cheeseborough, John C; Chao, K S Clifford

    2012-09-01

    Prostate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for early prostate cancer. The success depends critically on the correct needle implant positions. We have devised an automatic shape-based level set segmentation tool for needle tracking in 3-D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which uses the shape information and level set technique to localize the needle position and estimate the endpoint of needle in real-time. The 3-D TRUS images used in the evaluation of our tools were obtained using a 2-D TRUS transducer from Ultrasonix (Richmond, BC, Canada) and a computer-controlled stepper motor system from Thorlabs (Newton, NJ, USA). The accuracy and feedback mechanism had been validated using prostate phantoms and compared with 3-D positions of these needles derived from experts' readings. The experts' segmentation of needles from 3-D computed tomography images was the ground truth in this study. The difference between automatic and expert segmentations are within 0.1 mm for 17 of 19 implanted needles. The mean errors of automatic segmentations by comparing with the ground truth are within 0.25 mm. Our automated method allows real-time TRUS-based needle placement difference within one pixel compared with manual expert segmentation.

  10. Encapsulated membrane proteins: A simplified system for molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah C; Khalid, Syma; Pollock, Naomi L; Knowles, Tim J; Edler, Karen; Rothnie, Alice J; R T Thomas, Owen; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 50years there has been considerable progress in our understanding of biomolecular interactions at an atomic level. This in turn has allowed molecular simulation methods employing full atomistic modelling at ever larger scales to develop. However, some challenging areas still remain where there is either a lack of atomic resolution structures or where the simulation system is inherently complex. An area where both challenges are present is that of membranes containing membrane proteins. In this review we analyse a new practical approach to membrane protein study that offers a potential new route to high resolution structures and the possibility to simplify simulations. These new approaches collectively recognise that preservation of the interaction between the membrane protein and the lipid bilayer is often essential to maintain structure and function. The new methods preserve these interactions by producing nano-scale disc shaped particles that include bilayer and the chosen protein. Currently two approaches lead in this area: the MSP system that relies on peptides to stabilise the discs, and SMALPs where an amphipathic styrene maleic acid copolymer is used. Both methods greatly enable protein production and hence have the potential to accelerate atomic resolution structure determination as well as providing a simplified format for simulations of membrane protein dynamics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26946242

  11. Modular coherence of protein dynamics in yeast cell polarity system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Juntao Tony; Guimerà, Roger; Li, Hua; Pinto, Inês Mendes; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Wai, Stephanie C.; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated on a systems level how complex protein interactions underlying cell polarity in yeast determine the dynamic association of proteins with the polar cortical domain (PCD) where they localize and perform morphogenetic functions. We constructed a network of physical interactions among >100 proteins localized to the PCD. This network was further divided into five robust modules correlating with distinct subprocesses associated with cell polarity. Based on this reconstructed network, we proposed a simple model that approximates a PCD protein's molecular residence time as the sum of the characteristic time constants of the functional modules with which it interacts, weighted by the number of edges forming these interactions. Regression analyses showed excellent fitting of the model with experimentally measured residence times for a large subset of the PCD proteins. The model is able to predict residence times using small training sets. Our analysis also revealed a scaffold protein that imposes a local constraint of dynamics for certain interacting proteins. PMID:21502521

  12. Identification of protein secretion systems in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Abby, Sophie S.; Cury, Jean; Guglielmini, Julien; Néron, Bertrand; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria with two cell membranes (diderms) have evolved complex systems for protein secretion. These systems were extensively studied in some model bacteria, but the characterisation of their diversity has lagged behind due to lack of standard annotation tools. We built online and standalone computational tools to accurately predict protein secretion systems and related appendages in bacteria with LPS-containing outer membranes. They consist of models describing the systems’ components and genetic organization to be used with MacSyFinder to search for T1SS-T6SS, T9SS, flagella, Type IV pili and Tad pili. We identified ~10,000 candidate systems in bacterial genomes, where T1SS and T5SS were by far the most abundant and widespread. All these data are made available in a public database. The recently described T6SSiii and T9SS were restricted to Bacteroidetes, and T6SSii to Francisella. The T2SS, T3SS, and T4SS were frequently encoded in single-copy in one locus, whereas most T1SS were encoded in two loci. The secretion systems of diderm Firmicutes were similar to those found in other diderms. Novel systems may remain to be discovered, since some clades of environmental bacteria lacked all known protein secretion systems. Our models can be fully customized, which should facilitate the identification of novel systems. PMID:26979785

  13. Protein oxidation affects proteolysis in a meat model system.

    PubMed

    Berardo, Alberto; Claeys, Erik; Vossen, Els; Leroy, Frédéric; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-08-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced protein oxidation and pH (4.8 and 5.2) on meat proteolysis was investigated in a meat model system for dry fermented sausages. In oxidised samples, increased protein carbonyl contents and decreased thiol concentrations were found. The initial concentration of protein carbonyls was significantly lower in oxidised samples at pH4.8 than in ones at pH5.2, but after ten days comparable levels were reached. The inhibition of proteolysis by the addition of a protease inhibitor cocktail did not influence protein oxidation. Yet, proteolysis was negatively affected by low pH values as well as by oxidation, resulting in a reduced release of amino acids during ripening.

  14. Methods for segmenting curved needles in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Stephen H; Ebrahimi, Richelle; Chuang, Jason; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2006-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertions are widely used techniques in current clinical practice. Some of these procedures have a high degree of difficulty because of poor observability of the needle in the ultrasound image. There have been recent efforts to improve guidance by computer assisted needle detection. These software techniques are often limited by not representing needle curvature. We present two methods to detect the needle in 2D ultrasound that specifically address needle curvature. Firstly, we demonstrate a real-time needle segmentation algorithm based on the Hough transform which detects the needle and represents its curved shape. Secondly, we demonstrate how a new coordinate transformation can transform detection of a curved needle to a linear fit. These methods are demonstrated on ultrasound and photographic images.

  15. Modulation of protein quality control systems by food phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira

    2013-05-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that dietary phytochemicals have exhibited pronounced bioactivities in a number of experimental models. In addition, a variety of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits, which contain abundant phytochemicals, lowers the risk of onset of some diseases. However, the action mechanisms by which dietary phytochemicals show bioactivity remain to be fully elucidated and a fundamental question is why this class of chemicals has great potential for regulating health. Meanwhile, maintenance and repair of biological proteins by molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, and clearance of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play central roles in health, some disease prevention, and longevity. Interestingly, several recent studies have revealed that phytochemicals, including curcumin (yellow pigment in turmeric), resveratrol (phytoalexin in grapes), quercetin (general flavonol in onions and others), and isothiocyanates (preferentially present in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage), are remarkable regulators of protein quality control systems, suggesting that their physiological and biological functions are exerted, at least in part, through activation of such unique mechanisms. This review article highlights recent findings regarding the effects of representative phytochemicals on protein quality control systems and their possible molecular mechanisms.

  16. FoxO Proteins in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acute as well as chronic disorders of the nervous system lead to significant morbidity and mortality for millions of individuals globally. Given the ability to govern stem cell proliferation and differentiated cell survival, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the forkhead box class O (FoxO) are increasingly being identified as potential targets for disorders of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and auditory neuronal disease. FoxO proteins are present throughout the body, but they are selectively expressed in the nervous system and have diverse biological functions. The forkhead O class transcription factors interface with an array of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B (Akt), serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SgK), IκB kinase (IKK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) (SIRT1), growth factors, and Wnt signaling that can determine the activity and integrity of FoxO proteins. Ultimately, there exists a complex interplay between FoxO proteins and their signal transduction pathways that can significantly impact programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy as well as the development of clinical strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26171319

  17. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    PubMed

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production. PMID:23210789

  18. Modulation of protein quality control systems by food phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that dietary phytochemicals have exhibited pronounced bioactivities in a number of experimental models. In addition, a variety of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits, which contain abundant phytochemicals, lowers the risk of onset of some diseases. However, the action mechanisms by which dietary phytochemicals show bioactivity remain to be fully elucidated and a fundamental question is why this class of chemicals has great potential for regulating health. Meanwhile, maintenance and repair of biological proteins by molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, and clearance of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play central roles in health, some disease prevention, and longevity. Interestingly, several recent studies have revealed that phytochemicals, including curcumin (yellow pigment in turmeric), resveratrol (phytoalexin in grapes), quercetin (general flavonol in onions and others), and isothiocyanates (preferentially present in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage), are remarkable regulators of protein quality control systems, suggesting that their physiological and biological functions are exerted, at least in part, through activation of such unique mechanisms. This review article highlights recent findings regarding the effects of representative phytochemicals on protein quality control systems and their possible molecular mechanisms. PMID:23704811

  19. Needle exchange: how the meanings ascribed to needles impact exchange practices and policies.

    PubMed

    Strike, Carol J; Myers, Ted; Millson, Margaret

    2002-04-01

    The consistency among needle exchange practices, HIV prevention, harm reduction goals, and potential program effectiveness are analyzed. Using a modified ethnographic approach, qualitative interviews were conducted with staff (n = 59) of needle exchange programs (NEPs; n = 15). Interviews addressed operational policies; funding and challenges. An iterative, inductive analytic process was used. Differences in exchange practices are traced to differences in how workers define needles as objects of "risk" and/or "prevention." The weight accorded to each definition has implications for service delivery. Among NEPs that ascribe a "risk" meaning, workers enforce a strict one-for-one exchange, encourage clients to take fewer needles, and penalize clients. Programs that focus on the "prevention" meaning of needles work towards improving access, problem solving about proper disposal and do not penalize clients. Operational policies that restrict access to sterile equipment or discourage attendance need to be reconsidered if HIV prevention goals are to be realized. PMID:12000231

  20. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots. PMID:26737606

  1. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots.

  2. Structure of AscE and induced burial regions in AscE and AscG upon formation of the chaperone needle-subunit complex of type III secretion system in Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yih Wan; Yu, Hong Bing; Leung, Ka Yin; Sivaraman, J.; Mok, Yu-Keung

    2008-01-01

    In the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Aeromonas hydrophila, the putative needle complex subunit AscF requires both putative chaperones AscE and AscG for formation of a ternary complex to avoid premature assembly. Here we report the crystal structure of AscE at 2.7 Å resolution and the mapping of buried regions of AscE, AscG, and AscF in the AscEG and AscEFG complexes using limited protease digestion. The dimeric AscE is comprised of two helix–turn–helix monomers packed in an antiparallel fashion. The N-terminal 13 residues of AscE are buried only upon binding with AscG, but this region is found to be nonessential for the interaction. AscE functions as a monomer and can be coexpressed with AscG or with both AscG and AscF to form soluble complexes. The AscE binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is identified to be within the N-terminal 61 residues of AscG. The exposed C-terminal substrate-binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is induced to be buried only upon binding to AscF. However, the N-terminal 52 residues of AscF remain exposed even in the ternary AscEFG complex. On the other hand, the 35-residue C-terminal region of AscF in the complex is resistant to protease digestion in the AscEFG complex. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that two C-terminal hydrophobic residues, Ile83 and Leu84, of AscF are essential for chaperone binding. PMID:18662905

  3. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  4. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:27165325

  5. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms.

  6. A gateway-based system for fast evaluation of protein-protein interactions in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wille, Thorsten; Barlag, Britta; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Hensel, Michael; Sourjik, Victor; Gerlach, Roman G

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important layers of regulation in all kingdoms of life. Identification and characterization of these interactions is one challenging task of the post-genomic era and crucial for understanding of molecular processes within a cell. Several methods have been successfully employed during the past decades to identify protein-protein interactions in bacteria, but most of them include tedious and time-consuming manipulations of DNA. In contrast, the MultiSite Gateway system is a fast tool for transfer of multiple DNA fragments between plasmids enabling simultaneous and site directed cloning of up to four fragments into one construct. Here we developed a new set of Gateway vectors including custom made entry vectors and modular Destination vectors for studying protein-protein interactions via Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Bacterial two Hybrid (B2H) and split Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), as well as for fusions with SNAP-tag and HaloTag for dual-color super-resolution microscopy. As proof of principle, we characterized the interaction between the Salmonella effector SipA and its chaperone InvB via split Gluc and B2H approach. The suitability for FRET analysis as well as functionality of fusions with SNAP- and HaloTag could be demonstrated by studying the transient interaction between chemotaxis response regulator CheY and its phosphatase CheZ.

  7. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and pine needle group; HCPE: high-cholesterol and pine needle diet with exercise training group, respectively. Each group consisted of seven Sprague-Dawley male rats. The swim-training groups, EX, HCE, and HCPE swam in the swim pool 60 min/d and 5 d/week for 5 weeks. During the rearing periods, freeze-dried pine needle powder mix with 5% of the high cholesterol diet was supplied to the HCP and HCPE groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was used as the skeletal muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacities. Finally, p53, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), caspase-3 protein expression was analyzed to determine antiapoptotic ability. [Results] MDA showed low content in HCPE compared to the HC. Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, and GPx protein expression was significantly increased by pine needle ingestion and/or exercise training. In addition, suppression of p53 protein expression resulted in Bcl-2 increase followed by caspase-3 decrease with/without pine needle ingestion and exercise training. [Conclusion] When exercise training in addition to pine needle powder ingestion may be a helpful nutritional regimen to athletes and exercisers. PMID:25566467

  8. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  9. Proteolipid protein cannot replace P0 protein as the major structural protein of peripheral nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinghua; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Kidd, Grahame J; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Trapp, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of terrestrial vertebrates underwent a prominent molecular change when proteolipid protein (PLP) replaced P0 protein as the most abundant protein of CNS myelin. However, PLP did not replace P0 in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin. To investigate the possible consequences of a PLP to P0 shift in PNS myelin, we engineered mice to express PLP instead of P0 in PNS myelin (PLP-PNS mice). PLP-PNS mice had severe neurological disabilities and died between 3 and 6 months of age. Schwann cells in sciatic nerves from PLP-PNS mice sorted axons into one-to-one relationships but failed to form myelin internodes. Mice with equal amounts of P0 and PLP had normal PNS myelination and lifespans similar to wild-type (WT) mice. When PLP was overexpressed with one copy of the P0 gene, sciatic nerves were hypomyelinated; mice displayed motor deficits, but had normal lifespans. These data support the hypothesis that while PLP can co-exist with P0 in PNS myelin, PLP cannot replace P0 as the major structural protein of PNS myelin. PMID:25066805

  10. Proteolipid protein cannot replace P0 protein as the major structural protein of peripheral nervous system myelin

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinghua; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Kidd, Grahame J.; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of terrestrial vertebrates underwent a prominent molecular change when proteolipid protein (PLP) replaced P0 protein as the most abundant protein of CNS myelin. However, PLP did not replace P0 in peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin. To investigate the possible consequences of a PLP to P0 shift in PNS myelin, we engineered mice to express PLP instead of P0 in PNS myelin (PLP-PNS mice). PLP-PNS mice had severe neurological disabilities and died between 3 and 6 months of age. Schwann cells in sciatic nerves from PLP-PNS mice sorted axons into one-to-one relationships but failed to form myelin internodes. Mice with equal amounts of P0 and PLP had normal PNS myelination and lifespans similar to wild-type (WT) mice. When PLP was overexpressed with one copy of the P0 gene, sciatic nerves were hypomyelinated; mice displayed motor deficits but had normal lifespans. These data support the hypothesis that while PLP can co-exist with P0 in PNS myelin, PLP cannot replace P0 as the major structural protein of PNS myelin. PMID:25066805

  11. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  16. Determination of Phase Diagrams for Soluble and Membrane Protein Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Talreja, S.; Perry, S; Guha, S; Zukoski, C; Kenis, P

    2010-01-01

    Methods to efficiently determine the phase behavior of novel proteins have the potential to significantly benefit structural biology efforts. Here, we present protocols to determine both the solubility boundary and the supersolubility boundary for protein/precipitant systems using an evaporation-based crystallization platform. This strategy takes advantage of the well-defined rates of evaporation that occur in this platform to determine the state of the droplet at any point in time without relying on an equilibrium-based end point. The dynamic nature of this method efficiently traverses phase space along a known path, such that a solubility diagram can be mapped out for both soluble and membrane proteins while using a smaller amount of protein than what is typically used in optimization screens. Furthermore, a variation on this method can be used to decouple crystal nucleation and growth events, so fewer and larger crystals can be obtained within a given droplet. The latter protocol can be used to rescue a crystallization trial where showers of tiny crystals were observed. We validated both of the protocols to determine the phase behavior and the protocol to optimize crystal quality using the soluble proteins lysozyme and ribonuclease A as well as the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin.

  17. Exploiting Expert Knowledge of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Computational Evolution System for Detecting Epistasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattin, Kristine A.; Payne, Joshua L.; Hill, Douglas P.; Caldwell, Thomas; Fisher, Jonathan M.; Moore, Jason H.

    The etiology of common human disease often involves a complex genetic architecture, where numerous points of genetic variation interact to influence disease susceptibility. Automating the detection of such epistatic genetic risk factors poses a major computational challenge, as the number of possible gene-gene interactions increases combinatorially with the number of sequence variations. Previously, we addressed this challenge with the development of a computational evolution system (CES) that incorporates greater biological realism than traditional artificial evolution methods. Our results demonstrated that CES is capable of efficiently navigating these large and rugged epistatic landscapes toward the discovery of biologically meaningful genetic models of disease predisposition. Further, we have shown that the efficacy of CES is improved dramatically when the system is provided with statistical expert knowledge. We anticipate that biological expert knowledge, such as genetic regulatory or protein-protein interaction maps, will provide complementary information, and further improve the ability of CES to model the genetic architectures of common human disease. The goal of this study is to test this hypothesis, utilizing publicly available protein-protein interaction information. We show that by incorporating this source of expert knowledge, the system is able to identify functional interactions that represent more concise models of disease susceptibility with improved accuracy. Our ability to incorporate biological knowledge into learning algorithms is an essential step toward the routine use of methods such as CES for identifying genetic risk factors for common human diseases.

  18. Creating a completely "cell-free" system for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Bennett, Anthony M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a promising tool to take biotechnology outside of the cell. A cell-free approach provides distinct advantages over in vivo systems including open access to the reaction environment and direct control over all chemical components for facile optimization and synthetic biology integration. Promising applications of cell-free systems include portable diagnostics, biotherapeutics expression, rational protein engineering, and biocatalyst production. The highest yielding and most economical cell-free systems use an extract composed of the soluble component of lysed Escherichia coli. Although E. coli lysis can be highly efficient (>99.999%), one persistent challenge is that the extract remains contaminated with up to millions of cells per mL. In this work, we examine the potential of multiple decontamination strategies to further reduce or eliminate bacteria in cell-free systems. Two strategies, sterile filtration and lyophilization, effectively eliminate contaminating cells while maintaining the systems' protein synthesis capabilities. Lyophilization provides the additional benefit of long-term stability at storage above freezing. Technologies for personalized, portable medicine and diagnostics can be expanded based on these foundational sterilized and completely "cell-free" systems.

  19. Superoxide dismutase activity in needles of Norwegian spruce trees (Picea abies L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, A.; Krings, B.; Rennenberg, H. Universitaet zu Koeln )

    1989-08-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase was investigated in needles of spruce trees. To obtain maximum activity, needles were homogenized in the presence of Triton X-100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in dialyzed extracts with a modified epinephrine assay at pH 10.2. The extracts contained 70 to 120 units of superoxide dismutase per milligram protein. One unit of superoxide dismutase was completely inhibited in the presence of 20 micromolar NaCN. On native polyacrylamide gels three electromorphs were visualized after staining for activity. All three species were sensitive to CN{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and were therefore assumed to be Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutases. Superoxide dismutase activity was dependent on the age of the needles and declined by approximately 25% within 3 to 4 years.

  20. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies. PMID:27304486

  1. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Sohee

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics.

  2. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  3. Clinical translation of controlled protein delivery systems for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Kara L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed. PMID:25787736

  4. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866....5270 C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A C-reactive protein... the C-reactive protein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of C-reactive protein aids...

  5. Biomaterials derived from silk-tropoelastin protein systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiuli; Rnjak, Jelena; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L

    2010-11-01

    A structural protein blend system based on silkworm silk fibroin and recombinant human tropoelastin is described. Silk fibroin, a semicrystalline fibrous protein with beta-sheet crystals provides mechanical strength and controllable biodegradation, while tropoelastin, a noncrystallizable elastic protein provides elasticity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) indicated that silk becomes miscible with tropoelastin at different blend ratios, without macrophase separation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed secondary structural changes of the blend system (beta-sheet content) before and after methanol treatment. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation demonstrated that blending silk and tropoelastin at different ratios resulted in modification of mechanical features, with resilience from approximately 68%- approximately 97%, and elastic modulus between 2 and 9 Mpa, depending on the ratio of the two polymers. Some of these values are close to those of native aortic elastin or elastin-like polypeptides. Significantly, during blending and drying silk-tropoelastin form micro- and nano-scale porous morphologies which promote human mesenchymal stem cell attachment and proliferation. These blends offer a new protein biomaterial system for cell support and tailored biomaterial properties to match mechanical needs.

  6. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  7. Structural changes in spruce and fir needles.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, U; Ruetze, M

    1990-01-01

    Needles from spruce and fir trees were analyzed for histological changes induced by long-term exposure in open-top chambers to SO(2) and/or O(3) combined with acid rain. Light and electron microscopical evaluation revealed initial structural changes in the vascular bundle of fir needles, with an increased number of crushed sieve cells in the phloem. In addition the walls of young, adaxial sieve cells lacked the typical thickening usually observed in naturally aged needles. These findings may indicate restricted assimilate translocation. The presence of SO(2) in any treatment led to thylakoidal swellings and membrane reductions in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells near the vascular bundle. This damage pattern resembled alterations caused by nutrient deficiency rather than by the direct action of gaseous pollutants. In general, fir appears to be more sensitive to environmental stress than spruce; this substantiates the findings of previous studies.

  8. The Bacterial Phosphoenolpyruvate:Carbohydrate Phosphotransferase System: Regulation by Protein Phosphorylation and Phosphorylation-Dependent Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aké, Francine Moussan Désirée; Derkaoui, Meriem; Zébré, Arthur Constant; Cao, Thanh Nguyen; Bouraoui, Houda; Kentache, Takfarinas; Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Milohanic, Eliane; Joyet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) carries out both catalytic and regulatory functions. It catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives but also carries out numerous regulatory functions related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate metabolism, to chemotaxis, to potassium transport, and to the virulence of certain pathogens. For these different regulatory processes, the signal is provided by the phosphorylation state of the PTS components, which varies according to the availability of PTS substrates and the metabolic state of the cell. PEP acts as phosphoryl donor for enzyme I (EI), which, together with HPr and one of several EIIA and EIIB pairs, forms a phosphorylation cascade which allows phosphorylation of the cognate carbohydrate bound to the membrane-spanning EIIC. HPr of firmicutes and numerous proteobacteria is also phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the bifunctional HPr kinase/phosphorylase. PTS-mediated regulatory mechanisms are based either on direct phosphorylation of the target protein or on phosphorylation-dependent interactions. For regulation by PTS-mediated phosphorylation, the target proteins either acquired a PTS domain by fusing it to their N or C termini or integrated a specific, conserved PTS regulation domain (PRD) or, alternatively, developed their own specific sites for PTS-mediated phosphorylation. Protein-protein interactions can occur with either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated PTS components and can either stimulate or inhibit the function of the target proteins. This large variety of signal transduction mechanisms allows the PTS to regulate numerous proteins and to form a vast regulatory network responding to the phosphorylation state of various PTS components. PMID:24847021

  9. Yeast systems for the commercial production of heterologous proteins.

    PubMed

    Buckholz, R G; Gleeson, M A

    1991-11-01

    Yeasts are attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Unlike prokaryotic systems, their eukaryotic subcellular organization enables them to carry out many of the post-translational folding, processing and modification events required to produce "authentic" and bioactive mammalian proteins. In addition, they retain the advantages of a unicellular microorganism, with respect to rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation. The vast majority of yeast expression work has focused on the well-characterized baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, with the development of DNA transformation technologies, a growing number of non-Saccharomyces yeasts are becoming available as hosts for recombinant polypeptide production. These include Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Yarrowia lipolytica. The performance of these alternative yeast expression systems is reviewed here relative to S. cerevisiae, and the advantages and limitations of these systems are discussed.

  10. Targeting Protein–Protein Interactions in the HIF System

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Martine I.; Hancock, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Animals respond to chronic hypoxia by increasing the levels of a transcription factor known as the hypoxia‐inducible factor (HIF). HIF upregulates multiple genes, the products of which work to ameliorate the effects of limited oxygen at cellular and systemic levels. Hypoxia sensing by the HIF system involves hydroxylase‐catalysed post‐translational modifications of the HIF α‐subunits, which 1) signal for degradation of HIF‐α and 2) limit binding of HIF to transcriptional coactivator proteins. Because the hypoxic response is relevant to multiple disease states, therapeutic manipulation of the HIF‐mediated response has considerable medicinal potential. In addition to modulation of catalysis by the HIF hydroxylases, the HIF system manifests other possibilities for therapeutic intervention involving protein–protein and protein–nucleic acid interactions. Recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology and biochemistry of the HIF system are facilitating medicinal chemistry efforts. Herein we give an overview of the HIF system, focusing on structural knowledge of protein–protein interactions and how this might be used to modulate the hypoxic response for therapeutic benefit. PMID:26997519

  11. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  12. Complete VAX/VMS DNA/protein sequence analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    A complete yet flexible system of programs and database libraries for analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequences is implemented for VAX/VMS computers. Types of analysis include 1) construction and analysis of chimeric sequences (cloning in the VAX), 2) multiple analysis of one or more single sequences, 3) search and comparison studies using sequence libraries, and 4) direct input and analysis of experimental data. Published groups of programs, including the Staden, Los Alamos, Zuker, Pearson, and PHYLIP programs, are used. GenBank and EMBL DNA libraries and PIR and Doolittle NEWAT protein libraries are available, with associated programs. The system is tutorial, with online documentation for relevent VAX software, the programs, and the databases. The complete documentation is flexibly maintained on reserve via computer printout placed in 3-ring binders. Command files are used extensively; porting of the entire system to another VAX/VMS system requires modification of a single command. Users of the system are members of a VAX group, with automatic implementation of the system upon login. The present system occupies about 140,000 blocks, and is easily expanded, or contracted, as desired. The UCSD system is used extensively for both teaching and research purposes. Use of microcomputers emulating Tektronix 4014 graphics terminals permits saving of graphics output to disk for subsequent modification to generate high quality publishable figures.

  13. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  14. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia,A.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-Angstroms crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-Angstroms elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple beta-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes beta-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The alpha-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  15. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia, A.S.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2009-06-02

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-{angstrom} elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple {beta}-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes {beta}-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The {alpha}-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  16. Targeting protein kinases in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chico, Laura K.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Watterson, D. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are a growing drug target class in disorders in peripheral tissues, but the development of kinase-targeted therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge, largely owing to issues associated specifically with CNS drug discovery. However, several candidate therapeutics that target CNS protein kinases are now in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. We review candidate compounds and discuss selected CNS protein kinases that are emerging as important therapeutic targets. In addition, we analyse trends in small-molecule properties that correlate with key challenges in CNS drug discovery, such as blood–brain barrier penetrance and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and discuss the potential of future approaches that will integrate molecular-fragment expansion with pharmacoinformatics to address these challenges. PMID:19876042

  17. Possible association between phages, Hoc protein, and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, K; Switała-Jeleń, K; Opolski, A; Górski, A

    2006-02-01

    Mammals have become "an environment" for enterobacterial phage life cycles. Therefore it could be expected that bacteriophages adapt to them. This adaptation must comprise bacteriophage proteins. Gp Hoc seems to have significance neither for phage particle structure nor for phage antibacterial activity. It is evidently not necessary for the "typical" antibacterial actions of bacteriophages. But the rules of evolution make it improbable that gp Hoc really has no function, and non-essential genes of T4-type phages are probably important for phages' adaptation to their particular lifestyle. More interesting is the eukaryotic origin of gp Hoc: a resemblance to immunoglobulin-like proteins that reflects their evolutionary relation. Substantial differences in biological activity between T4 and a mutant that lacks gp Hoc were observed in a mammalian system. Hoc protein seems to be one of the molecules predicted to interact with mammalian organisms and/or modulate these interactions. PMID:16195787

  18. Studying protein complexes by the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Seesandra V; Sikorski, Patricia; Caufield, J Harry; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Uetz, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Protein complexes are typically analyzed by affinity purification and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. However, in most cases the structure and topology of the complexes remains elusive from such studies. Here we investigate how the yeast two-hybrid system can be used to analyze direct interactions among proteins in a complex. First we tested all pairwise interactions among the seven proteins of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III as well as an uncharacterized complex that includes MntR and PerR. Four and seven interactions were identified in these two complexes, respectively. In addition, we review Y2H data for three other complexes of known structure which serve as "gold-standards", namely Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the yeast proteasome, and bacteriophage lambda. Finally, we review an Y2H analysis of the human spliceosome which may serve as an example for a dynamic mega-complex.

  19. PET-Based Percutaneous Needle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-07-01

    PET can be used to guide percutaneous needle biopsy to the most metabolic lesion, improving diagnostic yield. PET biopsy guidance can be performed using visual or software coregistration, electromagnetic needle tracking, cone-beam computed tomography (CT), and intraprocedural PET/CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsies allow the sampling of lesions that may not be clearly visible on anatomic imaging, or of lesions that are morphologically normal. PET can identify suspicious locations within complex tumors that are most likely to contain important diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27321036

  20. The needle effect in the relief of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Lewit, K

    1979-02-01

    In reviewing techniques for therapeutic local anaesthesia of pain spots, it appeared that the common denominator was puncture by the needle and not the anaesthetic employed. The present study examines short- and long-term effects of dry needling in the treatment of chronic myofascial pain. 241 patients and 312 pain sites were treated by needling. When the most painful spot was touched by the needle, immediate analgesia without hypesthesia was observed in 86.8% of cases. Permanent relief of tenderness in the needled structure was obtained for 92 structures; relief for several months in 58; for several weeks in 63; and for several days in 32 out of 288 pain sites followed up. The effectiveness of treatment was related to the intensity of pain produced at the trigger zone, and to the precision with which the site of maximal tenderness was located by the needle. The immediate analgesia produced by needling the pain spot has been called the "needle effect".

  1. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  7. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed.

  8. Maternal protein restriction regulates IGF2 system in placental labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sathishkumar, Kunju Reddiar; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena; Li, Xilong; Wu, Guoyao; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This study was to test the hypothesis that altered IGF2 system in the placental labyrinth zone (LZ) impairs feto-placental growth in response to maternal protein restriction. Rats were fed a 20% protein diet and an isocaloric 6 % protein diet (LP) from day 1 to days 14, 18, or 21 of pregnancy. The effects of diet, gender of placenta and fetus, and day of pregnancy on placental weight, fetal weight, and expression of the IGF2 axis in the placental LZ and amino acids in maternal plasma were analyzed. Growth restriction occurred in both female and male fetuses by LP, coincident with impaired LZ growth and efficiency. The expression of Igf2, Igf2P0, Igf1r, Igf2r, Insr, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 in placental LZ were affected by diet, gender and/or day of pregnancy. Concentrations of total essential amino acids and total nonessential amino acids were reduced and increased, respectively, in maternal plasma of LP-fed rats. These results indicate that adaptation of the IGF2 system in rat LZ occurs in a sex- and time-dependent manner in response to maternal protein restriction; however, these adaptations cannot prevent the growth restriction of both male and female fetuses during late pregnancy.

  9. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging-Based Needle Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Rotemberg, Veronica; Palmeri, Mark; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Grant, Stuart; Macleod, David; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle placement is widely used in the clinical setting, particularly for central venous catheter placement, tissue biopsy and regional anesthesia. Difficulties with ultrasound guidance in these areas often result from steep needle insertion angles and spatial offsets between the imaging plane and the needle. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging leads to improved needle visualization because it uses a standard diagnostic scanner to perform radiation force based elasticity imaging, creating a displacement map that displays tissue stiffness variations. The needle visualization in ARFI images is independent of needle-insertion angle and also extends needle visibility out of plane. Although ARFI images portray needles well, they often do not contain the usual B-mode landmarks. Therefore, a three-step segmentation algorithm has been developed to identify a needle in an ARFI image and overlay the needle prediction on a coregistered B-mode image. The steps are: (1) contrast enhancement by median filtration and Laplacian operator filtration, (2) noise suppression through displacement estimate correlation coefficient thresholding and (3) smoothing by removal of outliers and best-fit line prediction. The algorithm was applied to data sets from horizontal 18, 21 and 25 gauge needles between 0–4 mm offset in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and to 18G needles on the transducer axis (in plane) between 10° and 35° from the horizontal. Needle tips were visualized within 2 mm of their actual position for both horizontal needle orientations up to 1.5 mm off set in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and on-axis angled needles between 10°–35° above the horizontal orientation. We conclude that segmented ARFI images overlaid on matched B-mode images hold promise for improved needle visibility in many clinical applications. PMID:21608445

  10. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  14. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  15. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  18. The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

  19. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended to inject fluids into, or withdraw fluids from, parts of the body below...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  1. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  2. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended to inject fluids into, or withdraw fluids from, parts of the body below...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  4. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  5. Accurate biopsy-needle depth estimation in limited-angle tomography using multi-view geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Sveta; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, compressed-sensing based algorithms have enabled volume reconstruction from projection images acquired over a relatively small angle (θ < 20°). These methods enable accurate depth estimation of surgical tools with respect to anatomical structures. However, they are computationally expensive and time consuming, rendering them unattractive for image-guided interventions. We propose an alternative approach for depth estimation of biopsy needles during image-guided interventions, in which we split the problem into two parts and solve them independently: needle-depth estimation and volume reconstruction. The complete proposed system consists of the previous two steps, preceded by needle extraction. First, we detect the biopsy needle in the projection images and remove it by interpolation. Next, we exploit epipolar geometry to find point-to-point correspondences in the projection images to triangulate the 3D position of the needle in the volume. Finally, we use the interpolated projection images to reconstruct the local anatomical structures and indicate the position of the needle within this volume. For validation of the algorithm, we have recorded a full CT scan of a phantom with an inserted biopsy needle. The performance of our approach ranges from a median error of 2.94 mm for an distributed viewing angle of 1° down to an error of 0.30 mm for an angle larger than 10°. Based on the results of this initial phantom study, we conclude that multi-view geometry offers an attractive alternative to time-consuming iterative methods for the depth estimation of surgical tools during C-arm-based image-guided interventions.

  6. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  7. Bioengineered Silk Protein-Based Gene Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Keiji; Subramanian, Balajikarthick; Currie, Heather A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Silk proteins self-assemble into mechanically robust material structures that are also biodegradable and non-cytotoxic, suggesting utility for gene delivery. Since silk proteins can also be tailored in terms of chemistry, molecular weight and other design features via genetic engineering, further control of this system for gene delivery can be considered. In the present study, silk-based block copolymers were bioengineered with poly(l-lysine) domains for gene delivery. Ionic complexes of these silk-polylysine based block copolymers with plasmid DNA (pDNA) were prepared for gene delivery to human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. The material systems were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The polymers self-assembled in solution and complexed plasmid DNA through ionic interactions. The pDNA complexes with 30-lysine residues prepared at a polymer/nucleotide ratio of 10 and with a solution diameter of 380 nm, showed the highest efficiency for transfection. The pDNA complexes were also immobilized on silk films and demonstrated direct cell transfection from these surfaces. The results demonstrate the potential of bioengineered silk proteins as a new family of highly tailored gene delivery systems. PMID:19577803

  8. Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Mojgan; Mohit, Elham

    2016-01-01

    abstract Due to the excellent safety profile of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles in human, and their biodegradability, many studies have focused on the application of PLGA particles as a controlled-release vaccine delivery system. Antigenic proteins/peptides can be encapsulated into or adsorbed to the surface of PLGA particles. The gradual release of loaded antigens from PLGA particles is necessary for the induction of efficient immunity. Various factors can influence protein release rates from PLGA particles, which can be defined intrinsic features of the polymer, particle characteristics as well as protein and environmental related factors. The use of PLGA particles encapsulating antigens of different diseases such as hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chlamydia, malaria, leishmania, toxoplasma and allergy antigens will be described herein. The co-delivery of antigens and immunostimulants (IS) with PLGA particles can prevent the systemic adverse effects of immunopotentiators and activate both dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NKs) cells, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of antigen-loaded PLGA particles. We will review co-delivery of different TLR ligands with antigens in various models, highlighting the specific strengths and weaknesses of the system. Strategies to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of DC-based vaccine using PLGA particles can be designed to target DCs by functionalized PLGA particle encapsulating siRNAs of suppressive gene, and disease specific antigens. Finally, specific examples of cellular targeting where decorating the surface of PLGA particles target orally administrated vaccine to M-cells will be highlighted. PMID:26513024

  9. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or buccal smear. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Mar 1;108(2):120-7. Citation on PubMed OMIM: ... 2003 Apr;33(4):487-91. Epub 2003 Mar 3. Citation on ... syndrome types 1 and 2, frontometaphyseal dysplasia and Melnick-Needles syndrome. ...

  11. Metal-catalyzed protein tyrosine nitration in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Nicolás; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an oxidative postranslational modification that can affect protein structure and function. It is mediated in vivo by the production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO₂). Redox-active transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) can actively participate in the processes of tyrosine nitration in biological systems, as they catalyze the production of both reactive oxygen species and RNS, enhance nitration yields and provide site-specificity to this process. Early after the discovery that protein tyrosine nitration can occur under biologically relevant conditions, it was shown that some low molecular weight transition-metal centers and metalloproteins could promote peroxynitrite-dependent nitration. Later studies showed that nitration could be achieved by peroxynitrite-independent routes as well, depending on the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO₂(-)) to (•)NO₂ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Processes like these can be achieved either by hemeperoxidase-dependent reactions or by ferrous and cuprous ions through Fenton-type chemistry. Besides the in vitro evidence, there are now several in vivo studies that support the close relationship between transition metal levels and protein tyrosine nitration. So, the contribution of transition metals to the levels of tyrosine nitrated proteins observed under basal conditions and, specially, in disease states related with high levels of these metal ions, seems to be quite clear. Altogether, current evidence unambiguously supports a central role of transition metals in determining the extent and selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration mediated both by peroxynitrite-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  12. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-13

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  13. Characterizing tissue stiffness at the tip of a rigid needle using an opto-mechanical force sensor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmans, Steven V.; Iannuzzi, Davide; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.

    2016-03-01

    Each year, in the Netherlands alone, more than 50.000 percutaneous procedures are performed for treatment or for removal of tissue from possibly diseased organs, of which 30% return non-diagnostic due to erroneous needle targeting, often as a result of non-homogeneity of the penetrated tissue. In this study, we aim to facilitate needle targeting by assessing the tissue in front of the needle based on its mechanical properties. A probe that can identify tissues via real-time measurements of their mechanical properties is placed at the tip of the needle. The probe, actuated by a remote system at the distal part of the needle, employs the bending of a micro-machined cantilever fabricated on top of an optical fiber. The displacement of the cantilever, imposed by pressing a micro-bead (r = 75 µm) glued at the tip of the cantilever against the tissue, is interrogated by Fabry-Pérot interferometry and converted to force acted on the tissue in real-time. The force transducer is able to perform in harsh environments due to its monolithic design and all-optical working principle. Using our setup, load-indentation curves were obtained during needle insertion in several gelatin-based specimens. We demonstrate the ability of our device to detect and quantify layers of varying stiffness and to successfully locate tissue boundaries in animal tissue embedded in gelatin. Furthermore, a diagnostic measurement can be made by quantifying intra-organ tissue stiffness at the needle target location.

  14. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Motorized Needle Guide Template for MRI-guided Targeted Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Zhang, Elizabeth; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problems of limited needle insertion accuracy and human error in the use of a conventional needle guide template in MRI-guided prostate intervention, we developed a motorized MRI-compatible needle guide template that resembles a TRUS-guided prostate template. The motorized template allows automated, gapless needle guidance in a 3T MRI scanner with minimal changes in the current clinical procedure. To evaluate the impact of the motorized template on MRI, signal-to-noise ratio and distortion were measured under various system configurations. A maximum of 44% signal-to-noise ratio decrease was found when the ultrasonic motors were running, and a maximum of 0.4% image distortion was observed due to the presence of the motorized template. To measure needle insertion accuracy, we performed four sets of five random target needle insertions mimicking four biopsy procedures, which resulted in an average in-plane targeting error of 0.94 mm with a standard deviation of 0.34 mm. The evaluation studies indicated that the presence and operation of the motorized template in the MRI bore creates insignificant image degradation, and provides submillimeter targeting accuracy. The automated needle guide that is directly controlled by navigation software eliminates human error so that the safety of the procedure can be improved. PMID:23335658

  15. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  16. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  17. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  18. STIM and ORAI proteins in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecules (STIM) 1 and 2 are sensors of the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum. Depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores activates STIM proteins which, in turn, bind and open calcium channels in the plasma membrane formed by the proteins ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3. The resulting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), mostly controlled by the principal components STIM1 and ORAI1, has been particularly characterized in immune cells. In the nervous system, all STIM and ORAI homologs are expressed. This review summarizes current knowledge on distribution and function of STIM and ORAI proteins in central neurons and glial cells, i.e. astrocytes and microglia. STIM2 is required for SOCE in hippocampal synapses and cortical neurons, whereas STIM1 controls calcium store replenishment in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In microglia, STIM1, STIM2, and ORAI1 regulate migration and phagocytosis. The isoforms ORAI2 and ORAI3 are candidates for SOCE channels in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Due to the role of SOCE in neuronal and glial calcium homeostasis, dysfunction of STIM and ORAI proteins may have consequences for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26218135

  19. Mapping membrane protein interactions in cell signaling systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Light, Yooli Kim; Hadi, Masood Z.; Lane, Pamela; Jacobsen, Richard B.; Hong, Joohee; Ayson, Marites J.; Wood, Nichole L.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.

    2003-12-01

    We proposed to apply a chemical cross-linking, mass spectrometry and modeling method called MS3D to the structure determination of the rhodopsin-transducin membrane protein complex (RTC). Herein we describe experimental progress made to adapt the MS3D approach for characterizing membrane protein systems, and computational progress in experimental design, data analysis and protein structure modeling. Over the past three years, we have developed tailored experimental methods for all steps in the MS3D method for rhodopsin, including protein purification, a functional assay, cross-linking, proteolysis and mass spectrometry. In support of the experimental effort. we have out a data analysis pipeline in place that automatically selects the monoisotopic peaks in a mass spectrometric spectrum, assigns them and stores the results in a database. Theoretical calculations using 24 experimentally-derived distance constraints have resulted in a backbone-level model of the activated form of rhodopsin, which is a critical first step towards building a model of the RTC. Cross-linked rhodopsin-transducin complexes have been isolated via gel electrophoresis and further mass spectrometric characterization of the cross-links is underway.

  20. Gγ recruitment systems specifically select PPI and affinity-enhanced candidate proteins that interact with membrane protein targets.

    PubMed

    Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Fukuda, Nobuo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-19

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are crucial for the vast majority of biological processes. We previously constructed a Gγ recruitment system to screen PPI candidate proteins and desirable affinity-altered (affinity-enhanced and affinity-attenuated) protein variants. The methods utilized a target protein fused to a mutated G-protein γ subunit (Gγcyto) lacking the ability to localize to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, the previous systems were adapted to use only soluble cytosolic proteins as targets. Recently, membrane proteins have been found to form the principal nodes of signaling involved in diseases and have attracted a great deal of interest as primary drug targets. Here, we describe new protocols for the Gγ recruitment systems that are specifically designed to use membrane proteins as targets to overcome previous limitations. These systems represent an attractive approach to exploring novel interacting candidates and affinity-altered protein variants and their interactions with proteins on the inner side of the plasma membrane, with high specificity and selectivity.

  1. Gγ recruitment systems specifically select PPI and affinity-enhanced candidate proteins that interact with membrane protein targets

    PubMed Central

    Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Fukuda, Nobuo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are crucial for the vast majority of biological processes. We previously constructed a Gγ recruitment system to screen PPI candidate proteins and desirable affinity-altered (affinity-enhanced and affinity-attenuated) protein variants. The methods utilized a target protein fused to a mutated G-protein γ subunit (Gγcyto) lacking the ability to localize to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, the previous systems were adapted to use only soluble cytosolic proteins as targets. Recently, membrane proteins have been found to form the principal nodes of signaling involved in diseases and have attracted a great deal of interest as primary drug targets. Here, we describe new protocols for the Gγ recruitment systems that are specifically designed to use membrane proteins as targets to overcome previous limitations. These systems represent an attractive approach to exploring novel interacting candidates and affinity-altered protein variants and their interactions with proteins on the inner side of the plasma membrane, with high specificity and selectivity. PMID:26581329

  2. Engineering and Assembly of Protein Modules into Functional Molecular Systems.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Stephan; Stauffer, Mirko; Harder, Daniel; Müller, Daniel J; Meier, Wolfgang; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology approaches range from the introduction of unique features into organisms to the assembly of isolated biomacromolecules or synthetic building blocks into artificial biological systems with biomimetic or completely novel functionalities. Simple molecular systems can be based on containers on the nanoscale that are equipped with tailored functional modules for various applications in healthcare, industry or biological and medical research. The concept, or vision, of assembling native or engineered proteins and/or synthetic components as functional modules into molecular systems is discussed. The main focus is laid on the engineering of energizing modules generating chemical energy, transport modules using this energy to translocate molecules between compartments of a molecular system, and catalytic modules (bio-)chemically processing the molecules. Further key aspects of this discourse are possible approaches for the assembly of simple nanofactories and their applications in biotechnology and medical health. PMID:27363367

  3. Specific protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction in the hig gene system, a plasmid-borne proteic killer gene system of plasmid Rts1.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q B; Ohnishi, M; Murata, T; Nakayama, K; Terawaki, Y; Hayashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The hig (host inhibition of growth) gene system of plasmid Rts1 belongs to the plasmid-encoded proteic killer gene family. Among the proteic killer genes described so far, hig is unique in that the toxin gene (higB) exists upstream of the antidote gene (higA). There are two promoters in the hig locus, Phig and PhigA, and only the former, which expresses both higB and higA genes, is negatively controlled by HigA and HigB proteins. In this study, we purified HigA protein by means of GST fusion. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the purified protein revealed that HigA specifically bound to the Phig region, but not to PhigA. The HigA-binding sequence was determined by DNase I footprinting assay to be a 56-bp sequence that completely covered the -35 and -10 boxes of Phig. The presence of two inverted repeats in the binding sequence and the identification of a dimer form of HigA by cross-linking experiment suggested that the protein bound to the Phig region as a dimer. HigB was purified as a GST fusion protein as well, though it was achieved only in the presence of HigA. HigA and GST-HigB formed a highly stable complex where the two proteins were present in an equimolar ratio.

  4. Kinematics Analysis of an Aided Robot for Needle Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Dedong; Wang, Shan; Bai, Huiquan; Zheng, Haojun

    The kinematic relationship between the needle base and the robot's joints is analyzed. The analysis process is based on the aided needle-insertion robot built by our group. The thinking of needle-inserting procedure is confirming the needle base's posture before the needle inserted into tissue. The method of Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters is used to establish a link robot body-frames with the structural characteristics of the robot. After analysing kinematics, the kinematics equation is presented. The kinematics inverse solutions are obtained with the analytical method and geometry analysis method.

  5. Pine needle holders for use in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N T

    1989-12-01

    Simple holders for positioning pine needles in a gas exchange cuvette are described. The holders make it easy to enclose a standard length of needles in the cuvette in a single plane without mutual shading. The holders also make it possible, following gas exchange measurements, to harvest for further analysis just those needle portions that were enclosed in the leaf chamber. Field observations, which were made with a gas exchange cuvette incorporating the needle holders, on the relationship between carbon exchange rate and photon flux density in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles are reported.

  6. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  7. Inhibition of a type III secretion system by the deletion of a short loop in one of its membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Meshcheryakov, Vladimir A.; Kitao, Akio; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2013-05-01

    Crystal structures of the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from S. typhimurium and A. aeolicus were solved at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. The deletion of a short loop in the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB completely abolishes secretion by the type III secretion system. A molecular-dynamics simulation shows that the deletion of the loop affects the flexibility of a linker between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. The membrane protein FlhB is a highly conserved component of the flagellar secretion system. It is composed of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (FlhB{sub C}). Here, the crystal structures of FlhB{sub C} from Salmonella typhimurium and Aquifex aeolicus are described at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. These flagellar FlhB{sub C} structures are similar to those of paralogues from the needle type III secretion system, with the major difference being in a linker that connects the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. It was found that deletion of a short flexible loop in a globular part of Salmonella FlhB{sub C} leads to complete inhibition of secretion by the flagellar secretion system. Molecular-dynamics calculations demonstrate that the linker region is the most flexible part of FlhB{sub C} and that the deletion of the loop reduces this flexibility. These results are in good agreement with previous studies showing the importance of the linker in the function of FlhB and provide new insight into the relationship between the different parts of the FlhB{sub C} molecule.

  8. Primary Amyloidosis of Celiac/Para-Pancreatic Lymph Nodes Diagnosed by Endosonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Nuralhuda; Kubbara, Aahd; Nawras, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Primary amyloidosis is a disorder resulting from the deposition of fibrillary protein in extracellular tissue. Diagnosis of primary amyloidosis in the celiac/para-pancreatic lymph nodes via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration has not been reported in the literature. In this article, we report our first observation. Our patient is a 64-year-old Caucasian man who was referred to our institution from an outlying hospital for recurrent abdominal pain. Radiological imaging revealed an enlarged abdominal lymph node that was already biopsied under computed tomography needle guidance but diagnosis was not achieved on pathological examination. At our institution, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration showed enlarged para-celiac/pancreatic lymph nodes. Endosonography-guided fine needle aspiration revealed the diagnosis of primary amyloidosis. The patient tolerated the procedure well with follow-up as an outpatient. Conclusions. Lymph node involvement in amyloidosis is not uncommon. However, the involvement of the pancreatic/celiac lymph nodes by amyloidosis is obscure in this case. This case shows a rare presentation of amyloidosis diagnosed for the first time by the technique of endosonography-guided fine needle aspiration. In the future, this might serve as an establishment to standardize diagnosing abdominal lymph node amyloidosis, once suspected, by endosonography-guided fine needle aspiration. PMID:26904706

  9. Yeast Three-Hybrid System for the Detection of Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jose R

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction studies provide useful insights into biological processes taking place within the living cell. A number of techniques are available to unravel large structural protein complexes, functional protein modules, and temporary protein associations occurring during signal transduction. The choice of method depends on the nature of the proteins and the interaction being studied. Here we present an optimized and simplified yeast three-hybrid method for analysis of protein interactions involving three components.

  10. Characterization of tissue-simulating phantom materials for ultrasound-guided needle procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Susan; Moore, John; Lammers, Deanna; Baxter, John; Peters, Terry

    2012-02-01

    Needle biopsies are standard protocols that are commonly performed under ultrasound (US) guidance or computed tomography (CT)1. Vascular access such as central line insertions, and many spinal needle therapies also rely on US guidance. Phantoms for these procedures are crucial as both training tools for clinicians and research tools for developing new guidance systems. Realistic imaging properties and material longevity are critical qualities for needle guidance phantoms. However, current commercially available phantoms for use with US guidance have many limitations, the most detrimental of which include harsh needle tracks obfuscating US images and a membrane comparable to human skin that does not allow seepage of inner media. To overcome these difficulties, we tested a variety of readily available media and membranes to evaluate optimal materials to fit our current needs. It was concluded that liquid hand soap was the best medium, as it instantly left no needle tracks, had an acceptable depth of US penetration and portrayed realistic imaging conditions, while because of its low leakage, low cost, acceptable durability and transparency, the optimal membrane was 10 gauge vinyl.

  11. Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-10-01

    In this work, pine needles were used as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) markers to study the PAHs distribution over several geographical locations in Portugal and over time. Four pine needle sampling campaigns (winter, spring, summer and autumn 2007) were carried out in 29 sites, covering the major urban centres, some industrial points, smaller cities, rural areas and remote locations. Needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. trees were collected from 2005 and 2006 shoots, corresponding to one up to three years of exposure. Spatial trends of the incidence of PAHs indicate an increase from the remote to the urban and industrial sites. The mean values for the sum of 16 PAHs ranged from 96 ± 30 ng g -1 (dry weight) for remote sites to 866 ± 304 ng g -1 (dw) for industrial sites for P. pinaster needles and from 188 ± 117 ng g -1 (dw) for rural sites to 337 ± 153 ng g -1 (dw) for urban sites for P. pinea. Geographic information system tools and principal component analysis revealed that the contamination patterns of PAHs are somehow related to several socio-geographic parameters of the sampling sites. The geographical trend for the PAHs is similar between seasons in terms of PAH levels, but some diverse behaviour is found on the separation of lighter and heavier PAHs. Differences between P. pinaster and P. pinea needles are stronger in terms of PAH uptake loads than in the site type fingerprints.

  12. Coacervate delivery systems for proteins and small molecule drugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Coacervates represent an exciting new class of drug delivery vehicles, developed in the past decade as carriers of small molecule drugs and proteins. This review summarizes several well-described coacervate systems, including Elastin-like peptides for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics,Heparin-based coacervates with synthetic polycations for controlled growth factor delivery,Carboxymethyl chitosan aggregates for oral drug delivery,Mussel adhesive protein and hyaluronic acid coacervates. Coacervates present advantages in their simple assembly and easy incorporation into tissue engineering scaffolds or as adjuncts to cell therapies. They are also amenable to functionalization such as for targeting or for enhancing the bioactivity of their cargo. These new drug carriers are anticipated to have broad applications and noteworthy impact in the near future. PMID:25138695

  13. Coacervate delivery systems for proteins and small molecule drugs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2014-12-01

    Coacervates represent an exciting new class of drug delivery vehicles, developed in the past decade as carriers of small molecule drugs and proteins. This review summarizes several well-described coacervate systems, including: i) elastin-like peptides for delivery of anticancer therapeutics; ii) heparin-based coacervates with synthetic polycations for controlled growth factor delivery; iii) carboxymethyl chitosan aggregates for oral drug delivery; iv) Mussel adhesive protein and hyaluronic acid coacervates. Coacervates present advantages in their simple assembly and easy incorporation into tissue engineering scaffolds or as adjuncts to cell therapies. They are also amenable to functionalization such as for targeting or for enhancing the bioactivity of their cargo. These new drug carriers are anticipated to have broad applications and noteworthy impact in the near future.

  14. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  18. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2015-07-14

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  2. Protein sources for finishing calves as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Sindt, M H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Vieselmeyer, B A

    1993-03-01

    Two beef production systems were evaluated in conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period and 2) grazing cornstalks for 74 d after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period, then finished (164 d). Finishing treatments were sources and proportions of supplemental CP: 1) urea 100%; 2) soybean meal (SBM) 100%; 3) blood meal (BM) 50%, urea 50%; 4) feather meal (FTH) 50%, urea 50%; 5) SBM 50%, FTH 25%, urea 25%; 6) SBM 25%, FTH 38%, urea 37%; 7) FTH 25%, BM 25%, urea 50%, and 8) FTH 38%, BM 13%, urea 50%. Treatments 1 to 8 were fed in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets. Treatments 9 and 10 were supplement Treatments 1 and 7 fed in diets based on high-moisture corn. Calves finished after a 74-d period of grazing cornstalks consumed more feed (P < .01) and gained faster (P < .01) but were less efficient (P < .05) than calves finished directly after weaning. Although not statistically different, calves finished after grazing cornstalks and supplemented with natural protein in the feedlot were 7% more efficient than calves supplemented with urea alone. Efficiency of calves finished directly after weaning was similar for calves supplemented with natural protein or urea alone. Supplementing SBM/FTH/urea or BM/FTH/urea improved feed efficiency compared with supplementing FTH/urea alone. These data suggest that allowing calves to graze cornstalks before finishing is a possible management option, but this system may require more metabolizable protein in the finishing diet to maximize feed efficiency if the calves are expressing compensatory growth. PMID:8463161

  3. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  4. Tip-holed spinal needle: a new design concept.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dura-arachnoid puncture for spinal anesthesia is associated with several complications. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and needle bending are significant among these. The incidence of PDPH has been reduced significantly with the advent of pencil-point needles. However, these needles also have their limitations, such as obstruction of the delivery port by tissues affecting both cerebrospinal fluid flash back and drug delivery. Increasing the size of the lateral hole has led to mechanical complications, such as tip bending. A new spreading beveled spinal needle tip has been designed to overcome the disadvantages of all the currently used spinal needles. To assess the feasibility, a 26-gauge Quincke spinal needle (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) has been modified manually. The new tip-holed design seems to be sound both from theoretical and practical point of view. Searching Medline Plus through their Internet Web site (www.nlm.nih.com) did not reveal the existence of any such spinal needle. PMID:10925938

  5. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  6. Bile salts stimulate recruitment of IpaB to the Shigella flexneri surface, where it colocalizes with IpaD at the tip of the type III secretion needle.

    PubMed

    Olive, Andrew J; Kenjale, Roma; Espina, Marianela; Moore, David S; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2007-05-01

    Shigella flexneri uses its type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) to deliver invasins into human cells. This TTSA possesses an external needle with IpaD at its tip. We now show that deoxycholate promotes the stable recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip without inducing a rapid burst of type III secretion. The maintenance of IpaB at the needle tip requires a stable association of IpaD with the Shigella surface. This is the first demonstration of a translocator protein being stably associated with the TTSA needle.

  7. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the

  8. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  9. Real-time needle guidance with photoacoustic and laser-generated ultrasound probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colchester, Richard J.; Mosse, Charles A.; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Zhang, Edward Z.; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-03-01

    Detection of tissue structures such as nerves and blood vessels is of critical importance during many needle-based minimally invasive procedures. For instance, unintentional injections into arteries can lead to strokes or cardiotoxicity during interventional pain management procedures that involve injections in the vicinity of nerves. Reliable detection with current external imaging systems remains elusive. Optical generation and reception of ultrasound allow for depth-resolved sensing and they can be performed with optical fibers that are positioned within needles used in clinical practice. The needle probe developed in this study comprised separate optical fibers for generating and receiving ultrasound. Photoacoustic generation of ultrasound was performed on the distal end face of an optical fiber by coating it with an optically absorbing material. Ultrasound reception was performed using a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. The sensor data was displayed as an M-mode image with a real-time interface. Imaging was performed on a biological tissue phantom.

  10. Rat C-reactive protein activates the autologous complement system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Padilla, Niubel; Bleeker, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne; Rigter, Gemma M M; Van Mierlo, Gerard J; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2003-08-01

    Activation of complement is a biological function of human C-reactive protein (hCRP), whereas rat CRP (rCRP) has been claimed to be unable to activate complement. As important biological functions of proteins are probably conserved among species, we re-evaluated, using various ligands, the capability of rCRP to activate complement. The activation of complement by hCRP and rCRP was investigated in solid- and fluid-phase systems. In the solid-phase system, purified CRP was fixed to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates and incubated with human or rat recalcified plasma. Dose-dependent binding of human and rat C3 and C4 was observed to human and rat CRP, respectively. In the fluid-phase system, recalcified rat plasma, which contains about 500 mg/l of CRP, or human plasma supplemented with hCRP, were incubated with lyso-phosphatidylcholine. A dose-dependent activation of complement was observed upon incubation with this ligand, as reflected by the generation of activated C4 as well as of CRP-complement complexes. This activation was, in both cases, inhibited by preincubation of plasma with p-aminophosphorylcholine, a specific inhibitor of the interaction of CRP with its ligands, or by chelation of calcium ions. We conclude that rat CRP, similarly to human CRP, can activate autologous complement. These results support the notion that opsonization of ligands with complement is an important biological function of CRP.

  11. Biomineralized vaccine nanohybrid for needle-free intranasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Dong; Li, Shihua; Xu, Xurong; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2016-11-01

    Frequent outbreaks and the rapid global spread of infectious diseases have increased the urgent need for massive vaccination especially in countries with limited resources. Intranasal vaccination facilitates the mass vaccination via needle-free delivery of vaccine through nasal mucosal surfaces. Inspired by the strong capability of calcium phosphate (CaP) materials to adhere to cells and tissues, we propose to improve nasal vaccination by using a biomineralization-based strategy. The vaccine nanohybrid was obtained by covering the viral surface with CaP nanoshell, which changed the physiochemical properties of original vaccine, resulting in the increase of mucosal adhesion to the nasal tissues. The core-shell structure was beneficial for the receptor-independent uptake and the induction of elevated local IgA response within the nasal cavity. Moreover, the vaccine complex elicited enhanced systemic antibody response that neutralized wild type of dengue virus and promoted the systemic cellular immune responses. This achievement presents the potential of CaP based vaccine biomineralization for the fabrication of needle-free vaccine formulation. PMID:27575530

  12. Paraesthesia during the needle-through-needle and the double segment technique for combined spinal epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H J; Choi, D H; Kim, C S

    2006-07-01

    Paraesthesia during regional anaesthesia is an unpleasant sensation for patients and, more importantly, in some cases it is related to neurological injury. Relatively few studies have been conducted on the frequency of paraesthesia during combined spinal epidural anaesthesia. We compared two combined spinal epidural anaesthesia techniques: the needle-through-needle technique and the double segment technique in this respect. We randomly allocated 116 parturients undergoing elective Caesarean section to receive anaesthesia using one of these techniques. Both techniques were performed using a 27G pencil point needle, an 18G Tuohy needle, and a 20G multiport epidural catheter from the same manufacturer. The overall frequency of paraesthesia was higher in the needle-through-needle technique group (56.9% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.011). The frequency of paraesthesia at spinal needle insertion was 20.7% in the needle-through-needle technique group and 8.8% in the double segment technique group; whereas the frequency of paraesthesia at epidural catheter insertion was 46.6% in the needle-through-needle technique group and 24.6% in the double segment technique group.

  13. Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar Ahad; Wani, M. Afzal; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Shafiq, S.; Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Ashish; Lone, Iqbal; Makhdoomi, Rumana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system. PMID:27057212

  14. The Search for Covalently Ligandable Proteins in Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Syed Lal; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser

    2016-01-01

    This commentary highlights the recent article published in Nature, June 2016, titled: "Proteome-wide covalent ligand discovery in native biological systems". They screened the whole proteome of different human cell lines and cell lysates. Around 700 druggable cysteines in the whole proteome were found to bind the electrophilic fragments in both active and inactive states of the proteins. Their experiment and computational docking results agreed with one another. The usefulness of this study in terms of bringing a change in medicinal chemistry is highlighted here. PMID:27598117

  15. The plug-based nanovolume Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdts, Cory J.; Elliott, Mark; Lovell, Scott; Mixon, Mark B.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Staker, Bart L.; Nollert, Peter; Stewart, Lance

    2012-02-08

    The Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS) embodies a new semi-automated plug-based crystallization technology which enables nanolitre-volume screening of crystallization conditions in a plasticware format that allows crystals to be easily removed for traditional cryoprotection and X-ray diffraction data collection. Protein crystals grown in these plastic devices can be directly subjected to in situ X-ray diffraction studies. The MPCS integrates the formulation of crystallization cocktails with the preparation of the crystallization experiments. Within microfluidic Teflon tubing or the microfluidic circuitry of a plastic CrystalCard, {approx}10-20 nl volume droplets are generated, each representing a microbatch-style crystallization experiment with a different chemical composition. The entire protein sample is utilized in crystallization experiments. Sparse-matrix screening and chemical gradient screening can be combined in one comprehensive 'hybrid' crystallization trial. The technology lends itself well to optimization by high-granularity gradient screening using optimization reagents such as precipitation agents, ligands or cryoprotectants.

  16. Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing image-guided core-needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Harter, Josephine M.; Zhu, Changfang; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-01-01

    We describe a side-firing fiber optic sensor based on near-infrared spectroscopy for guiding core needle biopsy diagnosis of breast cancer. The sensor is composed of three side firing optical fibers (two source fibers and one detection fiber), providing two source-detector separations. The entire assembly is inserted into a core biopsy needle, allowing for sampling to occur at the biopsy site. A multi-wavelength frequency-domain near-infrared instrument is used to collect diffuse reflectance in the breast tissue through an aperture on the biopsy needle before the tissue is removed for histology. Preliminary in vivo measurements performed on 10 normal or benign breast tissues from 5 women undergoing stereo- or ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy show the ability of the system to determine tissue optical properties and constituent concentrations, which are correlated with breast tissue composition derived from histopathology. PMID:19547057

  17. Susuks: charm needles in facial soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ghani, S H

    1991-04-20

    Susuks or charm needles are a form of talisman inserted and worn subcutaneously, in the face and other parts of the body, in the belief that they will enhance or preserve the wearer's beauty, youth, charisma, strength or health, or bring success in business. This mystic practice is found among some south-east Asian people, especially Malayan and Muslim females. Most susuk wearers are secretive about their hidden talismans, but these gold or silver needles are being discovered with increasing frequency now that radiographs are used more widely. An understanding of this practice and an awareness of its existence is important to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement of these patients. The practice of susuk wearing and its relevance to dentistry is discussed. Nine cases of facial susuk wearers are presented and previous reports are reviewed.

  18. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    PubMed Central

    Lyngsø, Christina; Kjaerulff, Søren; Müller, Sven; Bratt, Tomas; Mortensen, Uffe H; Dal Degan, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression of native or modified eukaryotic proteins is pivotal for structural and functional studies and for industrial and pharmaceutical production of proteins. However, it is often impeded by the lack of proper folding. Here, we present a stringent and broadly applicable eukaryotic in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality-control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully demonstrated using a complex insertion mutant library of TNF-α, from which different folding competent mutant proteins were uncovered. PMID:20082307

  19. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  20. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  5. Exploration of new electroacupuncture needle material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  6. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  7. Efficient preparation and analysis of membrane and membrane protein systems.

    PubMed

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2016-10-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a highly important technique to consider lipid membrane systems, and quite often they provide considerable added value to laboratory experiments. Rapid development of both software and hardware has enabled the increase of time and size scales reachable by MD simulations to match those attainable by several accurate experimental techniques. However, until recently, the quality and maturity of software tools available for building membrane models for simulations as well as analyzing the results of these simulations have seriously lagged behind. Here, we discuss the recent developments of such tools from the end-users' point of view. In particular, we review the software that can be employed to build lipid bilayers and other related structures with or without embedded membrane proteins to be employed in MD simulations. Additionally, we provide a brief critical insight into force fields and MD packages commonly used for membrane and membrane protein simulations. Finally, we list analysis tools that can be used to study the properties of membrane and membrane protein systems. In all these points we comment on the respective compatibility of the covered tools. We also share our opinion on the current state of the available software. We briefly discuss the most commonly employed tools and platforms on which new software can be built. We conclude the review by providing a few ideas and guidelines on how the development of tools can be further boosted to catch up with the rapid pace at which the field of membrane simulation progresses. This includes improving the compatibility between software tools and promoting the openness of the codes on which these applications rely. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26947184

  8. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  9. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system. PMID:26170084

  10. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27.5009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  12. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27.5009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27.5009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  14. Intraoperative Loss of a Surgical Needle: A Laparoscopic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Robert; Schofield, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing awareness around patient safety and efforts to reduce medical errors has become a priority in the modern health care system. Losing needles during laparoscopic procedures is an uncommon occurrence; however, it poses a significant dilemma for the operating surgeon because retrieval can be a major challenge even for highly skilled and experienced operators. Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the current literature and highlight this potentially serious issue and suggest a method of dealing with this uncommon occurrence. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using several Internet search engines including PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Conclusions: The risks associated with retained small foreign bodies remains unknown, and there are few reports and little consensus on how surgeons should manage retained needles or other small foreign bodies during laparoscopic surgery. We propose an algorithm that may be implemented as a standard operating procedure in surgical theatres when a surgeon is faced with such a dilemma. PMID:25901106

  15. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy. PMID:26841375

  16. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy.

  17. [Progress of cell-free protein synthesis system and its applications in pharmaceutical engineering - A review].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoge; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have been widely used for decades as a rapid and efficient tool in fundamental biology. Without the requirements for cell viability and growth, CFPS systems have distinct advantages over in vivo systems for protein production. Recently, great efforts have been made to further optimize CFPS systems to produce proteins at high yields, reduced cost and increased scale, including simplifying extract preparation procedures, developing new energy regeneration systems to protein synthesis, stabilizing substrate supply and promoting protein folding. Nowadays, CFPS systems are emerging as a powerful platform for industrial and high-throughput production of protein therapeutics, providing an alternative solution to solve problems in biopharmaceutical engineering. Moreover, CFPS systems have been successfully applied to high-throughput drug screening, large-scale protein therapeutics production, custom-made anti-cancer vaccines. These achievements highlight that CFPS systems have great potential for a wide range of applications in biopharmaceutical engineering in the future. PMID:27382794

  18. [Progress of cell-free protein synthesis system and its applications in pharmaceutical engineering - A review].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoge; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have been widely used for decades as a rapid and efficient tool in fundamental biology. Without the requirements for cell viability and growth, CFPS systems have distinct advantages over in vivo systems for protein production. Recently, great efforts have been made to further optimize CFPS systems to produce proteins at high yields, reduced cost and increased scale, including simplifying extract preparation procedures, developing new energy regeneration systems to protein synthesis, stabilizing substrate supply and promoting protein folding. Nowadays, CFPS systems are emerging as a powerful platform for industrial and high-throughput production of protein therapeutics, providing an alternative solution to solve problems in biopharmaceutical engineering. Moreover, CFPS systems have been successfully applied to high-throughput drug screening, large-scale protein therapeutics production, custom-made anti-cancer vaccines. These achievements highlight that CFPS systems have great potential for a wide range of applications in biopharmaceutical engineering in the future.

  19. Needle detection in ultrasound using the spectral properties of the displacement field: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Tim; Rohling, Robert; Lessoway, Victoria A.; Ng, Gary C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new needle detection technique for ultrasound guided interventions based on the spectral properties of small displacements arising from hand tremour or intentional motion. In a block-based approach, the displacement map is computed for each block of interest versus a reference frame, using an optical flow technique. To compute the flow parameters, the Lucas-Kanade approach is used in a multiresolution and regularized form. A least-squares fit is used to estimate the flow parameters from the overdetermined system of spatial and temporal gradients. Lateral and axial components of the displacement are obtained for each block of interest at consecutive frames. Magnitude-squared spectral coherency is derived between the median displacements of the reference block and each block of interest, to determine the spectral correlation. In vivo images were obtained from the tissue near the abdominal aorta to capture the extreme intrinsic body motion and insertion images were captured from a tissue-mimicking agar phantom. According to the analysis, both the involuntary and intentional movement of the needle produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window near the insertion site. Intrinsic body motion also produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window in the tissue; however, the coherency spectra of intrinsic and needle motion are distinguishable spectrally. Blocks with high spectral coherency at high frequencies are selected, estimating a channel for needle trajectory. The needle trajectory is detected from locally thresholded absolute displacement map within the initial estimate. Experimental results show the RMS localization accuracy of 1:0 mm, 0:7 mm, and 0:5 mm for hand tremour, vibrational and rotational needle movements, respectively.

  20. Needle Exchange and the Geography of Survival in the South Bronx

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the position of needle exchange programs (NEPs) in the “geography of survival” in the South Bronx neighborhood of New York City. Stemming the spread of HIV through the provision of sterile injecting equipment, needle exchange promotes the survival of injection drug users (IDUs) in the starkest sense; yet NEPs also attract a diverse population of service users whose attendance is not necessarily related to drugs. This paper locates NEPs among a larger constellation of social services accessed by residents of poor neighborhoods, including injection drug users, the homeless, the hungry, and those in need of medical services or just safe space. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data from a needle exchange in the South Bronx, I describe how both IDUs and others employed the organization to make ends meet, elaborating four “off-label” usages of needle exchange: as a place to obtain basic necessities, as a source of income, as a safe space, and as a site of social contact. As harm reduction in the United States moves towards an increasingly clinical model of care, this paper considers these latent functions of needle exchange within the context of a larger struggle over the content and meaning of harm reduction services. By themselves, NEPs are clearly an unsatisfactory solution to the economic and political circumstances that drive a variety of individuals through their doors; yet, in a country that lacks a comprehensive welfare system, needle exchange arguably represents an important thread within a social safety net that is being woven from the ground up. This study may be used argue for a (re)expanded mission for harm reduction in the United States, in the face of constant moves to narrow its mandate and reduce its budget. PMID:22417824

  1. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Cepek, Jeremy Fenster, Aaron; Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Haider, Masoom A.; Ghai, Sangeet

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  2. Modifications of wheat germ cell-free system for functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins is an important approach to understand the comprehensive architecture of each metabolic pathway in plants. One bottleneck in the characterization of membrane proteins is the difficulty in producing sufficient quantities of functional protein for analysis. Here, we describe three methods for membrane protein production utilizing a wheat germ cell-free protein expression system. Owing to the open nature of cell-free synthesis reaction, protein synthesis can be modified with components necessary to produce functional protein. In this way we have developed modifications to a wheat germ cell-free system for the production of functional membrane proteins. Supplementation of liposomes or detergents allows the synthesis of functional integral membrane proteins. Furthermore, supplementation of myristic acid enables synthesis of N-myristylated peripheral membrane proteins. These modified cell-free synthesis methods facilitate the preparation and subsequent functional analyses of a wide variety of membrane proteins. PMID:24136528

  3. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  4. Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling for lumbar spinal stenosis using a specially designed needle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This report describes the methodological approach and clinical application of a minimally invasive intervention to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods Thirty-four patients with LSS underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling using a specially designed flexed Round Needle. The needle was inserted 8-12 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the stenosis and advanced to a position between the anterior side of the facet joint and pedicle up to the outer-third of the pedicle. The needle was advanced medially and backed laterally within a few millimetres along the canal side of the inferior articular process between the facet joint and pedicle. The procedure was completed when a marked reduction in resistance was felt at the tip of the needle. The procedure was performed bilaterally at the level of the stenosis. Results The average follow-up period was 12.9 ± 1.1 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was reduced from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 4.6 ± 2.5 points, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score decreased from 41.4 ± 17.2 to 25.5 ± 12.6% and the average self-rated improvement was 52.6 ± 33.1%. The VAS scores indicated that 14 (41.2%) patients reported a "good" to "excellent" treatment response, while 11 (32.4%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the ODI and 22 (64.7%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the self-rated improvement scale. Conclusions These results suggest that fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling is effective for managing LSS. PMID:20698999

  5. Engineering of chaperone systems and of the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed U.

    2008-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells is a successful technology that delivers protein pharmaceuticals for therapies and for diagnosis of human disorders. Cost effective production of protein biopharmaceuticals requires extensive optimization through cell and fermentation process engineering at the upstream and chemical engineering of purification processes at the downstream side of the production process. The majority of protein pharmaceuticals are secreted proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that the folding and processing of these proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a general rate- and yield limiting step for their production. We will summarize our knowledge of protein folding in the ER and of signal transduction pathways activated by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). On the basis of this knowledge we will evaluate engineering approaches to increase cell specific productivities through engineering of the ER-resident protein folding machinery and of the UPR. PMID:19003179

  6. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  7. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  8. Simulator/planner for CT-directed needle biopsy of the spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin R.; Lathan, Corinna E.; Carignan, Craig R.

    1998-06-01

    Minimally invasive spine procedures can spare the patient the trauma associated with open surgery. However, these procedures can be difficult to learn and require extensive training for proficiency. At Georgetown University Medical Center, spine biopsies are often done under computed tomography (CT) guidance. While this technique is effective, it is time consuming since the biopsy needle must be advanced slowly and its position checked several times to ensure vital organs are not damaged. A research project is being conducted to develop a computer-guided, image-based minimally invasive system for therapy and surgical techniques. As an initial step, a needle biopsy simulator for training is being developed. In the next phase, this simulator could also be used for preoperative planning. The simulator consists of two major modules: a visual module to display the medical images and biopsy tools and a haptic module to provide force feedback based on the needle position. The haptic module incorporates a robotic device that provides force feedback in three translational directions. In the future, it is anticipated that semi- autonomous robotic systems, in which the human controls some degrees of freedom and the robot the other degrees of freedom, will be developed for interventional tasks such as needle spine biopsy. The simulator described here can then be used as a 'master arm' to control the robotic system that actually performs the intervention.

  9. Ultrasound-guided three-dimensional needle steering in biological tissue with curved surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Abayazid, Momen; Moreira, Pedro; Shahriari, Navid; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering a bevel-tipped flexible needle under ultrasound guidance toward a physical target while avoiding a physical obstacle embedded in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue with curved surfaces. An ultrasound pre-operative scan is performed for three-dimensional (3D) target localization and shape reconstruction. A controller based on implicit force control is developed to align the transducer with curved surfaces to assure the maximum contact area, and thus obtain an image of sufficient quality. We experimentally investigate the effect of needle insertion system parameters such as insertion speed, needle diameter and bevel angle on target motion to adjust the parameters that minimize the target motion during insertion. A fast sampling-based path planner is used to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We present experimental results for target reconstruction and needle insertion procedures in gelatin-based phantoms and biological tissue. Mean targeting errors of 1.46 ± 0.37 mm, 1.29 ± 0.29 mm and 1.82 ± 0.58 mm are obtained for phantoms with inclined, curved and combined (inclined and curved) surfaces, respectively, for insertion distance of 86–103 mm. The achieved targeting errors suggest that our approach is sufficient for targeting lesions of 3 mm radius that can be detected using clinical ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:25455165

  10. LOVTRAP: an optogenetic system for photoinduced protein dissociation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Vilela, Marco; Winkler, Andreas; Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Schlichting, Ilme; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Kuhlman, Brian; Liu, Rihe; Danuser, Gaudenz; Hahn, Klaus M

    2016-09-01

    LOVTRAP is an optogenetic approach for reversible light-induced protein dissociation using protein A fragments that bind to the LOV domain only in the dark, with tunable kinetics and a >150-fold change in the dissociation constant (Kd). By reversibly sequestering proteins at mitochondria, we precisely modulated the proteins' access to the cell edge, demonstrating a naturally occurring 3-mHz cell-edge oscillation driven by interactions of Vav2, Rac1, and PI3K proteins. PMID:27427858

  11. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Bartosz; Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent; Désilets, Étienne

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  12. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  13. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle’s inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve. PMID:26509189

  14. Warm needle acupuncture at Pungsi (GB31) has an enhanced analgesic effect on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuk; Shim, Insop; Yi, Seung Ho; Lee, Hyejung; Lim, Hyoung-Soo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2009-03-16

    Warm needle acupuncture (WNA) therapy combines the effects of acupuncture and heat produced by moxibustion. This therapy has been widely used in Korean traditional medicine to treat a number of health problems. We evaluated the analgesic effect of WNA treatment on formalin-induced pain behavior and c-Fos expression in the spinal cord of rats. Acupuncture and heat stimulation by moxibustion were performed at the Pungsi (GB31) acupoint. Needle insertion without heat stimulation (ACU) and heat stimulation without needle insertion (SWNA) were used as negative controls. WNA therapy was executed by burning 1.5 g of cylinder-shaped moxa on top of the needle that was inserted at the acupoint. We measured temperatures of two different locations on the needle using an automatic temperature-acquisition system. Needle temperatures were overwhelmingly dependent on the distance from moxa while burning and showed a maximum of 44.9 degrees C at the location 7 mm apart from the ground after ignition. WNA treatment was more effective than ACU or SWNA in alleviating pain during the late phase in the rat formalin test. WNA, ACU, and SWNA significantly reduced c-Fos expression in the superficial dorsal horn by 23.5, 28.3 and 19.4%, respectively.

  15. Evaluating the advances and use of hypodermic needles in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Boynes, Sean G

    2014-10-01

    Different injection techniques and patient management methodologies have been proposed to decrease the fear patients may have concerning dental needles. Dental providers should have an understanding of the technological advances, changes in techniques, and patient perceptions associated with the hypodermic needle. This article provides an overview of the pain perception process associated with dental injections. It reviews the two main sensory nerve fibers associated with injection pain and discusses needle properties as well as complications and adverse occurrences.

  16. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  17. Hollow metallic micromachined needles with multiple output ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzle, John D.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Frazier, A. Bruno

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, hollow metallic micromachined needles with multiple output ports are designed, fabricated, characterized, and packaged. The hollow metallic needles include design features such as tapered needle tips and multiple output ports on the bottom and top of each needle. The needle tip and shaft are formed by microelectroformed metal. The flow characteristics of the needles are currently being experimentally investigated and modeled using a finite element numerical model. The experimental results and theoretical models will be presented as part of this paper. The micromachined needles can be fabricated on a variety of substrates and can use micro-electroformed palladium as the structural material. The use of palladium as a structural material provides high mechanical strength and durability, as well as, biocompatibility for use in biomedical applications. The cross-sectional dimensions of individual needle tips begin at less than 10 micrometers in width and 15 micrometers in height and then taper to 200 micrometers in width and 60 micrometers in height. The significance of this work includes the development of hollow metallic micromachined needles for biomedical applications, as well as, a discussion of structural, fluidic, and packaging design considerations.

  18. Comparing ease of intraosseous needle placement: Jamshidi versus cook.

    PubMed

    Halm, B; Yamamoto, L G

    1998-07-01

    In a sample of 34 study subjects, Cook and Jamshidi intraosseous (IO) needles were compared for ease of insertion into turkey bones. The averaged lapsed time of insertion was significantly shorter using the Jamshidi needle (25.5 v 56.2 seconds, P < .0001). The mean difficulty of insertion score was lower using the Jamshidi needle (3.0 v 7.1 on a 10-cm visual analog scale, P < .0001). The less costly Jamshidi needle is easier to use in IO insertion in this turkey bone model.

  19. Serrated needle design facilitates precise round window membrane perforation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, James P; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-07-01

    The round window membrane (RWM) has become the preferred route, over cochleostomy, for the introduction of cochlear implant electrodes as it minimizes inner ear trauma. However, in the absence of a tool designed for creating precise perforation, current practices lead to tearing of the RWM and significant intracochlear pressure fluctuations. On the basis of RWM mechanical properties, we have designed a multi-serrated needle to create consistent holes without membrane tearing or damaging inner ear structures. Four and eight-serrated needles were designed and produced with wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The needle's ability to create RWM perforations was tested in deidentified, commercially acquired temporal bones with the assistance of a micromanipulator. Subsequently, specimens were imaged under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The needles created consistent, appropriately sized holes in the membrane with minimal tearing. While a four-serrated crown needle made rectangular/trapezoid perforations, the octagonal crown formed smooth oval holes within the membrane. Though designed for single use, the needle tolerated repeated use without significant damage. The serrated needles formed precise perforations in the RWM while minimizing damage during cochlear implantation. The octagonal needle design created the preferred oval perforation better than the quad needle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1633-1637, 2016. PMID:26914984

  20. Photosynthetic apparatus in the needles of pine and spruce grown in areas of industrial pollution under different microclimatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirpichnikova, T.V.; Shavnin, S.A.; Krivosheeva, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic performance was investigated in the needles of common pine (Pinus silvestris L.) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata L.) grown in natural habitats in industrially polluted areas, and the characteristics of the primary photosynthetic processes were presented for trees grown under contrasting microclimatic conditions. The photosynthetic activity was characterized by measuring chlorophyll a and b content, the induction curves of delayed fluorescence (DF), and the temperature dependencies of steady-state delayed fluorescence intensity and the original level (F{sub 0}) of chlorophyll fluorescence. The chlorophyll a and b content was reduced in the needles sampled from polluted areas; the relative decrease in chlorophyll, which was associated with light-harvesting complex and with PS I and PS II chlorophyll-protein complexes, was dependent on needle age and growth conditions. The pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus was less sensitive to pollution in pine than in spruce. On F{sub 0} thermograms, the pollution reduced the peak occurring at 53{degrees} to 55{degrees}C in pine and spruce needles and increased the high-temperature peak (at a temperature above 70{degrees}C) in the needles of pine grown in an open area. In pine and spruce needles sampled in the late summer from trees grown in the polluted area, the DF induction curves assumed a multipeak shape characteristic of the later growth period. Therefore, the damage to the pigment complex of needles and primary photosynthetic processes, along with the shortening of the active growth period, resulted in decreasing the productivity of the tree stands exposed to industrial pollution.