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Sample records for system pseudolite-based relative

  1. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Eric W.

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  2. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-03-27

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors.

  3. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  4. A Pseudolite-Based Positioning System for Legacy GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  5. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  6. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  7. Galaxies, Axisymmetric Systems and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2011-06-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Prof. W. B. Bonnor: a biological sketch; Part I. Galaxies and Cosmology: 1. The origin of large scale cosmic structure B. J. T. Jones and P. L. Palmer; 2. The problem of origin of the primordial pertubations and the modern cosmology V. N. Lukash and I. D. Novikov; 3. The automorphism group and field equations for Bianchi universes W. L. Rogue and G. F. R. Ellis; 4. New perspectives on galaxy formation J. Silk; Part II. Axisymmetric Systems: 5. On exact radiative solutions representing finite sources J. Bicak; 6. Proof of a generalized Geroch conjecture I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst; 7. Limits of the double Kerr solution C. Hoenselaers; 8. Non-inheritance of static symmetry by Maxwell fields M. A. H. MacCallum and N. Van den Bergh; 9. Stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum fields in general relativity G. Neugebauer and D. Kramer; 10. An almost conformal approach to axial symmetry Z. Perjes; 11. Conformally stationary axisymmetric space-times J. Winicour; Part III. Relativity: 12. A family of conformally flat space-times having the same curvature tensor in a given co-ordinate frame C. D. Collinson; 13. On the Bell-Szekeres solution for colliding electromagnetic waves J. B. Griffiths; 14. A remark on the Hauser metric A. Held; 15. Numerical relativity by power series R. Penrose; 16. Projective relativity and the equation of motion E. Schmutzer; 17. On generalized equations of goedesic deviation B. F. Schutz; 18. Lobatchevski plane gravitational waves S. T. C. Siklos; 19. Perfect fluid and vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations with flat 3-dimensional slices H. Stephani and Th. Wolf; 20. Self-similar solutions of Einstein's equations J. Wainwright.

  8. Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Todd, Terry A.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.

    2012-03-20

    Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

  9. Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

  10. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  11. Selecting a Relational Database Management System for Library Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekhel, Alex; O'Brien, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of four relational database management systems (RDBMSs) (Informix Turbo, Oracle 6.0 TPS, Unify 2000 and Relational Technology's Ingres 5.0) to determine which is best suited for library automation. The evaluation criteria used to develop a benchmark specifically designed to test RDBMSs for libraries are discussed. (CLB)

  12. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  13. On locally and nonlocally related potential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.; Bluman, George W.

    2010-07-01

    For any partial differential equation (PDE) system, a local conservation law yields potential equations in terms of some potential variable, which normally is a nonlocal variable. The current paper examines situations when such a potential variable is a local variable, i.e., is a function of the independent and dependent variables of a given PDE system, and their derivatives. In the case of two independent variables, a simple necessary and sufficient condition is presented for the locality of such a potential variable, and this is illustrated by several examples. As a particular example, two-dimensional reductions of equilibrium equations for fluid and plasma dynamics are considered. It is shown that such reductions with respect to helical, axial, and translational symmetries have conservation laws which yield local potential variables. This leads to showing that the well-known Johnson-Frieman-Kruskal-Oberman (JFKO) and Bragg-Hawthorne (Grad-Shafranov) equations are locally related to the corresponding helically and axially symmetric PDE systems of fluid/plasma dynamics. For the axially symmetric case, local symmetry classifications and arising invariant solutions are compared for the original PDE system and the Bragg-Hawthorne (potential) equation. The potential equation is shown to have additional symmetries, denoted as restricted symmetries. Restricted symmetries leave invariant a family of solutions of a given PDE system but not the whole solution manifold, and hence are not symmetries of the given PDE system. Corresponding reductions are shown to yield solutions, which are not obtained as invariant solutions from local symmetry reduction.

  14. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Lee, James E.

    2007-06-19

    A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.

  15. Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

  16. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  17. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  18. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  19. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  20. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  1. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  2. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering…

  3. Performance related issues in distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    The key elements of research performed during the year long effort of this project are: Investigate the effects of heterogeneity in distributed real time systems; Study the requirements to TRAC towards building a heterogeneous database system; Study the effects of performance modeling on distributed database performance; and Experiment with an ORACLE based heterogeneous system.

  4. Superintegrable systems with a position dependent mass: Kepler-related and oscillator-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2016-06-01

    The superintegrability of two-dimensional Hamiltonians with a position dependent mass (pdm) is studied (the kinetic term contains a factor m that depends of the radial coordinate). First, the properties of Killing vectors are studied and the associated Noether momenta are obtained. Then the existence of several families of superintegrable Hamiltonians is proved and the quadratic integrals of motion are explicitly obtained. These families include, as particular cases, some systems previously obtained making use of different approaches. We also relate the superintegrability of some of these pdm systems with the existence of complex functions endowed with interesting Poisson bracket properties. Finally the relation of these pdm Hamiltonians with the Euclidean Kepler problem and with the Euclidean harmonic oscillator is analyzed.

  5. Polar Satcom System and Related Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, James P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for communication relay via a repeater platform satellite vehicle to a near surface station in the Polar Region is disclosed. A preferred embodiment receives a plurality of positioning and content data from a plurality of constellations of Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) Satellite Vehicles (SAT). Additionally, the system receives a plurality of position, time and altitude data from constellations of available repeater platform (RP) SATs. The system receives a request for content from a near surface station located in an area lacking adequate line-of-sight to the GEO based signal. The system aligns antenna elements onboard the desired RP SATs to amplify and relay the GEO based signal toward the near surface station and vice versa. Additionally, the system commands directional antenna elements onboard the station to send and receive the relayed signal making the GEO based content available to the near surface station.

  6. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  7. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  8. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  9. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  10. The semiotics of control and modeling relations in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Joslyn, C

    2001-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of ideas and principles from the systems theory discourse which underlie Pattee's semantic or semiotic closure, which is itself foundational for a school of theoretical biology derived from systems theory and cybernetics, and is now being related to biological semiotics and explicated in the relational biological school of Rashevsky and Rosen. Atomic control systems and models are described as the canonical forms of semiotic organization, sharing measurement relations, but differing topologically in that control systems are circularly and models linearly related to their environments. Computation in control systems is introduced, motivating hierarchical decomposition, hybrid modeling and control systems, and anticipatory or model-based control. The semiotic relations in complex control systems are described in terms of relational constraints, and rules and laws are distinguished as contingent and necessary functional entailments, respectively. Finally, selection as a meta-level of constraint is introduced as the necessary condition for semantic relations in control systems and models.

  11. Relations Among Systems of Electromagnetic Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    page, Chester H.

    1970-01-01

    Contends that the equations of electromagnetism, whether in rationalized or non-rationalized form, express an invariant set of physical relationships. The relationships among corresponding symbols are given and applied to precise statements about the relation between the oersted and the amphere per meter, the abampere and the ampere, etc.…

  12. A risk-related preventive maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J T

    1992-01-01

    Recent changes in attitudes concerning medical equipment maintenance place more responsibility for planning appropriate levels of maintenance on the clinical engineer and biomedical equipment technician. A system is described in which maintenance decisions are based on the effects of equipment failure on quality of patient care and potential for injury to patients and staff. It is hoped that development of an acceptable classification scheme will simplify maintenance decisions. Such a system will provide levels of maintenance appropriate to the equipment function in patient care. PMID:10117005

  13. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  14. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended. PMID:10599332

  15. System related testing and analysis of FRECOPA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Results from the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) system analysis are presented. It was one of the numerous experiments which were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. In our flight configuration (LEO orbit, trailing edge), the environment was a better vacuum than the leading edge, with many thermal cycles (32000) and a large amount of UV radiation (11100 equivalent sun hours). Also, the satellite was mainly bombarded by micro-particles. It saw a low atomic flux and minor doses of protons and electrons.

  16. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  17. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, William R.; Singer, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors.

  18. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1990-08-28

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors. 2 figs.

  19. Nanolipoprotein particles and related compositions, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D; Fischer, Nicholas O; Mason, Peter W; Blanchette, Craig D

    2014-11-11

    Functionalized nanolipoprotein particle presenting an anchor substrate compound for binding with a corresponding anchor compound presented on a target molecule, and related compositions methods and systems.

  20. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  1. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  2. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  3. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  4. The American Industrial Relations System in a Time of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Recent trends that affect the U.S. system of industrial relations are examined. The most important of these is internationalization. The U.S. industrial relations system is compared with that of Europe and Japan, and suggestions for improving our competitiveness in international markets are made. (Author/RM)

  5. The Conflict between Interpersonal Relations and Abstract Systems in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Benjamin Endres examines how teaching is caught between the ideals of formal, systemic institutions, on the one hand, and the ideals of more intimate or personal relations, on the other. Endres uses Anthony Giddens's account of "abstract systems" and "pure" relations to suggest that the tension that teachers face is not only the…

  6. Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-01-15

    General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.

  7. The Scottish Development toward a System of Grade Related Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in Scotland's curriculum have led to changes in student testing. A system of grade-related criteria has been developed--descriptions of expected performance in key aspects of a subject at different grade levels. (GDC)

  8. Utility-scale system preventive and failure-related maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance background on PVUSA utility-scale systems at Davis and Kerman, California, and reports on a preventative and failure-related maintenance approach and costs.

  9. Managing temporal relations in the MAESTRO scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on managing temporal relations in the MAESTRO scheduling system are given. The viewgraphs present information on such topics as why scheduling is hard, managing temporal relations, constraints on the placement of a single activity, constraints between activities, soft constraints (such as preferences), and contingency handling.

  10. Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1979-01-01

    The failure of research on media to deal with media's symbol systems is discussed. Nature of symbol systems is described and related to cognition and learning. Symbolic elements used by media can facilitate the cultivation of mental skills in interaction with individual differences and depth of processing. (Author/RD)

  11. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships.

  12. Relations between information system engineering and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. D.; Hartsough, C.; Morris, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines some of the relations between information system engineering and software engineering. A model for the development process of an information system is presented that focuses on problems common to both disciplines. The concepts of complexity, multiplicity of view, distortion in communication, and concurrency and iteration in implementation are treated. A set of design constructs for the description of an information system is presented. The role of project management is treated. The issue of how to characterize requirements analysis is answered by making it a design activity from the point of view of a user of the product system.

  13. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  14. Relations between static and dynamic exponents in nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badii, R.; Broggi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The rules governing the evolution of nonlinear dynamical systems are systematically detected by constructing a hierarchical tree of symbol sequences. Relations between local partial dimensions and Lyapunov exponents are obtained from equations for the probabilities of symbol sequences on the logic tree. These relations are nonlinear and involve an open hierarchy of equations, which shows that the dimension spectrum f(α) cannot be obtained in closed form from the sole knowledge of the local Lyapunov exponents.

  15. Phase relations in the CuVS system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Chang, L.L.Y.; Knowles, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations in the system Cu-V-S were studied by using a sealedcapsule technique, reflected-light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. In the temperature range between 300 and 900 ??C, six vanadium sulfides exist in the V-S system. These are VS, V7S8, V3S4, V5S8, V3S5 and VS4. In the Cu-V-S system, three Cu-V sulfides are stable. Both Cu3VS4 (sulvanite) and CuV2S4 are cubic with a = 5.391 ?? 0.005 A ?? and a = 9.789 ?? 0.005 A ?? respectively, and the third has a composition Cu0.8V1.1S2. CuV2S4 forms equilibrium assemblages with all vanadium sulfides, which restricts their effects on the phase relations in the system to a small region. ?? 1986.

  16. Optics Toolbox: An Intelligent Relational Database System For Optical Designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Scott W.; Hopkins, Robert E.

    1986-12-01

    Optical designers were among the first to use the computer as an engineering tool. Powerful programs have been written to do ray-trace analysis, third-order layout, and optimization. However, newer computing techniques such as database management and expert systems have not been adopted by the optical design community. For the purpose of this discussion we will define a relational database system as a database which allows the user to specify his requirements using logical relations. For example, to search for all lenses in a lens database with a F/number less than two, and a half field of view near 28 degrees, you might enter the following: FNO < 2.0 and FOV of 28 degrees ± 5% Again for the purpose of this discussion, we will define an expert system as a program which contains expert knowledge, can ask intelligent questions, and can form conclusions based on the answers given and the knowledge which it contains. Most expert systems store this knowledge in the form of rules-of-thumb, which are written in an English-like language, and which are easily modified by the user. An example rule is: IF require microscope objective in air and require NA > 0.9 THEN suggest the use of an oil immersion objective The heart of the expert system is the rule interpreter, sometimes called an inference engine, which reads the rules and forms conclusions based on them. The use of a relational database system containing lens prototypes seems to be a viable prospect. However, it is not clear that expert systems have a place in optical design. In domains such as medical diagnosis and petrology, expert systems are flourishing. These domains are quite different from optical design, however, because optical design is a creative process, and the rules are difficult to write down. We do think that an expert system is feasible in the area of first order layout, which is sufficiently diagnostic in nature to permit useful rules to be written. This first-order expert would emulate an expert

  17. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  18. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.

  19. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: Multiplicity relation and the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity−multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index –1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  20. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  1. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    PubMed

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system.

  2. Ultra-Wideband Tracking System Design for Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Bgo, Phong; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being designed for use in localization and navigation of a rover in a GPS deprived environment for surface missions. In one application enabled by the UWB tracking, a robotic vehicle carrying equipments can autonomously follow a crewed rover from work site to work site such that resources can be carried from one landing mission to the next thereby saving up-mass. The UWB Systems Group at JSC has developed a UWB TDOA High Resolution Proximity Tracking System which can achieve sub-inch tracking accuracy of a target within the radius of the tracking baseline [1]. By extending the tracking capability beyond the radius of the tracking baseline, a tracking system is being designed to enable relative navigation between two vehicles for surface missions. A prototype UWB TDOA tracking system has been designed, implemented, tested, and proven feasible for relative navigation of robotic vehicles. Future work includes testing the system with the application code to increase the tracking update rate and evaluating the linear tracking baseline to improve the flexibility of antenna mounting on the following vehicle.

  3. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  4. Toward a Relational Data Management System for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Bridglall, Beatrice L.

    2003-01-01

    This report focuses on students who are underrepresented in the high academic achievement pool by calling attention to the important role that relational data management systems can play in educational decision making, particularly with regard to how they can be applied to closing the academic achievement gap. After explaining the need for data…

  5. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  6. Market Related System Analysis of Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Panasenkova, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The report is devoted to the technique of effectiveness analysis of communication space system with satellites in geostationary orbit using market models. The technique is worked out in order to choose the most optimal alternative of communication space system design. The alternative considered optimal and the system effective when the maximum profit from the system with limited system costs is achieved. The key point of the technique is a wide use of market models and application of market related parameters as an integral part of the design technique in order to secure the high commercial output of the communication space system. A range of models for decisive characteristics of communication space system is synthesized in terms of the technique. Flexible market model with detailed insight into the structure of the given market sector and its trends is created. The technique enables to choose the image and key parameters of the future system such as payload and ground sector characteristics so as to make the system most cost-effective and profitable. It is shown that such factors as the choice of launch vehicle can influence the system effectiveness rather dramatically. In particular, it is shown that under certain conditions delivering the small (five hundred kg) satellite to the geostationary orbit with the help of light-weight launch vehicle and the satellite's own electro-rocket thrusters is forty per cent more cost- effective than when the satellite is delivered with the help of the medium-size launch vehicle. The latter case can lead to the significant losses due to high launch costs that are nearly two times higher for the medium size launch vehicle than for the light launce vehicle. The technique is applicable both for designing a wide range of communication space systems and is recommended for those dealing with designing commercial systems. It can also be used to update and improve the systems that are already in operation.

  7. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  8. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  9. Drug-related hospital admissions in a generic pharmaceutical system.

    PubMed

    Zargarzadeh, A H; Emami, M H; Hosseini, F

    2007-01-01

    1. Generically based pharmaceutical systems exist in a few countries of the world, such as Iran. Most developed countries have free market pharmaceutical systems. Drug-related problems (DRP) have been reported mostly in the Western world but few data are available for generic systems. In this study, we tried to measure the prevalence of drug-related problems leading to hospital admissions in Isfahan, Iran. 2. One thousand consecutive hospital admissions in three major teaching hospitals were studied for a period of 6 months for the presence of DRP as a cause of hospital admissions. Two subcategories of DRP were considered: (i) drug therapy failure; and (ii) adverse drug reactions. Preventability and outcome measures were also assessed. Medications responsible for DRP were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of the World Health Organization. 3. Of the 1000 admissions studied, 115 (11.5%) were owing to DRP, 81% as a result of drug therapy failure and 19% as adverse drug reactions. A total of 106 out of the 115 DRP cases (92%) were either preventable or probably preventable, most of which had to do with either prescriber or patient error. An overview of DRP showed that 58.3% resulted in complete recovery, 33.9% in relative recovery and 7.8% in death. Close to 1% of hospital admissions resulted in DRP-related deaths. 4. The overall prevalence of hospital admissions caused by DRP is similar to that in free market pharmaceutical systems. The high preventability rate of these problems should alert clinicians and policy makers to design strategies to curtail this. Also, reasons for differences in subtypes of DRP between the results of this study and those of the literature from free market systems needs to be investigated further.

  10. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  11. A Topographical Lidar System for Terrain-Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Spiers, Gary; Bartman, Randy; Lam, Raymond; Alexander, James; Montgomery, James; Goldberg, Hannah; Johnson, Andrew; Meras, Patrick; Palacios, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An imaging lidar system is being developed for use in navigation, relative to the local terrain. This technology will potentially be used for future spacecraft landing on the Moon. Systems like this one could also be used on Earth for diverse purposes, including mapping terrain, navigating aircraft with respect to terrain and military applications. The system has been field-tested aboard a helicopter in the Mojave Desert. When this system was designed, digitizers with sufficient sampling rate (2 GHz) were only available with very limited memory. Also, it was desirable to limit the amount of data to be transferred between the digitizer and the mass storage between individual frames. One of the novelty design features of this system was to design the system around the limited amount of memory of the digitizer. The system is required to operate over an altitude (distance) range from a few meters to approximately 1 km, but for each scan across the full field of view, the digitizer memory is only able to hold data for an altitude range no more than 100 m. Data acquisition methods in support of the limited 100 m wide altitude range are described.

  12. Counselling skills to improve Nursing Relational System within the NICU.

    PubMed

    Pannacciulli, C

    2012-05-01

    The relationships amongst healthcare providers, as well as between these and the patients/families they care for, are currently experiencing profound changes in Italian hospitals, and--more generally--in the whole Italian health system, thus reproducing similar changes concomitantly occurring in most Western countries. A growing body of evidence suggests that nurses play a central role in the proper development of a healthy and transparent communication between caregivers and patients/families in all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This article discusses the current knowledge in this area, and provides further evidence supporting the introduction in all NICUs of specific educational and training tools for nurses in order to promote the use of counselling skills. The implementation of specific counselling skills can improve the Nursing Relational System within the NICU, ultimately helping in better addressing the parental relational needs in the NICU.

  13. [Employment-related benefit system in the UK].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Keiji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Statutory Sick Pay, Jobseeker's Allowance, and Employment and Support Allowance are employment-related benefits in the United Kingdom (UK). They correspond to the Injury and Disease Allowance and Unemployment Insurance in Japan. The Government of the UK is determined to reform the benefit system to make it fairer and to improve financial work incentives, using the slogan "Welfare to Work". Against this background, the government of the UK united some non-contributory benefits into a new "Universal Credit" scheme, which started in April 2013. The labor policy was also reformed to improve work incentives, for example by abolishing the Flexible New Deal program and uniting all the "Welfare to Work" policies into the "Work Programme". These reforms are useful for reconsidering the labor and employment-related policy and benefit system of Japan. PMID:24334698

  14. Stochastic models for large interacting systems and related correlation inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    A very large and active part of probability theory is concerned with the formulation and analysis of models for the evolution of large systems arising in the sciences, including physics and biology. These models have in their description randomness in the evolution rules, and interactions among various parts of the system. This article describes some of the main models in this area, as well as some of the major results about their behavior that have been obtained during the past 40 years. An important technique in this area, as well as in related parts of physics, is the use of correlation inequalities. These express positive or negative dependence between random quantities related to the model. In some types of models, the underlying dependence is positive, whereas in others it is negative. We give particular attention to these issues, and to applications of these inequalities. Among the applications are central limit theorems that give convergence to a Gaussian distribution. PMID:20826441

  15. Towards dynamical system models of language-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Sabrina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERP) are important neural correlates of cognitive processes. In the domain of language processing, the N400 and P600 reflect lexical-semantic integration and syntactic processing problems, respectively. We suggest an interpretation of these markers in terms of dynamical system theory and present two nonlinear dynamical models for syntactic computations where different processing strategies correspond to functionally different regions in the system’s phase space. PMID:19003488

  16. Coherence Trade-off relations in Multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Chandrashekar; Parthasarathy, Manikandan; Jambulingam, Segar; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Quantum coherence is investigated using a new measure with metric properties and entropic nature and decomposed into local and intrinsic contributions. The trade-off relation between these contributions as well as their distribution properties are studied for simple tripartite systems and the more complex spin chain model. We find that the coherence changes its nature with respect to the parameters of the quantum state under investigation.

  17. Optimal control of systems with capacity: Related noises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruan, Milfang; Choudhury, Ajit K.

    1991-01-01

    In the ordinary theory of optimal control (LQR and Kalman filter), the variances of the actuators and the sensors are assumed to be known (not related to the capacities of the devices). This assumption is not true in practice. Generally, a device with greater capacity to exert actuating forces and a sensor capable of sensing greater sensing range will generate noise of greater power spectral density. When the ordinary theory of optimal control is used to estimate the errors of the outputs in such cases it will lead to faulty results, because the capacities of such devices are unknown before the system is designed. The performance of the system designed by the ordinary theory will not be optimal as the variances of the sensors and the actuators are neither known nor constant. The interaction between the control system and structure could be serious because the ordinary method will lead to greater feedback (Kalman gain) matrices. Methods which can optimize the performance of systems when noises of the actuators and the sensors are related to their capacities are developed. These methods will result in smaller feedback (Kalman gain) matrix.

  18. A relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merski, N. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The NASA LaRC has developed a relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system. This system has become a standard technique for acquiring aerothermodynamic data in LaRC Hypersonic Facilities Complex (HFC). The relative intensity theory and its application to the LaRC phosphor thermography system is discussed along with the investment casting technique which is critical to the utilization of the phosphor method for aerothermodynamic studies. Various approaches to obtaining quantitative heat transfer data using thermographic phosphors are addressed and comparisons between thin-film data and thermographic phosphor data on an orbiter-like configuration are presented. In general, data from these two techniques are in good agreement. A discussion is given on the application of phosphors to integration heat transfer data reduction techniques (the thin film method) and preliminary heat transfer data obtained on a calibration sphere using thin-film equations are presented. Finally, plans for a new phosphor system which uses target recognition software are discussed.

  19. Disorder-related effects in electron systems of low dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramada, Apostol

    1999-08-01

    This dissertation reports on research we have done on different topics in the physics of low-dimensional disordered electron systems. For two-dimensional systems in the presence of a magnetic field, we approach aspects related to the delocalized states (levitation, structure and position in multilayer systems) and the problem of generation of high harmonics of the cyclotron resonance. We estimate that the delocalized state ``levitate'' away from the center of the Landau level as the inverse of the fourth power of the magnetic field. In a two-layer system, the delocalized states repel each other in a manner similar to the usual level repulsion in quantum mechanics. We calculate the position and structure of the delocalized states. In the limit of the weak magnetic field, we establish the physics and develop the quantitative theory which explain the recent observation of the enhancement of the harmonics of the cyclotron resonance in this limit. For the case of one-dimensional systems, we study the effect of inhomogeneity on the tunnel density of states in a Luttinger liquid. We show that for a periodic inhomogeneity, an additional anomaly develops in the electron density of states and we find its position and magnitude. In the case of a disordered inhomogeneity, the plasmons associated with the low-energy excitations of the system become localized and, as a consequence, the correlator of the fluctuations of the densities of states is modified, acquiring an oscillatory dependence on the distance.

  20. Self-reproducing systems: structure, niche relations and evolution.

    PubMed

    Sharov, A A

    1991-01-01

    A formal definition of a self-reproducing system is proposed using Petri nets. A potential self-reproducing system is a set of places in the Petri net such that the number of tokens in each place increases due to some sequence of internal transitions (a transition is called internal to the marked subset of places if at least one of its starting places and one of its terminating places belongs to that subset). An actual self-reproducing system is a system that compensates the outflow of its components by reproduction. In a suitable environment every potential self-reproducing system becomes an actual one. Each Petri net can be considered as an ecosystem with the web of ecological niches bound together with trophic and other relations. The stationary dynamics of the ecosystem is characterized by the set of filled niches. The process of evolution is described in terms of niche composition change. Perspectives of the theory of self-reproducing systems in biology are discussed.

  1. Methods and systems relating to an augmented virtuality environment

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Anderson, Matthew O; McKay, Mark D; Wadsworth, Derek C; Boyce, Jodie R; Hruska, Ryan C; Koudelka, John A; Whetten, Jonathan; Bruemmer, David J

    2014-05-20

    Systems and methods relating to an augmented virtuality system are disclosed. A method of operating an augmented virtuality system may comprise displaying imagery of a real-world environment in an operating picture. The method may further include displaying a plurality of virtual icons in the operating picture representing at least some assets of a plurality of assets positioned in the real-world environment. Additionally, the method may include displaying at least one virtual item in the operating picture representing data sensed by one or more of the assets of the plurality of assets and remotely controlling at least one asset of the plurality of assets by interacting with a virtual icon associated with the at least one asset.

  2. Effects of fractional wettability on capillary pressure saturation relative permeability relations of two-fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sang Il; Lee, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Dong Soo; Powers, Susan E.

    2006-02-01

    Capillary pressure ( Pc)-saturation ( S)-relative permeability ( kr) relationships must be quantified to accurately predict non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) distribution in the subsurface. Several experimental techniques are presented here for two-fluid Pc- S- kr relationships for various saturation paths to better define the effect of fractional wettability on these relationships. During the primary drainage path of the Pc- S curves, the air-water system showed no distinct trend as a function of the fraction of sand treated by organosilane (S) to render it non-water wetting. In a NAPL-water system, however, a consistent decrease of capillary pressure with increase of the fraction of non-water wetting sands was observed. The much lower contact angle for air-water (a-w) system may result in the observed insensitivity of the a-w Pc- S curves to fractional wettability, at least for the PD pathway. For the main imbibition path of NAPL-water system, capillary pressure decreased as the fraction of the S component increased, requiring forced imbibition (negative capillary pressures) for a certain range of saturations. Systems with an increasing percentage of the S component also exhibited a higher water kr and lower NAPL or air kr at a given saturation for the primary drainage and main imbibition paths in both air-water and NAPL-water systems. The increase of water kr with increase of the fraction of the S component can be explained by the ability of water to occupy larger and highly conductive pores in such a system. Experimental kr- S data for the primary drainage path of NAPL-water system presented here were used to test the Bradford et al. [Bradford SA, Abriola LM, Leij FJ. Wettability effects on two- and three-fluid relative permeabilities. J Contam Hydrol 1997;28:171-91] model and the modified Mualem model for estimating the kr- S curves from measured Pc- S data as a function of fractional wettability. Both models predicted significantly less variation in the kr- S

  3. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  4. Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk

    2001-10-01

    Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

  5. Optical system design for lens with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zefeng; Yan, Aqi; Fei, Jiaqi; Mei, Chao; Zhang, Gaopeng

    2015-10-01

    As the space remote sensing technology progresses, the developing trend of telescope is larger and larger aperture, higher and higher resolution. An Optical system with the relative aperture of 1:2 is introduced. The primary optical properties are: focal length of 120mm, F number of 2, field angle of 7.4°. It has the advantages of large high resolution, small size and excellent image quality. Several kinds of aberration curves and the MTF curve are given. Its imaging quality is nearly diffraction limited so that the spatial frequency is greater than 70lp/mm when its modulated transfer function (MTF) value of the optical system is equal to 0.8,and the optical system distortion is less than 1%. At last, the stray light is analyzed and the baffle of the telescope is designed. The solid model of the Optical system was constructed in Tracepro software, the point sources transmittance (PST) cure was given at different off-axis angle between 7.4°~80° the analysis result indicates that the PST values are less than 10-6 when off-axis angle are larger than soar critical angle. So the system is suitable for observation or photography of deep sky objects.

  6. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  7. The Age-Related Properties of the HD 98800 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Henry, Todd J.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Jones, Burton F.; Saar, Steven H.

    1996-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of the field K star system HD 98800, which has been found to have significant infrared emission from circumstellar material. The lithium abundances of the stars in HD 98800 are well above those of Pleiades of similar color, but activity levels and rotation in these stars are at or below Pleiades level. Thus, it is not yet possible to say whether HD 98800 is or is not a pre-main-sequence system, and it is possible that its components are on or near the zero-age main sequence. However, the two visible objects that make up HD 98800 both have high levels of lithium and activity, strongly suggesting that they are physically related to one another. As shown by Torres and coworkers, having these stars physically tied implies that their relative orbit is highly eccentric and highly inclined to our line of sight, and it also means that we are viewing the HD 98800 system at an unusual time in its orbit.

  8. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  9. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

  10. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  11. Certification of highly complex safety-related systems.

    PubMed

    Reinert, D; Schaefer, M

    1999-01-01

    The BIA has now 15 years of experience with the certification of complex electronic systems for safety-related applications in the machinery sector. Using the example of machining centres this presentation will show the systematic procedure for verifying and validating control systems using Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and microcomputers for safety functions. One section will describe the control structure of machining centres with control systems using "integrated safety." A diverse redundant architecture combined with crossmonitoring and forced dynamization is explained. In the main section the steps of the systematic certification procedure are explained showing some results of the certification of drilling machines. Specification reviews, design reviews with test case specification, statistical analysis, and walk-throughs are the analytical measures in the testing process. Systematic tests based on the test case specification, Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI), and environmental testing, and site acceptance tests on the machines are the testing measures for validation. A complex software driven system is always undergoing modification. Most of the changes are not safety-relevant but this has to be proven. A systematic procedure for certifying software modifications is presented in the last section of the paper.

  12. Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation for Systems with Spatially Varying Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2014-09-01

    When a particle diffuses in a medium with spatially dependent friction coefficient at constant temperature , it drifts toward the low friction end of the system even in the absence of any real physical force . This phenomenon, which has been previously studied in the context of non-inertial Brownian dynamics, is termed "spurious drift", although the drift is real and stems from an inertial effect taking place at the short temporal scales. Here, we study the diffusion of particles in inhomogeneous media within the framework of the inertial Langevin equation. We demonstrate that the quantity which characterizes the dynamics with non-uniform is not the displacement of the particle (where is the initial position), but rather , where is the primitive function of . We derive expressions relating the mean and variance of to , , and the duration of the dynamics . For a constant friction coefficient , these expressions reduce to the well known forms of the force-drift and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We introduce a very accurate method for Langevin dynamics simulations in systems with spatially varying , and use the method to validate the newly derived expressions.

  13. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  14. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  15. Relating Perturbation Magnitude to Temporal Gene Expression in Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J.; Parnell, John J.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Hashsham, Syed

    2009-03-19

    A method to quantitatively relate stress to response at the level of gene expression is described using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Stress was defined as the magnitude of perturbation and strain was defined as the magnitude of cumulative response in terms of gene expression. Expression patterns of sixty genes previously reported to be significantly impacted by osmotic shock or belonging to the high-osmotic glycerol, glycerolipid metabolism, and glycolysis pathways were determined following perturbations of increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.4 M). Expression of these genes was quantified temporally using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. The magnitude of cumulative response was obtained by calculating the total moment of area of the temporal response envelope for all the 60 genes, either together or for the set of genes related to each pathway. A non-linear relationship between stress and response was observed for the range of stress studied. This study examines a quantitative approach to quantify the strain at the level of gene expression to relate stress to strain in biological systems. The approach should be generally applicable to quantitatively evaluate the response of organisms to environmental change.

  16. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

  17. Out of the Blue! Azuliporphyrins and Related Carbaporphyrinoid Systems.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy D

    2016-03-15

    First reported in 1997, azuliporphyrins have proven to be a truly remarkable family of porphyrin analogues. In this system, although the porphyrin framework is retained, one of the pyrrolic moieties has been replaced by an azulene unit. Azulene favors electrophilic substitution at the 1,3-positions, which are structurally analogous to the α-positions in pyrrole, and this property facilitates the construction of azulene-containing porphyrinoid systems. Azuliporphyrins were first prepared from tripyrranes and 1,3-azulenedicarbaldehyde using a "3 + 1" variant on the MacDonald reaction. Subsequently, azulenes were shown to react with acetoxymethylpyrroles under acidic conditions to generate azulitripyrranes that could be utilized in a back-to-front "3 + 1" methodology to form azuliporphyrins and related heteroporphyrinoids. In addition, the favorability of azulenes toward 1,3-substitution was applied to one-pot syntheses of tetraarylazuliporphyrins and calix[4]azulenes. Azuliporphyrins have significant diatropic character that is greatly enhanced upon protonation. They have been shown to form organometallic complexes with Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Ir(III), Rh(III), and Ru(II) and undergo selective oxidations at the internal carbon with copper(II) or silver(I) salts to afford 21-oxyazuliporphyrins. In addition, oxidative ring contractions readily occur under basic conditions in the presence of peroxides to give benzocarbaporphyrins, and this reactivity provides access to tetraarylbenzocarbaporphyrins and their organometallic derivatives. A diazulenylmethane dialdehyde has been shown to react with dipyrrylmethanes in the presence of HCl or HBr to give diazuliporphyrins that were isolated in a monoprotonated form, and metalation with palladium(II) acetate afforded a stable zwitterionic palladium(II) complex. Equally intriguing dicarbaporphyrinoids incorporating indene and azulene rings have been reported, and these systems exhibit significant aromatic character. Recent

  18. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  19. Itinerant Magnetism in Yttrium COBALT(2) and Related Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Donald William

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the pseudo-binary systems Y(Co,Al) _2, Y(Co,Si)_2, Y_{.7}Sc_ {.3}(Co,Al)_2, and Sc(Co,Si)_2. Measurements were made of magnetic susceptibility from 2 to 400K, resistivity from 1.5 to 300K, specific heat from 1.5 to 25K, and lattice constant at room temperature. In addition, some of the same measurements were made for (Y,Sc)Co_2 , Zr(Co,Al)_2 and Zr(Co,Si) _2. YCo_2 is a strongly paramagnetic system with a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility versus temperature. A functional form for this maximum has been derived by proponents of fermi liquid theory. YCo _2 (and some related systems described in this work) can be driven to weak itinerant ferromagnetism by partial substitution of aluminum for cobalt. This can be explained qualitatively by either rigid band depletion or lattice expansion, either of which should increase the density of states at the fermi level. In this study we found that lattice expansion driven from the cobalt site was necessary for the appearance of ferromagnetism. Depletion of the d-electron band shifted the magnetic susceptibility maximum to lower temperatures without causing ferromagnetism; thus a rigid band model would appear inappropriate for ferromagnetism in these systems. The behavior of susceptibility in this study (as a function of impurity concentration) may represent an example of a modification of fermi liquid theory proposed in 1968, and correlates with the impurity behavior observed for the resistivity and specific heat. In addition, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of YCo_2 was found to have a strong field dependence at low magnetic fields. It is shown that this dependence may be explained by the presence of a ferromagnetic impurity with a high ordering temperature.

  20. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.

  1. Phase relations in the system CuMoS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawei, H.; Chang, L.L.Y.; Knowles, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Phase relations in the system CuMoS were studied in the temperature range 500-1000 ??C by using the conventional sealed, evacuated glass capsule technique. Reflected-light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe analysis were used for phase characterization. The chevrel-type phase, CuxMo3S4, is stable above 600??C, and forms equilibrium assemblages with the cubic Cu2S solid solution, copper, molybdenum, Mo2S3 and MoS2. Its solid solution ranges from Cu1.50-2.00Mo3S4 at 700??C to Cu1.22-2.00Mo3S4 at 1000 ??C. ?? 1990.

  2. Non-metallocene organometallic complexes and related methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Agapie, Theodor; Golisz, Suzanne Rose; Tofan, Daniel; Bercaw, John E.

    2010-12-07

    A non-metallocene organometallic complex comprising a tridentate ligand and a metal bonded to a tridentate ligand, wherein two substituted aryl groups in the tridentate ligand are connected to a cyclic group at the ortho position via semi-rigid ring-ring linkages, and selected so to provide the resulting non-metallocene organometallic complex with a C.sub.S geometry, a C.sub.1 geometry, a C.sub.2 geometry or a C.sub.2v geometry. Method for performing olefin polymerization with a non-metallocene organometallic complex as a catalyst, related catalytic systems, tridentate ligand and method for providing a non-metallocene organometallic complex.

  3. Age-related macular degeneration and the complement system.

    PubMed

    Khandhadia, S; Cipriani, V; Yates, J R W; Lotery, A J

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. It is a complex multifactorial disease, and despite new advances in treatment, many patients still succumb to visual impairment. The complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, and recently variants in several genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been associated with AMD. Complement proteins have been found in histological specimens of eyes with AMD. Altered levels of both intrinsic complement proteins and activated products have been found in the circulation of patients with AMD. Complement activation may be triggered by oxidative stress, resulting from retinal exposure to incoming light; indeed an inter-play between these two pathological processes seems to exist. Finally, complement inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. This article reviews the role of the complement system in AMD, and the potential of complement inhibition in preventing the devastating blindness resulting from this disease.

  4. Autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and increased IgG4+ plasma cells. Serum IgG4 levels usually are elevated. Patients with AIP frequently have disease affecting other organs or sites; these tissues show similar histologic changes, including increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate and response to corticosteroid therapy. A new clinicopathologic concept of IgG4-related systemic disease (ISD) has been proposed. These diseases often are not limited to the pancreas, and the pancreas may not be involved at all. In this article, we review the literature and our own experience to detail the clinicopathologic features of AIP and extrapancreatic lesions in ISD. PMID:20606730

  5. Phase relations in the U-Mo-Al ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, H.; Tougait, O.; Dubois, S.

    2009-06-01

    The phase relations in the U-Mo-Al system of quenched samples annealed at 800 °C for 2 weeks and at 400 °C for 2 months have been established using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis performed at room temperature. Two ternary Al-rich phases, UMo 2-xAl 20+x and U 6Mo 4+xAl 43-x are found stable at 800 °C and 400 °C. They show significant homogeneity ranges resulting from Mo/Al substitution mechanism on various mixed crystallographic sites, as evidenced by single-crystal structure refinements. Substitution of up to 25 at.% of Al by Mo atoms is also observed for UAl 2 (cubic MgCu 2-type) giving a quite large extension (UAl 2-xMo x, 0 < x < 0.5) into the ternary system. Larger substitution (0.6 < x < 0.7 at T = 800 °C) stabilizes another ternary Laves phase, UAl 2-xMo x with the hexagonal MgZn 2-type. There is no detectable solubility of Mo in UAl 4, and it is of the order of 1 at.% in UAl 3. The interaction layers between the γU-Mo alloys and the Al matrix in nuclear fuel plates can be successively estimated as composed of the two- and three-phase fields equilibrium indicated on the assessment of the phase relations drawn for samples heat-treated at 400 °C.

  6. Reward-related learning via multiple memory systems

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Mauricio R.; Dickerson, Kathryn C.

    2013-01-01

    The application of a neuroeconomic approach to the study of reward-related processes has provided significant insights in our understanding of human learning and decision-making. Much of this research has primarily focused on the contributions of the cortico-striatal circuitry, involved in trial and error reward learning. As a result, less consideration has been allotted to the potential influence of different neural mechanisms such as the hippocampus, or to more common ways in human society in which information is acquired and utilized to reach a decision, such as through explicit instruction rather than trial and error learning. This review examines the basic and applied value of examining the individual contributions of multiple learning and memory neural systems and their interactions during human decision-making in normal individuals and neuropsychiatric populations. Specifically, the anatomical and functional connectivity across multiple memory systems are highlighted to suggest that probing the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the cortico-striatal circuitry via the application of model-based neuroeconomic approaches may provide novel insights into several neuropsychiatric populations who suffer from damage to one of these structures, and as a consequence have deficits in learning, memory, or decision-making. PMID:22365667

  7. Relative bioavailability of a new transdermal nitroglycerin delivery system.

    PubMed

    Noonan, P K; Gonzalez, M A; Ruggirello, D; Tomlinson, J; Babcock-Atkinson, E; Ray, M; Golub, A; Cohen, A

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of nitroglycerin from a new transdermal delivery system, Nitro-Dur II, relative to that of Nitro-Dur. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers completed a two-way crossover study. Each subject randomly received Nitro-Dur (I) and Nitro-Dur II (II) for a 24-h period. Both transdermal systems had an active surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were collected immediately before treatment, at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after topical application of the units, and 30 min after the units were removed. Nitroglycerin was determined with an analytical sensitivity of 50 pg/mL using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-EC). Mean steady-state concentrations of nitroglycerin were 182 and 224 pg/mL for I and II, respectively. There were no statistical differences between I and II in the pharmacokinetic parameters measured (Css, AUC, Cmax, % fluctuation). Residual nitroglycerin content was measured in each transdermal unit after application to each of the 24 volunteers. The amounts of nitroglycerin delivered by I and II were 9.78 +/- 4.11 and 10.67 +/- 4.78 mg, respectively, or approximately 10 mg in 24 h. Statistical analysis of these data using an analysis of variance indicated no significant difference between these treatments (p = 0.27). Since there were also no differences in the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters calculated after treatment with I and II, the bioequivalence of the two delivery systems was established. PMID:3093667

  8. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  9. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  10. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related...

  11. Embodied simulation: from mirror neuron systems to interpersonal relations.

    PubMed

    Gallese, Vittorio

    2007-01-01

    A direct form of 'experiential understanding' of others is achieved by modelling their behaviours as intentional experiences on the basis of the equivalence between what the others do and feel and what we do and feel. This modelling mechanism is embodied simulation. By means of embodied simulation we do not just 'see' an action, an emotion, or a sensation. Side by side with the sensory description of the observed social stimuli, internal representations of the body states associated with actions, emotions, and sensations are evoked in the observer, as if he/she would be doing a similar action or experiencing a similar emotion or sensation. Mirror neurons are likely the neural correlate of this mechanism. The mirror neuron matching systems map the different intentional relations in a compressed fashion, which is neutral about the specific quality or identity of the agentive/subjective parameter. By means of a shared neural state realized in two different bodies that nevertheless obey to the same functional rules, the 'objectual other' becomes 'another self'.

  12. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  13. Development of a Relational Database for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…

  14. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  15. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  16. Information on the metric system and related fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, E.

    1976-01-01

    This document contains about 7,600 references on the metric system and conversion to the metric system. These references include all known documents on the metric system as of December 1975, the month of enactment of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. This bibliography includes books, reports, articles, presentations, periodicals, legislation, motion pictures, TV series, film strips, slides, posters, wall charts, education and training courses, addresses for information, and sources for metric materials and services. A comprehensive index is provided.

  17. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At a...; (d) The accuracy of the software used to determine sealed source positions from radiographic...

  18. Darboux transformations with tetrahedral reduction group and related integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkeley, George; Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Xenitidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we derive new two-component integrable differential difference and partial difference systems by applying a Lax-Darboux scheme to an operator formed from an 𝔰𝔩3(ℂ)-based automorphic Lie algebra. The integrability of the found systems is demonstrated via Lax pairs and generalised symmetries.

  19. An Information-Related Systems Theory of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Melvin

    1973-01-01

    The author suggests that a systems theory of counseling should have an adequate theoretical foundation in the way various types of systems handle information. Using the works of W. R. Ashby as a basis, the paper is a beginning attempt to establish this foundation. It describes how information can be used to maintain homeostasis and protect key…

  20. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-12-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA = AtS and SA = -AtS for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose At, which may be of independent interest.

  1. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  2. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  3. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  4. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  5. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  6. Mathematical study of trade-off relations in logistics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanazawa, Youhei; Suito, Hiroshi; Kawarada, Hideo

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of trade-off relations arising in third party logistics using Pareto optimal solutions for multi-objective optimization problems. The model defines an optimal set of distribution costs and service levels constituting a trade-off relation. An analogy to the concept of the indifference curve in the field of economics is discussed. Numerical experiments for a simplified problem are performed, demonstrating an increasing process of the utility of logistics.

  7. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  8. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  9. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  10. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  11. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  14. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  15. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emrys W; Dodson, Charlotte A; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C J; Timmel, Christiane R

    2013-10-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  16. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  17. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emrys W.; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C. J.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  18. Innovative optical power detection array system for relative positioning of inner-formation flying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    The Inner-formation flying system (IFFS) is conceived to feature a spherical proof mass falling freely within a large cavity for space gravity detection, of which first application focuses on the Earth's gravity field recovery. For the IFFS, it is the relative position of the proof mass to its surrounding cavity that is feedback into thrusters for tracking control, even as part of data to detect gravity. Since the demonstration and verification of demanding technologies using small satellite platforms is a very sensible choice prior to detection mission, an optical power detection array system (OPDAS) is proposed to measure the relative position with advantages of low cost and high adaptability. Besides that, its large dynamic range can reduce the requirement for satellite platform and releasing mechanism, which is also an attracting trait for small satellite application. The concept of the OPDAS is firstly presented, followed by the algorithm to position the proof mass. Then the radiation pressure caused by the measuring beam is modeled, and its disturbance on the proof mass is simulated. The experimental system to test the performance of a prototype of the OPDAS is established, and the preliminary results show that a precision of less than 0.4 mm across a dynamic range of several centimeters can be reached by the prototype of the OPDAS.

  19. Relative Indexing. Weighted Descriptors and Relative Indexing in a Document Retrieval System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choros, Kazimierz; Danilowicz, Czeslaw

    1982-01-01

    Discusses methods of weighting of descriptors in document search patterns together with the concept of relative indexing and conditions which should be satisfied by descriptor weight. A procedure for modifiying document search patterns based on users' informational needs and opinions is outlined, and examples are given. Sixteen references are…

  20. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  1. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  2. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surfacewater bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains.

  3. Best Estimate Code System to Calculate Thermal & Hydraulic Phenomena in a Nuclear Reactor or Related System.

    1999-05-19

    Version 00 RELAP4/MOD7/101 performs best estimate analyses of nuclear reactors or related systems undergoing a transient. Transient thermal-hydraulic, two-phase phenomena are calculated from formulations of one-dimensional, homogeneous, equilibrium conservation equations for water mass, momentum, and energy. Heat structures are modeled using a transient one-dimensional heat conduction solution that is coupled to the fluid through heat transfer relations. Various explicit models are used to calculate nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium behavior including a phase separation model, a vertical slipmore » model, and a nonequilibrium model. Other models are used to represent critical flow, reactor kinetics, pressurized water reactor reflood behavior, nuclear fuel rod swelling and blockage, and components such as pumps, valves, and accumulators.« less

  4. [How to build a quality-related documentary system].

    PubMed

    Roussel, P

    1997-10-01

    Maintained by the perseverance of the management, the process of institutional quality rests on three pillars: the organization of quality assurance, process control, and a system of documentation. A methodological and organizational description of this system of documentation (the kinds of documents and their classification, the identification, content, and management of documents from their creation to their placement in archives or destruction) is presented. Many of the processes of institutional quality which occur in a blood bank can also be reproduced in health care institutions. PMID:9453806

  5. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen & Pletzen,…

  6. Environmentally related disorders of the hematologic and immune systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Wierda, D.; Rosenthal, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    From observations in rodents and, to a lesser extent, in humans inadvertently or occupationally exposed, it appears that a number of xenobiotics adversely affect immune homeostatic systems, either through acting as a hapten and resulting in hypersensitivity reactions or through altering hematopoietic or immune functions. At present, however, there is no evidence that the immune or hematopoietic systems of the general population have been compromised by xenobiotics via environmental exposure. Nonetheless, these examples and our current knowledge about the pathogenesis of disease support the possibility that chemical-induced damage to the immune system may be associated with potential pathological conditions, some of which may become detectable only after a long latency. Likewise, exposure to immunotoxic xenobiotics might represent additional risk to individuals with already fragile immune systems (e.g., in malnutrition, infancy, old age). However, it is important to be cautious when attempting to extrapolate meaningful conclusions from experimental data or isolated epidemiologic studies to risk assessment for low-level human exposure.65 references.

  7. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  8. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  9. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  10. Magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space and related integrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, Yu. A. Otchik, V. S.; Ovsiyuk, E. M.

    2012-10-15

    Various possibilities to define analogs of the uniform magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space are considered using different coordinate systems in this space. Quantum mechanical problem of motion in the defined fields is also treated. Variables in the Schroedinger equation are separated and diagonal operators are found. For some cases, exact solutions are obtained.

  11. Factors Related to Breadth of Use in Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikowski, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    A unique resource in course management systems (CMSs) is that they offer faculty members convenient access to a variety of integrated features. Some features allow faculty members to provide information to students, and others allow students to interact with each other or a computer. This diverse set of features can be used to help meet the…

  12. Water-absorbing capacitor system for measuring relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus using a known water-absorbent polymer as a capacitor which is operated at a dc voltage for measuring relative humidity is presented. When formed as a layer between porous electrically-conductive electrodes and operated in an RC oscillator circuit, the oscillator frequency varies inversely with the partial pressure of the moisture to be measured. In a preferred embodiment, the capacitor is formed from Nafion and is operated at a low dc voltage with a resistor as an RC circuit in an RC oscillator. At the low voltage, the leakage current is proper for oscillation over a satisfactory range. The frequency of oscillation varies in an essentially linear fashion with relative humidity which is represented by the moisture being absorbed into the Nafion. The oscillation frequency is detected by a frequency detector.

  13. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; deBettencourt, Megan T.; Kopperman, Rebecca; Banasiak, Meredith; Roberts, Joshua M.; Halavi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC), defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2). The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of RC during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast (BWVC) add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from BWVC are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a “reasoning heuristic” and BWVC engages a “sensory heuristic.” Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem solving. PMID:24133465

  14. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, M Layne; Debettencourt, Megan T; Kopperman, Rebecca; Banasiak, Meredith; Roberts, Joshua M; Halavi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC), defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2). The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of RC during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast (BWVC) add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from BWVC are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a "reasoning heuristic" and BWVC engages a "sensory heuristic." Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem solving. PMID:24133465

  15. Hearing Aid-Related Standards and Test Systems.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-02-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  16. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  17. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  18. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  19. Absolute and relative diffusion in a turbulent compressibile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, J. R.; Goldburg, W. I.

    2002-11-01

    Floating Particles that move on the surface of a tank of water driven into turbulent motion, move in a plane. Calling the coordinates of this plane x and y, with z=0 at the surface, the velocity of the floating particles obeys the equation partialx u_x(x,y,0,t) +partial_yu_y(x,y,0,t)= - partial_zu_z(x,y,0,t), assuring that their motion is compressible. From PIV measurements made at the surface, one can deduce the absolute and the relative motion of the floaters (Richardson diffusion). The relative diffusion measurements are compared with the Richardson result, t^3 and with computer simulations of Eckhardt and Schumacher [1]. The dimensionless compressibility l C is roughly 0.5 for the floaters, which is large enough to raise questions about the validity of the Kolmogorov paradigm, according to which energy is passed from large to small spatial scales [2]. References 1. G. Falkovich et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 913 (2001). 2. J. Schumacher and B. Eckhardt, Phys. Rev. E 66, 017303 (2002).

  20. NrCAM regulating neural systems and addiction related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Hiroki; Hall, Frank S.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Grumet, Martin; Uhl, George R.; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Arinami, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that a haplotype associated with decreased NrCAM expression in brain is protective against addiction vulnerability for polysubstance abuse in humans and that Nrcam knockout mice do not develop conditioned place preferences for morphine, cocaine, or amphetamine. In order to gain insight into NrCAM involvement in addiction vulnerability, which may involve specific neural circuits underlying behavioral characteristics relevant to addiction, we evaluated several behavioral phenotypes in Nrcam knockout mice. Consistent with a potential general reduction in motivational function, Nrcam knockout mice demonstrated less curiosity for novel objects and for an unfamiliar conspecific, showed also less anxiety in the zero maze. Nrcam heterozygote knockout mice reduced alcohol preference and buried fewer marbles in home cage. These observations provide further support for a role of NrCAM in substance abuse including alcoholism vulnerability, possibly through its effects on behavioral traits that may affect addiction vulnerability, including novelty seeking, obsessive compulsion and responses to aversive or anxiety-provoking stimuli. Additionally, in order to prove glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction, we analyzed glutamatergic molecules regulated by NRCAM. Glutaminase appears to be involved in NrCAM-related molecular pathway in two different tissues from human and mouse. An inhibitor of the enzyme, PLG, treatment produced, at least, some of the phenotypes of mice shown in alcohol preference and in anxiety-like behavior. Thus, NrCAM could affect addiction-related behaviors via at least partial modulation of some glutamatargic pathways and neural function in brain. PMID:22780223

  1. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  2. Electron attachment and ion mobility in hydrocarbons and related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bakale, G.

    1988-01-01

    During the last two decades, a firm base for the emerging field of liquid state electronics (LSE) has developed through studies of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in a variety of liquid-phase systems. Pulse-conductivity techniques were used in many of these studies to measure the mobilities of electrons and ions in pure liquids as well as the rate constants of electron attachment to a wide variety of electron-accepting solutes. Results obtained through such studies have interdisciplinary implications that are described in the discussion that follows which includes examples of the contributions of LSE to physics, chemistry and biology. 42 refs.

  3. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  4. System issues related to satellite communications in a nuclear environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kullstam, P.A.

    1990-05-03

    Nuclear induced signal scintillation effects are of great importance in design and deployment of military satellite systems that must provide survivable and enduring communications service. The induced scintillation will result in Rayleigh signal fading with limited signal decorrelation time and coherent bandwidth of the transmission channel as well as reduced signal power due to terminal antenna scattering loss. In this environment the coherent bandwidth and signal decorrelation time are most important design parameters for modulation subsystem design. The antenna scattering loss is important for link power budgets and satellite network loading.

  5. Microscale mass spectrometry systems, devices and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John Michael

    2016-06-21

    Mass spectrometry systems or assemblies therefore include an ionizer that includes at least one planar conductor, a mass analyzer with a planar electrode assembly, and a detector comprising at least one planar conductor. The ionizer, the mass analyzer and the detector are attached together in a compact stack assembly. The stack assembly has a perimeter that bounds an area that is between about 0.01 mm.sup.2 to about 25 cm.sup.2 and the stack assembly has a thickness that is between about 0.1 mm to about 25 mm.

  6. Procedures for analysis of debris relative to Space Shuttle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hae Soo; Cummings, Virginia J.

    1993-01-01

    Debris samples collected from various Space Shuttle systems have been submitted to the Microchemical Analysis Branch. This investigation was initiated to develop optimal techniques for the analysis of debris. Optical microscopy provides information about the morphology and size of crystallites, particle sizes, amorphous phases, glass phases, and poorly crystallized materials. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry is utilized for information on surface morphology and qualitative elemental content of debris. Analytical electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectrometry provides information on the quantitative elemental content of debris.

  7. Statistical physics of vehicular traffic and some related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Santen, Ludger; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2000-05-01

    In the so-called “microscopic” models of vehicular traffic, attention is paid explicitly to each individual vehicle each of which is represented by a “particle”; the nature of the “interactions” among these particles is determined by the way the vehicles influence each others’ movement. Therefore, vehicular traffic, modeled as a system of interacting “particles” driven far from equilibrium, offers the possibility to study various fundamental aspects of truly nonequilibrium systems which are of current interest in statistical physics. Analytical as well as numerical techniques of statistical physics are being used to study these models to understand rich variety of physical phenomena exhibited by vehicular traffic. Some of these phenomena, observed in vehicular traffic under different circumstances, include transitions from one dynamical phase to another, criticality and self-organized criticality, metastability and hysteresis, phase-segregation, etc. In this critical review, written from the perspective of statistical physics, we explain the guiding principles behind all the main theoretical approaches. But we present detailed discussions on the results obtained mainly from the so-called “particle-hopping” models, particularly emphasizing those which have been formulated in recent years using the language of cellular automata.

  8. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  9. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  10. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  11. Internal psychosomatic medicine within the German Diagnosis Related Groups System

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Zimmer, Christoph; Wilhelm, Ruth; Klein, Walter; Krause-Wichmann, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    A model calculation was used to assess whether the G-DRG version 1.0 sufficiently represents integrated internal psychosomatic treatment of patients with psychosomatic disorders in relation to diagnosis and resource consumption. The DRGs of the Major Diagnostic Category "Mental Diseases" of the German DRG calculation sample 1.0 (diagnoses, procedures, cost weights) were analyzed. In a division of psychosomatic medicine within a general internal department, proceeds regarding 241 patients treated between 01 Jan and 31 Dec 2002, calculated according to the G-DRG version 1.0, were compared to the costs accrued. The G-DRG version 1.0 includes 7 DRGs of psychosomatic disorders in internal medicine (excluding disorders due to substance abuse). Assuming a base rate of € 2,900, the total proceeds of the G-DRG Version 1.0 exceeded the costs (+ € 57,971 /year). PMID:19742057

  12. Disease-related malnutrition in systemic sclerosis: evidences and implications.

    PubMed

    Codullo, Veronica; Cereda, Emanuele; Crepaldi, Gloria; Cappello, Silvia; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Caporali, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarises evidences and provides recommendations for the screening and management of malnutrition in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This complication is frequently under-estimated when assessing patients and this may lead to an impaired estimation of prognosis. The presence of malnutrition is indicated by anthropometric and biohumoral changes reflecting protein stores (low serum prealbumin) and influenced by organ involvement in SSc (skin and the gastrointestinal tract). Patients at high risk of malnutrition or with low prealbumin levels have shown increased mortality risk and, therefore, a nutritional assessment is mandatory in every SSc patient. This screening is especially important as malnutrition represents a potentially modifiable risk factor with nutritional interventions. The pillars of nutritional treatment are also discussed.

  13. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  14. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.; Detering, Brent A.

    2010-06-22

    A device, method and system for generating a plasma is disclosed wherein an electrical arc is established and the movement of the electrical arc is selectively controlled. In one example, modular units are coupled to one another to collectively define a chamber. Each modular unit may include an electrode and a cathode spaced apart and configured to generate an arc therebetween. A device, such as a magnetic or electromagnetic device, may be used to selectively control the movement of the arc about a longitudinal axis of the chamber. The arcs of individual modules may be individually controlled so as to exhibit similar or dissimilar motions about the longitudinal axis of the chamber. In another embodiment, an inlet structure may be used to selectively define the flow path of matter introduced into the chamber such that it travels in a substantially circular or helical path within the chamber.

  15. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M. )

    1994-11-28

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

  16. Performance categorization of structures, systems & components and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1993-09-30

    Provisions of DOE-STD-1021-93 on performance categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs) are summarized. The interrelationship among safety classification of SSCs (per DOE 6430.1A and DOE 5480.30), facility hazard categorization/classification (per DOE 5481.1B and DOE 5480.23), and NPH performance categorization of SSCs (per DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1021-93) is discussed. The compatibility between the safety goals in the Department of Energy Safety Policy, SEN-35-91, and the numerical NPH performance goals of DOE 5480.28, as presented in UCRL-ID-12612 (draft), is examined.

  17. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.

    PubMed

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-11-16

    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  18. Pregnancy-related issues in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abha G; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R

    2015-02-01

    While fertility is preserved in females with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is well established that pregnancy in these patients is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation, as well as neonatal mortality. Mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes are poorly understood, and better understanding of these would allow development of targeted and personalized treatment strategies. Established risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes include active disease within 6 months prior to conception and during pregnancy, active nephritis, maternal hypertension, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypocomplementemia. While intensive monitoring is recommended, the comparative effectiveness of appropriate management strategies is unclear. While current strategies are able to achieve live births in 85-90% of pregnancies, certain aspects such as prevention of preterm birth, treatment of congenital heart block due to neonatal lupus and recurrent pregnancy loss despite best management, remains challenging. Pregnancy is also associated with an increased risk of flare of lupus, particularly in patients with active disease at time of conception or within 6 months prior to conception. Pregnant patients with SLE should be followed in a high-risk obstetric clinic, and care should be closely coordinated between the obstetrician and rheumatologist. PMID:25545844

  19. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  20. Canaries in the Coal Mine: Perceptions of Threat and Media System Dependency Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loges, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates whether the intensity and scope of media system dependency (MSD) relations are positively related to perceptions of threats in the environment. Finds that higher perceptions of threat are associated with more intense MSD relations; threat perceptions are strong predictors of the intensity of MSD relations when demographic variables…

  1. A discussion of system reliability and the relative importance of pumps and valves to overall system availability

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken to establish preliminary trends for how component aging can effect failure rates for swing check valves, centrifugal pumps and motor operated valves. These failure rate trends were evaluated over time and linear aging rate models established. The failure rate models were then used with classic reliability theories to estimate reliability as a function of operating time. Reliability theory was also used to establish a simple system reliability model. Using the system model, the relative importance of pumps and valves to the overall system reliability were studied. Conclusions were established relative to overall system availability over time and the relative unavailabilities of the various components studied.

  2. Heisenberg-like and Fisher-information-based uncertainty relations for N -electron d -dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toranzo, I. V.; López-Rosa, S.; Esquivel, R. O.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Heisenberg-like and Fisher-information-based uncertainty relations which extend and generalize previous similar expressions are obtained for N -fermion d -dimensional systems. The contributions of both spatial and spin degrees of freedom are taken into account. The accuracy of some of these generalized spinned uncertainty-like relations is numerically examined for a large number of atomic and molecular systems.

  3. 77 FR 66662 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... specific GSP-eligible articles. As previously announced in the Federal Register (77 FR 44704 (July 30, 2012... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive... of 2012 relating to competitive need limitations (CNLs) under the Generalized System of...

  4. 76 FR 74839 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... specific GSP-eligible articles. As previously announced in the Federal Register (76 FR 67531 (November 1... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive... of 2011 relating to competitive need limitations (CNLs) under the Generalized System of...

  5. Method of separating and recovering uranium and related cations from spent Purex-type systems

    DOEpatents

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-02-25

    A process for separating uranium and related cations from a spent Purex-type solvent extraction system which contains degradation complexes of tributylphosphate wherein the system is subjected to an ion-exchange process prior to a sodium carbonate scrubbing step. A further embodiment comprises recovery of the separated uranium and related cations. 5 figs.

  6. Students' Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Op't Eynde, Peter; De Corte, Erik

    A survey study was conducted to investigate the nature of students' mathematics-related belief systems. A mathematics-related beliefs questionnaire was developed and administered to 365 Flemish junior high school students to gather data to identify and analyze the different components of students' belief systems. The focus was on the structure of…

  7. [Public relations in institutions and establishments of the health administration system].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to development of directions and specific functions of the health system bodies/institutions public relations (PR) activities. Priorities are set forth depending on the form of property thereof. A complex use of approaches toward carrying out of PR activities permits optimizing work both within the system itself and relations with the society as a whole. PMID:11944367

  8. Models of quadratic quantum algebras and their relation to classical superintegrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E. G.; Miller, W.; Post, S.

    2009-05-15

    We show how to construct realizations (models) of quadratic algebras for 2D second order superintegrable systems in terms of differential or difference operators in one variable. We demonstrate how various models of the quantum algebras arise naturally from models of the Poisson algebras for the corresponding classical superintegrable system. These techniques extend to quadratic algebras related to superintegrable systems in n dimensions and are intimately related to multivariable orthogonal polynomials.

  9. The relational clinical database: a possible solution to the star wars in registry systems.

    PubMed

    Michels, D K; Zamieroski, M

    1990-12-01

    In summary, having data from other service areas available in a relational clinical database could resolve many of the problems existing in today's registry systems. Uniting sophisticated information systems into a centralized database system could definitely be a corporate asset in managing the bottom line.

  10. System Thinking and Feeding Relations: Learning with a Live Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2012-01-01

    Considering well-documented difficulties in mastering ecology concepts and system thinking, the aim of the study was to examine 9th graders' understanding of the complex, multilevel, systemic construct of feeding relations, nested within a larger system of a live model. Fifty students interacted with the model and manipulated a variable within it…

  11. State/federal interaction of LANDSAT system and related technical assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesser, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The history of state involvement in LANDSAT systems planning and related efforts is described. Currently 16 states have visual LANDSAT capabilities and 10 others are planning on developing such capabilities. The federal government's future plans for the LANDSAT system, the impacts of recent budget decisions on the systems, and the FY 82 budget process are examined.

  12. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html.

  13. Generating parity relations for detecting and identifying control system component failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Velder, Wallace E.; Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali

    1988-01-01

    The monitoring of control system sensors and actuators for failures is presently undertaken by means of an exceptionally simple form of generalized parity relations based on a discrete-time model of the dynamics of linear, time-invariant systems. These generalized parity relations are constructed by recourse to a transfer matrix-description of the system that is additionally useful in the interpretation of their properties. Attention is given to a novel method for constructing the parity relation of minimum length that depends on the output of only a single sensor.

  14. A searching and reporting system for relational databases using a graph-based metadata representation.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Robin; Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Relational databases are the current standard for storing and retrieving data in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. However, retrieving data from a relational database requires specialized knowledge of the database schema and of the SQL query language. At Anadys, we have developed an easy-to-use system for searching and reporting data in a relational database to support our drug discovery project teams. This system is fast and flexible and allows users to access all data without having to write SQL queries. This paper presents the hierarchical, graph-based metadata representation and SQL-construction methods that, together, are the basis of this system's capabilities.

  15. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  16. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  17. Development of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Y.; Oda, N.; Miyazaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Igawa, S.

    2006-07-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system [1]. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  18. The use of discontinuities and functional groups to assess relative resilience in complex systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Gunderson, Lance; Johnson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident when the resilience of a system has been exceeded and the system qualitatively changed. However, it is not clear how to measure resilience in a system prior to the demonstration that the capacity for resilient response has been exceeded. We argue that self-organizing human and natural systems are structured by a relatively small set of processes operating across scales in time and space. These structuring processes should generate a discontinuous distribution of structures and frequencies, where discontinuities mark the transition from one scale to another. Resilience is not driven by the identity of elements of a system, but rather by the functions those elements provide, and their distribution within and across scales. A self-organizing system that is resilient should maintain patterns of function within and across scales despite the turnover of specific elements (for example, species, cities). However, the loss of functions, or a decrease in functional representation at certain scales will decrease system resilience. It follows that some distributions of function should be more resilient than others. We propose that the determination of discontinuities, and the quantification of function both within and across scales, produce relative measures of resilience in ecological and other systems. We describe a set of methods to assess the relative resilience of a system based upon the determination of discontinuities and the quantification of the distribution of functions in relation to those discontinuities. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  19. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  20. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  1. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system's overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints.

  2. The Nonlinear Relations of the Approximate Number System and Mathematical Language to Early Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Logan, Jessica A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability.…

  3. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  4. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  5. Review of Architecture and Related Disciplines in the State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carl V.

    This review of architecture and architecture-related programs in the State University System of Florida consists of summaries of individual university consultant reports for three institutions visited, overviews based on status reports for programs not visited, and consultant recommendations regarding system-wide issues. Site visits took place at…

  6. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  7. ADHD Related Behaviors Are Associated with Brain Activation in the Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, R.; Bauer, E.; Merz, C. J.; Zimmermann, M.; Reuter, M.; Plichta, M. M.; Kirsch, P.; Lesch, K. P.; Fallgatter, A. J.; Vaitl, D.; Herrmann, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest dysfunctional reward processing, with hypo-responsiveness during reward anticipation in the reward system including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, we investigated the association between ADHD related behaviors and the reward system using functional…

  8. The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dake

    2012-09-01

    The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system is demonstrated theoretically. An alternating-current (AC) analysis is employed to investigate energy conservation in the system, with the only assumption being the steady-state operation of the circuit. This method can be adopted for teaching electromagnetism at the introductory level, provided the students have an adequate background in calculus.

  9. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1 and the operator's packet furnished with each vehicle. See 41 CFR 101-6.4 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency...

  10. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  11. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  12. Photogrammetry System and Method for Determining Relative Motion Between Two Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Samuel A. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A photogrammetry system and method provide for determining the relative position between two objects. The system utilizes one or more imaging devices, such as high speed cameras, that are mounted on a first body, and three or more photogrammetry targets of a known location on a second body. The system and method can be utilized with cameras having fish-eye, hyperbolic, omnidirectional, or other lenses. The system and method do not require overlapping fields-of-view if two or more cameras are utilized. The system and method derive relative orientation by equally weighting information from an arbitrary number of heterogeneous cameras, all with non-overlapping fields-of-view. Furthermore, the system can make the measurements with arbitrary wide-angle lenses on the cameras.

  13. Type IV secretion: intercellular transfer of macromolecules by systems ancestrally related to conjugation machines.

    PubMed

    Christie, P J

    2001-04-01

    Bacterial conjugation systems are highly promiscuous macromolecular transfer systems that impact human health significantly. In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals - Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila - have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. Each of these systems exports distinct DNA or protein substrates to effect a myriad of changes in host cell physiology during infection. Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. The list of putative type IV family members is increasing rapidly, suggesting that macromolecular transfer by these systems is a widespread phenomenon in nature. PMID:11309113

  14. Safety-related issues associated with implementing wireless systems in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, B. J.; Ewing, P. D.; Moore, M. R.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-07-01

    Currently, wireless technology is not used as an integral element of safety-related systems in nuclear facilities. The most prevalent introductory uses of wireless technology are for in-facility communications among personnel and for supplemental information transmission. However, further system upgrades and implementations at new facilities might introduce wireless communications into safety-significant applications. This paper documents the deployment issues and implementation considerations that can contribute to the technical basis for guidance on wireless systems. (authors)

  15. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  16. The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…

  17. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  18. Predicting Lexical Relations between Biomedical Terms: towards a Multilingual Morphosemantics-based System.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This issue is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morpho-semantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a la morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots, and (3) a set of language-independant rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3,000 lexical families.

  19. Comparison of quantum discord and relative entropy in some bipartite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Arjmandi, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    The study of quantum correlations in high-dimensional bipartite systems is crucial for the development of quantum computing. We propose relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations may be measured by means of the distance from the quantum state to the closest classical-classical state. In particular, we establish relations between relative entropy and quantum discord quantifiers obtained by means of orthogonal projection measurements. We show that for symmetrical X-states density matrices the quantum discord is equal to relative entropy. At the end of paper, various examples of X-states such as two-qubit and qubit-qutrit have been demonstrated.

  20. The role of methylglyoxal and the glyoxalase system in diabetes and other age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Dionne E M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2015-06-01

    The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are related to diabetes and other age-related diseases. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is the major precursor in the formation of AGEs. MGO is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis. Under physiological circumstances, MGO is detoxified by the glyoxalase system into D-lactate, with glyoxalase I (GLO1) as the key enzyme in the anti-glycation defence. New insights indicate that increased levels of MGO and the major MGO-derived AGE, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), and dysfunctioning of the glyoxalase system are linked to several age-related health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and disorders of the central nervous system. The present review summarizes the mechanisms through which MGO is formed, its detoxification by the glyoxalase system and its effect on biochemical pathways in relation to the development of age-related diseases. Although several scavengers of MGO have been developed over the years, therapies to treat MGO-associated complications are not yet available for application in clinical practice. Small bioactive inducers of GLO1 can potentially form the basis for new treatment strategies for age-related disorders in which MGO plays a pivotal role.

  1. An Inquiry into Testing of Information Retrieval Systems. Comparative Systems Laboratory Final Technical Report, Part III: CSL Related Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zull, Carolyn Gifford, Ed.; And Others

    This third volume of the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL) Final Technical Report is a collection of relatively independent studies performed on CSL materials. Covered in this document are studies on: (1) properties of files, including a study of the growth rate of a dictionary of index terms as influenced by number of documents in the file and…

  2. Scaling Green-Kubo Relation and Application to Three Aging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, A.; Lutz, E.; Kessler, D. A.; Barkai, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Green-Kubo formula relates the spatial diffusion coefficient to the stationary velocity autocorrelation function. We derive a generalization of the Green-Kubo formula that is valid for systems with long-range or nonstationary correlations for which the standard approach is no longer valid. For the systems under consideration, the velocity autocorrelation function ⟨v(t+τ)v(t)⟩ asymptotically exhibits a certain scaling behavior and the diffusion is anomalous, ⟨x2(t)⟩≃2Dνtν. We show how both the anomalous diffusion coefficient Dν and the exponent ν can be extracted from this scaling form. Our scaling Green-Kubo relation thus extends an important relation between transport properties and correlation functions to generic systems with scale-invariant dynamics. This includes stationary systems with slowly decaying power-law correlations, as well as aging systems, systems whose properties depend on the age of the system. Even for systems that are stationary in the long-time limit, we find that the long-time diffusive behavior can strongly depend on the initial preparation of the system. In these cases, the diffusivity Dν is not unique, and we determine its values, respectively, for a stationary or nonstationary initial state. We discuss three applications of the scaling Green-Kubo relation: free diffusion with nonlinear friction corresponding to cold atoms diffusing in optical lattices, the fractional Langevin equation with external noise recently suggested to model active transport in cells, and the Lévy walk with numerous applications, in particular, blinking quantum dots. These examples underline the wide applicability of our approach, which is able to treat very different mechanisms of anomalous diffusion.

  3. Uncertainty Relation and Quantitative Condition of Inversion Symmetry of Time in Many-particle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, You-Gang Feng

    2005-03-01

    We proved that the uncertainty relation fits in with many-particle system and the equality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic equilibrium state, the inequality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic nonequilibrium state for any quantum system. The microscopic origin of the second law of thermodynamics is certainly resulted in the wave-particle duality of matter. A quantitative condition of inversion symmetry of time is obtained, which indicates the fluctuation of the system's energy Δ E controls the period of the inversion symmetry of time Δ t. Understanding and grasping of this quantitative condition will help us for genetic engineering projects, medical treatment, life science, food industry, archaeology and preserving of cultural objects and historical monuments, etc.

  4. Developing a warning system in Ambon city, Indonesia: Rainfall threshold for sediment related disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnawir, H.; Kubota, T.; Sanchez Castillo, L. R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ambon city of Indonesia is extremely vulnerable to climatic hazards and the frequency of sediment related disasters appears to increase. During 2012 to 2013, more than one hundred of sediment related disasters including landslides occurred especially in the settlement area. The damage was particularly severe in the city and at several sites along the transportation network. The sediment related disasters resulted of hundreds houses destroyed, including 43 deaths, numerous injured people and hundreds people evacuated. Rainfall threshold method is an approach for develop a warning system for sediment related disasters occurence. Two types of rainfall thresholds can be established (Aleotti, 2004): (1) empirical thresholds, based on historic analysis of relationship rainfall/landslide (sediment related disaster) occurrence, and (2) physical thresholds, based on numeric models that take into account the relationship between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability by coupling hydrologic and stability models. Empirical thresholds were used in this study. Empirical threshold has been considered as collecting rainfall data for sediment related disaster events from 2007 to 2013. The results show that the sediment related disasters occurred in short periods (2 hours) with a high average intensity and longer periods (48 hours) with a lower average intensity. We determined new rainfall thresholds for possible sediment related disaster occurrence with the regression value of I = 83.88D-0.80 (I is rainfall intensity, mm/hr and D is duration, hr). It is expected that the new rainfall thresholds could be used for the development of a warning system in Ambon city.

  5. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice.

  6. Testing General Relativity in the Solar System: Present Status and Possible Future Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2010-07-12

    Series of recent experiments have successfully tested Einstein's general theory of relativity to a remarkable precision. Various experimental techniques were used to test relativistic gravity in the solar system namely spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary ranging, lunar laser ranging, dedicated gravity experiments in space and many ground-based efforts. Here we review the foundations of general relativity, present recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics that are anticipated in the near future.

  7. Control system failure monitoring using generalized parity relations. M.S. Thesis Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanschalkwyk, Christiaan Mauritz

    1991-01-01

    Many applications require that a control system must be tolerant to the failure of its components. This is especially true for large space-based systems that must work unattended and with long periods between maintenance. Fault tolerance can be obtained by detecting the failure of the control system component, determining which component has failed, and reconfiguring the system so that the failed component is isolated from the controller. Component failure detection experiments that were conducted on an experimental space structure, the NASA Langley Mini-Mast are presented. Two methodologies for failure detection and isolation (FDI) exist that do not require the specification of failure modes and are applicable to both actuators and sensors. These methods are known as the Failure Detection Filter and the method of Generalized Parity Relations. The latter method was applied to three different sensor types on the Mini-Mast. Failures were simulated in input-output data that were recorded during operation of the Mini-Mast. Both single and double sensor parity relations were tested and the effect of several design parameters on the performance of these relations is discussed. The detection of actuator failures is also treated. It is shown that in all the cases it is possible to identify the parity relations directly from input-output data. Frequency domain analysis is used to explain the behavior of the parity relations.

  8. General relation between density of states and dwell times in mesoscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Iannaccone, G. Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione: Elettronica, Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, I-56126 Pisa )

    1995-02-15

    A relevant relation between the dwell time and the density of states for a three-dimensional system of arbitrary shape with an arbitrary number of incoming channels is derived. This result extends the one obtained by Gasparian and co-workers for the case of a one-dimensional symmetrical potential barrier. We believe that such a strong relation is rich in physical significance because the dwell time is the most widely accepted time measure of a particle's dynamics and the density of states in a given region is one of the most relevant properties of a system in equilibrium.

  9. Kramers-Kronig relation in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Lu, Xiao-Gang; Bai, Jin-Hai; Pei, Li-Ya; Miao, Xing-Xu; Gao, Yan-Lei; Wu, Ling-An; Fu, Pan-Ming; Yang, Shi-Ping; Pang, Zhao-Guang; Wang, Ru-Quan; Zuo, Zhan-Chun

    2015-11-01

    We measure the absorption and dispersion in a Doppler-broadened Λ-type three level system by resonant stimulated Raman spectroscopy with homodyne detection. Through studying the dressed state energies of the system, it is found that the absorption and dispersion satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. The absorption and dispersion spectra calculated by employing this relation agree well with our experimental observations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB922002 and 2010CB922904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274376 and 61308011), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205161).

  10. BIG DATA-Related Challenges and Opportunities in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's climate has increased immensely in recent decades, both through observational analysis and modeling. BIG DATA-related challenges emerge in our quest for understanding the variability and predictability of the climate and earth system on a range of time scales, as well as in our endeavor to improve predictive capability using state-of-the-science models. To enable further scientific discovery, bottlenecks in current paradigms need to be addressed. An overview of current NSF activities in Earth System Modeling with a focus on associated data-related challenges and opportunities, will be presented.

  11. Simulation studies related to the design of post-FGGE observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Atlas, R.; Susskind, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of three detailed simulation studies are presented. The first study consists of a comparative assessment of the performance of an advanced moisture/temperature sounder (AMTS) being proposed by NASA as a follow-on replacement to the current HIRS-2 operational sounder aboard the NOAA weather satellites. The second study was concerned with assessing the relative accuracies of inferred atmospheric states for idealized lidar wind profiling systems, temperature profiling systems, temperature profiling systems, surface pressure systems, and composite systems. The third study incorporated the above systems into a highly realistic data analysis/forecast cycle from which a series of forecast impact studies were conducted. These studies, taken together, give us a picture of the potential that emerging technoloies can offer in the determination of the basic atmospheric variables required for long-range numerical weather and climate prediction.

  12. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  13. [Study on in-orbit Vis/SWIR relative calibration monitoring system with high stability].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yin, Da-Yi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studied the in-orbit relative calibration monitoring system with high stability for onboard remote sensing calibration. The realizing principle and the critical technologies are described in detail. The calibration detector assembly with high stability was developed based on both visual (Vis) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) trap structure. Vis and SWIR photodetectors with high sensitivity were chosen to realize the photoelectric conversion. On the one hand, the detectors worked in the zero-bias photovoltaic mode with better linearity and lower dark current. On the other hand, the critical parameters of the analog operational amplifier circuit and data acquisition circuit were designed so that the trap-structure detector assembly could work properly. Thus the relative calibration monitoring system with high stability for measurement of spaceborne calibration radiance source was realized. The experiments were carried out using the laboratory integrating spheres and the standard lamps provided by the national measurement institution. The results showed that the relative standard deviation of the digital numbers that the system acquired reached to 0.030%-0.046% (Vis) and 0.040%-0.059% (SWIR). It was proved that the accuracy and the stability of the monitoring system could meet the in-orbit calibration system requirement and it could serve as a good solution for in-orbit relative calibration of remote sensor in the future.

  14. Duality relation among the Hamiltonian structures of a parametric coupled Korteweg-de Vries system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restuccia, Alvaro; Sotomayor, Adrián

    2016-03-01

    We obtain the full Hamiltonian structure for a parametric coupled KdV system. The coupled system arises from four different real basic lagrangians. The associated Hamiltonian functionals and the corresponding Poisson structures follow from the geometry of a constrained phase space by using the Dirac approach for constrained systems. The overall algebraic structure for the system is given in terms of two pencils of Poisson structures with associated Hamiltonians depending on the parameter of the Poisson pencils. The algebraic construction we present admits the most general space of observables related to the coupled system. We then construct two master lagrangians for the coupled system whose field equations are the ɛ-parametric Gardner equations obtained from the coupled KdV system through a Gardner transformation. In the weak limit ɛ → 0 the lagrangians reduce to the ones of the coupled KdV system while, after a suitable redefinition of the fields, in the strong limit ɛ → ∞ we obtain the lagrangians of the coupled modified KdV system. The Hamiltonian structures of the coupled KdV system follow from the Hamiltonian structures of the master system by taking the two limits ɛ → 0 and ɛ → ∞.

  15. Relational representation for improved decisions with an information-theoretic CADe system: initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-02-01

    Our previously presented information-theoretic computer-aided detection (IT-CADe) system for distinguishing masses and normal parenchyma in mammograms is an example of a case-based system. IT-CAD makes decisions by evaluating the querys average similarity with known mass and normal examples stored in the systems case base. Pairwise case similarity is measured in terms of their normalized mutual information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether incorporating a new machine learning concept of relational representation to IT-CAD is a more effective strategy than the decision algorithm that is currently in place. A trainable relational representation classifier builds a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. Instead of describing a case by a vector of intrinsic features, the case is described by its NMI-based similarity to a set of known examples. For this study, we first applied random mutation hill climbing algorithm to select the concise set of knowledge cases and then we applied a support vector machine to derive a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. We performed the study with a database of 600 mammographic regions of interest (300 with masses and 300 with normal parenchyma). Our experiments indicate that incorporating the concept of relational representation with a trainable classifier to IT-CAD provides an improvement in performance as compared with the original decision rule. Therefore, relational representation is a promising strategy for IT-CADe.

  16. Growth of complex systems can be related to the properties of their underlying determinants

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Growth—increase in size, number, or amount—in many cases appears to follow simple empirical laws. Such laws have been noted in a wide variety of fields for many years. Until now these laws have never been related to the underlying determinants of these systems. By starting with fundamental properties of the component mechanisms in such systems, one can derive a basic growth equation for which the well-known laws of growth are special cases. PMID:16592715

  17. Age-Related Degeneration of the Egg-Laying System Promotes Matricidal Hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching—intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death—displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ∼70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg-laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans. PMID:23551912

  18. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media.

  19. The algebra of Grassmann canonical anticommutation relations and its applications to fermionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keyl, Michael; Schlingemann, Dirk-M.

    2010-02-15

    We present an approach to a noncommutativelike phase space which allows to analyze quasifree states on the algebra of canonical anti-commutation relations (CAR) in analogy to quasifree states on the algebra of canonical commutation relations (CCR). The used mathematical tools are based on a new algebraic structure the 'Grassmann algebra of canonical anticommutation relations' (GAR algebra) which is given by the twisted tensor product of a Grassmann and a CAR algebra. As a new application, the corresponding theory provides an elegant tool for calculating the fidelity of two quasifree fermionic states which is needed for the study of entanglement distillation within fermionic systems.

  20. Long-time Stability in Systems of Conservation Laws, Using Relative Entropy/Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Denis

    2016-02-01

    We study the long-time stability of shock-free solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, under an arbitrarily large initial disturbance in L 2∩ L ∞. We use the relative entropy method, a robust tool which allows us to consider rough and large disturbances. We display practical examples in several space dimensions, for scalar equations as well as isentropic gas dynamics. For full gas dynamics, we use a trick from C hen [1], in which the estimate is made in terms of the relative mechanical energy instead of the relative mathematical entropy.

  1. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media. PMID:26228048

  2. Ten cases of systemic lupus erythematosus related to hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Agmon-Levin, N; Zafrir, Y; Paz, Z; Shilton, T; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this article is to identify common and atypical features of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed following hepatitis B vaccination. We analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 10 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from different centers, who developed the disease following hepatitis B vaccination and determined the prevalence of different manifestations and the time association to vaccination. In this case series, 80% of the patients were female, mean age 35 +/- 9 years, of which 20% received one inoculation, 20% received two doses and 60% received all three inoculations. The mean latency period from the first hepatitis B virus immunization and onset of autoimmune symptoms was 56.3 days. All patients were diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, according to the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria within 1 year. The prevalence of some systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations was typical and included involvement of the joints (100%), skin (80%), muscles (60%) and photosensitivity (30%). Other symptoms differed in this unique group of systemic lupus erythematosus patients such as low rate of kidney and hematologic involvement, and a relatively high rate of hepatitis (20%). Neurological (80%) and pulmonary (70%) symptoms were also common in this group. Data from this case-series, and previously documented cases in the literature could only show a temporal relation between hepatitis B vaccination and the appearance of systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus related to vaccine may differ from idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus in its clinical presentation and may resemble drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, physicians should be alerted to this potential association, its possible long latency period and unique presentations, and be encouraged to report and analyze these cases.

  3. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system’s overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Georg Luebeck and Sergei Maslov. PMID:24308849

  4. RACC Code System for Computing Radioactivity-Related Parameters for Fusion Reactor Systems Modified for Pulsed/Intermittent Activation Analysis.

    1996-04-30

    Version 00 CCC-388/RACC was specifically developed to compute the radioactivity and radioactivity-related parameters (e.g., afterheat, biological hazard potential, etc.) due to neutron activation within Inertial Fusion Energy and Magnetic Fusion Energy reactor systems. It can also be utilized to compute the radioactivity in fission, accelerator or any other neutron generating and neutron source system. This new version designated RACC-PULSE is based on CCC-388 and has the capability to model irradiation histories of varying flux levelsmore » having varying pulse widths (on times) and dwell periods (off times) and varying maintenance periods. This provides the user with the flexibility of modeling most any complexity of irradiation history beginning with simple steady state operating systems to complex multi-flux level pulse/intermittent operating systems.« less

  5. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  6. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  7. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  8. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  9. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew; Getzandanner, Kenneth; Van Eepoel, John; Deweese, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereophotoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  10. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael A.; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Van Eepoel, John M.; DeWeese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereo-photoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  11. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  12. Panel-integration of natural light and the related system of light guiding and illumination.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Cai, Jinlin; Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Peng

    2012-09-01

    This Letter proposes an idea of a natural light illumination system by using a light collecting panel. The light collecting panel is coupled with a light guide followed by a specifically designed lens to achieve uniform illumination on a target screen. To assess the system specification, we build a primary model in three-dimensional modeling software and make ray tracing simulation based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. The simulation results show a relatively high efficiency of 41.41% for the entire system and achieve a high uniformity of more than 0.8 within the circular illumination area.

  13. The Application of Grunig's Symmetry-Asymmetry Public Relations Models to Internal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    Based on J. E. Grunig's four models of public relations practice (press agent/publicity, public information, and two-way asymmetric and two-way symmetric practice), this paper examines the potential applicability of these models to internal communication systems in organizations. Following an introduction, in which Grunig's models are briefly…

  14. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  15. Job-Stress and Burnout of the Venezuelan Teachers: Related to Educational Systems Change (Educacion Basica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; And Others

    Beginning with a review of the increasing literature concerning job-related teacher stress, this study examines the particular stress and burnout experiences of school teachers in Venezuela since the incorporation by law in 1980 of "Educacion Basica" (basic education) as a new level of the school system (grades 1-9). To compare teachers acting in…

  16. Maxwell's Relations for a van der Waals Gas and a Nuclear Paramagnetic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, James; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Since Maxwell's relations are derived in general form from the first to second laws, and students often wonder what they mean and how they are used, appropriate partition functions for van der Waals gas and the nuclear paramagnetic system are used to obtain entropy expressions and equations of state. (Author/SK)

  17. Factors Related to Faculty Members' Attitude and Adoption of a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) play a crucial role in organizing the course contents. However, some instructors use LMS in their classes while some do not. This study aimed to discover the factors in relation to the instructors' attitude toward LMS and adoption of LMS in their course. A survey was administered to 62 instructors to follow up the…

  18. Engaging Communities through Vision Development: A Systems Approach to Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Patty L.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation in 2001 exemplifies extreme reaction to an escalating public unrest with educational systems over the past several decades of "educational reform." Effective public relations and communication with stakeholders is threatened during this time of increased public scrutiny and…

  19. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  20. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R. O.; Ollinger, O.; Venables, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1982-01-01

    Studies with algal cultures which relate to closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) are discussed. A description of a constant cell density apparatus for continuous culture of algae is included. Excretion of algal by-products, and nitrogen utilization and excretion are discussed.

  1. Maturation of the Central Nervous System as Related to Communication and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Terry; Proctor, Adele

    1996-01-01

    Major events in the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) are reviewed relative to milestones for communication, speech, language, and cognition. Early insults to the CNS and their neuropsychological consequences are discussed. The role of patterns of myelination and dendritic branching to evolving stages of language and cognition are…

  2. Experiments with Automatic Indexing and a Relational Thesaurus in a Chinese Informational Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Tian-Long; Evens, Martha; Wan, Yeun-Wen; Pao, Yuen-Yuan

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments determined whether thesauri enhance the retrieval of Chinese documents and automatic indexing can compete with manual indexing in a Chinese information retrieval system (CIRS). Statistical analysis of recall and precision measures suggest that relational thesauri do improve retrieval and that automatic indexing is…

  3. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles and the use of related services by the Contractor shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1. (End of clause) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency...

  4. Relational Data System Study. Final Report, 12 December 1969-12 June 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minker, Jack; Sable, Jerome

    A relational data system (RDS) is one that has the capability not only to retrieve specific facts but also the ability to deduce facts that are implicit rather than explicit in the data base. The study investigated the application of RDS technology to intelligence data processing. RDS technology and the nature of intelligence data processing are…

  5. Modeling the Behavior of an Underwater Acoustic Relative Positioning System Based on Complementary Set of Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Joaquín; Jiménez, Ana; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Ureña, Jesús; De Marziani, Carlos; Diego, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The great variability usually found in underwater media makes modeling a challenging task, but helpful for better understanding or predicting the performance of future deployed systems. In this work, an underwater acoustic propagation model is presented. This model obtains the multipath structure by means of the ray tracing technique. Using this model, the behavior of a relative positioning system is presented. One of the main advantages of relative positioning systems is that only the distances between all the buoys are needed to obtain their positions. In order to obtain the distances, the propagation times of acoustic signals coded by Complementary Set of Sequences (CSS) are used. In this case, the arrival instants are obtained by means of correlation processes. The distances are then used to obtain the position of the buoys by means of the Multidimensional Scaling Technique (MDS). As an early example of an application using this relative positioning system, a tracking of the position of the buoys at different times is performed. With this tracking, the surface current of a particular region could be studied. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of the distance from the real position to the estimated one. PMID:22247661

  6. Facies distributions, recharge-discharge relations, and aquifer sensitivity in a glacial aquifer system, northeastern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, A.H. ); Yarling, M. )

    1994-04-01

    The Huntertown aquifer system underlies about 650 km[sup 2] in the interlobate region of northeastern Indiana and corresponds to a sequence of Saginaw Lobe deposits sandwiched between two Erie Lobe till sheets. The northern part of the system typically consists of a 3 to 10 m thick basal outwash apron composed chiefly of sand and capped by a discontinuous sheet of sandy till. Several small to medium-sized (5 to 30km[sup 2]) ice-contact fans are superposed on this sequence and result in thick (15 to 30 m), transmissive sections of sand and gravel. To the southeast, these sediments grade into finer-grained fan-delta and slackwater facies associated with ancestral Lake Erie. Facies distributions, and thus aquifer connectivity, are related to topographic characteristics of the underlying till sheet, which controlled Saginaw Lobe meltwater drainage. The aquifer system is variably confined by a younger sequence of clayey tills and lacustrine mud. The degree of confinement is related to terrain characteristics, with the thickest till (15 to 25 m) being associated with ridged and moraines in the southern and central parts of the system. These features are characteristic of a regional discharge area and suggest a relatively longer residence time. Sensitivity of aquifers in this part of the system may thus be correspondingly less. The distribution of geochemical facies is much less predictable, however, and may be affected by several independent variables.

  7. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  8. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  9. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  10. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  11. The impact of lean production and related new systems of work organization on worker health.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, P A; Cahill, J; Schnall, P

    1999-04-01

    New systems of work organization, such as lean production and total quality management, have been introduced by employers throughout the industrialized world to improve productivity, quality, and profitability. However, few studies have examined the impact of such systems on occupational injuries or illnesses or on job characteristics related to job strain, which has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The studies reviewed provide little evidence to support the hypothesis that lean production "empowers" auto workers. In fact, auto industry studies suggest that lean production creates intensified work pace and demands. Increases in decision authority and skill levels are modest or temporary, whereas decision latitude typically remains low. Thus, such work can be considered to have job strain. In jobs with ergonomic stressors, intensification of labor appears to lead to increases in musculoskeletal disorders. The evidence for adverse health effects remains inconclusive for related new work systems in other industries, such as modular manufacturing or patient-focused care.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in the presence of relative motion between two populations of a plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Subhash; Singh, Harinder P.

    2010-09-15

    The paper investigates the role of relative motion between the fluid components of a plasma model, which is simulated by concatenation of two anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids, on the propagation of low-frequency waves and instabilities. The gyrotropic pressure of both the MHD components is given by generalized polytropic laws that allow the system to reduce to a variety of states. The linearized analysis is carried out and dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode technique. The dispersion relation, which gives numerous earlier results as special cases, is discussed both analytically as well as numerically for parameters appropriate for the space plasma. It is found that the relative motion between the two components, besides modifying the condition for fire-hose instability, causes the concatenated system to exhibit different kinds of relative ordering of the magnitudes of phase speeds of the various MHD modes in the directions parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field. The relative motion between the components also influences the phase relationship between density and magnetic field fluctuations for the various compressive modes in the background ambient plasma.

  13. On the identification and establishment of topological spatial relations by autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Human beings use spatial relations to describe many daily tasks in their language. For a mobile robot to be useful in daily life, it is necessary to have navigation algorithms capable of identifying and establishing spatial relations. To date in robotics, the navigation problem has been thoroughly researched as a task of guiding a robot from one spatial coordinate to another. Therefore, there is a difference in degree of abstraction between the language of human beings and the algorithms used in robot navigation. This article introduces a piece of research performed on the use of topological relations for the formalisation of spatial relations and navigation. So far, topological relations have been applied widely in geographical information systems and also in spatial logics. There are some proposals in robot navigation which use them for planning but there is no research about making decision in robot navigation. Our research focuses on decision-making methods to establish spatial relations. The main result is a new heuristic, called the Heuristic of Topological Qualitative Semantics (HTQS), which allows the identification and establishment of spatial relations decision-making from a set of actions. To demonstrate its effectiveness, HTQS has been implemented in the form of agents that can move in a two-dimensional virtual environment. HTQS opens a new door to designing algorithms for navigation based on the identification and establishment of spatial relations.

  14. Vaccum drainage system application in the management of operation-related non-regional epidural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidural intracranial hematoma is one of the most common complications of surgeries for intracranial tumors. The non-regional epidural hematoma is related to severe fluctuation of the intracranial pressure during the operation. The traditional management of hematoma evacuation through craniotomy is time-consuming and may aggravate intracranial pressure imbalance, which causes further complications. We designed a method using vaccum epidural drainage system, and tried to evaluate advantage and the disadvantage of this new technique. Methods Seven patients of intracranial tumors were selected. All of the patients received tumor resection and intra-operative non-regional epidural hematoma was confirmed through intra-operative ultrasound or CT scan. The vaccum drainage system was applied. Another ten patients who received craniotomy for intra-operative non-regional epidural hematoma evacuation were selected as comparison. Regular tests, like serial CT scan, were performed afterward to evaluate the effectiveness and to help deciding when to remove the drainage system. Results The vaccum drainage method was effective in epidual hemotoma clearance and prevented recurrent epidural hemorrhage. The drainage systems were removed within 4 days. All of the patients recovered well. No complications related to the drainage system were observed. Conclusions Compared to the traditional craniotomy, the new method of epidural hemoatoma management using vaccum epidural drainage system proved to be as effective in hematoma clearance, and was less-invasive and easier to perform, with less complication, shorter hospitalization, less economic burden, and better prognosis. PMID:23842198

  15. The Role of Chaotic Dynamics in the Cooling of Magmatic Systems in Subduction Related Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrelli, M.; El Omari, K.; Le Guer, Y.; Perugini, D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics occurring during the thermo-chemical evolution of igneous bodies is of crucial importance in both petrology and volcanology. This is particularly true in subduction related systems where large amount of magmas start, and sometime end, their differentiation histories at mid and lower crust levels. These magmas play a fundamental role in the evolution of both plutonic and volcanic systems but several key questions are still open about their thermal and chemical evolution: 1) what are the dynamics governing the development of these magmatic systems, 2) what are the timescales of cooling, crystallization and chemical differentiation; 4) how these systems contribute to the evolution of shallower magmatic systems? Recent works shed light on the mechanisms acting during the growing of new magmatic bodies and it is now accepted that large crustal igneous bodies result from the accretion and/or amalgamation of smaller ones. What is lacking now is how fluid dynamics of magma bodies can influence the evolution of these igneous systems. In this contribution we focus on the thermo-chemical evolution of a subduction related magmatic system at pressure conditions corresponding to mid-crustal levels (0.7 GPa, 20-25 km). In order to develop a robust model and address the Non-Newtonian behavior of crystal bearing magmas, we link the numerical formulation of the problem to experimental results and rheological modeling. We define quantitatively the thermo-chemical evolution of the system and address the timing required to reach the maximum packing fraction. We will shows that the development of chaotic dynamics significantly speed up the crystallization process decreasing the time needed to reach the maximum packing fraction. Our results have important implications for both the rheological history of the magmatic body and the refilling of shallower magmatic systems.

  16. Environmental exposure to xenoestrogens and oestrogen related cancers: reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The role of steroids in carcinogenesis has become a major concern in environmental protection, biomonitoring, and clinical research. Although historically oestrogen has been related to development of reproductive system, research over the last decade has confirmed its crucial role in the development and homeostasis of other organ systems. As a number of anthropogenic agents are xenoestrogens, environmental health research has focused on oestrogen receptor level disturbances and of aromatase polymorphisms. Oestrogen and xenoestrogens mediate critical points in carcinogenesis by binding to oestrogen receptors, whose distribution is age-, gender-, and tissue-specific. This review brings data about cancer types whose eatiology may be found in environmental exposure to xenoestrogens. Cancer types that have been well documented in literature to be related with environmental exposure include the reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain. The results of our data mining show (a) a significant correlation between exposure to xenoestrogens and increased, gender-related, cancer risk and (b) a need to re-evaluate agents so far defined as endocrine disruptors, as they are also key molecules in carcinogenesis. This revision may be used to further research of cancer aetiology and to improvement of related legislation. Investigation of cancers caused by xenoestrogens may elucidate yet unknown mechanisms also valuable for oncology and the development of new therapies. PMID:22759508

  17. Search extension transforms Wiki into a relational system: A case for flavonoid metabolite database

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Masanori; Suwa, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Background In computer science, database systems are based on the relational model founded by Edgar Codd in 1970. On the other hand, in the area of biology the word 'database' often refers to loosely formatted, very large text files. Although such bio-databases may describe conflicts or ambiguities (e.g. a protein pair do and do not interact, or unknown parameters) in a positive sense, the flexibility of the data format sacrifices a systematic query mechanism equivalent to the widely used SQL. Results To overcome this disadvantage, we propose embeddable string-search commands on a Wiki-based system and designed a half-formatted database. As proof of principle, a database of flavonoid with 6902 molecular structures from over 1687 plant species was implemented on MediaWiki, the background system of Wikipedia. Registered users can describe any information in an arbitrary format. Structured part is subject to text-string searches to realize relational operations. The system was written in PHP language as the extension of MediaWiki. All modifications are open-source and publicly available. Conclusion This scheme benefits from both the free-formatted Wiki style and the concise and structured relational-database style. MediaWiki supports multi-user environments for document management, and the cost for database maintenance is alleviated. PMID:18822113

  18. Ontology-Oriented Diagnostic System for Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Relation Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun

    2013-01-01

    Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS) is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method—92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts' expectations. PMID:23533534

  19. Age-related changes in midbrain dopaminergic regulation of the human reward system

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Jean-Claude; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kohn, Philip; Berman, Karen Faith

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine system, which plays a crucial role in reward processing, is particularly vulnerable to aging. Significant losses over a normal lifespan have been reported for dopamine receptors and transporters, but very little is known about the neurofunctional consequences of this age-related dopaminergic decline. In animals, a substantial body of data indicates that dopamine activity in the midbrain is tightly associated with reward processing. In humans, although indirect evidence from pharmacological and clinical studies also supports such an association, there has been no direct demonstration of a link between midbrain dopamine and reward-related neural response. Moreover, there are no in vivo data for alterations in this relationship in older humans. Here, by using 6-[18F]FluoroDOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) and event-related 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the same subjects, we directly demonstrate a link between midbrain dopamine synthesis and reward-related prefrontal activity in humans, show that healthy aging induces functional alterations in the reward system, and identify an age-related change in the direction of the relationship (from a positive to a negative correlation) between midbrain dopamine synthesis and prefrontal activity. These results indicate an age-dependent dopaminergic tuning mechanism for cortical reward processing and provide system-level information about alteration of a key neural circuit in healthy aging. Taken together, our findings provide an important characterization of the interactions between midbrain dopamine function and the reward system in healthy young humans and older subjects, and identify the changes in this regulatory circuit that accompany aging. PMID:18794529

  20. An evaluation of relative damage to the powertrain system in tracked vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Goo, Sang-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Cheol; Cho, Ho-Young

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the reliability of the endurance test for the powertrain system of military tracked vehicles. The measurement system that measures the driving duty applied to the powertrain system caused by mobility on roads consists of eight analog channels and two pulse channels, including the propeller shaft output torques for the left and right sides. The data obtained from this measurement system can be used to introduce a new technology that produces the output torque of a torque converter and that can be applied to analyze the revolution counting for the endurance and road mobility in the front unit and represent the relative fatigue damages analysis technique and its results according to the driven roads through a cumulative fatigue method. PMID:22573990

  1. An Evaluation of Relative Damage to the Powertrain System in Tracked Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Goo, Sang-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Cheol; Cho, Ho-Young

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the reliability of the endurance test for the powertrain system of military tracked vehicles. The measurement system that measures the driving duty applied to the powertrain system caused by mobility on roads consists of eight analog channels and two pulse channels, including the propeller shaft output torques for the left and right sides. The data obtained from this measurement system can be used to introduce a new technology that produces the output torque of a torque converter and that can be applied to analyze the revolution counting for the endurance and road mobility in the front unit and represent the relative fatigue damages analysis technique and its results according to the driven roads through a cumulative fatigue method. PMID:22573990

  2. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined

  3. The relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Lisa; Baldock, Matthew; Raftery, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Within the road system, there are compliant road users who may make an error that leads to a crash, resulting in a 'system failure', and there are also road users who deliberately take risks and display dangerous or 'extreme' behaviours that lead to a crash. Crashes resulting from system failures can be addressed through improvements to road system design more readily than crashes resulting from extreme behaviours. The classification of crash causation in terms of system failures or extreme behaviour is important for determining the extent to which a Safe System approach (i.e. improvements to road system design to serve compliant road users) is capable of reducing the number of crashes. This study examined the relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes as identified from information in Coroner's investigation files and in-depth crash investigations conducted by the Centre for Automotive Safety Research (CASR). The analysis of 189 fatal crashes, 272 non-fatal metropolitan injury crashes and 181 non-fatal rural crashes indicated that very few non-fatal crashes (3% metropolitan, 9% rural) involved extreme behaviour by road users and, even in fatal crashes, the majority (54%) were the result of system failures. Fatal crashes resulting from system failures were more likely than those resulting from extreme behaviour to occur during the day, on weekdays, in rural areas and on roads with high speed limits. Findings from the current study suggest that improvements to the road transport system (i.e. forgiving road infrastructure, appropriate speed limits, and safe vehicle design) can be expected to be much more effective in reducing crashes than concentrating on preventing extreme behaviours. Such a strategy could reduce the incidence and severity of a large proportion of crashes in South Australia. PMID:25238295

  4. The relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Lisa; Baldock, Matthew; Raftery, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Within the road system, there are compliant road users who may make an error that leads to a crash, resulting in a 'system failure', and there are also road users who deliberately take risks and display dangerous or 'extreme' behaviours that lead to a crash. Crashes resulting from system failures can be addressed through improvements to road system design more readily than crashes resulting from extreme behaviours. The classification of crash causation in terms of system failures or extreme behaviour is important for determining the extent to which a Safe System approach (i.e. improvements to road system design to serve compliant road users) is capable of reducing the number of crashes. This study examined the relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes as identified from information in Coroner's investigation files and in-depth crash investigations conducted by the Centre for Automotive Safety Research (CASR). The analysis of 189 fatal crashes, 272 non-fatal metropolitan injury crashes and 181 non-fatal rural crashes indicated that very few non-fatal crashes (3% metropolitan, 9% rural) involved extreme behaviour by road users and, even in fatal crashes, the majority (54%) were the result of system failures. Fatal crashes resulting from system failures were more likely than those resulting from extreme behaviour to occur during the day, on weekdays, in rural areas and on roads with high speed limits. Findings from the current study suggest that improvements to the road transport system (i.e. forgiving road infrastructure, appropriate speed limits, and safe vehicle design) can be expected to be much more effective in reducing crashes than concentrating on preventing extreme behaviours. Such a strategy could reduce the incidence and severity of a large proportion of crashes in South Australia.

  5. Defining and relating biomedical terms: towards a cross-language morphosemantics-based system.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morphosemantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a language-specific morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots and (3) a set of language-independent rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3000 lexical families. A validation of the results against a manually annotated file by experts of the domain is presented, followed by a discussion of our method.

  6. Building Common Knowledge at the Boundaries between Professional Practices: Relational Agency and Relational Expertise in Systems of Distributed Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The article develops an earlier account of relational agency ("IJER" 2005). Its starting point is a view of practices as knowledge-laden and emotionally freighted sites of purposeful and expert activity. Arguments therefore draw on cultural historical analyses of activities, practices and the institutions that shape them. Relational agency in…

  7. Measuring Motivation and Reward-Related Decision Making in the Rodent Operant Touchscreen System.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Phillips, Benjamin U; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2016-01-04

    This unit is designed to facilitate implementation of the fixed and progressive ratio paradigms and the effort-related choice task in the rodent touchscreen apparatus to permit direct measurement of motivation and reward-related decision making in this equipment. These protocols have been optimized for use in the mouse and reliably yield stable performance levels that can be enhanced or suppressed by systemic pharmacological manipulation. Instructions are also provided for the adjustment of task parameters to permit use in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. These tasks expand the utility of the rodent touchscreen apparatus beyond the currently available battery of cognitive assessment paradigms.

  8. Social competence among children with central nervous system-related chronic health conditions: a review.

    PubMed

    Nassau, J H; Drotar, D

    1997-12-01

    Reviewed empirical studies of social competence among children with central nervous system (CNS)-related chronic health conditions published since 1975. The overwhelming majority of studies evaluated social competence at the level of social adjustment; the domains of children's social performance and social skills were relatively neglected (Cavell, 1990). Findings are critiqued with respect to conceptualization of social competence among children with CNS conditions and methodological considerations. Directions for future research include expanding the conceptualization of social competence in this population to include social demands and competencies specific to children with CNS conditions and utilizing explicit theoretical frameworks that allow for competing hypotheses to be tested. PMID:9494317

  9. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians’ article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  10. Immunolocalization of Tom1 in relation to protein degradation systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Kouki; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Takatama, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Masaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Okamoto, Koichi; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Its pathological hallmarks are senile plaques (SPs), which contain extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein fibrils and dystrophic neurites (DNs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Impairment of protein-degradation systems, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, has been proposed as one of the causes of the accumulation of these aberrant proteins in AD brains. Tom1 (target of Myb1) was originally identified by the induction of its expression by the v-Myb oncogene and is a part of two major protein-degradation systems. The present study was conducted by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings to show that Tom1 was localized in DNs, perisomatic granules (PSGs), and NFTs in AD brains. Moreover, in DNs, Tom1 colocalized with ubiquitin, lysosomal proteins, and Tom1-related proteins (Tollip and myosin VI), which act in both protein-degradation systems via Tom1. These results indicate that Tom1 plays important roles in protein-degradation systems in AD pathogenesis.

  11. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation. PMID:26739522

  12. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  13. Stability and Relative Stability of Linear Systems with Many Constant Time Delays. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Larry Keith

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining the stability of linear systems with many constant time delays is developed. This technique, an extension of the tau-decomposition method, is used to examine not only the stability but also the relative stability of retarded systems with many delays and a class of neutral equations with one delay. Analytical equations are derived for partitioning the delay space of a retarded system with two time delays. The stability of the system in each of the regions defined by the partitioning curves in the parameter plane is determined using the extended tau-decomposition method. In addition, relative stability boundaries are defined using the extended tau-decompositon method in association with parameter plane techniques. Several applications of the extended tau-decomposition method are presented and compared with stability results obtained from other analyses. In all cases the results obtained using the method outlined herein coincide with and extend those of previous investigations. The extended tau-decomposition method applied to systems with time delays requires less computational effort and yields more complete stability analyses than previous techniques.

  14. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians' article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  15. Immunolocalization of Tom1 in relation to protein degradation systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Kouki; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Takatama, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Masaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Okamoto, Koichi; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Its pathological hallmarks are senile plaques (SPs), which contain extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein fibrils and dystrophic neurites (DNs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Impairment of protein-degradation systems, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, has been proposed as one of the causes of the accumulation of these aberrant proteins in AD brains. Tom1 (target of Myb1) was originally identified by the induction of its expression by the v-Myb oncogene and is a part of two major protein-degradation systems. The present study was conducted by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings to show that Tom1 was localized in DNs, perisomatic granules (PSGs), and NFTs in AD brains. Moreover, in DNs, Tom1 colocalized with ubiquitin, lysosomal proteins, and Tom1-related proteins (Tollip and myosin VI), which act in both protein-degradation systems via Tom1. These results indicate that Tom1 plays important roles in protein-degradation systems in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27206884

  16. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  17. Mars rover navigation using pseudolite transceiver arrays: Network-based ranging and extended self-calibration algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masayoshi

    2005-07-01

    A Self-Calibrating Pseudolite Array (SCPA) is a self-deployable GPS pseudolite-based local-area navigation system that can be used on future robotic and manned planetary explorations. By utilizing bidirectional pseudolite transceivers, the SCPA can provide common global positioning to multiple agents working in a local designated area of a remote planet, including all the benefits of satellite-based carrier-phase differential GPS, such as drift-free, centimeter-level, and three-dimensional positioning, without requiring a satellite constellation above the remote planet. Previous work has demonstrated that changing the relative array geometry by moving a roving transceiver unit enables the SCPA to self-calibrate both the array locations and the rover trajectory to centimeter-level accuracy. This self-calibration capability has overcome the difficulty of autonomous robotic deployment of the pseudolite-based navigation system on remote planets, eliminating the need for accurate a priori position information or precise placement of the array. However, early field trials raised the issue of robustness due to pseudolite signal dropouts caused by multi-path fading, cycle slips, or losing line-of-sight. In order to complete the self-calibration process successfully, the SCPA was required to maintain all the signal locks over the entire calibration maneuver; the lack of necessary ranging measurements due to any signal dropout requires the process to start over. This dissertation solves this robustness issue by two new methods: network-based ranging and an extended self-calibration algorithm. The combination of the two algorithms yields a dual-fault-tolerant system, tolerating at least any two simultaneous dropouts intermittently during the calibration process while still operating in the minimum one-mobile three-stationary transceiver configuration with single-frequency pseudolite signals. The resulting improved robustness has been demonstrated in field trials using the K9

  18. Thermodynamics of relation-based systems with applications in econophysics, sociophysics, and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2012-10-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze relation-based systems evolving in time by using the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics. The behavior of such systems can be tracked from the scattering matrix which is actually a network of directed vectors (or pathways) connecting subsequent values, which characterize an event, such as the index values in stock markets. A system behaves in a rigid (elastic) way to an external effect and resists permanent deformation, or it behaves in a viscous (or soft) way and deforms in an irreversible way. It was shown in the past that a formula derived using the slope of paths gives a measure about the extent of viscoelastic behavior of relation-based systems Gündüz (2009) [5] Gündüz and Gündüz (2010) [6]. In this research the ‘work’ associated with ‘elastic’ component, and ‘heat’ associated with ‘viscous’ component were discussed and elaborated. In a simple two subsequent pathway system in a scattering diagram the first vector represents ‘the cause’ and the second ‘the effect’. By using work and heat energy relations that involve force and also storage and loss modulus terms, respectively, one can calculate the energy involved in relation-based systems. The modulus values can be found from the parallel and vertical components of the second vector with respect to the first vector. Once work-like and heat-like terms were determined the internal energy is also easily found from their summation. The parallel and vertical components can also be used to calculate the magnitude of torque and torque energy in the system. Three cases, (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution. NASDAQ-100 exhibits highly dissipative behavior, and its work terms are very small but heat terms are of large magnitude. Its internal energy highly fluctuates

  19. Management of Systemic Sclerosis-Related Skin Disease: A Review of Existing and Experimental Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Furst, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    The skin is the most common organ system involved in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Nearly all patients experience cutaneous symptoms, including sclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ulcers, telangiectasias, and calcinosis. In addition to posing functional challenges, cutaneous symptoms are often a major cause of pain, psychological distress, and body image dissatisfaction. The present article reviews the main features of SSc-related cutaneous manifestations and highlights an evidence-based treatment approach for treating each manifestation. This article also describes novel treatment approaches and opportunities for further research in managing this important clinical dimension of SSc.

  20. Development of newly designed VHF interferometer system for observing earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Isao; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kamogawa, Masashi; Iyono, Atsushi; Kroumov, Valeri; Azakami, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Temporal correlation between atmospheric anomalies and earthquakes has recently been verified statistically through measuring VHF FM radio waves transmitted beyond the line-of-sight. In order to locate the sources of such atmospheric anomalies, we developed a VHF interferometer system (bistatic-radar type) capable of finding the arrival direction of FM radio waves scattered possibly by earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies. In general, frequency modulation of FM radio waves produces ambiguity of arrival direction. However, our system, employing high-sampling rates of the order of kHz, can precisely measure the arrival direction of FM radio waves by stacking received signals. PMID:20009381

  1. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, Lloyd L.; Smith, Larry K.

    1994-01-01

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises Ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

  2. Rapid storage and retrieval of genomic intervals from a relational database system using nested containment lists.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Laura K; Sivley, R Michael; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of genomic annotations based on range intervals is necessary, given the amount of data produced by next-generation sequencing studies. The indexing strategies of relational database systems (such as MySQL) greatly inhibit their use in genomic annotation tasks. This has led to the development of stand-alone applications that are dependent on flat-file libraries. In this work, we introduce MyNCList, an implementation of the NCList data structure within a MySQL database. MyNCList enables the storage, update and rapid retrieval of genomic annotations from the convenience of a relational database system. Range-based annotations of 1 million variants are retrieved in under a minute, making this approach feasible for whole-genome annotation tasks. Database URL: https://github.com/bushlab/mynclist. PMID:23894185

  3. Relationism and relational developmental systems: a paradigm for developmental science in the post-Cartesian era.

    PubMed

    Overton, Willis F

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that the Cartesian-split-mechanistic scientific paradigm that until recently functioned as the standard conceptual framework for subfields of developmental science (including inheritance, evolution, and organismic--prenatal, cognitive, emotional, motivational, sociocultural--development) has been progressively failing as a scientific research program. An alternative scientific paradigm composed of nested metatheories with relationism at the broadest level and relational developmental systems as a midrange metatheory is offered as a more progressive conceptual framework for developmental science. Termed broadly the relational developmental systems paradigm, this framework accounts for the findings that are anomalies for the old paradigm; accounts for the emergence of new findings; and points the way to future scientific productivity.

  4. Rapid storage and retrieval of genomic intervals from a relational database system using nested containment lists.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Laura K; Sivley, R Michael; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of genomic annotations based on range intervals is necessary, given the amount of data produced by next-generation sequencing studies. The indexing strategies of relational database systems (such as MySQL) greatly inhibit their use in genomic annotation tasks. This has led to the development of stand-alone applications that are dependent on flat-file libraries. In this work, we introduce MyNCList, an implementation of the NCList data structure within a MySQL database. MyNCList enables the storage, update and rapid retrieval of genomic annotations from the convenience of a relational database system. Range-based annotations of 1 million variants are retrieved in under a minute, making this approach feasible for whole-genome annotation tasks. Database URL: https://github.com/bushlab/mynclist.

  5. Relation between repeatability and speed of robot-based systems for composite aircraft production through multilateration sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Perner, M.; Krombholz, C.; Beykirch, B.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber composites are becoming increasingly important in different fields of lightweight application. To guarantee the estimated demand of components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the use of industrial robots is suggested in production. High velocity of the layup process is addressed to significantly increase the production rate. Today, the layup of the fiber material is performed by gantry systems. They are heavy weight, slow and the variety of possible part shapes is limited. Articulated robots offer a huge operational area in relation to their construction size. Moreover, they are flexible enough to layup fiber material into different shaped molds. Thus, standard articulated robots are less accurate and more susceptible to vibration than gantry systems. Therefore, this paper illustrates an approach to classify volumetric errors to obtain a relation between the achievable speed in production and precision. The prediction of a precision at a defined speed is the result. Based on the measurement results the repeatability of the robotic unit within the workspace is calculated and presented. At the minimum speed that is applicable in production the repeatability is less than 30 mm. Subsequently, an online strategy for path error compensation is presented. The approach uses a multilateration system that consists of four laser tracer units and measures the current absolute position of a reflector mounted at the end-effector of the robot. By calculating the deviation between the planned and the actual position a compensated motion is applied. The paper concludes with a discussion for further investigations.

  6. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  7. Subsurface materials management and containment system, components thereof and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-04-18

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  8. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  9. GABA System Dysfunction in Autism and Related Disorders: From Synapse to Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Suzanne; Horder, Jamie; Inkster, Becky; Mendez, M. Andreina; Murphy, Declan G.; Nutt, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental syndromes characterised by repetitive behaviours and restricted interests, impairments in social behavior and relations, and in language and communication. These symptoms are also observed in a number of developmental disorders of known origin, including Fragile X Syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Fetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome. While these conditions have diverse etiologies, and poorly understood pathologies, emerging evidence suggests that they may all be linked to dysfunction in particular aspects of GABAergic inhibitory signalling in the brain. We review evidence from genetics, molecular neurobiology and systems neuroscience relating to the role of GABA in these conditions. We conclude by discussing how these deficits may relate to the specific symptoms observed. PMID:22841562

  10. Source-related variables for the description of the oceanic carbon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walin, G.; Hieronymus, J.; Nycander, J.

    2014-09-01

    oceanic carbon system is commonly described in terms of the two state variables total carbon, DIC, and alkalinity, Alk. Here we suggest the use of alternative source adapted state variables, Acidic Carbon, AC and Basic Carbon, BC, defined by and related to (DIC, Alk) with a simple linear transformation. (AC, BC) can be interpreted as representing respectively the supply to the system of carbon dioxide and dissolved carbonate, keeping in mind that supply of hydrogen ions acts to transform from basic carbon to acidic carbon. Accordingly these variables tell us how much carbon dioxide or dissolved carbonate we actually have in the water, despite the fact that the major part of the carbon resides in bicarbonate ions. We claim that using these source-related variables as a compliment to the traditional variables, offers a number of advantages in the formulation of continuity equations, as well as in the interpretation of observations and modeling results. The traditional definition of alkalinity is related to a measuring procedure rather than to the supply of material to the system. Here we demonstrate that alkalinity, though defined in the traditional way, may be interpreted in terms of sources and sinks acting on the system. In the case of ocean water this amounts to twice the supply of dissolved carbonate minus the net supply of free hydrogen ions. We argue that this interpretation is a useful complement to the traditional definition. Every process that affects the state of the carbon system may be quantified in terms of supply of carbon dioxide, Fa, carbonate ions, Fb, or hydrogen ions, E.

  11. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  12. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H. Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  13. 41 CFR 301-72.100 - What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation? 301-72.100 Section 301-72.100 Public... for Common Carrier Transportation § 301-72.100 What must my travel accounting system do in relation to... claims accounting systems with common carrier transportation documents and data for audit purposes;...

  14. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  15. Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Talk: Numerical Simulations of Spin Glasses and Related Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. Peter

    2009-03-01

    Systems with disorder and ``frustration'' occur in many branches of science. There has been considerable effort to understand one such type of system, known as the ``spin glass'', because it can be probed in fine detail experimentally by applying a magnetic field, and because it can be modeled by simple-looking Hamiltonians which are amenable to numerical simulation. Analytical work is very difficult and has been carried out mainly on models with unphysical features such as infinite-range interactions. Hence, much of what we know about spin glasses and related systems comes from numerical simulations on simplified models. In this talk I will describe some of the difficulties in performing reliable spin glass simulations. Then I will discuss several questions concerning phase transitions in spin glasses and related systems that have been addressed by simulations in recent years including (i) whether there is universality, (ii) whether there is a ``vortex glass'' transition in a disordered type-II superconductor in a magnetic field, (iii) whether ``chiralities'' play a crucial role in Heisenberg spin glasses, and (iv) whether there is a line of transitions (AT line) in a magnetic field.

  16. Density-functional studies of tungsten trioxide, tungsten bronzes, and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, B.; Hendy, S. C.; Chong, S. V.; Tallon, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    Tungsten trioxide adopts a variety of structures which can be intercalated with charged species to alter the electronic properties, thus forming “tungsten bronzes.” Similar effects are observed upon removing oxygen from WO3 . We present a computational study of cubic and hexagonal alkali bronzes and examine the effects on cell size and band structure as the size of the intercalated ion is increased. With the exception of hydrogen (which is predicted to be unstable as an intercalate), the behavior of the bronzes are relatively consistent. NaWO3 is the most stable of the cubic systems, although in the hexagonal system the larger ions are more stable. The band structures are identical, with the intercalated atom donating its single electron to the tungsten 5d valence band. A study of fractional doping in the NaxWO3 system (0⩽x⩽1) showed a linear variation in cell parameter and a systematic shift in the Fermi level into the conduction band. In the oxygen-deficient WO3-x system the Fermi level undergoes a sudden jump into the conduction band at around x=0.2 . Lastly, three compounds of a layered WO4•α,ω -diaminoalkane hybrid series were studied and found to be insulating, with features in the band structure similar to those of the parent WO3 compound that relate well to experimental UV-visible spectroscopy results.

  17. Is robustness of stochastic uncertain systems related to information theory and statistical mechanics? (Keynote Address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Fifty years ago, when Claude Shannon was developing the Mathematical Theory of Communications, for reliable data transmission, which evolved into the subject of information theory, another discipline was developing dealing with Feedback Control of Dynamical System, which evolved into a scientific subject dealing with decision, stability, and optimization. More recently, a separate discipline dealing with robustness of uncertain systems was born in response to the codification of high performance and reliability in the presence of modeling uncertainties. In principle, robustness in dynamical systems is captured through power dissipation via induced norms and dynamic games, while reliable data transmission is captured through measures of information via entropy, relative entropy, and certain laws of Large Deviations theory. The main ingredient in Large Deviations is the rate functional (or action functional in the classical mechanics terminology), often identified through the Cramer or Legendre-Fenchel Transform. On the other hand, robustness of stochastic uncertain systems is currently under development, using information theoretic as well as statistical mechanics concepts, such as, partition functions, free energy, relative entropy, and entropy rate functional. This lecture will summarize certain connections between fundamental concepts of robustness, information theory, and statistical mechanics, and possibly make future projections into the convergence of these disciplines.

  18. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later.

  19. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2016-10-01

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl-Teller and Gaussian wells.

  20. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  1. Toward a systemic ethics of public-private partnerships related to food and health.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonathan H

    2014-09-01

    Public-private partnerships have become widespread in the pursuit of both health-related research and public health interventions--most notably, in recent measures intended to address obesity. Participants emphasize synergies between the missions or goals of the public and private partners. However, the missions usually diverge in significant ways. Consequently, these partnerships can have serious implications for the integrity of, as well as trust and confidence in, the public partners. In this article, I highlight systemic concerns presented by public-private partnerships related to food and health. These include research agenda distortion and framing effects--not least, the characterization of obesity primarily as a question of individual behavior, and the minimization or neglect of the role of food systems and other social and environmental factors on health. Prevailing analytical approaches to public-private partnerships tend to downplay or ignore these systemic effects and their ethical implications. In this article, I offer guidance intended to help actors in the public sector fulfill their mission while thinking more critically and systemically about the ethical implications of public-private partnerships.

  2. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later. PMID:18421348

  3. FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM OF MYCOBACTERIA RELATED TO CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Tamotsu; Ogura, Mituo

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150–163. 1963.—Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria. Images PMID:13956365

  4. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  5. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  6. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system. PMID:15105492

  7. Relationship between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S

    2015-02-01

    Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.

  8. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978–2011

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. Objective: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Methods: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Results: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 105 employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 105 employees in Spain to 7·32 per 105 employees in Norway. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain. PMID:25335827

  9. Application of the resource-based relative value scale system to pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Gerstle, Robert S; Molteni, Richard A; Andreae, Margie C; Bradley, Joel F; Brewer, Eileen D; Calabrese, Jamie; Krug, Steven E; Liechty, Edward A; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Pillsbury, Julia M; Tuli, Sanjeev Y

    2014-06-01

    The majority of public and private payers in the United States currently use the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale as the basis for physician payment. Many large group and academic practices have adopted this objective system of physician work to benchmark physician productivity, including using it, wholly or in part, to determine compensation. The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale survey instrument, used to value physician services, was designed primarily for procedural services, leading to current concerns that American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) surveys may undervalue nonprocedural evaluation and management services. The American Academy of Pediatrics is represented on the RUC, the committee charged with maintaining accurate physician work values across specialties and age groups. The Academy, working closely with other primary care and subspecialty societies, actively pursues a balanced RUC membership and a survey instrument that will ensure appropriate work relative value unit assignments, thereby allowing pediatricians to receive appropriate payment for their services relative to other services.

  10. Application of the resource-based relative value scale system to pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Gerstle, Robert S; Molteni, Richard A; Andreae, Margie C; Bradley, Joel F; Brewer, Eileen D; Calabrese, Jamie; Krug, Steven E; Liechty, Edward A; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Pillsbury, Julia M; Tuli, Sanjeev Y

    2014-06-01

    The majority of public and private payers in the United States currently use the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale as the basis for physician payment. Many large group and academic practices have adopted this objective system of physician work to benchmark physician productivity, including using it, wholly or in part, to determine compensation. The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale survey instrument, used to value physician services, was designed primarily for procedural services, leading to current concerns that American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) surveys may undervalue nonprocedural evaluation and management services. The American Academy of Pediatrics is represented on the RUC, the committee charged with maintaining accurate physician work values across specialties and age groups. The Academy, working closely with other primary care and subspecialty societies, actively pursues a balanced RUC membership and a survey instrument that will ensure appropriate work relative value unit assignments, thereby allowing pediatricians to receive appropriate payment for their services relative to other services. PMID:24864168

  11. Distance-based relative orbital elements determination for formation flying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with determination of relative orbital elements based only on distance between satellites in the formation flying system, which has potential application in engineering, especially suited for rapid orbit determination required missions. A geometric simplification is performed to reduce the formation configuration in three-dimensional space to a plane. Then the equivalent actual configuration deviating from its nominal design is introduced to derive a group of autonomous linear equations on the mapping between the relative orbital elements differences and distance errors. The primary linear equations-based algorithm is initially proposed to conduct the rapid and precise determination of the relative orbital elements without the complex computation, which is further improved by least-squares method with more distance measurements taken into consideration. Numerical simulations and comparisons with traditional approaches are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To assess the performance of the two proposed algorithms, accuracy validation and Monte Carlo simulations are implemented in the presence of noises of distance measurements and the leader's absolute orbital elements. It is demonstrated that the relative orbital elements determination accuracy of two approaches reaches more than 90% and even close to the actual values for the least-squares improved one. The proposed approaches can be alternates for relative orbit determination without assistance of additional facilities in engineering for their fairly high efficiency with accuracy and autonomy.

  12. Does Korea's current diagnosis-related group-based reimbursement system appropriately classify appendectomy patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kee-Hwan; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Kuon; Choi, Byung-Jo; Jeong, Wonjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As several years have passed since the implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system for appendicitis, its early outcomes should be assessed to determine if further improvements are warranted. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from Korean patients who underwent appendectomy, dividing the sample into 2 groups of those who received services before and after implementation of the DRG system. Based on the DRG code classification, patient data were collected including the amount of DRG reimbursement and the total in-patient costs. We subsequently performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent factors contributing to higher total in-patient cost. Results Although implementation of the DRG system for appendicitis significantly reduced postoperative length of stay (2.8 ± 1.0 days vs. 3.4 ± 1.9 days, P < 0.001), it did not reduce total in-hospital cost. The independent factors related to total inhospital cost included patient age of 70 years or more (odds ratio [OR], 3.214; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.769–5.840; P < 0.001) and operation time longer than 100 minutes (OR, 3.690; 95% CI, 2.007–6.599, P < 0.001). In addition, older patients (≥70 years) showed a nearly 10 times greater relative risk for having a comorbid condition (95% CI, 5.141–20.214; P < 0.001) and a 3.255 times greater relative risk for having higher total in-hospital cost (95% CI, 1.731–6.119, P < 0.001). Conclusion It appears that older patients (>70 years) have greater comorbidities, which contribute to higher inpatient costs. Thus, our study suggests that patient age be considered as a DRG classification variable. PMID:27478811

  13. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  14. Experiments with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) using the synthetic relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1994-01-01

    This study is intended to examine the impact of the synthetic relative humidity on the model simulation of mesoscale convective storm environment. The synthetic relative humidity is derived from the National Weather Services surface observations, and non-conventional sources including aircraft, radar, and satellite observations. The latter sources provide the mesoscale data of very high spatial and temporal resolution. The synthetic humidity data is used to complement the National Weather Services rawinsonde observations. It is believed that a realistic representation of initial moisture field in a mesoscale model is critical for the model simulation of thunderstorm development, and the formation of non-convective clouds as well as their effects on the surface energy budget. The impact will be investigated based on a real-data case study using the mesoscale atmospheric simulation system developed by Mesoscale Environmental Simulations Operations, Inc. The mesoscale atmospheric simulation system consists of objective analysis and initialization codes, and the coarse-mesh and fine-mesh dynamic prediction models. Both models are a three dimensional, primitive equation model containing the essential moist physics for simulating and forecasting mesoscale convective processes in the atmosphere. The modeling system is currently implemented at the Applied Meteorology Unit, Kennedy Space Center. Two procedures involving the synthetic relative humidity to define the model initial moisture fields are considered. It is proposed to perform several short-range (approximately 6 hours) comparative coarse-mesh simulation experiments with and without the synthetic data. They are aimed at revealing the model sensitivities should allow us both to refine the specification of the observational requirements, and to develop more accurate and efficient objective analysis schemes. The goal is to advance the MASS (Mesoscal Atmospheric Simulation System) modeling expertise so that the model

  15. Motor area activity for action-related and nonaction-related sounds in a three-dimensional sound field reproduction system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Koichiro; Ueno, Kanako; Shimada, Sotaro

    2015-03-25

    The motor cortical area is often activated to auditory stimuli in the human brain. In this study, we examined whether the motor area shows differential activation for action-related and nonaction-related sounds and whether it is susceptible to the quality of the sounds. A three-dimensional sound field recording and reproduction system based on the boundary surface control principle (BoSC system) was used for this purpose. We measured brain activity during hearing action-related or nonaction-related sounds with electroencephalography using mu rhythm suppression (mu-suppression) as an index of motor cortical activation. The results showed that mu-suppression was observed when the participant heard action-related sounds, but it was not evident when hearing nonaction-related sounds. Moreover, this suppression was significantly larger in the 3D sound field (62-ch loudspeaker condition), which generates a more realistic sound field, than in the 1-ch loudspeaker condition. Our results indicate that the motor area was indeed activated for action-related sounds and that its activation was enhanced with a 3D realistic sound field. We discuss our findings in relation to the mirror neuron system and the possibility of using its activity as an objective measure that reflects the subjective sense of reality in various virtual reality settings when interacting with others.

  16. System-level analysis of a smart optoelectronic database filter for relational database applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianjing; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    A challenging task facing the designers for the next generation of archival storage system is to provide storage capacities several orders of magnitude larger than existing systems while maintaining current data access times. To meet this challenge, we have developed a smart optoelectronic database filter suitable for large capacity relational database systems that use page-oriented optical storage devices. The photonic VLSI device technology based database filter monolithically integrates optical detectors, photoreceiver circuits, data manipulation logic, and filter control circuitry onto a single CMOS chip. This paper presents the design and system level analysis of the database filter system. Simulation data suggested that a 32 X 32-bit filter fabricated in a 1.5 micrometers CMOS process could have an optical page read rate of 87 Mpages/s and support 123 Mrecords/s transfer rate to a host computer. Queuing theory is used to show that even with the limitation of finite queue capacity, a database filter chip could be controlled to work at near optimal performance where database search time is limited by the data transfer rate going into the host computer. Since only valid search data is passed through to the host computer, the introduction of a database filter can dramatically reduce database search time.

  17. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  18. IgG4-related hypophysitis presenting as a pituitary adenoma with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Ming-Tai; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Min

    2013-04-01

    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder that can mimic a pituitary tumor clinically or radiologically. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease is only a just recently characterized disorder. It can manifest as a systemic disease involving multiple organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, lungs, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, kidneys, and retroperitoneum. It is characterized by a high serum level of IgG4 clinically and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with sclerosis and phlebitis histologically. Herein, we report the case of a man 66 years of age who presented with nausea, vomiting, and poor appetite with a body weight loss of 4 kg. Image study revealed a pituitary infundibulum mass, right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses, as well as infiltrating masses in bilateral kidneys. Therefore, he received a thoracoscopic biopsy for the right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses and a pathologic examination reported an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Then, transsphenoidal removal of the infundibulum mass was performed. Histologically, the infundibulum mass represented a IgG4-related hypophysitis manifested as an infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and some eosinophils with a fair number of IgG4-immunoreactive plasma cells. After the operation was complete, the patient took 5 mg of prednisolone every 2 days for 3 months. A follow-up computed tomography scan revealed improvement of the infiltrating masses in the bilateral kidneys. PMID:23522762

  19. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  1. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; C. Hsu; C. L. Atwood; M. B. Sattison; R. S. Hartley; V. N. Shah

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number and rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  2. Improving National Data Systems for Surveillance of Suicide-related Events

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Robin; Hedegaard, Holly; Bossarte, Robert; Crosby, Alexander E.; Hanzlick, Randy; Roesler, Jon; Seider, Regina; Smith, Patricia; Warner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Describing the characteristics and patterns of suicidal behavior is an essential component in developing successful prevention efforts. The Data and Surveillance Task Force (DSTF) of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention was charged with making recommendations for improving national data systems for public health surveillance of suicide-related problems, including suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and deaths due to suicide. Data from the national systems can be used to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem and are useful for establishing national health priorities. National data can also be used to examine differences in rates across groups (e.g., sex, racial/ethnic, and age groups) and geographic regions, and are useful in identifying patterns in the mechanism of suicide, including those that rarely occur. Methods Using evaluation criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and the U.S.-based Safe States Alliance, the DSTF reviewed 28 national data systems for feasibility of use in the surveillance of suicidal behavior, including deaths, non-fatal attempts and suicidal thoughts. The review criteria included such attributes as the aspects of the suicide-related spectrum (e.g., thoughts, attempts, deaths) covered by the system, how the data are collected (e.g., census, sample, survey, administrative data files, self-report, reporting by care providers), and the strengths and limitations of the survey or data system. Results The DSTF identified common strengths and challenges among the data systems based on the underlying data source (e.g., death records, health care provider records, population-based surveys, health insurance claims). From these findings, the DSTF proposed several recommendations for improving existing data systems, such as using standard language and definitions, adding new variables to existing surveys, expanding the geographic scope of surveys to include areas

  3. Development of a laser speckle imaging system for measuring relative blood flow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S. D.; Packulak, Ernie F.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-09-01

    Determining the viability of damaged or surgically reconstructed tissue is critical in most plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. Information about tissue blood flow in the region in question can make this determination much easier. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is one technique that could potentially aid in making this determination. LSI is a non-contact full-field imaging technique with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Tissue is illuminated with diffuse red laser light and the spatial and/or temporal statistics of the resulting speckle pattern can be used to calculate relative flow velocities. We have developed a LSI system that produces relative velocity blood flow images. Bench tests of the system indicate that it may be used to distinguish between normal, decreased, and increased blood flow states of a human finger. The system has also been used to take some initial laboratory measurements using an animal model - an epigastric free flap on a rat. Preliminary results indicate that the method may be used to distinguish states of venous or arterial occlusion from unoccluded states of the skin flap. While further experimentation is necessary, these initial results indicate that LSI could be a useful aid to the plastic surgeon for assessing tissue viability.

  4. Alpha Particles Play a Relatively Minor Role in Magnetized Target Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2002-03-15

    Two problems related to alpha particle physics in magnetized target fusion (MTF) systems are briefly discussed. First, we evaluate the pressure and density of alpha particles under the assumption that they are perfectly confined and have a classical slowing-down distribution. It turns out that because of a comparatively low plasma temperature in MTF systems, the relative pressure and density of alpha particles are more than an order of magnitude less than in fusion reactors based on ITER-type tokamaks. Therefore, one may expect that even in the extreme case of a perfect confinement of alpha particles, their presence will have a much weaker (than in the case of tokamaks) effect on plasma stability and transport. Second, we discuss the kinetics of plasma burn under the opposite extreme assumption that all the alpha particles are instantaneously lost, without leaving any energy in a plasma. It turns out that even in this case, the plasma energy yield in batch-burn systems is only weakly affected by burnout effects.

  5. BIPM/IAU Joint Committee on relativity for space-time reference systems and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.

    At the Kyoto General Assembly, the IAU endorsed, by its Resolution B3 (1997), the creation of the Joint Committee on Relativity for space-time reference systems and metrology (JCR), which was also approved by the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) at its 86th meeting in September 1997. Its tasks are ``to establish definitions and conventions to provide a coherent relativistic frame ....... and to develop the adopted definitions and conventions for practical application by the user." The web site of the JCR (www.bipm.fr/WG/CCTF/JCR) contains the headlines of the JCR work. The BIPM/IAU JCR has worked in collaboration with the IAU Working Group on relativity for celestial mechanics and astrometry (RCMA) on the problems of astronomical relativistic space-time reference frames. A document was established in common (document jcrissue.html on the JCR web site) discussing as much as possible all topics that may be addressed by the two groups. The RCMA has specified a consistent framework for defining the barycentric and geocentric celestial reference systems at the first post-Newtonian level. Because new clock technology and space missions will necessitate the application of this framework for time and frequency measurements in the solar system, the JCR focused on these applications. The paper outlines the conclusions of the work and the proposed IAU resolutions, that were discussed at IAU Colloquium 180 in March 2000.

  6. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  7. Relative Motion of the WDS 05110+3203 STF 648 System, With a Protocol for Calculating Relative Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2010-07-01

    Relative motion studies of visual double stars can be investigated using least squares regression techniques and readily accessible programs such as Microsoft Excel and a calculator. Optical pairs differ from physical pairs under most geometries in both their simple scatter plots and their regression models. A step-by-step protocol for estimating the rectilinear elements of an optical pair is presented. The characteristics of physical pairs using these techniques are discussed.

  8. RGFinder: a system for determining semantically related genes using GO graph minimum spanning tree.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Biologists often need to know the set S' of genes that are the most functionally and semantically related to a given set S of genes. For determining the set S', most current gene similarity measures overlook the structural dependencies among the Gene Ontology (GO) terms annotating the set S, which may lead to erroneous results. We introduce in this paper a biological search engine called RGFinder that considers the structural dependencies among GO terms by employing the concept of existence dependency. RGFinder assigns a weight to each edge in GO graph to represent the degree of relatedness between the two GO terms connected by the edge. The value of the weight is determined based on the following factors: 1) type of the relation represented by the edge (e.g., an "is-a" relation is assigned a different weight than a "part-of" relation), 2) the functional relationship between the two GO terms connected by the edge, and 3) the string-substring relationship between the names of the two GO terms connected by the edge. RGFinder then constructs a minimum spanning tree of GO graph based on these weights. In the framework of RGFinder, the set S' is annotated to the GO terms located at the lowest convergences of the subtree of the minimum spanning tree that passes through the GO terms annotating set S. We evaluated RGFinder experimentally and compared it with four gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  9. The nonlinear relations of the approximate number system and mathematical language to early mathematics development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R

    2015-12-01

    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability. Participants included 114 children who were assessed in the fall and spring of preschool on a battery of academic and cognitive tasks. Children were 3.12 to 5.26 years old (M = 4.18, SD = .58) and 53.6% were girls. Both mixed-effect and quantile regressions were conducted. The mixed-effect regressions indicated that mathematical language, but not the ANS, nor other cognitive domains, predicted mathematics performance. However, the quantile regression analyses revealed a more nuanced relation among domains. Specifically, it was found that mathematical language and the ANS predicted mathematical performance at different points on the ability continuum. These dual nonlinear relations indicate that different mechanisms may enhance mathematical acquisition dependent on children's developmental abilities.

  10. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  11. Personality and racial/ethnic relations: a perspective from Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Goldman-Flythe, Michelle

    2009-10-01

    The five articles in this special section examine personality and racial/ethnic relations from the perspective of Mischel and Shoda's Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory. In this introductory piece, we first provide a primer on CAPS theory. In particular, we try to highlight the role that context plays in the construction and manifestation of personality as well as the dynamic ways that people interpret and react to input from their environment. We then review research on race-based rejection sensitivity as a programmatic illustration of the role expectancies play in racial/ethnic relations. Finally, we summarize and tie together the articles that comprise this section via a set of emergent themes that are common to the present contributions.

  12. System for Rapid Assessment of Pneumonia and Influenza-Related Mortality—Ohio, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, John; Fowler, Brian; Duffy, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Rapid mortality surveillance is critical for state emergency preparedness. To enhance timeliness during the 2009–2010 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, the Ohio Department of Health activated a drop-down menu within Ohio’s Electronic Death Registration System for reporting of pneumonia- or influenza-related deaths approximately 5 days postmortem. We used International Classification of Diseases—Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes, available 2–3 months postmortem as the standard, and assessed their agreement with drop-down-menu codes for pneumonia- or influenza-related deaths. Among 56 660 Ohio deaths during September 2009–March 2010, agreement was 97.9% for pneumonia (κ = 0.85) and 99.9% for influenza (κ = 0.79). Sensitivity was 80.2% for pneumonia and 73.9% for influenza. Drop-down menu coding enhanced timeliness while maintaining high agreement with ICD-10 codes. PMID:25521902

  13. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  14. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  15. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  16. The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre: systems thinking to prevent lifestyle-related chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew; Wutzke, Sonia; Overs, Marge

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in Australia and the biggest contributor to premature death and disability. Although prevention of chronic disease can be effective and cost-effective, it has proven difficult to systematically implement interventions that target important lifestyle-related risk factors for chronic disease such as poor nutrition, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use. Prevention efforts targeting these lifestyle-related risk factors have had mixed success due to issues around designing and implementing effective interventions that address the complexity of risk factors, and incorporating evidence and implementing interventions at a scale, duration, intensity and quality required to achieve population effects. There is increasing recognition that multilevel, multisector approaches are required for the effective and sustained prevention of complex chronic disease. The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre, one of two National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Centres established in 2013, is researching and developing systems perspectives to prevent lifestyle-related chronic disease in Australia. The Centre's collaborative approach is providing opportunities for researchers to work with policy makers and practitioners to develop research questions, conduct research, and analyse, interpret and disseminate the findings. As such, it is the model of interaction that is being tested as much as the specific projects. With its funding partners, the Centre has developed plans for more than 30 projects. It has also established four capacity units that will improve the gathering, sharing and use of evidence to build a prevention system in Australia. The Centre is exploring new ways to advance prevention by bringing together researchers, policy makers and practitioners to determine the information and actions needed for an effective prevention system for Australia.

  17. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed.

  18. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed.

  19. Characterization of system-related geometric distortions in MR images employed in Gamma Knife radiosurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. P.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Nomikos, P.; Karaiskos, P.

    2016-10-01

    This work provides characterization of system-related geometric distortions present in MRIs used in Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. A custom-made phantom, compatible with the Leksell stereotactic frame model G and encompassing 947 control points (CPs), was utilized. MR images were obtained with and without the frame, thus allowing discrimination of frame-induced distortions. In the absence of the frame and following compensation for field inhomogeneities, measured average CP disposition owing to gradient nonlinearities was 0.53 mm. In presence of the frame, contrarily, detected distortion was greatly increased (up to about 5 mm) in the vicinity of the frame base due to eddy currents induced in the closed loop of its aluminum material. Frame-related distortion was obliterated at approximately 90 mm from the frame base. Although the region with the maximum observed distortion may not lie within the GK treatable volume, the presence of the frame results in distortion of the order of 1.5 mm at a 7 cm distance from the center of the Leksell space. Additionally, severe distortions observed outside the treatable volume could possibly impinge on the delivery accuracy mainly by adversely affecting the registration process (e.g. the position of the lower part of the N-shaped fiducials used to define the stereotactic space may be miss-registered). Images acquired with a modified version of the frame developed by replacing its front side with an acrylic bar, thus interrupting the closed aluminum loop and reducing the induced eddy currents, were shown to benefit from relatively reduced distortion. System-related distortion was also identified in patient MR images. Using corresponding CT angiography images as a reference, an offset of 1.1 mm was detected for two vessels lying in close proximity to the frame base, while excellent spatial agreement was observed for a vessel far apart from the frame base.

  20. A case of Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) related to rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, S; Sivamani, R K; Konia, T; Burrall, B

    2013-01-01

    Drug Rash (or Reaction) with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) is a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to drugs characterized by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, hematologic abnormalities, and involvement of internal organs. Initially coined in 1996, the term is used to refer to an idiosyncratic reaction to several drugs, the most common of which are carbamazepine, allopurinol, sulfasalazine, and phenobarbital. We report the first case of DRESS related to rufinamide in a ten year old boy with a history of a complex seizure disorder. PMID:24021364

  1. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  2. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: Focusing on how staff relate to organizational components☆

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L.; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. Objectives To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships between key components that relate to the dispensing process. Methods Fifteen community pharmacies in England with varied characteristics were identified, and data were collected using non-participant observations, shadowing and interviews. Approximately 360 hours of observations and 38 interviews were conducted by the team. Observation field notes from each pharmacy were written into case studies. Overall, 52,500 words from 15 case studies and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic and line-by-line analyses. Validation techniques included multiple data collectors co-authoring each case study for consensus, review of case studies by members of the wider team including academic and practicing community pharmacists, and patient safety experts and two presentations (internally and externally) to review and discuss findings. Results Risks identified were related to relationships between people and other key components in dispensing. This included how different levels of staff communicated internally and externally, followed procedures, interacted with technical systems, worked with management, and engaged with the environment. In a dispensing journey, the following categories were identified which show how risks are inextricably linked through relationships between human components and other key components: 1) dispensing with divided attention; 2) dispensing under pressure; 3) dispensing in a restricted space or environment; and, 4) managing external influences. Conclusions

  3. Algorithms for Relative Radiometric Correction in Earth Observing Systems Resource-P and Canopus-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenin, V. A.; Eremeev, V. V.; Kuznetcov, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper has considered two algorithms of the relative radiometric correction of information obtained from a multimatrix imagery instrument of the spacecraft "Resource-P" and frame imagery systems of the spacecraft "Canopus-V". The first algorithm is intended for elimination of vertical stripes on the image that are caused by difference in transfer characteristics of CCD matrices and CCD detectors. Correction coefficients are determined on the basis of analysis of images that are homogeneous by brightness. The second algorithm ensures an acquisition of microframes homogeneous by brightness from which seamless images of the Earth surface are synthesized. Examples of practical usage of the developed algorithms are mentioned.

  4. Genetic variants in the complement system predisposing to age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Elizabeth C; Clark, Simon J; Triebwasser, Michael P; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Seddon, Johanna M; Atkinson, John P

    2014-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the western world. It is characterized by the presence of lipoproteinaceous deposits (drusen) in the inner layers of the retina. Immunohistochemistry studies identified deposition of complement proteins in the drusen as well as in the choroid. In the last decade, genetic studies have linked both common and rare variants in genes of the complement system to increased risk of development of AMD. Here, we review the variants described to date and discuss the functional implications of dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement in AMD.

  5. Rapid solidification processing system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2004-06-08

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the in-flight atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  6. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A calcium related injury in lettuce termed tipburn was the focus of this study. It affects the young developing leaves as they become enclosed during head formation. It is a good model system to study because the injury can be induced with good predictability and lettuce is one of the crops chosen by the CELSS program for concentrated study. Investigations were undertaken to study a number of different procedures, that would have the potential for encouraging movement of calcium into the young developing leaves and to study the time course and pattern of calcium accumulation in developing leaves to provide a basis for developing effective control procedures for this injury.

  7. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  8. A Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems Model of SES-Related Health and Behavioral Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, W. K.; Moody, L.; Quisenberry, A. J.; Ramey, C. T.; Sheffer, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose that executive dysfunction is an important component relating the socioeconomic status gradient of select health behaviors. We review and find evidence supporting an SES gradient associated with (1) negative health behaviors (e.g., obesity, excessive use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances), and (2) executive dysfunction. Moreover, the evidence supports that stress and insufficient cognitive resources contribute to executive dysfunction and that executive dysfunction is evident among individuals who smoke cigarettes, are obese, abuse alcohol, and use illicit drugs. Collectively these data supports the dual system model of cognitive control, referred to here as the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems hypothesis. The implications of these relationships for intervention and social justice considerations are discussed. PMID:25008219

  9. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.; Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Smith, L.K.

    1994-01-18

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca[sub 5](PO[sub 4])[sub 3]F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode. 9 figures.

  10. ON THE RELATIVE SIZES OF PLANETS WITHIN KEPLER MULTIPLE-CANDIDATE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardi, David R.; Gautier, T. N. III; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2013-01-20

    We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple-candidate systems discovered with the Kepler mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet pairs for which one or both objects are approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size-location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet pair has a radius of {approx}> 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }, 68% {+-} 6% of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than {approx}< 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }.

  11. TransportDB: a relational database of cellular membrane transport systems.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qinghu; Kang, Katherine H; Paulsen, Ian T

    2004-01-01

    TransportDB (http://www.membranetransport.org) is a relational database designed for describing the predicted cellular membrane transport proteins in organisms whose complete genome sequences are available. For each organism, the complete set of membrane transport systems was identified and classified into different types and families according to putative membrane topology, protein family, bioenergetics and substrate specificities. Web pages were created to provide user-friendly interfaces to easily access, query and download the data. Additional features, such as a BLAST search tool against known transporter protein sequences, comparison of transport systems from different organisms and phylogenetic trees of individual transporter families are also provided. TransportDB will be regularly updated with data obtained from newly sequenced genomes.

  12. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  13. Linearity of pulsatile pressure-flow relations in the embryonic chick vascular system.

    PubMed

    Yoshigi, M; Keller, B B

    1996-10-01

    The calculation and modeling of vascular input impedance are based on the assumption that pressure and flow are linearly related in the frequency domain. However, this assumption has not been proven for the embryonic circulation. Therefore, we investigated the linearity of pulsatile pressure flow relations in vivo with acute alterations in cycle length. We simultaneously measured dorsal aortic pressure with a servonull system and flow velocity with a 20-MHz pulsed-Doppler system in stage 24 chick embryos (n = 38). Cycle length was acutely altered using thermal probe(s) applied to the sinus venosus. We determined the impedance spectra at several cycle lengths for each embryo and a reference curve from a three-element Windkessel model with the use of nonlinear curve fitting. We then assessed the scatter of experimental impedance along the reference curve as a measure of linearity in the frequency domain. We found that mean vascular resistance did not change after thermal probe applications (P > .20 for each), indicating that acute alterations in cycle length did not alter peripheral vascular properties. Superpositioned impedance spectra showed minimal scatter along the model impedance from 0 to 6 Hz. Goodness of fit values (R2) were near unity (.94 to .97) and were similar for all interventions (P > .07 for Fisher's z, by F test). Above 6 Hz, both modulus and phase spectra exhibited significant scatter (P < .05, by F test). Experimental impedance spectra tended to have a fluctuation and a phase-zero crossover, indicating significant wave reflection in the embryonic circulation. Thus, the embryonic vascular system can be approximated as a linear system from 0 to 6 Hz, the range in which the majority (96.0 +/- 0.18%) of hydraulic energy is dissipated.

  14. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  15. Early Tertiary transtension-related deformation and magmatism along the Tintina fault system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, A.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Friedman, R.; Layer, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Transtensional deformation was concentrated in a zone adjacent to the Tintina strike-slip fault system in Alaska during the early Tertiary. The deformation occurred along the Victoria Creek fault, the trace of the Tintina system that connects it with the Kaltag fault; together the Tintina and Kaltag fault systems girdle Alaska from east to west. Over an area of ???25 by 70 km between the Victoria Creek and Tozitna faults, bimodal volcanics erupted; lacustrine and fluvial rocks were deposited; plutons were emplaced and deformed; and metamorphic rocks cooled, all at about the same time. Plutonic and volcanic rocks in this zone yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 60 Ma; 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages from those plutons and adjacent metamorphic rocks are also ca. 60 Ma. Although early Tertiary magmatism occurred over a broad area in central Alaska, meta- morphism and ductile deformation accompanied that magmatism in this one zone only. Within the zone of deformation, pluton aureoles and metamorphic rocks display consistent NE-SW-stretching lineations parallel to the Victoria Creek fault, suggesting that deformation processes involved subhorizontal elongation of the package. The most deeply buried metamorphic rocks, kyanite-bearing metapelites, occur as lenses adjacent to the fault, which cuts the crust to the Moho (Beaudoin et al., 1997). Geochronologic data and field relationships suggest that the amount of early Tertiary exhumation was greatest adjacent to the Victoria Creek fault. The early Tertiary crustal-scale events that may have operated to produce transtension in this area are (1) increased heat flux and related bimodal within-plate magmatism, (2) movement on a releasing stepover within the Tintina fault system or on a regional scale involving both the Tintina and the Kobuk fault systems, and (3) oroclinal bending of the Tintina-Kaltag fault system with counterclockwise rotation of western Alaska. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  17. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  18. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin.

  19. Systems in a Retardation and Anticipation Relation: Mathematical Developments, Interpretations, Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otlacan, Eufrosina

    2008-10-01

    The starting point of the paper is the system of differential equations proposed by D. M. Dubois to express conjugate retardation and anticipation variables. The research proposes to find the relation between time shift, the constant parameters of the equations and the solutions of these equations. The 2nd and 3rd parts of the paper present mathematical calculus to solve the case when the current state of the slave system is an exponential function, then this state is presumed to be a linear function. There are demonstrated four theorems, especially by means of classical methods to solve ordinary differential equations. Conclusions are presented about each hypothesis which was considered. It is also studied the case when the time shift for the anticipation is different from the time shift of the retardation. The 4th part deals with the problem of systems which have an oscillating movement. The last part of the paper introduces man and his environment as advanced—retarded conjugate systems and makes links with the results of the mathematical calculus.

  20. Central administration of neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuate systemic morphine analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Quan; Jiang, Tian-nan; Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Wang, Rui

    2011-04-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to an opioid-modulating peptide family. NPFF has been reported to play important roles in the control of pain and analgesia through interactions with the opioid system. However, very few studies examined the effect of supraspinal NPFF system on analgesia induced by opiates administered at the peripheral level. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (1, 3 and 10 nmol) dose-dependently inhibited systemic morphine (0.12 mg, i.p.) analgesia in the mouse tail flick test. Similarly, i.c.v. administration of dNPA and NPVF, two agonists highly selective for NPFF(2) and NPFF(1) receptors, respectively, decreased analgesia induced by i.p. morphine in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of NPFF and related peptides were blocked by pretreatment with the NPFF receptors selective antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). These results demonstrate that activation of central NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors has the similar anti-opioid actions on the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine.

  1. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  2. Data analysis and interpretation related to space system/environment interactions at LEO altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. John; Schunk, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies made on the interaction of active systems with the LEO space environment experienced from orbital or suborbital platforms are covered. The issue of high voltage space interaction is covered by theoretical modeling studies of the interaction of charged solar cell arrays with the ionospheric plasma. The theoretical studies were complemented by experimental measurements made in a vacuum chamber. The other active system studied was the emission of effluent from a space platform. In one study the emission of plasma into the LEO environment was studied by using initially a 2-D model, and then extending this model to 3-D to correctly take account of plasma motion parallel to the geomagnetic field. The other effluent studies related to the releases of neutral gas from an orbiting platform. One model which was extended and used determined the density, velocity, and energy of both an effluent gas and the ambient upper atmospheric gases over a large volume around the platform. This model was adapted to study both ambient and contaminant distributions around smaller objects in the orbital frame of reference with scale sizes of 1 m. The other effluent studies related to the interaction of the released neutral gas with the ambient ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic model was used to help understand anomalously high plasma densities measured at times in the vicinity of the space shuttle orbiter.

  3. Relative Distributions of Dreissena bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha in the Lower Don River System, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhulidov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. F.; Nalepa, T. F.; Scherbina, G. H.; Zhulidov, D. A.; Gurtovaya, T. Yu.

    2004-07-01

    A survey was conducted in the lower Don River system in Russia to confirm the presence of Dreissena bugensis, and to compare its distribution relative to that of Dreissena polymorpha. In 1999 and 2001-2002, dreissenid mussels were collected at 15 sites in the main river, in connecting reservoirs, and in a major tributary, the Manych River. Collections were made near stations where long-term monitoring data on total mineral (sum of principal ions) and calcium content were available. Both dreissenid species were found at all sites, with D. bugensis comprising 4-75% of all dreissenids at individual sites. D. bugensis was relatively more abundant than D. polymorpha in the Manych River where total mineral and calcium content was significantly higher than in the Don River, suggesting the two species may have different calcium requirements. Examination of archived samples indicated that D. bugensis was present in the Don River system as early as the 1980s, presenting the unresolved enigma of why D. bugensis has not displaced D. polymorpha as the dominant species as typically found over shorter time periods in other water bodies. (

  4. Phase relations in Fe-Ni-C system at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Narygina, O; Dubrovinsky, L S; Miyajima, N; McCammon, C A; Kantor, I Yu; Mezouar, M; Prakapenka, V B; Dubrovinskaia, N A; Dmitriev, V

    2012-10-23

    We performed comparative study of phase relations in Fe1-x Nix (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.22 atomic fraction) and Fe0.90Ni0.10-x Cx (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 atomic fraction) systems at pressures to 45 GPa and temperatures to 2,600 K using laser-heated diamond anvil cell and large-volume press (LVP) techniques. We show that laser heating of Fe,Ni alloys in DAC even to relatively low temperatures can lead to the contamination of the sample with the carbon coming from diamond anvils, which results in the decomposition of the alloy into iron- and nickel-rich phases. Based on the results of LVP experiments with Fe-Ni-C system (at pressures up to 20 GPa and temperatures to 2,300 K) we demonstrate decrease of carbon solubility in Fe,Ni alloy with pressure.

  5. A GPS based fawn saving system using relative distance and angle determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Biebl, E.

    2016-09-01

    Active UHF RFID systems are often used for identifying, tracking and locating objects. In the present publication a GPS- based localization system for saving fawns during pasture mowing was introduced and tested. Fawns were first found by a UAV before mowing began. They were then tagged with small active RFID transponders, and an appropriate reader was installed on a mowing machine. Conventional direction-of-arrival approaches require a large antenna array with multiple elements and a corresponding coherent receiver, which introduces a large degree of complexity on the reader-side. Instead, our transponders were equipped with a small GPS module, allowing a transponder to determine its own position on request from the reader. A UHF link was used to transmit the location to a machine- mounted reader, where a second GPS receiver was installed. Using information from this second position and a machine- mounted magnetometer for determining the relative north direction of a vehicle, relative distance, and angle between GPS receivers can be calculated. The accuracy and reliability of this novel method were tested under realistic operating conditions, considering critical factors such as the height of grass, the lying position of a fawn, humidity and geographical area.

  6. Age-related motor dysfunction and neuropathology in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Fernagut, P O; Meissner, W G; Biran, M; Fantin, M; Bassil, F; Franconi, J M; Tison, F

    2014-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatonigral, olivo-ponto-cerebellar, and autonomic systems. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) containing alpha-synuclein represent the hallmark of MSA and are recapitulated in mice expressing alpha-synuclein in oligodendrocytes. To assess if oligodendroglial expression of human wild-type alpha-synuclein in mice (proteolipid promoter, PLP-SYN) could be associated with age-related deficits, PLP-SYN and wild-type mice were assessed for motor function, brain morphometry, striatal levels of dopamine and metabolites, dopaminergic loss, and distribution of GCIs. PLP-SYN displayed age-related impairments on a beam-traversing task. MRI revealed a significantly smaller brain volume in PLP-SYN mice at 12 months, which further decreased at 18 months together with increased volume of ventricles and cortical atrophy. The distribution of GCIs was reminiscent of MSA with a high burden in the basal ganglia. Mild dopaminergic cell loss was associated with decreased dopamine turnover at 18 months. These data indicate that PLP-SYN mice may recapitulate some of the progressive features of MSA and deliver endpoints for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies.

  7. Role of glutathione metabolism and glutathione-related antioxidant defense systems in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robaczewska, J; Kedziora-Kornatowska, K; Kozakiewicz, M; Zary-Sikorska, E; Pawluk, H; Pawliszak, W; Kedziora, J

    2016-06-01

    The risk of developing chronic hypertension increases with age. Among others factors, increased oxidative stress is a well-recognized etiological factor for the development of hypertension. The co-occurrence of oxidative stress and hypertension may occur as a consequence of a decrease in antioxidant defense system activity or elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Glutathione is a major intracellular thiol-disulfide redox buffer that serves as a cofactor for many antioxidant enzymes. Glutathione-related parameters are altered in hypertension, suggesting that there is an association between the glutathione-related redox system and hypertension. In this review, we provide mechanistic explanations for how glutathione maintains blood pressure. More specifically, we discuss glutathione's role in combating oxidative stress and maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via the formation of nitrosothiols and nitrosohemoglobin. Although impaired vasodilator responses are observed in S-nitrosothiol-deficient red blood cells, this potential hypertensive mechanism is currently overlooked in the literature. Here we fill in this gap by discussing the role of glutathione in nitric oxide metabolism and controlling blood pressure. We conclude that disturbances in glutathione metabolism might explain age-dependent increases in blood pressure. PMID:27511994

  8. [Pregnant women's experiences and expressions related to the interaction with the health system: a photoethnographic approach].

    PubMed

    Melleiro, Marta Maria; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed to understand women's experiences related to their contact with the health system due to pregnancy. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnography were used as a theoretical-methodological reference framework. Data were collected through participant observation, photographical resources and interviews. The pictures were taken by pregnant women, who received prenatal care at the Basic Health Units in the area covered by the school hospital, which was considered the cultural scenario for this study. The data were presented as a narrative and were analyzed through the Interpretative and Biographical Method. Data resulted in eight categories, which gave rise to three cultural themes, by means of which the collaborators recover and classify their experiences, in order to ratify the results of important events considered positive or to reconsider the negative events. Next, they glimpse at the birth process in all of its dimensions. The eye of the camera sometimes allowed them to register and absorb facts, and sometimes avoided the capturing of things that would be difficult for them to elaborate at that moment. The findings of this study allowed for a comprehensive view on the collaborators' cultural knowledge, in relation to their interaction with the health system, as well as their expectations in the pregnancy-puerperal cycle. PMID:15303207

  9. Apparatus and method for measuring relative phase of signals in a multiple-echo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froggatt, Mark E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the relative phase of echo signals in a multiple-echo system. A signal generator generates an exciting tone burst and subsequent tone bursts delayed in phase from the exciting tone burst. The exciting tone burst is gated into a transducer coupled to the multiple-echo system. Each subsequent tone burst is converted into a series of pulses. Each pulse triggers a sample/hold circuit to sample each echo signal. The samples of the echo signal are averaged and then compared to a reference value. The signal generator is controlled to vary the subsequent tone burst phase delay to determine for each echo signal a subsequent tone burst phase delay that causes the average of the samples of the echo signal to be substantially equal to the reference value wherein the determined subsequent tone burst phase delay is the phase delay of the echo signal with respect to the exciting tone burst. The control circuit then determines the difference in phase delay between echo signals to determine the relative phase delay of the echo signals.

  10. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  11. CRISPR System Acquisition and Evolution of an Obligate Intracellular Chlamydia-Related Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Claire; Cissé, Ousmane H; Rusconi, Brigida; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Croxatto, Antony; Goesmann, Alexander; Collyn, François; Greub, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new Chlamydia-related organism, Protochlamydia naegleriophila KNic, was discovered within a Naegleria amoeba. To decipher the mechanisms at play in the modeling of genomes from the Protochlamydia genus, we sequenced the full genome of Pr. naegleriophila, which includes a 2,885,090 bp chromosome and a 145,285 bp megaplasmid. For the first time within the Chlamydiales order, we describe the presence of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, the immune system of bacteria, located on the chromosome. It is composed of a small CRISPR locus comprising eight repeats and associated cas-cse genes of the subtype I-E. A CRISPR locus is also present within Chlamydia sp. Diamant, another Pr. naegleriophila strain, suggesting that the CRISPR system was acquired by a common ancestor of Pr. naegleriophila, after its divergence from Pr. amoebophila. Both nucleotide bias and comparative genomics approaches identified probable horizontal gene acquisitions within two and four genomic islands in Pr. naegleriophila KNic and Diamant genomes, respectively. The plasmid encodes an F-type conjugative system highly similar to 1) that found in the Pam100G genomic island of Pr. amoebophila UWE25 chromosome, as well as on the plasmid of Rubidus massiliensis and 2) to the three genes remaining in the chromosome of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae strains. Therefore, this conjugative system was likely acquired on an ancestral plasmid before the divergence of Parachlamydiaceae Overall, this new complete Pr. naegleriophila genome sequence enables further investigation of the dynamic processes shaping the genomes of the family Parachlamydiaceae and the genus Protochlamydia. PMID:27516530

  12. CRISPR System Acquisition and Evolution of an Obligate Intracellular Chlamydia-Related Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Bertelli, Claire; Cissé, Ousmane H.; Rusconi, Brigida; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Croxatto, Antony; Goesmann, Alexander; Collyn, François; Greub, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new Chlamydia-related organism, Protochlamydia naegleriophila KNic, was discovered within a Naegleria amoeba. To decipher the mechanisms at play in the modeling of genomes from the Protochlamydia genus, we sequenced the full genome of Pr. naegleriophila, which includes a 2,885,090 bp chromosome and a 145,285 bp megaplasmid. For the first time within the Chlamydiales order, we describe the presence of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, the immune system of bacteria, located on the chromosome. It is composed of a small CRISPR locus comprising eight repeats and associated cas-cse genes of the subtype I-E. A CRISPR locus is also present within Chlamydia sp. Diamant, another Pr. naegleriophila strain, suggesting that the CRISPR system was acquired by a common ancestor of Pr. naegleriophila, after its divergence from Pr. amoebophila. Both nucleotide bias and comparative genomics approaches identified probable horizontal gene acquisitions within two and four genomic islands in Pr. naegleriophila KNic and Diamant genomes, respectively. The plasmid encodes an F-type conjugative system highly similar to 1) that found in the Pam100G genomic island of Pr. amoebophila UWE25 chromosome, as well as on the plasmid of Rubidus massiliensis and 2) to the three genes remaining in the chromosome of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae strains. Therefore, this conjugative system was likely acquired on an ancestral plasmid before the divergence of Parachlamydiaceae. Overall, this new complete Pr. naegleriophila genome sequence enables further investigation of the dynamic processes shaping the genomes of the family Parachlamydiaceae and the genus Protochlamydia. PMID:27516530

  13. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  14. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  15. Melting phase relations in the system H2O - NH3 at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, E.; Hirose, K.; Komabayashi, T.; Ohishi, Y.; Hirao, N.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The density models of Uranus and Neptune constrained by their gravitational moments from Voyager mission suggest that mantles of these planets may be predominantly comprised of water (H2O), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3). The impurities in pure water would greatly influence the phase relations in the water-rich system expected in the icy mantle, which must be known to construct a plausible planetary model. One of important effects of the impurity is on the liquidus temperature (Tliq), since it decides the actual presence of solid phase within the icy mantle. In order to determine Tliq in H2O-rich region of the H2O - CH4 - NH3 ternary system, the melting phase relations in the H2O - CH4 and H2O - NH3 systems must be accurately known. However, previous melting experiments on each binary system were limited to several gigapascals, thus need to be explored to higher P-T conditions for application in interiors of Uranus and Neptune. We have investigated high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) melting phase relations in the H2O - NH3 system based on a combination of visual observation and angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at BL10XU, SPring-8. High-P-T conditions were generated in an externally-resistive heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). Starting material was 20wt% NH3 aqueous solution whose composition was checked via Tliq of the solution measured in a DAC at near atmospheric pressure. The aqueous solution was loaded into a gold-lined hole in a preindented rhenium gasket in order to insulate the sample from rhenium. Pressure was determined from the unit-cell volume of gold liner. Melting and freezing of the sample were detected by monitoring disappearance/appearance of diffraction peaks of solid and diffuse scattering of liquids, as well as observing melting/crystallization of crystal grains under microscope. Up to 20 GPa at room temperature, in addition to ice VII, diffraction peaks of bcc-like phase, which is most likely to be the reported phase VI

  16. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolaore, P.

    2016-03-01

    A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

  17. Forecasting the absolute and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system dynamics model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future dynamic changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system dynamics modeling to estimate future absolute and relative numbers of physicians. Method We constructed a forecasting model using a system dynamics approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis. Result & conclusion As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 2008–2030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians. PMID:23981198

  18. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. PMID:25683472

  19. A Measure for Brain Complexity: Relating Functional Segregation and Integration in the Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tononi, Giulio; Sporns, Olaf; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1994-05-01

    In brains of higher vertebrates, the functional segregation of local areas that differ in their anatomy and physiology contrasts sharply with their global integration during perception and behavior. In this paper, we introduce a measure, called neural complexity (C_N), that captures the interplay between these two fundamental aspects of brain organization. We express functional segregation within a neural system in terms of the relative statistical independence of small subsets of the system and functional integration in terms of significant deviations from independence of large subsets. C_N is then obtained from estimates of the average deviation from statistical independence for subsets of increasing size. C_N is shown to be high when functional segregation coexists with integration and to be low when the components of a system are either completely independent (segregated) or completely dependent (integrated). We apply this complexity measure in computer simulations of cortical areas to examine how some basic principles of neuroanatomical organization constrain brain dynamics. We show that the connectivity patterns of the cerebral cortex, such as a high density of connections, strong local connectivity organizing cells into neuronal groups, patchiness in the connectivity among neuronal groups, and prevalent reciprocal connections, are associated with high values of C_N. The approach outlined here may prove useful in analyzing complexity in other biological domains such as gene regulation and embryogenesis.

  20. The relation of wind stress curl and meridional transport in the Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Spatially high resolved wind data reveals the existence of a very pronounced and persistent cyclonic (negative) wind stress curl (WSC) along the southwest African coast. Several theoretical studies have shown that negative WSC modifies the meridional currents in eastern boundary systems significantly. Since the water mass composition on the southwest African shelf is primarily controlled by the meridional currents, understanding the relation between WSC and the meridional advection is of great importance for the Benguela ecosystem. In this study, we use a regional general circulation model that is validated with observations in order to study the effect of cyclonic WSC on the meridional transport along the southwest African coast. We show that there is a connection between the meridional transport and the WSC on a seasonal time scale in the northern Benguela upwelling system (BUS). The meridional transport follows the annual and semi-annual cycles of the WSC between 20° S and 25° S. The cyclonic WSC in the northern BUS may therefore support a southward advection of tropical waters into the upwelling system.

  1. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  2. Neuronal histaminergic system in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ling; Swaab, Dick F; Bao, Ai-Min

    2013-07-01

    The neuronal histaminergic system is involved in many physiological functions and is severely affected in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The properties of the neuronal histaminergic system in experimental animals and the alterations observed in postmortem brain material of PD or AD patients are reviewed. The production of neuronal histamine shows diurnal fluctuations in control subjects who had no neuropsychiatric disorders, while this fluctuation was strongly altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD. In addition, different alterations shown as expression levels of histidine decarboxylase (the key enzyme for histamine production), histamine-methyltransferase (the histamine deactivating enzyme), and histamine receptors (H(1-4)R) were found in various neurodegenerative disorders. Discrepancies between results from animal models and postmortem human brain material studies have made clear that the validation of animal models is absolutely necessary and that studies on patients and human postmortem material are essential to understand the changes of neuronal histaminergic system occurring in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development.

  4. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  5. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Hullam, Gabor; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Antal, Peter; Anderson, Ian Muir; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Deakin, J. F. William; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Galanin is a stress-inducible neuropeptide and cotransmitter in serotonin and norepinephrine neurons with a possible role in stress-related disorders. Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events in a European white population cohort totaling 2,361 from Manchester, United Kingdom and Budapest, Hungary. Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed a greater relevance of galanin system genes in highly stressed subjects compared with subjects with moderate or low life stress. Using the same method, the effect of the galanin system genes was stronger than the effect of the well-studied 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). Conventional multivariate analysis using general linear models demonstrated that interaction of galanin system genes with life stressors explained more variance (1.7%, P = 0.005) than the life stress-only model. This effect replicated in independent analysis of the Manchester and Budapest subpopulations, and in males and females. The results suggest that the galanin pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression in humans by increasing the vulnerability to early and recent psychosocial stress. Correcting abnormal galanin function in depression could prove to be a novel target for drug development. The findings further emphasize the importance of modeling environmental interaction in finding new genes for depression. PMID:24706871

  6. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27555221

  7. Translational evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric illnesses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence over the past decade has highlighted an important role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the regulation of stress and emotional behavior across divergent species, from rodents to humans. The general findings from this work indicate that the eCB system plays an important role in gating and buffering the stress response, dampening anxiety and regulating mood. Work in rodents has allowed researchers to determine the neural mechanisms mediating this relationship while work in human populations has demonstrated the possible importance of this system in stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety and major depression. These stress-protective effects of eCB signaling appear to be primarily mediated by their actions within corticolimbic structures, particularly the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date discussion of the current level of knowledge in this field, as well as address the current gaps in knowledge and specific areas of research that require attention. PMID:24286185

  8. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  9. Interpretation of Mössbauer experiment in a rotating system: A new proof for general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2015-04-01

    A historical experiment by Kündig on the transverse Doppler shift in a rotating system measured with the Mössbauer effect (Mössbauer rotor experiment) has been recently first re-analyzed and then replied by an experimental research group. The results of re-analyzing the experiment have shown that a correct re-processing of Kündig's experimental data gives an interesting deviation of a relative redshift between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilatation of time. That prediction gives a redshift ∇E/E ≃ -1/2 v2/c2 where v is the tangential velocity of the absorber of resonant radiation, c is the velocity of light in vacuum and the result is given to the accuracy of first-order in v2/c2. Data re-processing gave ∇E/E ≃ - kv2/c2 with k = 0.596 ± 0.006. Subsequent new experimental results by the reply of Kündig experiment have shown a redshift with k = 0.68 ± 0.03 instead. By using Einstein Equivalence Principle, which states the equivalence between the gravitational "force" and the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial frame of reference (included a rotating frame of reference) here we re-analyze the theoretical framework of Mössbauer rotor experiments directly in the rotating frame of reference by using a general relativistic treatment. It will be shown that previous analyses missed an important effect of clock synchronization and that the correct general relativistic prevision in the rotating frame gives k ≃ 2/3 in perfect agreement with the new experimental results. Such an effect of clock synchronization has been missed in various papers in the literature with some subsequent claim of invalidity of relativity theory and/or some attempts to explain the experimental results through "exotic" effects. Our general relativistic interpretation shows, instead, that the new experimental results of the Mössbauer rotor experiment are a new, strong and independent, proof of

  10. The Role of Evaluation Pharmacy Information System in Management of Medication Related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Ehteshami, Asghar; Janesari, Hassan; Feizi, Avat; Mirzaeian, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As a natural phenomenon in the patient’s medication therapy, medication clinical complications potentially or concretely interrupt medical care consequential productivity for the patients. Medication related clinical complications include drug errors, drug side effects, drug interactions and drug usage-related challenges. The present research intends to explore the role that the Pharmacy Information System (PIS) may play in the management of medication complications with reference to the pharmaceutical societies of America and Australia in selected teaching, private and social services hospitals of the city of Isfahan. Methodology As an applied, descriptive-analytical study, this study has been conducted in teaching, private and social services hospitals situated in the city of Isfahan in 2011. The research population consisted of the PISs used in the hospitals under study. Research sample was the same as the population. The data collection instrument used was a self-designed checklist developed based on the guidelines of the American Society of Health System Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Society of Australia validity of which was assessed by expert professors’ views. The data, collected by observation and interview methods, were put into SPSS 18 software to be analyzed. Findings The findings of the study revealed that among the 19 hospitals in question, the highest and lowest ranks in observing the societies of the pharmacists’ established standards related to medication therapy, i.e. registration of drug use status and drug interactions belonged to social services hospitals (mean score of %10.1) and private hospitals (mean score of %6.24), respectively. Conclusion Based on the findings, it can be claimed that the hospitals in question did not pay due attention to standards established by the societies of pharmacists regarding the medication therapy including register of drug usage status, drug interactions and drug side effects in their PISs

  11. Comparison of Investment and Related Requirements for Selected Hydrogen Vehicle System Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogart, S. Locke

    2002-12-01

    A model was developed for production, transmission, delivery, and consumption of hydrogen for large-scale systems ultimately providing shaft-work for hydrogen-based vehicles. (See Glossary, after References). Presently, the supply technologies are limited to solar photovoltaic, wind, nuclear, and nuclear thermochemical sources. Transmission technologies include electric power, hydrogen pipeline, and liquid hydrocarbon pipeline. Delivery technologies include both liquid and gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrocarbon. Storage modes were selected as appropriate for the pathway transmission and delivery modes. Finally, consumption technologies are fuel-cell based, with and without a fuel processor (reformer). Overall, there were 39 separate pathways in this initial analysis. Subsystem efficiencies, capital costs, and capacity factors were derived from a literature search and supported by calculations where necessary. Overall systems efficiency, system peak power capital costs, and systems average power capital costs were calculated to indicate the potential capital investment requirements. The model was exercised to assess the capital cost (and related aspects) requirements to provide the equivalent automobile shaftwork of eleven million barrels of oil per day by the year 2040 (the Administration's objective). These costs range from 650 billion to 11.7 trillion and primarily depend on the selected energy source. The results reveal that nuclear thermochemical systems based on liquid hydrocarbon transmission and delivery lie at the low-cost end of the range, followed by nuclear or wind electric, then nuclear or wind hydrogen pipeline, and finally by solar electric and solar hydrogen pipeline. It is noted that thermochemical systems based on liquid hydrocarbons was the least-cost option for all of the energy sources. One vehicle storage technology, chemical hydride, was determined to be too costly to be included for later analysis. The results were compared against what

  12. Detector system comparison using relative CNR for specific imaging tasks related to neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (neuro-EIGIs)

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-EIGIs require visualization of very small endovascular devices and small vessels. A Microangiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) x-ray detector was developed to improve on the standard flat panel detector’s (FPD’s) ability to visualize small objects during neuro-EIGIs. To compare the performance of FPD and MAF imaging systems, specific imaging tasks related to those encountered during neuro-EIGIs were used to assess contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of different objects. A bar phantom and a stent were placed at a fixed distance from the x-ray focal spot to mimic a clinical imaging geometry and both objects were imaged by each detector system. Imaging was done without anti-scatter grids and using the same conditions for each system including: the same x-ray beam quality, collimator position, source to imager distance (SID), and source to object distance (SOD). For each object, relative contrasts were found for both imaging systems using the peak and trough signals. The relative noise was found using mean background signal and background noise for varying detector exposures. Next, the CNRs were found for these values for each object imaged and for each imaging system used. A relative CNR metric is defined and used to compare detector imaging performance. The MAF utilizes a temporal filter to reduce the overall image noise. The effects of using this filter with the MAF while imaging the clinical object’s CNRs are reported. The relative CNR for the detectors demonstrated that the MAF has superior CNRs for most objects and exposures investigated for this specific imaging task. PMID:25301999

  13. Detector system comparison using relative CNR for specific imaging tasks related to neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (neuro-EIGIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Neuro-EIGIs require visualization of very small endovascular devices and small vessels. A Microangiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) x-ray detector was developed to improve on the standard flat panel detector's (FPD's) ability to visualize small objects during neuro-EIGIs. To compare the performance of FPD and MAF imaging systems, specific imaging tasks related to those encountered during neuro-EIGIs were used to assess contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of different objects. A bar phantom and a stent were placed at a fixed distance from the x-ray focal spot to mimic a clinical imaging geometry and both objects were imaged by each detector system. Imaging was done without anti-scatter grids and using the same conditions for each system including: the same x-ray beam quality, collimator position, source to imager distance (SID), and source to object distance (SOD). For each object, relative contrasts were found for both imaging systems using the peak and trough signals. The relative noise was found using mean background signal and background noise for varying detector exposures. Next, the CNRs were found for these values for each object imaged and for each imaging system used. A relative CNR metric is defined and used to compare detector imaging performance. The MAF utilizes a temporal filter to reduce the overall image noise. The effects of using this filter with the MAF while imaging the clinical object's CNRs are reported. The relative CNR for the detectors demonstrated that the MAF has superior CNRs for most objects and exposures investigated for this specific imaging task.

  14. Monogamy relation of multi-qubit systems for squared Tsallis-q entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Guang-Ming; Song, Wei; Yang, Ming; Li, Da-Chuang; Zhao, Jun-Long; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy. We also show that the μ-th power of Tsallis-q entanglement satisfies the monogamy or polygamy inequalities for any three-qubit state.

  15. Monogamy relation of multi-qubit systems for squared Tsallis-q entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guang-Ming; Song, Wei; Yang, Ming; Li, Da-Chuang; Zhao, Jun-Long; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy. We also show that the μ-th power of Tsallis-q entanglement satisfies the monogamy or polygamy inequalities for any three-qubit state. PMID:27346605

  16. Monogamy relation of multi-qubit systems for squared Tsallis-q entanglement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Ming; Song, Wei; Yang, Ming; Li, Da-Chuang; Zhao, Jun-Long; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-06-27

    Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy. We also show that the μ-th power of Tsallis-q entanglement satisfies the monogamy or polygamy inequalities for any three-qubit state.

  17. Methylesterase behaviour is related to polysaccharide organisation in model systems mimicking cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Estelle; Mutic, Jelena; Nikolic, Jasna; Burr, Sally; Robert, Paul; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2015-06-25

    Pectin gels and pectin-cellulose binary gels were used as cell wall-mimicking systems to investigate the diffusion ability of a fungal pectin methylesterase. Increasing content of cellulose in the gel appears to result: (i) in longer demethylated blocks thus favouring AaPME processivity, and (ii) in accelerated enzyme kinetics. To better understand this unexpected behaviour, a method was set up to investigate the gel porosity as a function of the cellulose content by following the passive diffusion of three pullulans having different hydrodynamic volumes. Like the enzyme, the pullulans diffused more efficiently in the gels containing the highest proportions of cellulose. Altogether, these results suggest that the gel settled differently during formation according to the respective proportions of the two polysaccharides. With cellulose present, a fraction of pectin would form close interactions with the microfibrils resulting in a larger volume accessible to diffusing molecules. This volume would be related to the cellulose concentration. PMID:25839794

  18. Theoretical prediction of phase relations among aqueous solutions and minerals: Salton Sea geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Dennis K.; Norton, Denis L.

    1981-09-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of compositional relations among aqueous solutions and minerals in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-Fe2O3 Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2 HCl at pressures and temperatures corresponding to liquid-vapor equilibrium of H2O permit quantitative description and interpretation of phase relations among rock forming minerals and aqueous solutions in magma-hydrothermal systems. The extensive data base on the Salton Sea geothermal system provides an exemplary case for predicting the chemical characteristics of geothermal fluids associated with metasomatic mineral zones observed in deep drillhole samples. Near the Elmore No. 1 well aqueous species activity ratios of {aNa+}/{aH+} and {aK+}/{aH+} vary several tenths of a log unit with increasing depth and temperature from ∼ 0.6 km and ∼250°C to ∼ 2.2 km and ∼350°C, whereas {aCa2+}/{a2H+} decreases ∼ 2 orders of magnitude for a comparable range in depth and temperature. The fugacity of CO2 gas is ∼1.5-6 bars at ≲ 310°C. Calculated values of aSio2(aq), {aNa+}/{aK+}, {aCa2+}/{aMg2+} and fCO2(g), in the fluid phase coexisting with observed mineralogic phase relations are in remarkably close agreement with measured solute concentrations in geothermal fluids produced from deep drillholes near the Salton Sea. Hydrolysis reactions representing observed phase relations and written with alkali and alkaline earth cations as products have negative standard molal enthalpies (ΔH0P,T,r) and volumes (ΔV0P,T,r) of reactions; consequently, {aNa+}/{aH+}, {aK+}/{aH+}, {aCa2+}/{a2H+}, and {aMg2+}/{a2H+} decrease with increasing temperature at constant pressure, but increase with increasing pressure at constant temperature. An approximate linear relationship exists among these activity ratios and the reciprocal of absolute temperatures because ΔH0P,T,r varies only slightly with increasing temperature at ≲ 250 to 300°C. However, at ≳300°C, ΔH0P,T,r and ΔV0P,T,R decrease dramatically as a consequence of extrema in

  19. NASA Activities as they Relate to Microwave Technology for Aerospace Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses current NASA activities and plans as they relate to microwave technology for aerospace communications. The presentations discusses some examples of the aforementioned technology within the context of the existing and future communications architectures and technology development roadmaps. Examples of the evolution of key technology from idea to deployment are provided as well as the challenges that lay ahead regarding advancing microwave technology to ensure that future NASA missions are not constrained by lack of communication or navigation capabilities. The presentation closes with some examples of emerging ongoing opportunities for establishing collaborative efforts between NASA, Industry, and Academia to encourage the development, demonstration and insertion of communications technology in pertinent aerospace systems.

  20. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  1. Think before you flush! A sustainable aquatic eco-system's relation to human health.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Elaine; Pawloski, Judith

    2012-12-18

    What we do every day at work and in our home lives can make a difference in the quality of our environment. Consider, for example, the flushing of pharmaceuticals into the sewer system can lead to water pollution resulting in a threat to aquatic and human life. In contrast, keeping aquatic life healthy may contribute to human health. Some aquatic-based medications are currently on the market. Others are in various stages of development. In this article the authors argue that, for the benefit of both human and marine life, it is time to implement safer disposal methods for unwanted medications. The authors begin by sharing nursing's guiding principles for environmental health; after which they review research related to pharmaceutical pollution of water resources; describe health care treatments derived from marine life; and discuss suggestions for promoting aquatic health. They conclude that by taking care to preserve aquatic life, we contribute to the quality of our own human lives.

  2. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  3. Monogamy relation of multi-qubit systems for squared Tsallis-q entanglement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Ming; Song, Wei; Yang, Ming; Li, Da-Chuang; Zhao, Jun-Long; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tsallis-q entanglement is a bipartite entanglement measure which is the generalization of entanglement of formation for q tending to 1. We first expand the range of q for the analytic formula of Tsallis-q entanglement. For , we prove the monogamy relation in terms of the squared Tsallis-q entanglement for an arbitrary multi-qubit systems. It is shown that the multipartite entanglement indicator based on squared Tsallis-q entanglement still works well even when the indicator based on the squared concurrence loses its efficacy. We also show that the μ-th power of Tsallis-q entanglement satisfies the monogamy or polygamy inequalities for any three-qubit state. PMID:27346605

  4. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin George; Garcia, Humberto Enrique; McKellar, Michael George

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  5. Effect of low doses of methamphetamine on rat limbic-related neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Cordova, Nathaniel M; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Martin, Amber L; Hanson, Glen R

    2015-08-01

    Administration of methamphetamine (METH) alters limbic-related (LR) neurotensin (NT) systems. Thus, through a D1-receptor mechanism, noncontingent high doses (5-15 mg kg(-1)), and likely self-administration, of METH appears to reduce NT release causing its accumulation and an elevation of NT-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) in limbic-related NT pathways. For comparison, we tested the effect of low doses of METH, that are more like those used in therapy, on NTLI in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and NAs), prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), the lateral habenula (Hb) and basolateral amygdala (Amyg). METH at the dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) in particular, but not 1.00 mg kg(-1), decreased NTLI concentration in all of the LR structures studied, except for the prefrontal cortex; however, these effects were rapid and brief being observed at 5 h but not at 24 h after treatment. In all of the LR areas where NTLI levels were reduced after the low dose of METH, the effect was blocked by pretreatment with either a D1 or a D2 antagonist. Thus, opposite to high doses like those associated with abuse, the therapeutic-like low-dose METH treatment induced reduction in NT tissue levels likely reflected an increase in NT release and a short-term depletion of the levels of this neuropeptide in LR structures, manifesting features comparable to the response of basal ganglia NT systems to similar low doses of METH.

  6. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  7. A discussion of issues related to hydrogeology of deep geologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Niemi, A.

    2012-04-01

    The state of the deep hydrogeological system, including its hydraulic structures and flow patterns, distribution of permeability and porosity, and distribution of hydraulic head values, is very much an open research field. Much work needs to be done to obtain such data and to understand the current conditions at depth. Deep drilling projects worldwide have often been dominated by studies concerning the geological and geophysical processes, as well as the geochemical composition of the deep underground. Hydrogeological processes, on the other hand, have received relatively less attention. Yet many of the important chemical, thermal and mechanical processes of the deep underground are closely linked and cannot be properly addressed without an adequate understanding of fluid flow and solute migration. Hydrologic condition and its evolution may also play a significant role in long term geologic processes, such as orogenesis. Presently, intended to be part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), a deep drilling project is under preparation on the Swedish Caledonides (www.sddp.se/cosc), with the objective to address, among other things, issues related to fluid flow and solute migration. Partly prompted by this project, and partly by the desire to compile the existing knowledge, a workshop was convened in September 2011 in Uppsala, Sweden, to review the state-of-the-art of hydrogeological studies of deep systems, both from the point of view of available observations and data, and from the point of view of modeling and generic conceptual considerations. The discussions and presentations were structured around the following topics: (1) Spatial Extent and Dynamics of the Fluid Flow in the Deep Subsurface; (2) Fluid Flow in Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes occurring at depth; and (3) Monitoring and Modeling Methods. The present talk will aim to present the main outcomes and recommendations from this workshop.

  8. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging. PMID:26884889

  9. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination.

  10. Using global positioning systems to study health-related mobility and participation.

    PubMed

    Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Klein, Louis A; Salzer, Mark S

    2016-07-01

    Community participation, as indicated by mobility and engagement in socially meaningful activities, is a central component of health based on the International Classification of Health, Functioning, and Disease (WHO, 2001). Global positioning systems (GPS) technology is emerging as a tool for tracking mobility and participation in health and disability-related research. This paper fills a gap in the literature and provides a thorough description of a method that can be used to generate a number of different variables related to the constructs of mobility and participation from GPS data. Here, these variables are generated with the help of ST-DBSCAN, a spatiotemporal data mining algorithm. The variables include the number of unique destinations, activity space area, distance traveled, time in transit, and time at destinations. Data obtained from five individuals with psychiatric disabilities who carried GPS-enabled cell phones for two weeks are presented. Within- and across- individual variability on these constructs was observed. Given the feasibility of gathering data with GPS, larger scale studies of mobility and participation employing this method are warranted.

  11. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. PMID:22591246

  12. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related toCO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of coupled hydrological and geomechanical processes during a deep underground injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a hypothetical brine aquifer. We consider a multilayer system in which the injection zone is situated below a sequence of caprock and aquifer layers that are intersected by a vertical fault zone. The fault zone consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprock layers that are located just above the injection zone. Initially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealed with minerals, but we allow fractures (and the fractured zones) to open as a result of injection induced reductions in effective stresses. Our results indicate that even when assuming a very sensitive relationship between effective stress and fractured-zone permeability, the injection-induced changes in permeability across are only moderate with largest changes occurring in the first caprock layer, just above the injection zone. As a result, the upward leakage rate remains relatively small and therefore changes in fluid pressure and hydromechanical effects in overlying zones are also relatively small for the case studied in this paper.

  13. Inference of Disease-Related Molecular Logic from Systems-Based Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Varadan, Vinay; Anastassiou, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    Computational analysis of gene expression data from microarrays has been useful for medical diagnosis and prognosis. The ability to analyze such data at the level of biological modules, rather than individual genes, has been recognized as important for improving our understanding of disease-related pathways. It has proved difficult, however, to infer pathways from microarray data by deriving modules of multiple synergistically interrelated genes, rather than individual genes. Here we propose a systems-based approach called Entropy Minimization and Boolean Parsimony (EMBP) that identifies, directly from gene expression data, modules of genes that are jointly associated with disease. Furthermore, the technique provides insight into the underlying biomolecular logic by inferring a logic function connecting the joint expression levels in a gene module with the outcome of disease. Coupled with biological knowledge, this information can be useful for identifying disease-related pathways, suggesting potential therapeutic approaches for interfering with the functions of such pathways. We present an example providing such gene modules associated with prostate cancer from publicly available gene expression data, and we successfully validate the results on additional independently derived data. Our results indicate a link between prostate cancer and cellular damage from oxidative stress combined with inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms normally triggered by such damage. PMID:16789819

  14. Your brain on drugs: imaging of drug-related changes in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tamrazi, Benita; Almast, Jeevak

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a substantial problem in society today and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Various drugs are associated with serious complications affecting the brain, and it is critical to recognize the imaging findings of these complications to provide prompt medical management. The central nervous system (CNS) is a target organ for drugs of abuse as well as specific prescribed medications. Drugs of abuse affecting the CNS include cocaine, heroin, alcohol, amphetamines, toluene, and cannabis. Prescribed medications or medical therapies that can affect the CNS include immunosuppressants, antiepileptics, nitrous oxide, and total parenteral nutrition. The CNS complications of these drugs include neurovascular complications, encephalopathy, atrophy, infection, changes in the corpus callosum, and other miscellaneous changes. Imaging abnormalities indicative of these complications can be appreciated at both magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT). It is critical for radiologists to recognize complications related to drugs of abuse as well as iatrogenic effects of various medications. Therefore, diagnostic imaging modalities such as MR imaging and CT can play a pivotal role in the recognition and timely management of drug-related complications in the CNS. PMID:22582355

  15. A multicenter study confirms CD226 gene association with systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CD226 genetic variants have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases and recently with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to test the influence of CD226 loci in SSc susceptibility, clinical phenotypes and autoantibody status in a large multicenter European population. Methods A total of seven European populations of Caucasian ancestry were included, comprising 2,131 patients with SSc and 3,966 healthy controls. Three CD226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs763361, rs3479968 and rs727088, were genotyped using Taqman 5'allelic discrimination assays. Results Pooled analyses showed no evidence of association of the three SNPs, neither with the global disease nor with the analyzed subphenotypes. However, haplotype block analysis revealed a significant association for the TCG haplotype (SNP order: rs763361, rs34794968, rs727088) with lung fibrosis positive patients (PBonf = 3.18E-02 OR 1.27 (1.05 to 1.54)). Conclusion Our data suggest that the tested genetic variants do not individually influence SSc susceptibility but a CD226 three-variant haplotype is related with genetic predisposition to SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:22531499

  16. Pesticides, chemical and industrial exposures in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; De Roos, A J

    2014-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests exposure to chemicals and industrial pollutants may increase risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we review research on SLE associations with occupational and industrial exposures, primarily drawing on studies in human populations and summarizing epidemiologic research published in the past decade. The association of occupational silica exposure with SLE is well established, but key questions remain, including the required dose and susceptibility factors, and SLE risk due to other silicate exposures. Research on SLE and other exposures is less well developed, though several potential associations merit further consideration because of the consistency of preliminary human findings, experimental animal research, and biologic plausibility. These include pesticides and solvents, for which experimental findings also support investigation of specific agents, including organochlorines and trichloroethylene. Experimental findings and biologic plausibility suggest research on SLE and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons (i.e. mineral oils) is warranted, especially given the widespread exposures in the population. Experimental and limited human findings support further investigation of SLE related to mercury exposure, especially in dental occupations. Research on environmental risk factors in risk-enriched cohorts (family-based) is recommended, as is further investigation of exposures in relation to intermediate markers of effect (e.g. antinuclear antibodies), clinical features (e.g. nephritis), and outcomes.

  17. Modulation of glutathione-related antioxidant defense system of fish chronically treated by the fungicide propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, residual fungicides are generally recognized as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the toxicological effects of these contaminants have not been adequately researched. In this study, the chronic effect of PCZ, a triazole-containing fungicide commonly present in aquatic environment, on GSH-related antioxidant system and oxidative stress indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Fish were exposed at sub-lethal concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50 and 500 microg/L) for 7, 20 and 30 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzyme activities, including GPx, GR and GST, were quantified in three tissues-liver, gill and muscle. The levels of LPO and CP were also measured as makers of oxidative damage. In addition, the correlations of the measured parameters in various tissues were evaluated by using PCA. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of PCZ has resulted in different responses in various tissues and the gill was the most sensitive tissue; however, before these parameters are used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual fungicides in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future.

  18. Age-related gene expression change of GABAergic system in visual cortex of rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenghong; Han, Qian; Ma, Yuanye; Su, Bing

    2016-09-30

    Degradation of visual function is a common phenomenon during aging and likely mediated by change in the impaired central visual pathway. Treatment with GABA or its agonist could recover the ability of visual neurons in the primary visual cortex of senescent macaques. However, little is known about how GABAergic system change is related to the aged degradation of visual function in nonhuman primate. With the use of quantitative PCR method, we measured the expression change of 24 GABA related genes in the primary visual cortex (Brodmann's 17) of different age groups. In this study, both of mRNA and protein of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results revealed that the level of GAD65 message was not significantly altered, but the proteins were significantly decreased in the aged monkey. As GAD65 plays an important role in GABA synthesis, the down-regulation of GAD65 protein was likely the key factor leading to the observed GABA reduction in the primary visual cortex of the aged macaques. In addition, 7 of 14 GABA receptor genes were up-regulated and one GABA receptor gene was significantly reduced during aging process even after Banjamini correction for multiple comparisons (P<0.05). These results suggested that the dysregulation of GAD65 protein might contribute to some age-related neural visual dysfunctions and most of GABA receptor genes induce a clear indication of compensatory effect for the reduced GABA release in the healthy aged monkey cortex. PMID:27196061

  19. Complement (C3) metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus in relation to the disease course.

    PubMed

    Swaak, A J; van Rooyen, A; Vogelaar, C; Pillay, M; Hack, E

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic turnover studies of complement components (C3) provide a direct insight into the dynamics of the complement regulation (synthesis and catabolism). To obtain information about the role of the complement system in relation to the disease course in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prospective study was performed. The results of the C3 turnover studies were also correlated to the complement levels (C3) and to the presence of C3 conversion products (C3d) in circulation. In nearly all SLE patients (in 21 of the 26 metabolic turnover studies) a C3 hypercatabolism was found, with a quantitative difference depending on the disease phase. In the period preceding an exacerbation an impaired C3 synthesis was observed (in three of the four studies), in contrast to SLE patients in stable disease phase where in one case only a decrease C3 synthesis was calculated (1 out of 15 observations). A linear correlation was found between the serum C3-levels and the ratio of C3d/C3, suggesting that both serologic parameters are quantitatively indicative for C3 hypercatabolism. The study shows that in all SLE patients, irrespective of the disease stage, an increased C3 consumption is found, which supports the concept that a chronic inflammatory process is constantly present.

  20. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-12-23

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson's correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = -0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = -0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = -0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.769, -0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  1. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J. J.; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish. PMID:26703710

  2. Type IV secretion: the Agrobacterium VirB/D4 and related conjugation systems

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The translocation of DNA across biological membranes is an essential process for many living organisms. In bacteria, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are used to deliver DNA as well as protein substrates from donor to target cells. The T4SS are structurally complex machines assembled from a dozen or more membrane proteins in response to environmental signals. In Gram-negative bacteria, the conjugation machines are composed of a cell envelope-spanning secretion channel and an extracellular pilus. These dynamic structures (i) direct formation of stable contacts—the mating junction—between donor and recipient cell membranes, (ii) transmit single-stranded DNA as a nucleoprotein particle, as well as protein substrates, across donor and recipient cell membranes, and (iii) mediate disassembly of the mating junction following substrate transfer. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the mechanistic details of DNA trafficking with a focus on the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS and related conjugation systems. PMID:15546668

  3. Type IV secretion: the Agrobacterium VirB/D4 and related conjugation systems.

    PubMed

    Christie, Peter J

    2004-11-11

    The translocation of DNA across biological membranes is an essential process for many living organisms. In bacteria, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are used to deliver DNA as well as protein substrates from donor to target cells. The T4SS are structurally complex machines assembled from a dozen or more membrane proteins in response to environmental signals. In Gram-negative bacteria, the conjugation machines are composed of a cell envelope-spanning secretion channel and an extracellular pilus. These dynamic structures (i) direct formation of stable contacts-the mating junction-between donor and recipient cell membranes, (ii) transmit single-stranded DNA as a nucleoprotein particle, as well as protein substrates, across donor and recipient cell membranes, and (iii) mediate disassembly of the mating junction following substrate transfer. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the mechanistic details of DNA trafficking with a focus on the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS and related conjugation systems. PMID:15546668

  4. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Keiser, G. M.; Lockhart, J. M.; Ohshima, Y.; Shestople, P.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16fo clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency3. The 16fo clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16fo clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests.

  5. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A quantitative dynamic systems model of health-related quality of life among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, E Saskia; van Geert, Paul L; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation procedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population. PMID:26604722

  7. A quantitative dynamic systems model of health-related quality of life among older adults.

    PubMed

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, E Saskia; van Geert, Paul L; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation procedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population. PMID:26604722

  8. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    PubMed

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment. PMID:27518293

  9. Therapeutic targeting of the complement system in age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Troutbeck, Robyn; Al-Qureshi, Salmaan; Guymer, Robyn H

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has produced pivotal change in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of global blindness. In this time, the complement system has featured as a unifying theme for several elements of new evidence: initially, the discovery of complement proteins within drusen and subsequently, the association between AMD and mutations in various complement pathway genes, most notably complement factor H. Increasingly, a wealth of data are pointing towards a role for chronic local inflammation and complement activation in the patho-aetiology of AMD. These findings have paved the way for the exploration of a new paradigm of therapy in AMD management; targeting of specific molecular constituents in the complement pathway thus producing dampening or inhibition of the inflammatory response. Such an approach has the potential to intervene earlier in the disease process and ideally before vision is compromised. In this review we discuss the role of the complement system in AMD, novel therapies in preclinical evaluation and clinical trial, and whether these have a part to play in reducing the burden of disease.

  10. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.C.

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, Serena S; Nilsson, Annelie C; Lollo, Nicole D; Liegler, Teri J; Petropoulos, Christos J; Deeks, Steven G; Paxinos, Ellen E; Price, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1) progression of systemic infection, 2) CSF white blood cell (WBC) count, 3) antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 4) neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL). CSF HIV viral loads (VLs) correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts <50 cells/μL associated with a low prevalence of CSF pleocytosis and large differences between plasma and CSF VL. CSF HIV RNA correlated neither with the severity of the AIDS dementia complex (ADC) nor abnormal quantitative neurological performance, although these measures were associated with depression of CD4 counts. In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression

  12. Some mineral stability relations in the system CaOMgOSiO2H2OHCl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luce, R.W.; Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Mineral-aqueous solution equilibria for the assemblages talc-quartz, tremolite-talc-quartz, diopside-tremolite-quartz, wollastonite-diopside-quartz and wollastonite-quartz have been studied at 2 kb total pressure, 500?? to 700??C and chloride concentrations from 0.03 to 6.0 molal. Most work was at 1 m chloride. Both buffered and unbuffered data were obtained and a recalibration of the Ag-AgCl buffer is presented. Log equilibrium quotients at 500??, 600?? and 700??C are respectively: Ta-Qz ( mMgCl2 mHCl2) 2.57, 1.71, 0.73; Tr-Ta-Qz and Di-Tr-Qz ( mCaCl2 mMgCl2mHCl2) 4.98, 3.99, 2.21 and 7.29, 5.30, 3.56; WoDi-Qz ( mCaCl2 mMgCl2) 3.30, 3.00, 2.79: Wo-Qz ( mCaCl2 mHCl2) 5.15, 3.95, 2.68. Mineral stability fields plotted in terms of these concentration data more tangibly represent the compositional character of real systems and the mass transfer capabilities of their fluids than do the analogous theoretical activity diagrams. Overall dissociation constants of MgCl2 and CaCl2 were calculated from the experimental data using the calculated ionic activity constants for the reactions and the established dissociation constants of HCl. The negative log values are respectively: 3.88. 6.63, 9.20 for CaCl2 and 4.60, 7.54, 10.37 for MgCl2 at 500??, 600?? and 700??C, 2 kb. The Ca values are about an order of magnitude more positive than the conductance-derived values by Frantz and Marshall (1982). The phase relations developed in this study have application to the genesis of talc, tremolite, and diopside-bearing assemblages in some regional metamorphic rocks, but more specifically to the calcsilicate skarn assemblages of many metasomatic aureoles. The equilibrium fluids are characterized by high concentrations of Ca relative to Mg and increasing Ca Mg ratios with decreasing temperatures. The stability fields of talc, tremolite, and quartz expand relative to those of diopside and wollastonite with decreasing temperature, hence their more common appearance as retrograde products in

  13. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Terry L; Peleg, Ika

    2009-01-01

    Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years), or colonoscopy (within 10 years); delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI), who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW). Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91); 99 (66%) were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46%) had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total) had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10%) had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65%) of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38%) had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management, focusing on following

  14. Inhibition of methyldigoxin-induced arrhythmias by pentadecapeptide BPC 157: a relation with NO-system.

    PubMed

    Balenovic, Dijana; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Udovicic, Mario; Simonji, Karol; Hanzevacki, Jadranka Separovic; Barisic, Ivan; Kranjcevic, Stjepan; Prkacin, Ingrid; Coric, Vedran; Brcic, Luka; Coric, Marijana; Brcic, Iva; Borovic, Suzana; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2009-08-01

    Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) reversed congestive heart failure and various arrhythmias, influenced the NO-system and showed no proarrhythmic effect. In therapy analogy, we challenged rats with digitalis, to show attenuation by BPC 157 and the relation between the NO-system and digitalis toxicity. (i). BPC 157 prophylactic effect. Development of cumulative intravenous digitalis toxicity, BPC 157 (50 microg, 10 microg, 10 ng/kg applied intravenously immediately before a methyldigoxin increment regimen (2.0/1.5/1.5/1.0 mg/kg at 15 min-intervals, total dose 6.0 mg/kg/45 min)) reduced the number of ventricular premature beats, prolonged the time before onset of ventricular tachycardia, reduced ventricular tachycardia and AV-block duration (microg-regimes) or reduced mainly the AV-block duration (ng-regimen). (ii). BPC 157 therapy. Advanced methyldigoxin toxicity (6.0 mg/kg i.v. bolus). BPC 157 applied at the 20th second of the grade 3 AV-block shortened AV-blocks, mitigated a further digitalis toxicity course. Ventricular tachycardias were either avoided (50 microg), or markedly reduced (10 microg, 10 ng). Fatal outcome was either avoided (50 microg), reduced (10 microg), or only delayed (10 ng) (iii) BPC 157, L-NAME, l-arginine, L-NAME+l-arginine application. L-NAME-application (5 mg/kg i.p.) aggravated methyldigoxin-arrhythmias. l-arginine (200 mg/kg i.p.) alone had no effect but blunted L-NAME-exaggeration (L-NAME+l-arginine). In this respect, BPC 157 (50 microg/kg i.p.) was prophylactically and therapeutically more effective: the antagonism of L-NAME with BPC 157 produced an effect similar to BPC 157 alone. In conclusion, digitalis-induced arrhythmias in rats could be prevented and counteracted by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, mainly through an interaction with the NO-system. PMID:19465062

  15. Detached binary system MQ Centauri and its relation with Crux OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Efecan; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the astrophysical characteristics of eclipsing binary system MQ Cen and its relation with Crux OB1 association has been investigated by means of analysing high resolution (R ˜48000) spectra and light curves in Strömgren bands. Analysis of the available data yielded high precision parameters of the system which allowed us to derive reliable age and distance. The Fourier disentangling method was applied to the composite spectra of MQ Cen for reconstructing the component spectra. The modeling of the high resolution spectra revealed that the secondary component of MQ Cen rotates slower than the synchronous rotation velocity unlike the primary star which is in synchronous rotation. The photometric distance of the binary was found to be consistent with the distance given for Crux OB1 associaton (2.7 kpc) by Kaltcheva and Georgiev (1993). Space velocity of the system also supports the membership of MQ Cen to the Crux OB1 association. Age estimation was made by comparing the positions of components on HR diagram with isochrones. Conclusion shows that MQ Cen is older than the age determined for Crux OB1 association in the literature. This result implies that MQ Cen may belong to one of the older subgroups in the Crux OB1 association complex and the stellar formation in the complex started long ago than previously predicted. The evolutionary status of the component stars suggest that both components have reached the final stage of their Main Sequence lifetime and proceed to the Giant Branch. KEYWORDS: Absolute parameters, Cru OB1, eclipsing binaries, MQ Cen, OB associations, spectral disentangling.

  16. Inter-system biases estimation in multi-GNSS relative positioning with GPS and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Cecile; Warnant, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the European Galileo program has experienced major progress in 2015 with the launch of 6 satellites belonging to the new Full Operational Capability (FOC) generation. Associated with the ongoing GPS modernization, many more frequencies and satellites are now available. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on GPS and Galileo overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. Once these biases estimated and removed from the model, a solution involving a unique pivot satellite for the two considered constellations can be obtained. Such an approach implies that the addition of even one single Galileo satellite to the GPS-only model will strengthen it. The combined use of L1 and L5 from GPS with E1 and E5a from Galileo in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependant error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs is conducted on various pairs of receivers over large time spans. The possible influence of temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values is also investigated. Our study is based on the 5 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi-GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS and Galileo standalone solutions.

  17. Logarithmic and power law input-output relations in sensory systems with fold-change detection.

    PubMed

    Adler, Miri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2014-08-01

    Two central biophysical laws describe sensory responses to input signals. One is a logarithmic relationship between input and output, and the other is a power law relationship. These laws are sometimes called the Weber-Fechner law and the Stevens power law, respectively. The two laws are found in a wide variety of human sensory systems including hearing, vision, taste, and weight perception; they also occur in the responses of cells to stimuli. However the mechanistic origin of these laws is not fully understood. To address this, we consider a class of biological circuits exhibiting a property called fold-change detection (FCD). In these circuits the response dynamics depend only on the relative change in input signal and not its absolute level, a property which applies to many physiological and cellular sensory systems. We show analytically that by changing a single parameter in the FCD circuits, both logarithmic and power-law relationships emerge; these laws are modified versions of the Weber-Fechner and Stevens laws. The parameter that determines which law is found is the steepness (effective Hill coefficient) of the effect of the internal variable on the output. This finding applies to major circuit architectures found in biological systems, including the incoherent feed-forward loop and nonlinear integral feedback loops. Therefore, if one measures the response to different fold changes in input signal and observes a logarithmic or power law, the present theory can be used to rule out certain FCD mechanisms, and to predict their cooperativity parameter. We demonstrate this approach using data from eukaryotic chemotaxis signaling.

  18. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  19. Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management: Kickoff Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to brief meeting participants on the "Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management" solicitation's components, objectives and goals.

  20. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs' lifetime increases by 3-24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs' lifetime by 3-30 h, 3-27 h, and 3-30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs' lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs' lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs' ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs' lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20-22% of the total variance of MCSs' lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs' lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. These regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions. PMID:27313203

  1. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  2. Hydrogeological structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough backarc basin are considered as related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting. Since the seafloor is dominantly covered with felsic volcaniclastic material and/or terrigenous sediment, hydrothermal circulation is expected to be distributed within sediment layers of significantly high porosity. Deep drilling through an active hydrothermal field at the Iheya North Knoll in the middle Okinawa Trough during IODP Expedition 331 provided a unique opportunity to directly access the subseafloor. While sedimentation along the slopes of the knoll was dominated by volcanic clasts of tubular pumice, intense hydrothermal alteration was recognized in the vicinity of the hydrothermal center even at very shallow depths. Detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies of hydrothermal clay minerals in the altered sediment suggest that the prevalent alteration is attributed to laterally extensive fluid intrusion and occupation within the sediment layer. Onboard measurements of physical properties of the obtained sediment revealed drastic changes of the porosity caused by hydrothermal interactions. While unaltered sediment showed porosity higher than 70%, the porosity drastically decreased in the layer of anhydrite formation. On the other hand, the porosity remained high (~50%) in the layer of only chlorite alteration. Cap rock formation caused by anhydrite precipitation would inhibit the ascent of high temperature fluids to the seafloor. Moreover, an interbedded nature of pelagic mud units and matrix-free pumice deposits may prompt formation of a tightly layered architecture of aquifers and aquicludes. This sediment architecture should be highly conducive to lateral flow pseudo-parallel to the surface topography. Occurrence of sphalerite-rich sulfides was recognized as associated with detrital and altered sediment, suggesting mineralization related to subsurface chemical processes. Moreover, the vertical profiles of

  3. Spin-Orbit Interaction and Related Transport Phenomena in 2d Electron and Hole Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaetskii, A.

    Spin-orbit interaction is responsible for many physical phenomena which are under intensive study currently. Here we discuss several of them. The first phenomenon is the edge spin accumulation, which appears due to spin-orbit interaction in 2D mesoscopic structures in the presence of a charge current. We consider the case of a strong spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum, i.e. a spin precession length is small compared to the mean free path l. The structure can be either in a ballistic regime (when the mean free path is the largest scale in the problem) or quasi-ballistic regime (when l is much smaller than the sample size). We show how physics of edge spin accumulation in different situations should be understood from the point of view of unitarity of boundary scattering. Using transparent method of scattering states, we are able to explain some previous puzzling theoretical results. We clarify the important role of the form of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, the role of the boundary conditions, etc., and reveal the wrong results obtained in the field by other researchers. The relation between the edge spin density and the bulk spin current in different regimes is discussed. The detailed comparison with the existing theoretical works is presented. Besides, we consider several new transport phenomena which appear in the presence of spin-orbit interaction, for example, magnetotransport phenomena in an external classical magnetic field. In particular, new mechanism of negative magneto-resistance appears which is due to destruction of spin fluxes by the magnetic field, and which can be really pronounced in 2D systems with strong scatterers.

  4. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3-24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3-30 h, 3-27 h, and 3-30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20-22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. These regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions.

  5. Phase relations in the system Fe-Si determined in an internally-resistive heated DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komabayashi, T.; Antonangeli, D.; Morard, G.; Sinmyo, R.; Mezouar, N.

    2015-12-01

    It is believed that the iron-rich Earth's core contains some amounts of light elements on the basis of the density deficit of 7 % compared to pure iron. The identification of the kinds and amounts of the light elements in the core places constraints on the origin, formation, and evolution of the Earth because dissolution of light elements into an iron-rich core should place important constraints on the thermodynamic conditions (pressure (P), temperature (T), and oxygen fugacity) of the equilibration between liquid silicate and liquid iron during the core formation. Among potential light elements, silicon has been attracting attentions because it is abundant in the mantle, partitioned into both solid and liquid irons, and very sensitive to the oxygen fugacity. An important phase relation in iron alloy is a transition between the face-centred cubic (FCC) structure and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure. This boundary is a key to infer the stable structure in the inner core and is used to derive thermodynamic properties of the phases (Komabayashi, 2014). In the Fe-Si system, previous reports were based on experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells (DAC), which might have included large termperature uncertainties. We have revisited this boundary in the system Fe-Si using an internally resistive-heated DAC combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the beamline ID27, ESRF. The internally-heated DAC (Komabayashi et al., 2009; 2012) provides much more stable heating than the laser-heated DAC and much higher temperature than externally resistive-heated DAC, which enables us to place tight constraints on the P-T locations of the boundaries. Also because the minimum measurable temperature is as low as 1000 K due to the stable electric heating, the internal heating is able to examine the low temperature phase stability which was not studied by the previous studies. We will report the P-T locations of the boundaries and evaluate the effect of Si on the phase

  6. How Phosphotransferase System-Related Protein Phosphorylation Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism in Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, Josef; Francke, Christof; Postma, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is found only in bacteria, where it catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of numerous monosaccharides, disaccharides, amino sugars, polyols, and other sugar derivatives. To carry out its catalytic function in sugar transport and phosphorylation, the PTS uses PEP as an energy source and phosphoryl donor. The phosphoryl group of PEP is usually transferred via four distinct proteins (domains) to the transported sugar bound to the respective membrane component(s) (EIIC and EIID) of the PTS. The organization of the PTS as a four-step phosphoryl transfer system, in which all P derivatives exhibit similar energy (phosphorylation occurs at histidyl or cysteyl residues), is surprising, as a single protein (or domain) coupling energy transfer and sugar phosphorylation would be sufficient for PTS function. A possible explanation for the complexity of the PTS was provided by the discovery that the PTS also carries out numerous regulatory functions. Depending on their phosphorylation state, the four proteins (domains) forming the PTS phosphorylation cascade (EI, HPr, EIIA, and EIIB) can phosphorylate or interact with numerous non-PTS proteins and thereby regulate their activity. In addition, in certain bacteria, one of the PTS components (HPr) is phosphorylated by ATP at a seryl residue, which increases the complexity of PTS-mediated regulation. In this review, we try to summarize the known protein phosphorylation-related regulatory functions of the PTS. As we shall see, the PTS regulation network not only controls carbohydrate uptake and metabolism but also interferes with the utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus and the virulence of certain pathogens. PMID:17158705

  7. Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

    1990-12-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Sympathetic nervous system in obesity-related hypertension: mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kalil, Graziela Z; Haynes, William G

    2013-01-01

    Obesity markedly increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which may be related to activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Sympathetic overactivity directly and indirectly contributes to blood pressure (BP) elevation in obesity, including stimulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). The adipocyte-derived peptide leptin suppresses appetite, increases thermogenesis, but also raises SNS activity and BP. Obese individuals exhibit hyperleptinemia but are resistant to its appetite-suppressing actions. Interestingly, animal models of obesity exhibit preserved sympathoexcitatory and pressor actions of leptin, despite resistance to its anorexic and metabolic actions, suggesting selective leptin resistance. Disturbance of intracellular signaling at specific hypothalamic neural networks appears to underlie selective leptin resistance. Delineation of these pathways should lead to novel approaches to treatment. In the meantime, treatment of obesity–hypertension has relied on antihypertensive drugs. Although sympathetic blockade is mechanistically attractive in obesity–hypertension, in practice its effects are disappointing because of adverse metabolic effects and inferior outcomes. On the basis of subgroup analyses of obese patients in large randomized clinical trials, drugs such as diuretics and RAAS blockers appear superior in preventing cardiovascular events in obesity–hypertension. An underused alternative approach to obesity–hypertension is induction of weight loss, which reduces circulating leptin and insulin, partially reverses resistance to these hormones, decreases sympathetic activation and improves BP and other risk factors. Though weight loss induced by lifestyle is often modest and transient, carefully selected pharmacological weight loss therapies can produce substantial and sustained antihypertensive effects additive to lifestyle interventions. PMID:22048570

  9. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    character of the intrusion was caused by assimilation of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks. Tertiary faults dismember the area and drop down the upper part of the mineralizing system to the west. The abundant and widespread kaolinite in oxide ores is relatively disordered (1A polytype) and has ??D and ??18O values suggestive of a supergene origin. The deep weathering and oxidation of the ores associated with exhumation made them amenable to open-pit mining and processing using cyanide heap leach methods. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  10. Analysis of speech-related variance in rapid event-related fMRI using a time-aware acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Grabowski, T J; Razavi, M; Eaton, B; Bolinger, L

    2006-02-15

    Speech production introduces signal changes in fMRI data that can mimic or mask the task-induced BOLD response. Rapid event-related designs with variable ISIs address these concerns by minimizing the correlation of task and speech-related signal changes without sacrificing efficiency; however, the increase in residual variance due to speech still decreases statistical power and must be explicitly addressed primarily through post-processing techniques. We investigated the timing, magnitude, and location of speech-related variance in an overt picture naming fMRI study with a rapid event-related design, using a data acquisition system that time-stamped image acquisitions, speech, and a pneumatic belt signal on the same clock. Using a spectral subtraction algorithm to remove scanner gradient noise from recorded speech, we related the timing of speech, stimulus presentation, chest wall movement, and image acquisition. We explored the relationship of an extended speech event time course and respiration on signal variance by performing a series of voxelwise regression analyses. Our results demonstrate that these effects are spatially heterogeneous, but their anatomic locations converge across subjects. Affected locations included basal areas (orbitofrontal, mesial temporal, brainstem), areas adjacent to CSF spaces, and lateral frontal areas. If left unmodeled, speech-related variance can result in regional detection bias that affects some areas critically implicated in language function. The results establish the feasibility of detecting and mitigating speech-related variance in rapid event-related fMRI experiments with single word utterances. They further demonstrate the utility of precise timing information about speech and respiration for this purpose. PMID:16412665

  11. Investigation of the molecular similarity in closely related protein systems: The PrP case study.

    PubMed

    Storchi, Loriano; Paciotti, Roberto; Re, Nazzareno; Marrone, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid conversion is a massive detrimental modification affecting several proteins upon specific physical or chemical stimuli characterizing a plethora of diseases. In many cases, the amyloidogenic stimuli induce specific structural features to the protein conferring the propensity to misfold and form amyloid deposits. The investigation of mutants, structurally similar to their native isoform but inherently prone to amyloid conversion, may be a viable strategy to elucidate the structural features connected with amyloidogenesis. In this article, we present a computational protocol based on the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and grid-based approaches suited for the pairwise comparison of closely related protein structures. This method was applied on the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a case study and, in particular, addressed to the quali/quantification of the structural features conferred by either E200K mutations and treatment with CaCl(2), both able to induce the scrapie conversion of PrP. Several schemes of comparison were developed and applied to this case study, and made up suitable of application to other protein systems. At this purpose an in-house python codes has been implemented that, together with the parallelization of the GRID force fields program, will spread the applicability of the proposed computational procedure. PMID:26018750

  12. Changes Related to Age in Natural and Acquired Systemic Self-IgG Responses in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Dassé, Romuald; Lefranc, Didier; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Dussart, Patricia; Dutoit-Lefevre, Virginie; Sendid, Boualem; Sombo Mambo, François; Vermersch, Patrick; Prin, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Background. Absence of acquired protective immunity in endemic areas children leads to higher susceptibility to severe malaria. To investigate the involvement of regulatory process related to self-reactivity, we evaluated potent changes in auto-antibody reactivity profiles in children and older subjects living in malaria-endemic zones comparatively to none-exposed healthy controls. Methods. Analysis of IgG self-reactive footprints was performed using Western blotting against healthy brain antigens. Plasmas of 102 malaria exposed individuals (MEIs) from endemic zone, with or without cerebral malaria (CM) were compared to plasmas from non-endemic controls (NECs). Using linear discriminant and principal component analysis, immune footprints were compared by counting the number, the presence or absence of reactive bands. We identified the most discriminant bands with respect to age and clinical status. Results. A higher number of bands were recognized by IgG auto-antibodies in MEI than in NEC. Characteristic changes in systemic self-IgG-reactive repertoire were found with antigenic bands that discriminate Plasmodium falciparum infections with or without CM according to age. 8 antigenic bands distributed in MEI compared with NEC were identified while 6 other antigenic bands were distributed within MEI according to the age and clinical status. Such distortion might be due to evolutionary processes leading to pathogenic/protective events. PMID:22253622

  13. Effect of system and particle properties on closure relations for granular segregation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhinendra; Tunuguntla, D. R.; Thornton, A. R.; Multi Scale mechanics Team

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, much effort has been made on developing valid constitutive laws for continuum models to describe kinetic sieving driven segregation in granular flows over inclined channels. Surprisingly, the existing closure relations for such continuum models have not considered factors such as particle contact stiffness, coefficient of restitution etc. Using Discrete Element method simulations, we investigate the effects of these factors on particle segregation and thereby formulate a constitutive law which takes particle properties into account. Additionally, apart from studying the effects of particle properties on segregating flows, we investigate the effects of gravity on our granular system. We consider a varied range of gravity and find that rate of segregation, for bidisperse mixtures varying in size alone, is proportional to the square root of gravity which is often assumed but was never validated. To be more precise concerning the effects of varying gravity on the steady states of bidisperse flows, varying in size alone, we investigate how the Peclet number (ratio of the segregation rate to diffusion) is affected.

  14. Simulating extreme-mass-ratio systems in full general relativity: tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-03-01

    Sparked by recent and anticipated observations, there is considerable interest in understanding events where a star is tidally disrupted by a massive black hole. Motivated by this and other applications, we introduce a new method for numerically evolving the full Einstein field equations in situations where the spacetime is dominated by a known background solution. The technique leverages the knowledge of the background solution to subtract off its contribution to the truncation error, thereby more efficiently achieving a desired level of accuracy. We demonstrate how the method can be applied to systems consisting of a solar-type star and a supermassive black hole with mass ratios >=106 . The self-gravity of the star is thus consistently modelled within the context of general relativity, and the star's interaction with the black hole computed with moderate computational cost, despite the over five orders of magnitude difference in gravitational potential (as defined by the ratio of mass to radius). We study the tidal deformation of the star during infall, as well as the gravitational wave emission, and discuss ongoing work to understand the importance of strong-field gravity effects on tidal disruption events.

  15. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  16. Tailoring the grooved texture of electrospun polystyrene nanofibers by controlling the solvent system and relative humidity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully fabricated electrospun polystyrene (PS) nanofibers having a diameter of 326 ± 50 nm with a parallel grooved texture using a mixed solvent of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). We discovered that solvent system, solution concentration, and relative humidity were the three key factors to the formation of grooved texture and the diameter of nanofibers. We demonstrated that grooved nanofibers with desired properties (e.g., different numbers of grooves, widths between two adjacent grooves, and depths of grooves) could be electrospun under certain conditions. When THF/DMF ratio was higher than 2:1, the formation mechanism of single grooved texture should be attributed to the formation of voids on the jet surface at the early stage of electrospinning and subsequent elongation and solidification of the voids into a line surface structure. When THF/DMF ratio was 1:1, the formation mechanism of grooved texture should be ascribed to the formation of wrinkled surface on the jet surface at the early stage of electrospinning and subsequent elongation into a grooved texture. Such findings can serve as guidelines for the preparation of grooved nanofibers with desired secondary morphology. PMID:25114643

  17. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors. PMID:24608701

  18. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind. PMID:22470889

  19. Molecular links between cellular senescence, longevity and age-related diseases - a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Tacutu, Robi; Budovsky, Arie; Yanai, Hagai; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2011-12-01

    The role of cellular senescence (CS) in age-related diseases (ARDs) is a quickly emerging topic in aging research. Our comprehensive data mining revealed over 250 genes tightly associated with CS. Using systems biology tools, we found that CS is closely interconnected with aging, longevity and ARDs, either by sharing common genes and regulators or by protein-protein interactions and eventually by common signaling pathways. The most enriched pathways across CS, ARDs and aging-associated conditions (oxidative stress and chronic inflammation) are growth-promoting pathways and the pathways responsible for cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stress response. Of note, the patterns of evolutionary conservation of CS and cancer genes showed a high degree of similarity, suggesting the co-evolution of these two phenomena. Moreover, cancer genes and microRNAs seem to stand at the crossroad between CS and ARDs. Our analysis also provides the basis for new predictions: the genes common to both cancer and other ARD(s) are highly likely candidates to be involved in CS and vice versa. Altogether, this study shows that there are multiple links between CS, aging, longevity and ARDs, suggesting a common molecular basis for all these conditions. Modulating CS may represent a potential pro-longevity and anti-ARDs therapeutic strategy. PMID:22184282

  20. Subjective and objective measures of corneal staining related to multipurpose care systems.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Nicola; Young, Graeme; Coleman, Sarah; Hunt, Chris

    2003-03-01

    An objective, digital-imaging method of measuring corneal staining was evaluated in 24 subjects wearing soft contact lenses. The method was used to compare the clinical performance of common multipurpose care systems (MPS) for soft contact lens care. Subjects used three different MPS, one containing polyquaternium-1 (PQ) and two containing polyhexanide (PX1 and PX2), for 2 weeks in a randomised, single-masked (investigator) crossover study. Corneal staining induced with the three MPS was analysed using an image-processing program (ImageTool, UTHSCSA Version 2, University of Texas, USA). Conjunctival hyperaemia and papillae were also evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient was similar with image analysis to that of investigator grading (0.876, 0.879, respectively). Significant differences in staining response were detected using the objective method. There was significantly less staining area with polyquaternium-1 (PQ) than polyhexanide (PQ: 0.12 mm(2), PX2: 0.91 mm(2)). Inferior palpebral papillae were significantly greater with PX2 than with PQ (1.0, 0.7 (0-4), respectively). The technique was shown to be an effective method of evaluating different corneal staining responses. Bilateral corneal staining in three or more quadrants is useful in the diagnosis of MPS-related staining.

  1. Microbial density and diversity in constructed wetland systems and the relation to pollutant removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Lv, Tao; Arias, Carlos; Brix, Hans; Chen, Zhanghe

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are believed to be at the core of the wastewater treatment processes in constructed wetlands (CWs). The aim of this study was to assess the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and Shannon's diversity index (SDI) in the substrate of CWs planted with Phragmites australis, Hymenocallis littoralis, Canna indica and Cyperus flabelliformis, and to relate MBC and SDI to the pollutant removal in the systems. Significant higher MBC was observed in CWs with H. littoralis and C. indica than in CWs with P. australis, and the MBC differed with season and substrate depth. The microbial community in the wetlands included four phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria, with a more diverse community structure in wetlands with C. flabelliformis. The MBC in the substrate and the SDI of the 15-20 cm depth correlated with the removal of biochemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and NO3-N. Our results indicate that substrate SDI and MBC can both be regarded as bioindicators of the pollutant removal ability in CWs. PMID:26877053

  2. Relative velocities among accreting planetesimals in binary systems: The circumprimary case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, P.; Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

    2006-07-01

    We investigate classical planetesimal accretion in a binary star system of separation a⩽50 AU by numerical simulations, with particular focus on the region at a distance of 1 AU from the primary. The planetesimals orbit the primary, are perturbed by the companion and are in addition subjected to a gas drag force. We concentrate on the problem of relative velocities Δ v among planetesimals of different sizes. For various stellar mass ratios and binary orbital parameters we determine regions where Δ v exceed planetesimal escape velocities v (thus preventing runaway accretion) or even the threshold velocity v for which erosion dominates accretion. Gaseous friction has two crucial effects on the velocity distribution: it damps secular perturbations by forcing periastron alignment of orbits, but at the same time the size-dependence of this orbital alignment induces a significant Δ v increase between bodies of different sizes. This differential phasing effect proves very efficient and almost always increases Δ v to values preventing runaway accretion, except in a narrow e≃0 domain. The erosion threshold Δv>v is reached in a wide ( a,e) space for small <10-km planetesimals, but in a much more limited region for bigger ≃50-km objects. In the intermediate v<Δv

  3. Clinical scoring systems in predicting health-related quality of life of children with injuries.

    PubMed

    Mestrović, Julije; Mestrović, Marija; Polić, Branka; Markić, Josko; Kardum, Goran; Gunjaca, Grgo; Matas, Anita; Catipović, Tatjana; Radonić, Marija

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), and the long-term outcome of children with injuries. The health related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed by using the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children Measure of Function (RAHC MOF), 12 months post discharge. Out of 118 children with injuries (9% of all patients), 75 had injury of the head as the leading injury. There were no significant differences at admission in the severity of clinical condition, as expressed by PIM2 and ISS, between patients with head injuries and patients with other injured leading body regions. Children with head injuries had significantly worse HRQOL than children with other leading injured body region (p < 0.045), and children from road traffic accidents had significantly worse HRQL (p = 0.004), compared to other mechanisms of injury. HRQL correlated significantly with GCS (p = 0.027), but not with ISS and PIM2. As the conclusion, among all scoring systems applied, only GCS, which demonstrates severity of head injury, showed significant impact on long-term outcome of injured children. PMID:23940977

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  5. Subjective and objective measures of corneal staining related to multipurpose care systems.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Nicola; Young, Graeme; Coleman, Sarah; Hunt, Chris

    2003-03-01

    An objective, digital-imaging method of measuring corneal staining was evaluated in 24 subjects wearing soft contact lenses. The method was used to compare the clinical performance of common multipurpose care systems (MPS) for soft contact lens care. Subjects used three different MPS, one containing polyquaternium-1 (PQ) and two containing polyhexanide (PX1 and PX2), for 2 weeks in a randomised, single-masked (investigator) crossover study. Corneal staining induced with the three MPS was analysed using an image-processing program (ImageTool, UTHSCSA Version 2, University of Texas, USA). Conjunctival hyperaemia and papillae were also evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient was similar with image analysis to that of investigator grading (0.876, 0.879, respectively). Significant differences in staining response were detected using the objective method. There was significantly less staining area with polyquaternium-1 (PQ) than polyhexanide (PQ: 0.12 mm(2), PX2: 0.91 mm(2)). Inferior palpebral papillae were significantly greater with PX2 than with PQ (1.0, 0.7 (0-4), respectively). The technique was shown to be an effective method of evaluating different corneal staining responses. Bilateral corneal staining in three or more quadrants is useful in the diagnosis of MPS-related staining. PMID:16303491

  6. Dynamics with a Nonstandard Inertia-Acceleration Relation: An Alternative to Dark Matter in Galactic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1994-02-01

    We investigate particle dynamics that is governed by a nonstandard kinetic action of a special form. We are guided by a phenomenological scheme-the modified dynamics (MOND)-that imputes the mass discrepancy, observed in galactic systems, not to the presence of dark matter, but to a departure from Newtonian dynamics below a certain scale of accelerations, a0. The particle's equation of motion in a potential φ is derived from an action, S, of the form S ~ Sk[r(t), a0] - ∫ φ dt. The limit a0 --> 0 corresponds to Newtonian dynamics, and there the kinetic action Sk must take the standard form. In the opposite limit, a0 --> ∞ we require Sk --> 0-and more specifically, for circular orbits Sk ~ a-10-in order to attain the phenomenological success of MOND. Galilei-invariant such theories must be strongly nonlocal. This is a blessing, as such theories need not suffer from the illnesses that are endemic to higher-derivative theories. We comment on the possibility that such a modified law of motion is an effective theory resulting from the elimination of degrees of freedom pertaining to the universe at large (the near equality a0 ≍ cH0 being a trace of that connection). We derive a general virial relation for bounded trajectories. Exact solutions are obtained for circular orbits, which pertain to rotation curves of disk galaxies. We also explore, in passing, theories that depart from the conventional Newtonian dynamics for very low frequencies.

  7. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  8. Microcomputers in Graduate School Administration: The Design and Implementation of a Computerized Relational Data Base System for Monitoring Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaney, Gary D.; Girves, Jean E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses design of a relational database system for monitoring activities related to graduate education at a research university. Current and projected applications are described: preparing informational reports and projections, monitoring student status, assisting graduation services, preparing departmental files, and researching matters related…

  9. The Factor Structure and Age-Related Factorial Invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Robert D.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the structure of and relations among executive functions.The present study examined the factor structure as well as age-related factorial invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), a widely used inventory aimed at assessing executive functions. Analyses were first conducted using data…

  10. Evaluating the Efficacy of the PEAK Relational Training System Using a Randomized Controlled Trial of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeel, Autumn Nicole; Dixon, Mark R.; Daar, Jacob H.; Rowsey, Kyle E.; Szekely, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to examine the efficacy of the instructional curriculum described in the Direct Training Module of the PEAK Relational Training System on the language repertoires, as measured by the PEAK direct assessment, of children diagnosed with autism or related developmental disabilities. Twenty-seven children diagnosed with…

  11. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  12. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  13. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  14. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  15. 28 CFR 16.78 - Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair Employment Practices Systems. 16.78 Section 16.78 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.78 Exemption of the Special Counsel for Immigration-Related, Unfair...

  16. 75 FR 45640 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... guidance for industry entitled ``Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems.'' This... Systems.'' This draft guidance provides recommendations to developers and manufacturers of TDDS, TMDS, and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in...

  17. The Crisis in Railroad Collective Bargaining: A Study of the Institutional Impediments to Change in the Industrial Relations System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W., Jr.

    The rapid technological and employment changes have had a serious impact on the railroad industrial relations system and its manpower. The organization of the collective bargaining system and the Railway Labor Act have seriously impeded rather than aided the meeting of the challenges of these developments. This study recommends a recasting of the…

  18. 41 CFR 301-72.100 - What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation? 301-72.100 Section 301-72.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  19. 41 CFR 301-72.100 - What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation? 301-72.100 Section 301-72.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.25 - How do the requirements related to evaporative emissions apply to engines and their fuel systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of conformity issued under 40 CFR part 1060. (c) Fuel lines intended to be used with new engines and... evaporative emissions apply to engines and their fuel systems? 1045.25 Section 1045.25 Protection of... related to evaporative emissions apply to engines and their fuel systems? (a) Engine manufacturers...