Science.gov

Sample records for system pseudolite-based relative

  1. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Eric W.

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  2. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-03-27

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors.

  3. A Pseudolite-Based Positioning System for Legacy GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  4. Failure Detection of a Pseudolite-Based Reference System Using Residual Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...UNLIMITED. The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not re ect the ocial policy or position of the United States Air Force...MONITORING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force

  5. Development and Simulation of a Pseudolite-Based Flight Reference System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    further exploration of second order nonlinear filtering techniques is warranted. The optimal smoothing algorithm developed by Meditch [20] is not...Tropospheric Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30 3.6.4 Optimal Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30 3.6.5 Nonlinear Filtering...32 vi Page 4.7 Optimal Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33 4.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35 V

  6. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  7. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  8. Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2014-02-01

    Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.

  9. Galaxies, Axisymmetric Systems and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2011-06-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Prof. W. B. Bonnor: a biological sketch; Part I. Galaxies and Cosmology: 1. The origin of large scale cosmic structure B. J. T. Jones and P. L. Palmer; 2. The problem of origin of the primordial pertubations and the modern cosmology V. N. Lukash and I. D. Novikov; 3. The automorphism group and field equations for Bianchi universes W. L. Rogue and G. F. R. Ellis; 4. New perspectives on galaxy formation J. Silk; Part II. Axisymmetric Systems: 5. On exact radiative solutions representing finite sources J. Bicak; 6. Proof of a generalized Geroch conjecture I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst; 7. Limits of the double Kerr solution C. Hoenselaers; 8. Non-inheritance of static symmetry by Maxwell fields M. A. H. MacCallum and N. Van den Bergh; 9. Stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum fields in general relativity G. Neugebauer and D. Kramer; 10. An almost conformal approach to axial symmetry Z. Perjes; 11. Conformally stationary axisymmetric space-times J. Winicour; Part III. Relativity: 12. A family of conformally flat space-times having the same curvature tensor in a given co-ordinate frame C. D. Collinson; 13. On the Bell-Szekeres solution for colliding electromagnetic waves J. B. Griffiths; 14. A remark on the Hauser metric A. Held; 15. Numerical relativity by power series R. Penrose; 16. Projective relativity and the equation of motion E. Schmutzer; 17. On generalized equations of goedesic deviation B. F. Schutz; 18. Lobatchevski plane gravitational waves S. T. C. Siklos; 19. Perfect fluid and vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations with flat 3-dimensional slices H. Stephani and Th. Wolf; 20. Self-similar solutions of Einstein's equations J. Wainwright.

  10. Programs Related to Septic Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many programs, both at the EPA and elsewhere, that relate to the decentralized wastewater program and provide information about how decentralized wastewater is integrated in environmental quality, planning, protection, and conservation.

  11. Tighter entanglement monogamy relations of qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhi-Xiang; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Monogamy relations characterize the distributions of entanglement in multipartite systems. We investigate monogamy relations related to the concurrence C and the entanglement of formation E. We present new entanglement monogamy relations satisfied by the α -th power of concurrence for all α ≥ 2, and the α -th power of the entanglement of formation for all α ≥ √{2}. These monogamy relations are shown to be tighter than the existing ones.

  12. Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID; Garn, Troy G [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Macaluso, Lawrence L [Carson City, NV

    2012-03-20

    Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

  13. Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

  14. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  15. Commutation Relations and Discrete Garnier Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.; Rains, Eric M.

    2016-11-01

    We present four classes of nonlinear systems which may be considered discrete analogues of the Garnier system. These systems arise as discrete isomonodromic deformations of systems of linear difference equations in which the associated Lax matrices are presented in a factored form. A system of discrete isomonodromic deformations is completely determined by commutation relations between the factors. We also reparameterize these systems in terms of the image and kernel vectors at singular points to obtain a separate birational form. A distinguishing feature of this study is the presence of a symmetry condition on the associated linear problems that only appears as a necessary feature of the Lax pairs for the least degenerate discrete Painlevé equations.

  16. Relativity in the Global Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Neil

    2003-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses accurate, stable atomic clocks in satellites and on the ground to provide world-wide position and time determination. These clocks have gravitational and motional frequency shifts which are so large that, without carefully accounting for numerous relativistic effects, the system would not work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis, founded on special and general relativity, for navigation using GPS. Relativistic principles and effects which must be considered include the constancy of the speed of light, the equivalence principle, the Sagnac effect, time dilation, gravitational frequency shifts, and relativity of synchronization. Experimental tests of relativity obtained with a GPS receiver aboard the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite will be discussed. Recently frequency jumps arising from satellite orbit adjustments have been identified as relativistic effects. These will be explained and some interesting applications of GPS will be discussed.

  17. Quantum integrable systems related to lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1983-03-01

    Some quantum integrable finite-dimensional systems related to Lie algebras are considered. This review continues the previous review of the same authors [83] devoted to the classical aspects of these systems. The dynamics of some of these systems is closely related to free motion in symmetric spaces. Using this connection with the theory of symmetric spaces some results such as the forms of spectra, wave functions, S-matrices, quantum integrals of motion are derived. In specific cases the considered systems describe the one-dimensional n-body systems interacting pairwise via potentials g2v( q) of the following 5 types: vI( q) = q-2, vII( q) = sinh-2q, vIII( q) = sin-2q, v IV(q) = P(q) , vV( q) = q-2 + ω2q2. Here P(q) is the Weierstrass function, so that the first three cases are merely subcases of the fourth. The system characterized by the Toda nearest-neighbour potential exp( qjqj+ 1 ) is moreover considered. This review presents from a general and universal point of view results obtained mainly over the past fifteen years. Besides, it contains some new results both of physical and mathematical interest.

  18. Selecting a Relational Database Management System for Library Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekhel, Alex; O'Brien, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of four relational database management systems (RDBMSs) (Informix Turbo, Oracle 6.0 TPS, Unify 2000 and Relational Technology's Ingres 5.0) to determine which is best suited for library automation. The evaluation criteria used to develop a benchmark specifically designed to test RDBMSs for libraries are discussed. (CLB)

  19. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  20. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Salvatore; Ferrari, Sergio; Gajofatto, Alberto; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Mariotto, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mechanisms include possible extrahepatic replication of HCV in neural tissues and the effects of circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:22899946

  1. On locally and nonlocally related potential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.; Bluman, George W.

    2010-07-01

    For any partial differential equation (PDE) system, a local conservation law yields potential equations in terms of some potential variable, which normally is a nonlocal variable. The current paper examines situations when such a potential variable is a local variable, i.e., is a function of the independent and dependent variables of a given PDE system, and their derivatives. In the case of two independent variables, a simple necessary and sufficient condition is presented for the locality of such a potential variable, and this is illustrated by several examples. As a particular example, two-dimensional reductions of equilibrium equations for fluid and plasma dynamics are considered. It is shown that such reductions with respect to helical, axial, and translational symmetries have conservation laws which yield local potential variables. This leads to showing that the well-known Johnson-Frieman-Kruskal-Oberman (JFKO) and Bragg-Hawthorne (Grad-Shafranov) equations are locally related to the corresponding helically and axially symmetric PDE systems of fluid/plasma dynamics. For the axially symmetric case, local symmetry classifications and arising invariant solutions are compared for the original PDE system and the Bragg-Hawthorne (potential) equation. The potential equation is shown to have additional symmetries, denoted as restricted symmetries. Restricted symmetries leave invariant a family of solutions of a given PDE system but not the whole solution manifold, and hence are not symmetries of the given PDE system. Corresponding reductions are shown to yield solutions, which are not obtained as invariant solutions from local symmetry reduction.

  2. Decibel: The Relational Dataset Branching System

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Michael; Goehring, David; Elmore, Aaron J.; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Deshpande, Amol

    2017-01-01

    As scientific endeavors and data analysis become increasingly collaborative, there is a need for data management systems that natively support the versioning or branching of datasets to enable concurrent analysis, cleaning, integration, manipulation, or curation of data across teams of individuals. Common practice for sharing and collaborating on datasets involves creating or storing multiple copies of the dataset, one for each stage of analysis, with no provenance information tracking the relationships between these datasets. This results not only in wasted storage, but also makes it challenging to track and integrate modifications made by different users to the same dataset. In this paper, we introduce the Relational Dataset Branching System, Decibel, a new relational storage system with built-in version control designed to address these shortcomings. We present our initial design for Decibel and provide a thorough evaluation of three versioned storage engine designs that focus on efficient query processing with minimal storage overhead. We also develop an exhaustive benchmark to enable the rigorous testing of these and future versioned storage engine designs. PMID:28149668

  3. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Lee, James E.

    2007-06-19

    A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.

  4. Environmentally related disorders of the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L.; Feldman, R.G.; French, J.G. )

    1990-03-01

    Specific physical and chemical agents found in the workplace and in the general environment are responsible for characteristic pathologic processes within the nervous system. It has been shown that many neurotoxic agents produce a dose-related spectrum of impairment ranging from mild slowing of nerve conducting velocity or prolongation in reaction time to neuropathy and frank encephalopathy. Clinical manifestations are determined by the agent involved, by the dose of exposure, the vulnerability of the cellular target, the ability of the organism to metabolize and excrete the agent, and the ability to repair damage. An occupational history, including evaluation of evidence of specific agents and job history, is a critical component in the clinical management of individuals with suspect neurotoxic disease. Environmentally-induced disorders can be prevented by appropriate environmental controls. Prevention of neurotoxic disease is a complex process requiring continuous involvement of public health agencies and strong scientific research.

  5. Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

  6. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  7. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  8. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  9. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  10. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  11. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  12. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  13. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering…

  14. Performance related issues in distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    The key elements of research performed during the year long effort of this project are: Investigate the effects of heterogeneity in distributed real time systems; Study the requirements to TRAC towards building a heterogeneous database system; Study the effects of performance modeling on distributed database performance; and Experiment with an ORACLE based heterogeneous system.

  15. Superintegrable systems with a position dependent mass: Kepler-related and oscillator-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2016-06-01

    The superintegrability of two-dimensional Hamiltonians with a position dependent mass (pdm) is studied (the kinetic term contains a factor m that depends of the radial coordinate). First, the properties of Killing vectors are studied and the associated Noether momenta are obtained. Then the existence of several families of superintegrable Hamiltonians is proved and the quadratic integrals of motion are explicitly obtained. These families include, as particular cases, some systems previously obtained making use of different approaches. We also relate the superintegrability of some of these pdm systems with the existence of complex functions endowed with interesting Poisson bracket properties. Finally the relation of these pdm Hamiltonians with the Euclidean Kepler problem and with the Euclidean harmonic oscillator is analyzed.

  16. Polar Satcom System and Related Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, James P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for communication relay via a repeater platform satellite vehicle to a near surface station in the Polar Region is disclosed. A preferred embodiment receives a plurality of positioning and content data from a plurality of constellations of Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) Satellite Vehicles (SAT). Additionally, the system receives a plurality of position, time and altitude data from constellations of available repeater platform (RP) SATs. The system receives a request for content from a near surface station located in an area lacking adequate line-of-sight to the GEO based signal. The system aligns antenna elements onboard the desired RP SATs to amplify and relay the GEO based signal toward the near surface station and vice versa. Additionally, the system commands directional antenna elements onboard the station to send and receive the relayed signal making the GEO based content available to the near surface station.

  17. Relational Control in Two Group Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    Examines and explains relational control interaction patterns in two decision-making groups and two women's consciousness-raising groups. Analyzes the interaction data using a Markov model and tracking the control dimension of relationships over time. (JMF)

  18. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  19. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  20. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  1. [IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2010-05-01

    IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease has been established as a new systemic disease entity. It is characterized by high serum IgG4 concentrations and abundant IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration in the involved organs. The chronic inflammation can attack lacrimal glands, salivary glands, the thyroid, lung, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. The concept includes Mikulicz's disease, Riedel's thyroiditis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary pseudotumor, autoimmune pancreatitis, a part of tubulointerstitial nephritis, and chronic prostatitis. It is important to note that these lesions can occur at different times and sites. So, it is necessary to reconfirm the disease definition and entity in each specialized field. The diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by the above serological and histopathological characteristics. There are clinical diagnostic criteria of Mikulicz's disease (the Japanese Medical Society for Sjögren's Syndrome) and autoimmune pancreatitis (the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Japan Pancreas Society). They are convenient and useful. Glucocorticoid improves the physical abnormalities, and the initial dose of prednisolone is 30 mg/day, tapered in 5-mg reductions every two weeks. Nevertheless, there are some cases unable to achieve complete remission.

  2. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  3. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    underbounded systems is that they will become totally caught up in their environmental turbulence and lose a consistent sense of their own identity ...intimately tied to the sense of one’s personal identity (Erikson, 1959). Underbounded and overbounded systems differ in their goal structure. Underbounded...lack of self ego identity . This lack of direction may arise either because people genuinely do not know what they are doing or because the conflict

  4. Relations Among Systems of Electromagnetic Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    page, Chester H.

    1970-01-01

    Contends that the equations of electromagnetism, whether in rationalized or non-rationalized form, express an invariant set of physical relationships. The relationships among corresponding symbols are given and applied to precise statements about the relation between the oersted and the amphere per meter, the abampere and the ampere, etc.…

  5. A risk-related preventive maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J T

    1992-01-01

    Recent changes in attitudes concerning medical equipment maintenance place more responsibility for planning appropriate levels of maintenance on the clinical engineer and biomedical equipment technician. A system is described in which maintenance decisions are based on the effects of equipment failure on quality of patient care and potential for injury to patients and staff. It is hoped that development of an acceptable classification scheme will simplify maintenance decisions. Such a system will provide levels of maintenance appropriate to the equipment function in patient care.

  6. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  7. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended.

  8. Duality relation for the Maxwell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolla, F.; Guenneau, S.

    2003-02-01

    This paper is intended to establish a link between the vector Maxwell system for three-dimensional (3D) and 2D finite photonic crystals in the low-frequency limit. For this, we generalize the classical results of Keller and Dykhne (chessboard problem) to periodic media described by piecewise continuous permittivity profiles: our theorem enlights the result of Mendelson (polycrystalline and multiphase media) in the framework of homogenization theory of elliptic operators. In fine, we give illustrative examples by using both integral equation and variational approaches via the so-called method of fictitious charges and finite-element method.

  9. System related testing and analysis of FRECOPA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Results from the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) system analysis are presented. It was one of the numerous experiments which were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. In our flight configuration (LEO orbit, trailing edge), the environment was a better vacuum than the leading edge, with many thermal cycles (32000) and a large amount of UV radiation (11100 equivalent sun hours). Also, the satellite was mainly bombarded by micro-particles. It saw a low atomic flux and minor doses of protons and electrons.

  10. A neurocomputational system for relational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Barbara J; Morrison, Robert G; Hummel, John E; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    The representation and manipulation of structured relations is central to human reasoning. Recent work in computational modeling and neuroscience has set the stage for developing more detailed neurocomputational models of these abilities. Several key neural findings appear to dovetail with computational constraints derived from a model of analogical processing, 'Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies' (LISA). These include evidence that (i) coherent oscillatory activity in the gamma and theta bands enables long-distance communication between the prefrontal cortex and posterior brain regions where information is stored; (ii) neurons in prefrontal cortex can rapidly learn to represent abstract concepts; (iii) a rostral-caudal abstraction gradient exists in the PFC; and (iv) the inferior frontal gyrus exerts inhibitory control over task-irrelevant information.

  11. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  12. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1990-08-28

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors. 2 figs.

  13. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, William R.; Singer, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors.

  14. Nanolipoprotein particles and related compositions, methods and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeprich, Paul D; Fischer, Nicholas O; Mason, Peter W; Blanchette, Craig D

    2014-11-11

    Functionalized nanolipoprotein particle presenting an anchor substrate compound for binding with a corresponding anchor compound presented on a target molecule, and related compositions methods and systems.

  15. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  16. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  17. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  18. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  19. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  20. The Conflict between Interpersonal Relations and Abstract Systems in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Benjamin Endres examines how teaching is caught between the ideals of formal, systemic institutions, on the one hand, and the ideals of more intimate or personal relations, on the other. Endres uses Anthony Giddens's account of "abstract systems" and "pure" relations to suggest that the tension that teachers face is not only the…

  1. Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-01-15

    General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.

  2. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  3. Lessons Learned Using a Relational Database for System Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Richard W.; McCallie, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Before a new system is brought on-line, data from an old system frequently needs to be massaged prior to loading into the new system. To determine if 4-GL tools could be used in these projects, a relational database management system, Oracle, was used to convert our old ADT system's data into the format required by the new system. In doing so, we learned several important performance lessons regarding proper structuring of SQL statements and database tuning. Although the ADT system data were successfully manipulated using this 4-GL product, one should understand database tuning and consider the options carefully before embarking on a large-scale conversion.

  4. Utility-scale system preventive and failure-related maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance background on PVUSA utility-scale systems at Davis and Kerman, California, and reports on a preventative and failure-related maintenance approach and costs.

  5. Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NUWC-NPT Technical Report 11,676 25 April 2005 Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems John P. Casey...Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems PR A590045 6. AUTHOR(S) John P. Casey 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...that flows in the ionosphere in a narrow zone above the magnetic dip equator during the daytime. The electrojet current produces a large enhancement of

  6. IgG4-related systemic disease and lymphoplasmacytic aortitis.

    PubMed

    Stone, John H; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Hilgenberg, Alan; Spooner, Amy; Isselbacher, Eric M; Stone, James R

    2009-10-01

    We describe herein a patient who developed a dissection of the ascending aorta in the setting of IgG4-related systemic disease, linking IgG4-related systemic disease with a newly-recognized subset of noninfectious aortitis. At the time of aortic surgery, a transmural lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was detected in the patient's aorta, with a principal focus of inflammation within the media. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that >50% of the plasma cells in the lesion stained for IgG4. By in situ hybridization, the plasma cells showed polytypic staining for kappa and lambda light chains, consistent with a polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate. Serologic evaluation revealed that the patient's IgG4 levels were elevated nearly 10-fold. Four years before aortic surgery, the patient had undergone a mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Reexamination of the lymph node revealed features consistent with IgG4-related systemic disease, which had not been recognized at the time of the original biopsy. Glucocorticoid therapy for the IgG4-related systemic disease yielded a prompt response. Recognition that IgG4-related systemic disease can involve the ascending as well as the descending abdominal aorta indicates the need for a change in the way idiopathic aortitis is regarded. This case offers new potential considerations for short- and long-term management of noninfectious aortitis, because of the frequent good response of IgG4-related systemic disease to glucocorticoid treatment without additional therapy. Treatment of the aortitis may prevent progression of the IgG4-related systemic disease to involvement of other organs. IgG4-related systemic disease should be considered in all patients with aortitis judged to be of unknown etiology.

  7. Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1979-01-01

    The failure of research on media to deal with media's symbol systems is discussed. Nature of symbol systems is described and related to cognition and learning. Symbolic elements used by media can facilitate the cultivation of mental skills in interaction with individual differences and depth of processing. (Author/RD)

  8. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  9. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships.

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation relations for small systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liang; Ke, Pu; Qiao, Li-Yan; Zheng, Zhi-Gang

    2014-07-01

    In this review, we give a retrospect of the recent progress in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in small dynamical systems. For systems with only a few number of particles, fluctuations and nonlinearity become significant and contribute to the nonequilibrium behaviors of the systems, hence the statistical properties and thermodynamics should be carefully studied. We review recent developments of this topic by starting from the Gallavotti—Cohen fluctuation theorem, and then to the Evans—Searles transient fluctuation theorem, Jarzynski free-energy equality, and the Crooks fluctuation relation. We also investigate the nonequilibrium free energy theorem for trajectories involving changes of the heat bath temperature and propose a generalized free-energy relation. It should be noticed that the non-Markovian property of the heat bath may lead to the violation of the free-energy relation.

  11. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  12. The use of relational databases in health care information systems.

    PubMed

    Borok, L S

    1995-01-01

    The relational database is especially well suited to be the cornerstone of the next generation of health care information systems. Health care organizations can take advantage of the lessons learned from major corporations that have built entire information infrastructures using it. The relational model's strength in handling the analysis of transaction data makes it ideal for fulfilling complex utilization review requirements and providing a solid foundation for the increasing operational demands of large physician-managed managed care networks.

  13. Multiparticle correlation expansion of relative entropy in lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Marco

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the construction of the multiparticle correlation expansion of relative entropy for lattice systems. Thanks to this analysis we are able to express the statistical distance between two systems as a series built over clusters of increasing dimension. Each addend is written in terms of correlation functions and expresses the contribution to the relative entropy due to structural information inside the selected cluster. We present a general procedure for the explicit construction of all the terms of the series. As a first application of this result, we show that the coefficients of the multiparticle correlation expansion of the excess entropy can be computed from our formula, as a particular case.

  14. Optics Toolbox: An Intelligent Relational Database System For Optical Designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Scott W.; Hopkins, Robert E.

    1986-12-01

    Optical designers were among the first to use the computer as an engineering tool. Powerful programs have been written to do ray-trace analysis, third-order layout, and optimization. However, newer computing techniques such as database management and expert systems have not been adopted by the optical design community. For the purpose of this discussion we will define a relational database system as a database which allows the user to specify his requirements using logical relations. For example, to search for all lenses in a lens database with a F/number less than two, and a half field of view near 28 degrees, you might enter the following: FNO < 2.0 and FOV of 28 degrees ± 5% Again for the purpose of this discussion, we will define an expert system as a program which contains expert knowledge, can ask intelligent questions, and can form conclusions based on the answers given and the knowledge which it contains. Most expert systems store this knowledge in the form of rules-of-thumb, which are written in an English-like language, and which are easily modified by the user. An example rule is: IF require microscope objective in air and require NA > 0.9 THEN suggest the use of an oil immersion objective The heart of the expert system is the rule interpreter, sometimes called an inference engine, which reads the rules and forms conclusions based on them. The use of a relational database system containing lens prototypes seems to be a viable prospect. However, it is not clear that expert systems have a place in optical design. In domains such as medical diagnosis and petrology, expert systems are flourishing. These domains are quite different from optical design, however, because optical design is a creative process, and the rules are difficult to write down. We do think that an expert system is feasible in the area of first order layout, which is sufficiently diagnostic in nature to permit useful rules to be written. This first-order expert would emulate an expert

  15. Superexponential fluctuation relation for dichotomous work reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces an analytical description of the probability density function of the dissipated and injected powers p (jdis) and p (jinj) , respectively, in a paradigmatic nonequilibrium damped system in contact with a work reservoir that is analytically represented by telegraph noise and to which one can assign an effective temperature. This approach is able to overcome the well-known impossibility of obtaining closed solutions to steady-state distributions of this system and allows determining a superexponential fluctuation relation of the injected power, which is not even asymptotically exponential as for (shot-noise) Poissonian reservoirs. In the white-noise limit, that relation converges to the exponential formula that is standard in thermal systems; however, the distribution of the injected power remains quite different from that of the latter instance. Surprisingly, it is actually shown that a Gaussian distribution, which is archetypal of thermal systems, for the injected power can be achievable only for athermal reservoirs of this kind.

  16. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-06

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.

  17. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: Multiplicity relation and the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity−multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index –1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  18. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  19. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    PubMed

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system.

  20. Ultra-Wideband Tracking System Design for Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Bgo, Phong; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being designed for use in localization and navigation of a rover in a GPS deprived environment for surface missions. In one application enabled by the UWB tracking, a robotic vehicle carrying equipments can autonomously follow a crewed rover from work site to work site such that resources can be carried from one landing mission to the next thereby saving up-mass. The UWB Systems Group at JSC has developed a UWB TDOA High Resolution Proximity Tracking System which can achieve sub-inch tracking accuracy of a target within the radius of the tracking baseline [1]. By extending the tracking capability beyond the radius of the tracking baseline, a tracking system is being designed to enable relative navigation between two vehicles for surface missions. A prototype UWB TDOA tracking system has been designed, implemented, tested, and proven feasible for relative navigation of robotic vehicles. Future work includes testing the system with the application code to increase the tracking update rate and evaluating the linear tracking baseline to improve the flexibility of antenna mounting on the following vehicle.

  1. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  2. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  3. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  4. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  5. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  6. Information on the Metric System and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    Contained in this guide are announcements of references and audio-visual courses on the metric system and related fields available at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Included by sectional entries are listings of: (1) books, (2) reports, papers and articles, (3) periodicals, (4) film strips, (5) posters, (6) education and training courses, (7)…

  7. Differential relations for the imaging coefficients of asymmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2003-12-01

    We consider imaging properties embedded in the point eikonal for first-order asymmetric optical systems. We provide geometrical interpretations for the coefficients of the eikonal functions and proceed to show that there exist differential relations between them. The differentials are computed with respect to the position of the reference planes in the object or image spaces.

  8. Differential relations for the imaging coefficients of asymmetric systems.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2003-12-01

    We consider imaging properties embedded in the point eikonal for first-order asymmetric optical systems. We provide geometrical interpretations for the coefficients of the eikonal functions and proceed to show that there exist differential relations between them. The differentials are computed with respect to the position of the reference planes in the object or image spaces.

  9. Toward a Relational Data Management System for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Bridglall, Beatrice L.

    2003-01-01

    This report focuses on students who are underrepresented in the high academic achievement pool by calling attention to the important role that relational data management systems can play in educational decision making, particularly with regard to how they can be applied to closing the academic achievement gap. After explaining the need for data…

  10. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  11. Market Related System Analysis of Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Panasenkova, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The report is devoted to the technique of effectiveness analysis of communication space system with satellites in geostationary orbit using market models. The technique is worked out in order to choose the most optimal alternative of communication space system design. The alternative considered optimal and the system effective when the maximum profit from the system with limited system costs is achieved. The key point of the technique is a wide use of market models and application of market related parameters as an integral part of the design technique in order to secure the high commercial output of the communication space system. A range of models for decisive characteristics of communication space system is synthesized in terms of the technique. Flexible market model with detailed insight into the structure of the given market sector and its trends is created. The technique enables to choose the image and key parameters of the future system such as payload and ground sector characteristics so as to make the system most cost-effective and profitable. It is shown that such factors as the choice of launch vehicle can influence the system effectiveness rather dramatically. In particular, it is shown that under certain conditions delivering the small (five hundred kg) satellite to the geostationary orbit with the help of light-weight launch vehicle and the satellite's own electro-rocket thrusters is forty per cent more cost- effective than when the satellite is delivered with the help of the medium-size launch vehicle. The latter case can lead to the significant losses due to high launch costs that are nearly two times higher for the medium size launch vehicle than for the light launce vehicle. The technique is applicable both for designing a wide range of communication space systems and is recommended for those dealing with designing commercial systems. It can also be used to update and improve the systems that are already in operation.

  12. Work-related road traffic injury: a multilevel systems protocol

    PubMed Central

    Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne M; Griffin, Mark A; McClure, Roderick J; Heller, Gillian; Sim, Malcolm R; Stevenson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Background Although road traffic injury is reported as the leading cause of work-related death in Australia, it is not clear, due to limitations in previous methods used, just how large a burden it is. Many organisations are unaware of the extent of work-related road traffic injury and, importantly, what can be done to reduce the burden. The proposed research will (i) estimate the prevalence of work-related road traffic injury and (ii) identify the organisational determinants associated with work-related road traffic injury. Methods and design The current study is designed to enumerate the problem and identify the individual driver-level, the supervisor-level and organisational-level factors associated with work-related road traffic injury. The multilevel systems protocol will involve a series of cross-sectional surveys administered to drivers of fleet vehicles (n=1200), supervisors of the drivers (n=1200) and senior managers (n=300) within the same organisation. Discussion The novel use of the multilevel systems protocol is critical to be able to accurately assess the specific determinants of driving safety within each context of an organisation. Results The results are expected to highlight that reducing injury in the workplace requires more than just individual compliance with safety procedures. It will also establish, for the first time, an occupational translation taskforce to ensure that the research findings are adopted into work-place practice and thereby directly contribute to reductions in work-related road traffic injury. PMID:24478230

  13. A system structure for predictive relations in penetration mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjack, Thomas A.

    1992-02-01

    The availability of a software system yielding quick numerical models to predict ballistic behavior is a requisite for any research laboratory engaged in material behavior. What is especially true about accessibility of rapid prototyping for terminal impaction is the enhancement of a system structure which will direct the specific material and impact situation towards a specific predictive model. This is of particular importance when the ranges of validity are at stake and the pertinent constraints associated with the impact are unknown. Hence, a compilation of semiempirical predictive penetration relations for various physical phenomena has been organized into a data structure for the purpose of developing a knowledge-based decision aided expert system to predict the terminal ballistic behavior of projectiles and targets. The ranges of validity and constraints of operation of each model were examined and cast into a decision tree structure to include target type, target material, projectile types, projectile materials, attack configuration, and performance or damage measures. This decision system implements many penetration relations, identifies formulas that match user-given conditions, and displays the predictive relation coincident with the match in addition to a numerical solution. The physical regimes under consideration encompass the hydrodynamic, transitional, and solid; the targets are either semi-infinite or plate, and the projectiles include kinetic and chemical energy. A preliminary databases has been constructed to allow further development of inductive and deductive reasoning techniques applied to ballistic situations involving terminal mechanics.

  14. A relational developmental systems approach to moral development.

    PubMed

    Carpendale, Jeremy I M; Hammond, Stuart I; Atwood, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    Morality and cooperation are central to human life. Psychological explanations for moral development and cooperative behavior will have biological and evolutionary dimensions, but they can differ radically in their approach to biology. In particular, many recent proposals have pursued the view that aspects of morality are innate. We briefly review and critique two of these claims. In contrast to these nativist assumptions about the role of biology in morality, we present an alternative approach based on a relational developmental systems view of moral development. The role for biology in this approach is in setting up the conditions--the developmental system--in which forms of interaction and later forms of thinking emerge.

  15. A Topographical Lidar System for Terrain-Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Spiers, Gary; Bartman, Randy; Lam, Raymond; Alexander, James; Montgomery, James; Goldberg, Hannah; Johnson, Andrew; Meras, Patrick; Palacios, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An imaging lidar system is being developed for use in navigation, relative to the local terrain. This technology will potentially be used for future spacecraft landing on the Moon. Systems like this one could also be used on Earth for diverse purposes, including mapping terrain, navigating aircraft with respect to terrain and military applications. The system has been field-tested aboard a helicopter in the Mojave Desert. When this system was designed, digitizers with sufficient sampling rate (2 GHz) were only available with very limited memory. Also, it was desirable to limit the amount of data to be transferred between the digitizer and the mass storage between individual frames. One of the novelty design features of this system was to design the system around the limited amount of memory of the digitizer. The system is required to operate over an altitude (distance) range from a few meters to approximately 1 km, but for each scan across the full field of view, the digitizer memory is only able to hold data for an altitude range no more than 100 m. Data acquisition methods in support of the limited 100 m wide altitude range are described.

  16. Stochastic models for large interacting systems and related correlation inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    A very large and active part of probability theory is concerned with the formulation and analysis of models for the evolution of large systems arising in the sciences, including physics and biology. These models have in their description randomness in the evolution rules, and interactions among various parts of the system. This article describes some of the main models in this area, as well as some of the major results about their behavior that have been obtained during the past 40 years. An important technique in this area, as well as in related parts of physics, is the use of correlation inequalities. These express positive or negative dependence between random quantities related to the model. In some types of models, the underlying dependence is positive, whereas in others it is negative. We give particular attention to these issues, and to applications of these inequalities. Among the applications are central limit theorems that give convergence to a Gaussian distribution. PMID:20826441

  17. Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Climate Orbiter ($125 million) English vs. Metric units mismatch Mars Polar Lander Missing requirement concerning touchdown sensor behavior Therac – 25 ...Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems 25 Corresponding Safety Subfactors Safety SubfactorSafety Safety Problem Type Safety...station with the doors open for boarding, the horizontal gap between the station platform and the vehicle door threshold shall be no greater than 25 mm

  18. Age-related changes in the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Aging is accompanied by the deterioration of hearing that complicates our understanding of speech, especially in noisy environments. This deficit is partially caused by the loss of hair cells as well as by the dysfunction of the stria vascularis. However, the central part of the auditory system is also affected by processes accompanying aging that may run independently of those affecting peripheral receptors. Here, we review major changes occurring in the central part of the auditory system during aging. Most of the information that is focused on age-related changes in the central auditory system of experimental animals arises from experiments using immunocytochemical targeting on changes in the glutamic-acid-decarboxylase, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin. These data are accompanied by information about age-related changes in the number of neurons as well as about changes in the behavior of experimental animals. Aging is in principle accompanied by atrophy of the gray as well as white matter, resulting in the enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid space. The human auditory cortex suffers not only from atrophy but also from changes in the content of some metabolites in the aged brain, as shown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to this, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals differences between activation of the central auditory system in the young and old brain. Altogether, the information reviewed in this article speaks in favor of specific age-related changes in the central auditory system that occur mostly independently of the changes in the inner ear and that form the basis of the central presbycusis.

  19. A relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merski, N. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The NASA LaRC has developed a relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system. This system has become a standard technique for acquiring aerothermodynamic data in LaRC Hypersonic Facilities Complex (HFC). The relative intensity theory and its application to the LaRC phosphor thermography system is discussed along with the investment casting technique which is critical to the utilization of the phosphor method for aerothermodynamic studies. Various approaches to obtaining quantitative heat transfer data using thermographic phosphors are addressed and comparisons between thin-film data and thermographic phosphor data on an orbiter-like configuration are presented. In general, data from these two techniques are in good agreement. A discussion is given on the application of phosphors to integration heat transfer data reduction techniques (the thin film method) and preliminary heat transfer data obtained on a calibration sphere using thin-film equations are presented. Finally, plans for a new phosphor system which uses target recognition software are discussed.

  20. Methods and systems relating to an augmented virtuality environment

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Anderson, Matthew O; McKay, Mark D; Wadsworth, Derek C; Boyce, Jodie R; Hruska, Ryan C; Koudelka, John A; Whetten, Jonathan; Bruemmer, David J

    2014-05-20

    Systems and methods relating to an augmented virtuality system are disclosed. A method of operating an augmented virtuality system may comprise displaying imagery of a real-world environment in an operating picture. The method may further include displaying a plurality of virtual icons in the operating picture representing at least some assets of a plurality of assets positioned in the real-world environment. Additionally, the method may include displaying at least one virtual item in the operating picture representing data sensed by one or more of the assets of the plurality of assets and remotely controlling at least one asset of the plurality of assets by interacting with a virtual icon associated with the at least one asset.

  1. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  2. INTRODUCTION: Wetting and dewetting in bio-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    Research on such genuinely soft-matter related phenomena as wetting and dewetting would not be complete without reminiscence to biological systems. The recent stir around what has been known as the lotus effect, the amazing ultra-hydrophobic properties of many plants, has highlighted the interconnections of wetting with bio-systems. In the first paper of this section (Mock et al), a `biomimetic' system is conceived which imitates the properties of plant leaves with elastic hairs. The synthesis of such a system turns out to be tricky, but the progress is encouraging. The next three papers deal with surfactant layers, as they occur in many biological systems, such as the plasma membrane. Various experimental techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy (Tanaka et al), neutron reflectivity (Steitz et al), and x-ray scattering (Ahrens et al), are demonstrated as powerful tools for their investigation. The last paper (Heim et al) takes us back to where we started: the morphologies emerging upon dewetting of a liquid. This time, the full diversity of patterns is shown which appears in the deposited solute, once the liquid has evaporated. The motivation of this work is the morphology of deposition of DNA on bio-chips, which may affect the readout results of such devices. It is shown that although much can already be understood, a lot of work has still to be done, and many beautiful mechanisms may still be discovered.

  3. Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk

    2001-10-01

    Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

  4. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.; Stratton, Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  5. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  6. Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radin, Dean I.; Nelson, Roger D.

    1989-12-01

    Speculations about the role of consciousness in physical systems are frequently observed in the literature concerned with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. While only three experimental investigations can be found on this topic in physics journals, more than 800 relevant experiments have been reported in the literature of parapsychology. A well-defined body of empirical evidence from this domain was reviewed using meta-analytic techniques to assess methodological quality and overall effect size. Results showed effects conforming to chance expectation in control conditions and unequivocal non-chance effects in experimental conditions. This quantitative literature review agrees with the findings of two earlier reviews, suggesting the existence of some form of consciousness-related anomaly in random physical systems.

  7. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  8. Wearable diagnostic system for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, N; Zadeh, E Ghafar; Magierowski, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel head-mounted point-of-care diagnostic system for detection and continuous monitoring of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). This wearable embedded open-source platform enables accurate monitoring of AMD by taking advantage of multiple standard graphical interface techniques such as Amsler Grid, Threshold Amsler Grid, Macular Computerized Psychophysical Test and Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP). Here, we describe the proposed multi-Grid or so-called NGRID software and elaborate on the hardware prototype. This prototype includes a commercially available Oculus HMD incorporated with a single board computer. As the first step towards a fully integrated wearable system, this paper successfully proves the functionality of head-mounted graphical interface device ready for a live demonstration. Participants can experience this device and take a 10-minute AMD eye-exam. Furthermore, NGRID has been approved and permitted for an in-hospital clinical trial.

  9. Relating human productivity and annoyance to indoor noise criteria systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this research is to determine a noise criteria system which best relates the effects of background noise to human productivity and annoyance. A number of indoor noise criteria systems are currently used to rate the background noise in built environments, including noise criteria (NC), balanced noise criteria (NCB), room criteria (RC), room criteria Mark II (RC-Mark II), and others. Many questions still remain about the accuracy of these predictors in assessing human response to background noise under the variety of ambient noise situations encountered. To support the use of any individual criterion, subjective testing was performed under a range of background noise situations and statistically related to the various noise criteria predictors listed above. Subjects completed an annoyance survey and performed typing and proofreading tasks in an acoustically controlled environment under 12 simulated background noise settings. These settings varied across three sound levels and four spectral qualities. Subjective testing methodology and results are presented. [Work supported by INCE and ASHRAE.

  10. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  11. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  12. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  13. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined.

  14. Classical integrable finite-dimensional systems related to Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1981-05-01

    During the last few years many dynamical systems have been identified, that are completely integrable or even such to allow an explicit solution of the equations of motion. Some of these systems have the form of classical one-dimensional many-body problems with pair interactions; others are more general. All of them are related to Lie algebras, and in all known cases the property of integrability results from the presence of higher (hidden) symmetries. This review presents from a general and universal viewpoint the results obtained in this field during the last few years. Besides it contains some new results both of physical and mathematical interest. The main focus is on the one-dimensional models of n particles interacting pairwise via potentials V( q) = g2ν( q) of the following 5 types: ν I(q)=q -2, ν II(q)=a -2sinh2(aq), ν III(q)=a 2/ sin2(aq), ν IV=a 2P(aq), , ν V(q)=q -2+ω 2q 2. Here P( q) is the Weierstrass function, so that the first 3 cases are merely subcases of the fourth. The system characterized by the Toda nearest-neighbor potential, gj2exp[- a( qj- qj+1 )], is moreover considered. Various generalizations of these models, naturally suggested by their association with Lie algebras, are also treated.

  15. Stereochemistry of bistricyclic aromatic enes and related polycyclic systems.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, P Ulrich; Agranat, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Bistricyclic aromatic enes (BAEs) and related polycyclic systems are a class of molecular materials that display a rich variety of conformations, dynamic stereochemistry and switchable chirality, color, and spectroscopic properties. This is due to the a subtle interplay of the inherent preference for planarity of aromatic systems and the competing necessity of non-planarity due to intramolecular overcrowding in the fjord regions built into the general molecular structure of BAEs. The conformational, dynamic, and spectroscopic properties may be designed and fine-tuned, e.g., by variation of the bridging groups X and Y, the overcrowding in the fjord regions, extensions of the aromatic system, or other modifications of the general BAE structure, based on the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationships (SPR). The present review provides an analysis of the conformational spaces and the dynamic stereochemistry of overcrowded bistricyclic aromatic enes applying fundamental symmetry considerations. The symmetry analysis presented here allows deeper insight into the conformations, chirality, and the mechanisms of the dynamic stereochemistry, and will be instrumental in future computational studies.

  16. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  17. Phase relations in the forsterite-diopside-jadeite system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butvina, V.; Litvin, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    solidus in this system). Due to this fact forsterite vanishes in subsolidus in the region of compositions rather enriched by jadeite component. The performed experimental investigations testify to complex topological relations of phases in this system at close solidus temperatures what needs further studies. The experimental investigations done earlier and referring to this system (Gasparik & Litvin, 1997) testify to the appearance of a new phase of the composition Na2Mg2Si2O7, which role in the formation of subliquidus and subsolidus assemblages must be more studied. Nevertheless, the obtained preliminary experimental data contain constructive data that make it possible to consider the basic problem of this work and start experimental investigations of liquidus phase relations of the system forsterite-diopside-jadeite. The system forsterite-diopside. The experiments in this section are given at pressure of 7 GPa in the range of temperatures 1600-17000C. The system is pseudobinary due to the appearance of orthopyroxene component that forms an independent phase. According to the preliminary data liquidus assemblages of this system at 7 GPa are Fo + L и DiSS + L, but the type of melting is eutectic. It agrees with the above investigations at pressure of 3 GP (Davis, 1963) where some pseudobinarity of the system forsterite-diopside caused by the appearance of orthopyroxene minal in clinopyroxene solid solution can be also seen. The system forsterite-jadeite-diopside. The experimental data and conclusions obtained for the boundary systems make it possible to start investigating liquidus surface for fusibility diagram of the ternary system forsterite-jadeite-diopside at P 7 GPa. For the experimental study polythermic sections of forsterite-(jadeite50diopside50) and forsterite-(jadeite25diopside75) have been chosen. The obtained data testify to the fact that olivine vanishing and garnet formation are realized in both sections. The problem of further investigations is to search

  18. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.

  19. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Hendrik P N; Charbel Issa, Peter; Walier, Maja; Janzer, Stefanie; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Börncke, Florian; Fritsche, Lars G; Chong, Ngaihang V; Fimmers, Rolf; Wienker, Thomas; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Bernhard H F; Oppermann, Martin

    2008-07-02

    Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 67). Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH), factor B-C2 (BF-C2) and complement C3 (C3) genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001), were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  20. An expert system for fault section diagnosis of power systems using fuzzy relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.J.; Park, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper proposes an expert system using fuzzy relations to deal with uncertainties imposed on fault section diagnosis of power systems. The authors build sagittal diagrams which represent the fuzzy relations for power systems, and diagnose fault sections using the sagittal diagrams. Next, they examine the malfunction or wrong alarm of relays and circuit breakers based on the alarm information and the estimated fault section. The proposed system provides the fault section candidates in terms of the degree of membership and the malfunction or wrong alarm. An operator monitors these candidates and is able to diagnose the fault section, coping with uncertainties. Experimental studies for real power systems reveal usefulness of the proposed technique to diagnose faults that have uncertainty.

  1. Autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and increased IgG4+ plasma cells. Serum IgG4 levels usually are elevated. Patients with AIP frequently have disease affecting other organs or sites; these tissues show similar histologic changes, including increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate and response to corticosteroid therapy. A new clinicopathologic concept of IgG4-related systemic disease (ISD) has been proposed. These diseases often are not limited to the pancreas, and the pancreas may not be involved at all. In this article, we review the literature and our own experience to detail the clinicopathologic features of AIP and extrapancreatic lesions in ISD. PMID:20606730

  2. Phase relations in the system CuMoS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawei, H.; Chang, L.L.Y.; Knowles, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Phase relations in the system CuMoS were studied in the temperature range 500-1000 ??C by using the conventional sealed, evacuated glass capsule technique. Reflected-light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe analysis were used for phase characterization. The chevrel-type phase, CuxMo3S4, is stable above 600??C, and forms equilibrium assemblages with the cubic Cu2S solid solution, copper, molybdenum, Mo2S3 and MoS2. Its solid solution ranges from Cu1.50-2.00Mo3S4 at 700??C to Cu1.22-2.00Mo3S4 at 1000 ??C. ?? 1990.

  3. Non-metallocene organometallic complexes and related methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Agapie, Theodor; Golisz, Suzanne Rose; Tofan, Daniel; Bercaw, John E.

    2010-12-07

    A non-metallocene organometallic complex comprising a tridentate ligand and a metal bonded to a tridentate ligand, wherein two substituted aryl groups in the tridentate ligand are connected to a cyclic group at the ortho position via semi-rigid ring-ring linkages, and selected so to provide the resulting non-metallocene organometallic complex with a C.sub.S geometry, a C.sub.1 geometry, a C.sub.2 geometry or a C.sub.2v geometry. Method for performing olefin polymerization with a non-metallocene organometallic complex as a catalyst, related catalytic systems, tridentate ligand and method for providing a non-metallocene organometallic complex.

  4. Systemic drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE).

    PubMed

    Elmariah, Sarina B; Cheung, Wang; Wang, Nadia; Kamino, Hideko; Pomeranz, Miriam K

    2009-08-15

    A 72-year-old man with a history of metastatic melanoma presented with a two-day history of erythematous and edematous plaques, with scattered bullae on the neck, chest, axillae, and inguinal and gluteal folds, which began five days after infusion of an experimental drug. The clinical and histopathologic findings were consistent with systemic drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), which is an uncommon drug reaction that results in symmetric erythema that affects the buttocks, groin, and/or thighs as well other flexural folds. The clinical manifestations of SDRIFE are highly characteristic and include distinctive primary cutaneous lesions with a specific distribution and course; however, heterogeneity exists with respect to histopathologic features, skin test results, and in vitro investigations. The exact mechanism of SDRIFE remains unknown but is thought to result from a type IV delayed hypersensitivity immune response. Treatment is symptomatic and includes topical or oral glucocorticoids.

  5. System Related Interventions to Reduce Diagnostic Error: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Graber, Mark L.; Kissam, Stephanie M.; Sorensen, Asta V.; Lenfestey, Nancy F.; Tant, Elizabeth M.; Henriksen, Kerm; LaBresh, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic errors (missed, delayed, or wrong diagnosis) have gained recent attention and are associated with significant preventable morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the recent literature to identify interventions that have been, or could be, implemented to address systems-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic error. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search using multiple search strategies. We first identified candidate articles in English between 2000 and 2009 from a PubMed search that exclusively evaluated for articles related to diagnostic error or delay. We then sought additional papers from references in the initial dataset, searches of additional databases, and subject matter experts. Articles were included if they formally evaluated an intervention to prevent or reduce diagnostic error; however, we also included papers if interventions were suggested and not tested in order to inform the state-of-the science on the topic. We categorized interventions according to the step in the diagnostic process they targeted: patient-provider encounter, performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests, follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information, subspecialty and referral-related; and patient-specific. Results We identified 43 articles for full review, of which 6 reported tested interventions and 37 contained suggestions for possible interventions. Empirical studies, though somewhat positive, were non-experimental or quasi-experimental and included a small number of clinicians or health care sites. Outcome measures in general were underdeveloped and varied markedly between studies, depending on the setting or step in the diagnostic process involved. Conclusions Despite a number of suggested interventions in the literature, few empirical studies have tested interventions to reduce diagnostic error in the last decade. Advancing the science of diagnostic error prevention will require more robust study designs and rigorous definitions

  6. Radiation reaction in binary systems in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel John

    1997-09-01

    This thesis is concerned with current problems in, and historical aspects of, the problem of radiation reaction in stellar binary systems in general relativity. Part I addresses current issues in the orbital evolution due to gravitational radiation damping of compact binaries. A particular focus is on the inspiral of small bodies orbiting large black holes, employing a perturbation formalism. In addition, the merger, at the end of the insprial, of comparable mass compact binaries, such as neutron star binaries is also discussed. The emphasis of Part I is on providing detailed descriptions of sources and signals with a view to optimising signal analysis in gravitational wave detectors, whether ground- or space- based interferometers, or resonant mass detectors. Part II of the thesis examines the historical controversies surrounding the problem of gravitational waves, and gravitational radiation damping in stellar binaries. In particular, it focuses on debates in the mid 20th-century on whether binary star systems would really exhibit this type of damping and emit gravitational waves, and on the 'quadrupole formula controversy' of the 1970s and 1980s, on the question whether the standard formular describing energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves was correctly derived for such systems. The study shed light on the role of analogy in science, especially where its use is controversial, on the importance of style in physics and on the problem of identity in science, as the use of history as a rhetorical device in controversial debate is examined. The concept of the Theoretician's Regress is introduced to explain the difficulty encountered by relativists in closing debate in this controversy, which persisted in one forms or another for several decades.

  7. Health-related quality of life in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Anette; Geser, Felix; Stampfer-Kountchev, Michaela; Seppi, Klaus; Sawires, Martin; Köllensperger, Martin; Scherfler, Christoph; Quinn, Niall; Pellecchia, Maria T; Barone, Paolo; Del Sorbo, Francesca; Albanese, Alberto; Ostergaard, Karen; Dupont, Erik; Cardozo, Adriana; Tolosa, Eduardo; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Lindvall, Olle; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Daniels, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; Coelho, Miguel; Sampaio, Cristina; Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Schimke, Nicole; Eggert, Karla M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Djaldetti, Ruth; Colosimo, Carlo; Meco, Giuseppe; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K

    2006-06-01

    Although multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive disability and decreased life expectancy, little is known about patients' own evaluation of their illness and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). We, therefore, assessed Hr-QoL and its determinants in MSA. The following scales were applied to 115 patients in the European MSA-Study Group (EMSA-SG) Natural History Study: Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36), EQ-5D, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE), Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) Parkinson's disease staging scale, Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS), and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). Forty-six percent of patients had moderate to severe depression (BDI > or = 17); Hr-QoL scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were significantly impaired. Pain, the only domain with similar scores in MSA and published PD patients, was reported more frequently in patients with MSA-P (predominantly parkinsonian motor subtype) than MSA-C (predominantly cerebellar motor subtype; 76% vs. 50%; P = 0.005). Hr-QoL scores correlated most strongly with UMSARS motor, COMPASS, and BDI scores but not with MMSE scores, age at onset, or disease duration. The COMPASS and UMSARS activities of daily living scores were moderate-to-strong predictors for the SF-36 physical summary score and the BDI and UMSARS motor scores for the SF-36 mental summary score. This report is the first study to show that Hr-QoL is significantly impaired in MSA. Although not all possible factors related to impaired Hr-QoL in MSA could be assessed, autonomic dysfunction, motor impairment, and depression were most closely associated with poor Hr-QoL, and therapeutic management, therefore, should concentrate upon these aspects of the disease.

  8. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  9. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  10. HCV-related central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders.

    PubMed

    Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a large spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), mostly immunologic/rheumatologic in nature owing to B-cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Neurological complications are thought to be immune-mediated or secondary to invasion of neural tissues by HCV, as postulated in transverse myelitis and encephalopathic forms. Primarily axonal neuropathies, including sensorimotor polyneuropathy, large or small fiber sensory neuropathy, motor polyneuropathy, mononeuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, or overlapping syndrome, represent the most common neurological complications of chronic HCV infection. In addition, a number of peripheral demyelinating disorders are encountered, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, and cryoglobulin-associated polyneuropathy with demyelinating features. The spectrum of demyelinating forms also includes rare cases of iatrogenic central and peripheral nervous system disorders, occurring during treatment with pegylated interferon. Herein, we review HCV-related demyelinating conditions, and disclose the novel observation on the significantly increased frequency of chronic demyelinating neuropathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients recruited at our institution. We also report a second case of neuromyelitis optica with serum IgG autoantibody against the water channel aquaporin-4. The prompt recognition of these atypical and underestimated complications of HCV infection is of crucial importance in deciding which treatment option a patient should be offered.

  11. HCV-Related Central and Peripheral Nervous System Demyelinating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a large spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), mostly immunologic/rheumatologic in nature owing to B-cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Neurological complications are thought to be immune-mediated or secondary to invasion of neural tissues by HCV, as postulated in transverse myelitis and encephalopathic forms. Primarily axonal neuropathies, including sensorimotor polyneuropathy, large or small fiber sensory neuropathy, motor polyneuropathy, mononeuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, or overlapping syndrome, represent the most common neurological complications of chronic HCV infection. In addition, a number of peripheral demyelinating disorders are encountered, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, and cryoglobulin-associated polyneuropathy with demyelinating features. The spectrum of demyelinating forms also includes rare cases of iatrogenic central and peripheral nervous system disorders, occurring during treatment with pegylated interferon. Herein, we review HCV-related demyelinating conditions, and disclose the novel observation on the significantly increased frequency of chronic demyelinating neuropathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients recruited at our institution. We also report a second case of neuromyelitis optica with serum IgG autoantibody against the water channel aquaporin-4. The prompt recognition of these atypical and underestimated complications of HCV infection is of crucial importance in deciding which treatment option a patient should be offered. PMID:25198705

  12. Development of a Relational Database for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…

  13. Relation of Hand Enthesophytes with Knee Enthesopathy: Is Osteoarthritis Related to a Systemic Enthesopathy?

    PubMed Central

    GIBSON, NADIA; GUERMAZI, ALI; CLANCY, MARGARET; NIU, JINGBO; GRAYSON, PETER; ALIABADI, PIRAN; ROEMER, FRANK; FELSON, DAVID T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Enthesopathy has been reported as a feature of osteoarthritis (OA) in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. We previously reported that central bone marrow lesions (BML) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are associated with OA. In this study, we evaluated whether hand and knee enthesopathy were related. Methods We studied knee and hand radiographs of subjects from the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Subjects seen in 2002–2005 had bilateral posteroanterior hand radiographs, weight-bearing knee radiographs, and knee MRI scans. Hand radiographs were read for enthesophytes at the juxtaarticular non-synovial areas of metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and DIP joints, and midshafts of the phalanges. We selected 100 cases of knees with central BML and 100 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Subjects with enthesophytes of at least 1 score ≥ 2 at DIP, PIP, and/or MCP were not more likely to have central knee BML (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.17–1.40) than those without enthesophytes. Similarly, having at least 1 score ≥ 2 on the shafts was not significantly associated with having a central knee BML (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.23–1.51). Adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect these results, but there was an increased prevalence of diabetes in those with hand enthesophytes (OR 3.09, 95% 1.29–7.40, enthesophyte score ≥ 2). Conclusion We found no increase in the prevalence of hand enthesophytes among persons with central knee BML on their knee MRI scans. This provides evidence against a systemic enthesopathic disorder in association with knee OA. PMID:22174209

  14. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  15. Computers and Information Systems in Planning and Related Governmental Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy; Vance, Mary, Ed.

    The 266 items cited include material published since July 1960, organized in the following ten groups: (1) general discussion, and feasibility; (2) statewide electronic data processing (EDP) systems; (3) EDP in local governments; (4) intergovernmental EDP systems; (5) EDP in the planning agency; (6) data banks and information systems; (7) computer…

  16. Research in Applied Mathematics Related to Nonlinear System Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    control systems", Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 58: 98-112. R. E. KALMAN [1976] "Realization theory of linear dynamical systems...Theory. [19801 "Some remarks on the reachability of infinite- dimensional linear systems", Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 74: 568-577

  17. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  18. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  19. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... basic components with embedded digital devices. DATES: Submit comments by July 19, 2013....

  20. Information on the metric system and related fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, E.

    1976-01-01

    This document contains about 7,600 references on the metric system and conversion to the metric system. These references include all known documents on the metric system as of December 1975, the month of enactment of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. This bibliography includes books, reports, articles, presentations, periodicals, legislation, motion pictures, TV series, film strips, slides, posters, wall charts, education and training courses, addresses for information, and sources for metric materials and services. A comprehensive index is provided.

  1. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement.

  2. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  3. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  4. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  5. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  6. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  7. An Information-Related Systems Theory of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Melvin

    1973-01-01

    The author suggests that a systems theory of counseling should have an adequate theoretical foundation in the way various types of systems handle information. Using the works of W. R. Ashby as a basis, the paper is a beginning attempt to establish this foundation. It describes how information can be used to maintain homeostasis and protect key…

  8. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  9. Network thermodynamics and complexity: a transition to relational systems theory.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, D C

    2001-07-01

    Most systems of interest in today's world are highly structured and highly interactive. They cannot be reduced to simple components without losing a great deal of their system identity. Network thermodynamics is a marriage of classical and non-equilibrium thermodynamics along with network theory and kinetics to provide a practical framework for handling these systems. The ultimate result of any network thermodynamic model is still a set of state vector equations. But these equations are built in a new informative way so that information about the organization of the system is identifiable in the structure of the equations. The domain of network thermodynamics is all of physical systems theory. By using the powerful circuit simulator, the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE), as a general systems simulator, any highly non-linear stiff system can be simulated. Furthermore, the theoretical findings of network thermodynamics are important new contributions. The contribution of a metric structure to thermodynamics compliments and goes beyond other recent work in this area. The application of topological reasoning through Tellegen's theorem shows that a mathematical structure exists into which all physical systems can be represented canonically. The old results in non-equilibrium thermodynamics due to Onsager can be reinterpreted and extended using these new, more holistic concepts about systems. Some examples are given. These are but a few of the many applications of network thermodynamics that have been proven to extend our capacity for handling the highly interactive, non-linear systems that populate both biology and chemistry. The presentation is carried out in the context of the recent growth of the field of complexity science. In particular, the context used for this discussion derives from the work of the mathematical biologist, Robert Rosen.

  10. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel... System Labor Relations Panel. There shall be established a Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel..., who shall be Chairperson of the Panel, and two public members. Each member shall be selected by...

  11. Generating Shifting Workloads to Benchmark Adaptability in Relational Database Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, Tilmann; Lang, Andreas; Hackl, Thomas; Sick, Bernhard; Kosch, Harald

    A large body of research concerns the adaptability of database systems. Many commercial systems already contain autonomic processes that adapt configurations as well as data structures and data organization. Yet there is virtually no possibility for a just measurement of the quality of such optimizations. While standard benchmarks have been developed that simulate real-world database applications very precisely, none of them considers variations in workloads produced by human factors. Today’s benchmarks test the performance of database systems by measuring peak performance on homogeneous request streams. Nevertheless, in systems with user interaction access patterns are constantly shifting. We present a benchmark that simulates a web information system with interaction of large user groups. It is based on the analysis of a real online eLearning management system with 15,000 users. The benchmark considers the temporal dependency of user interaction. Main focus is to measure the adaptability of a database management system according to shifting workloads. We will give details on our design approach that uses sophisticated pattern analysis and data mining techniques.

  12. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emrys W.; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C. J.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  13. Cylindrical Cardboard Model for a Rotating System in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a cylindrical cardboard model that helps students at the graduate or undergraduate level to visualize the nature of simultaneity and the propagation of light in a rotating coordinate system. (HM)

  14. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  15. Dynamical system related to quasiperiodic Schroedinger equations in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Kohmoto, Mahito )

    1992-02-01

    A dynamical map is obtained from a class of quasiperiodic discrete Schroedinger equations in one dimension which include the Fibonacci system. The potentials are constant except for steps at special points.

  16. Innovative optical power detection array system for relative positioning of inner-formation flying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    The Inner-formation flying system (IFFS) is conceived to feature a spherical proof mass falling freely within a large cavity for space gravity detection, of which first application focuses on the Earth's gravity field recovery. For the IFFS, it is the relative position of the proof mass to its surrounding cavity that is feedback into thrusters for tracking control, even as part of data to detect gravity. Since the demonstration and verification of demanding technologies using small satellite platforms is a very sensible choice prior to detection mission, an optical power detection array system (OPDAS) is proposed to measure the relative position with advantages of low cost and high adaptability. Besides that, its large dynamic range can reduce the requirement for satellite platform and releasing mechanism, which is also an attracting trait for small satellite application. The concept of the OPDAS is firstly presented, followed by the algorithm to position the proof mass. Then the radiation pressure caused by the measuring beam is modeled, and its disturbance on the proof mass is simulated. The experimental system to test the performance of a prototype of the OPDAS is established, and the preliminary results show that a precision of less than 0.4 mm across a dynamic range of several centimeters can be reached by the prototype of the OPDAS.

  17. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuation relations for harmonic systems in nonthermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, D.; Nalbach, P.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.; Thorwart, M.

    2013-10-01

    We formulate exact generalized nonequilibrium fluctuation relations for the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator coupled to multiple harmonic baths. Each of the different baths is prepared in its own individual (in general nonthermal) state. Starting from the exact solution for the oscillator dynamics we study fluctuations of the oscillator position as well as of the energy current through the oscillator under general nonequilibrium conditions. In particular, we formulate a fluctuation-dissipation relation for the oscillator position autocorrelation function that generalizes the standard result for the case of a single bath at thermal equilibrium. Moreover, we show that the generating function for the position operator fulfils a generalized Gallavotti-Cohen-like relation. For the energy transfer through the oscillator, we determine the average energy current together with the current fluctuations. Finally, we discuss the generalization of the cumulant generating function for the energy transfer to nonthermal bath preparations.

  18. Industrial Relations System in Japan. A New Interpretation. Japanese Industrial Relations Series 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwahara, Yasuo

    Opinions about industrial relations (IR) in Japan are extremely diversified. The main concern regarding IR appears to be whether Japan can maintain the vitality and flexibility to cope with the changes in the industrial structure and technology in a stagnant world economy. The lack of opposition and dispute between labor and management may be the…

  19. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  20. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surfacewater bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains.

  1. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  2. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  3. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  4. Comparing Text, Document, and Relational Database Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the critical need for tools to manage, access, and disseminate text and image information ranging from free-form ASCII data to scanned documents stored on optical media. Current types of integrated text/image databases are described and the advancement of technology toward systems that manage large collections of documents made up of…

  5. Studies on system-level fault diagnosis and related topics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation deals mainly with the diagnosis aspects of fault-tolerant computing. A number of system models are studied, and their diagnosability conditions established. Fault-diagnosis algorithms for some models are proposed and complexity of diagnosis problem analyzed for some other models. Finally, some fault-tolerant computer networks are studied, and efficient routing algorithms are proposed for these networks.

  6. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen &…

  7. Environmentally related disorders of the hematologic and immune systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Wierda, D.; Rosenthal, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    From observations in rodents and, to a lesser extent, in humans inadvertently or occupationally exposed, it appears that a number of xenobiotics adversely affect immune homeostatic systems, either through acting as a hapten and resulting in hypersensitivity reactions or through altering hematopoietic or immune functions. At present, however, there is no evidence that the immune or hematopoietic systems of the general population have been compromised by xenobiotics via environmental exposure. Nonetheless, these examples and our current knowledge about the pathogenesis of disease support the possibility that chemical-induced damage to the immune system may be associated with potential pathological conditions, some of which may become detectable only after a long latency. Likewise, exposure to immunotoxic xenobiotics might represent additional risk to individuals with already fragile immune systems (e.g., in malnutrition, infancy, old age). However, it is important to be cautious when attempting to extrapolate meaningful conclusions from experimental data or isolated epidemiologic studies to risk assessment for low-level human exposure.65 references.

  8. Magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space and related integrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, Yu. A. Otchik, V. S.; Ovsiyuk, E. M.

    2012-10-15

    Various possibilities to define analogs of the uniform magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space are considered using different coordinate systems in this space. Quantum mechanical problem of motion in the defined fields is also treated. Variables in the Schroedinger equation are separated and diagonal operators are found. For some cases, exact solutions are obtained.

  9. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  10. Water-absorbing capacitor system for measuring relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus using a known water-absorbent polymer as a capacitor which is operated at a dc voltage for measuring relative humidity is presented. When formed as a layer between porous electrically-conductive electrodes and operated in an RC oscillator circuit, the oscillator frequency varies inversely with the partial pressure of the moisture to be measured. In a preferred embodiment, the capacitor is formed from Nafion and is operated at a low dc voltage with a resistor as an RC circuit in an RC oscillator. At the low voltage, the leakage current is proper for oscillation over a satisfactory range. The frequency of oscillation varies in an essentially linear fashion with relative humidity which is represented by the moisture being absorbed into the Nafion. The oscillation frequency is detected by a frequency detector.

  11. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; deBettencourt, Megan T.; Kopperman, Rebecca; Banasiak, Meredith; Roberts, Joshua M.; Halavi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC), defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2). The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of RC during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast (BWVC) add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from BWVC are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a “reasoning heuristic” and BWVC engages a “sensory heuristic.” Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem solving. PMID:24133465

  12. Arthritis related to systemic meningococcal disease: 34 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Cabellos, C; Nolla, J M; Verdaguer, R; Pelegrin, I; Ribera, A; Ariza, J; Viladrich, P F

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the clinical characteristics, therapeutic aspects, and outcome of arthritis related to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). All episodes of bacterial meningitis and IMD are recorded systematically. We selected all episodes of IMD, with or without meningitis, that presented arthritis. From 1977 to 2010, 522 episodes of IMD were treated. Thirty-nine of these (7.5 %, 26 women, mean age 33 years) presented arthritis. Of these 39, 37 (95 %) presented skin lesions and 31 (79 %) had meningitis. Twenty (51 %) had positive blood cultures and six (15 %) had shock. No differences were found in skin lesions, shock, or bacteremia compared to cases without arthritis. In contrast to other septic forms, arthritis related to IMD was cured with short antibiotic therapy and without surgical drainage. There was no mortality. All patients recovered and none presented joint sequelae; however, 13 adult patients (33 %) required long-term treatment with steroids due to persistent symptoms. Arthritis related to IMD most frequently affects the knees and ankles, and may be a cause of fever relapse. Short antibiotic therapy is enough in all cases and surgical drainage is not needed. In some adult patients, especially those over 50 years of age, evolution is torpid and steroid therapy may be required in order to achieve recovery.

  13. [Microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems].

    PubMed

    Aulicino, F A; Pastoni, F

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of Viable Not Culturable (VNC) bacteria. Turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. The Milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of turbidity. Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems may cause high increments of microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and pathogens. Microorganisms isolated from biofilm including Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Legionella may have a significant health hazard especially in hospital areas. The presence of VNC bacteria in drinking water may represent a problem for their discussed role in infectious diseases, but also for the possibility of a considerable underestimation of true microbial concentrations in drinking waters. To study this kind of problems is necessary to apply suitable methods for drinking water analyses.

  14. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  15. Systemic Inflammation and Early Atheroma Formation: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Balanescu, Serban; Calmac, Lucian; Constantinescu, Dana; Marinescu, Mugur; Onut, Roxana; Dorobantu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease started by endothelial injury and defined by arterial wall load with free and esterified cholesterol, followed by subintimal focal recruitment of circulating monocytes and T-lymphocytes that heals by fibrosis and calcification. Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherogenesis either by local cellular mechanisms or humoral consequences easily measurable in plasma. In most cases inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are triggered by cardiovascular risk factors: hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking or diabetes. In other cases inflammation precedes atherosclerotic changes that occur in autoimmune diseases, as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In these diseases atherogenesis is mostly independent from conventional risk factors. Irrespective of its cause systemic inflammation is correlated with cardiovascular events, but currently there are controversial results regarding inflammatory markers and early atherosclerotic process. We designed a study to identify if the amplitude of inflammation expressed by multiple serum markers is correlated with the severity of the atherosclerotic process measured by coronary atheroma volume and carotid intima-media thickness. The selected inflammatory markers are associated with different pathogenic steps in atherogenesis: acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein); pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 and -18); endothelium activation markers (soluble VCAM-1, ICAM-1); and specific factors (anticardiolipinic antibodies). We aim to enrol the two different patient subsets with early atherosclerosis: one with conventional risk factors and one with autoimmune diseases without traditional risk factors, in whom inflammation is part of the systemic disease progression. PMID:21977173

  16. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  17. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  18. Medicare payment system for hospital inpatients: diagnosis-related groups.

    PubMed

    Baker, Judith J

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) are categories of patient conditions that demonstrate similar levels of hospital resources required to treat the conditions. Each inpatient that is discharged from an acute care hospital can be classified into one of the 506 DRGs currently utilized by the Medicare program. The Medicare DRG prospective payment methodology has been in use for almost two decades and is used by hospital managers for planning and decisionmaking. The viability of DRGs for future prospective payment depends on the ability to keep up with the times through updates of the current methodology.

  19. General Relativity Without General Relativity: Self-Gravitating Systems and Effective Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Filippi, Simonetta; Geralico, Andrea

    Perturbations of Newtonian self-gravitating barotropic perfect fluid systems can be studied via an extension of the "effective geometry" formalism. The case of polytropic spherical stars described by the Lane-Emden equation has been studied in the past in the known cases of existing explicit solutions relevant for both stellar and galactic dynamics. Applications of the formalism in the case of rotating configurations found via William's "matching method" and possible generalizations are here discussed. The present formulation represents another natural scenario, in addition with the usual one of quantum condensates in laboratories, in which the acoustic analogy has physical relevance.

  20. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  1. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  2. NrCAM regulating neural systems and addiction related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Hiroki; Hall, Frank S.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Grumet, Martin; Uhl, George R.; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Arinami, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that a haplotype associated with decreased NrCAM expression in brain is protective against addiction vulnerability for polysubstance abuse in humans and that Nrcam knockout mice do not develop conditioned place preferences for morphine, cocaine, or amphetamine. In order to gain insight into NrCAM involvement in addiction vulnerability, which may involve specific neural circuits underlying behavioral characteristics relevant to addiction, we evaluated several behavioral phenotypes in Nrcam knockout mice. Consistent with a potential general reduction in motivational function, Nrcam knockout mice demonstrated less curiosity for novel objects and for an unfamiliar conspecific, showed also less anxiety in the zero maze. Nrcam heterozygote knockout mice reduced alcohol preference and buried fewer marbles in home cage. These observations provide further support for a role of NrCAM in substance abuse including alcoholism vulnerability, possibly through its effects on behavioral traits that may affect addiction vulnerability, including novelty seeking, obsessive compulsion and responses to aversive or anxiety-provoking stimuli. Additionally, in order to prove glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction, we analyzed glutamatergic molecules regulated by NRCAM. Glutaminase appears to be involved in NrCAM-related molecular pathway in two different tissues from human and mouse. An inhibitor of the enzyme, PLG, treatment produced, at least, some of the phenotypes of mice shown in alcohol preference and in anxiety-like behavior. Thus, NrCAM could affect addiction-related behaviors via at least partial modulation of some glutamatargic pathways and neural function in brain. PMID:22780223

  3. Nonlinear mechanics of graphene membranes and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Alba, Roberto

    Micro- and nano-mechanical resonators with low mass and high vibrational frequency are often studied for applications in mass and force detection where they can offer unparalleled precision. They are also excellent systems with which to study nonlinear phenomena and fundamental physics due to the numerous routes through which they can couple to each other or to external systems. In this work we study the structural, thermal, and nonlinear properties of various micro-mechanical systems. First, we present a study of graphene-coated silicon nitride membranes; the resulting devices demonstrate the high quality factors of silicon nitride as well as the useful electrical and optical properties of graphene. We then study nonlinear mechanics in pure graphene membranes, where all vibrational eigenmodes are coupled to one another through the membrane tension. This effect enables coherent energy transfer from one mechanical mode to another, in effect creating a graphene mechanics-based frequency mixer. In another experiment, we measure the resonant frequency of a graphene membrane over a wide temperature range, 80K - 550K, to determine whether or not it demonstrates the negative thermal expansion coefficient predicted by prevailing theories; our results indicate that this coefficient is positive at low temperatures - possibly due to polymer contaminants on the graphene surface - and negative above room temperature. Lastly, we study optically-induced self-oscillation in metal-coated silicon nitride nanowires. These structures exhibit self-oscillation at extremely low laser powers ( 1muW incident on the nanowire), and we use this photo-thermal effect to counteract the viscous air-damping that normally inhibits micro-mechanical motion.

  4. Neurocognitive Systems Related to Real-World Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eriksson, Johan; Sjölie, Daniel; Molin, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (PM) denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. Methodology/Principal Findings We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD), TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital) system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal) system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks. PMID:20949046

  5. A Computer System for Menu Evaluation and Related Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Meat Dishes 61 Fruit /Vegetable Juice 12 Fish and Seafood 62 Hot Beverages 13 Pasta-Main Dish 63 Fruit Drinks 14 Casseroles, Stews, Etc. 64 Milk...RECIPE RECIPE NAME COÜE NO 091 100500 FRESH BANANAS 031 101900 CHILLED 0RAN6E JUICE 031 200010 A LA CARTE MENU 031 100200 BAKED BACON SLICES...031 L088Q0 •RILLED SAUSAGE LINKS 031 600010 HOT OATMEAL NATICK LABS- PREFERENCE ANALYSIS UNIFORM RATION COST SYSTEM PREFERENCE RATINS 6.71 7.«2

  6. An overview of bird related issues in electrical power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Ö.; Yumak, K.; Atilla, N. E.; Bağriyanik, M.

    2016-11-01

    Power system equipments, especially overhead lines and utility poles are posing great risk to avian species. Main purpose of this paper is to draw attention of distribution companies and community on conserving bird species and their habitats. The paper also provides regulatory framework about protecting bird species, impacts of birds on utility equipments and remedial actions that can be taken for problem specific cases. Furthermore, a sector review of industrial applications and effectiveness of mitigation measures are given. Distribution companies may apply a systematic approach for reducing electrocutions and collisions by developing and implementing Avian Protection Plans (APPs).

  7. Microscale mass spectrometry systems, devices and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John Michael

    2016-06-21

    Mass spectrometry systems or assemblies therefore include an ionizer that includes at least one planar conductor, a mass analyzer with a planar electrode assembly, and a detector comprising at least one planar conductor. The ionizer, the mass analyzer and the detector are attached together in a compact stack assembly. The stack assembly has a perimeter that bounds an area that is between about 0.01 mm.sup.2 to about 25 cm.sup.2 and the stack assembly has a thickness that is between about 0.1 mm to about 25 mm.

  8. Procedures for analysis of debris relative to Space Shuttle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hae Soo; Cummings, Virginia J.

    1993-01-01

    Debris samples collected from various Space Shuttle systems have been submitted to the Microchemical Analysis Branch. This investigation was initiated to develop optimal techniques for the analysis of debris. Optical microscopy provides information about the morphology and size of crystallites, particle sizes, amorphous phases, glass phases, and poorly crystallized materials. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry is utilized for information on surface morphology and qualitative elemental content of debris. Analytical electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectrometry provides information on the quantitative elemental content of debris.

  9. System issues related to satellite communications in a nuclear environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kullstam, P.A.

    1990-05-03

    Nuclear induced signal scintillation effects are of great importance in design and deployment of military satellite systems that must provide survivable and enduring communications service. The induced scintillation will result in Rayleigh signal fading with limited signal decorrelation time and coherent bandwidth of the transmission channel as well as reduced signal power due to terminal antenna scattering loss. In this environment the coherent bandwidth and signal decorrelation time are most important design parameters for modulation subsystem design. The antenna scattering loss is important for link power budgets and satellite network loading.

  10. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  11. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  12. Simulating extreme-mass-ratio systems in full general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new method for numerically evolving the full Einstein field equations in situations where the spacetime is dominated by a known background solution. The technique leverages the knowledge of the background solution to subtract off its contribution to the truncation error, thereby more efficiently achieving a desired level of accuracy. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the radial infall of a solar-type star into supermassive black holes with mass ratios ≥106. The self-gravity of the star is thus consistently modeled within the context of general relativity, and the star’s interaction with the black hole computed with moderate computational cost, despite the over five orders of magnitude difference in gravitational potential (as defined by the ratio of mass to radius). We compute the tidal deformation of the star during infall, and the gravitational wave emission, finding the latter is close to the prediction of the point-particle limit.

  13. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS §...

  14. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS §...

  15. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS §...

  16. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.11 Federal...

  17. Performance categorization of structures, systems & components and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1993-09-30

    Provisions of DOE-STD-1021-93 on performance categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs) are summarized. The interrelationship among safety classification of SSCs (per DOE 6430.1A and DOE 5480.30), facility hazard categorization/classification (per DOE 5481.1B and DOE 5480.23), and NPH performance categorization of SSCs (per DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1021-93) is discussed. The compatibility between the safety goals in the Department of Energy Safety Policy, SEN-35-91, and the numerical NPH performance goals of DOE 5480.28, as presented in UCRL-ID-12612 (draft), is examined.

  18. Research Relative to High Spatial Resolution Passive Microwave Sounding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to obtain high resolution passive microwave weather observations, and understanding of their probable impact on numerical weather prediction accuracy were investigated. The development of synthetic aperture concepts for geosynchronous passive microwave sounders were studied. The effects of clouds, precipitation, surface phenomena, and atmospheric thermal fine structure on a scale of several kilometers were examined. High resolution passive microwave sounders (e.g., AMSU) with an increased number of channels will produce initialization data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with both increased spatial resolution and coverage. The development of statistical models for error growth in high resolution primitive equation NWP models which permit the consequences of various observing system alternatives, including sensors and assimilation times and procedures is discussed. A high resolution three dimensional primitive equation NWP model to determine parameters in an error growth model similar to that formulated by Lorenz, but with more degrees of freedom is utilized.

  19. Solar power satellite concepts and potential related space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent parametric studies of alternate SPS design concepts have shown that the concept appears technically feasible. The parametric studies were based on the use of advanced technology silicon solar cells for solar energy conversion. Solar array blanket unit masses of 0.31 to 0.46 kg/sq m were investigated. Conversion efficiencies of 15 to 17 percent air mass zero (AMO at 247 K) with a concentration ratio of two were considered. The systems were sized for a ground power output of 10 GW. To the level of detail studied, no design or operational problems were encountered that did not appear amenable to solution; however, the economic viability of the SPS concepts studied is obviously dependent upon a combination of technology advancement and/or the costs of competitive sources.

  20. Disease-related malnutrition in systemic sclerosis: evidences and implications.

    PubMed

    Codullo, Veronica; Cereda, Emanuele; Crepaldi, Gloria; Cappello, Silvia; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Caporali, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarises evidences and provides recommendations for the screening and management of malnutrition in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This complication is frequently under-estimated when assessing patients and this may lead to an impaired estimation of prognosis. The presence of malnutrition is indicated by anthropometric and biohumoral changes reflecting protein stores (low serum prealbumin) and influenced by organ involvement in SSc (skin and the gastrointestinal tract). Patients at high risk of malnutrition or with low prealbumin levels have shown increased mortality risk and, therefore, a nutritional assessment is mandatory in every SSc patient. This screening is especially important as malnutrition represents a potentially modifiable risk factor with nutritional interventions. The pillars of nutritional treatment are also discussed.

  1. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  2. What Health-Related Functions Are Regulated by the Nervous System?

    MedlinePlus

    ... top] « Parts of the nervous system Why study neuroscience? » Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Early Learning All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights NIH ...

  3. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  4. A discussion of system reliability and the relative importance of pumps and valves to overall system availability

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken to establish preliminary trends for how component aging can effect failure rates for swing check valves, centrifugal pumps and motor operated valves. These failure rate trends were evaluated over time and linear aging rate models established. The failure rate models were then used with classic reliability theories to estimate reliability as a function of operating time. Reliability theory was also used to establish a simple system reliability model. Using the system model, the relative importance of pumps and valves to the overall system reliability were studied. Conclusions were established relative to overall system availability over time and the relative unavailabilities of the various components studied.

  5. Students' Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Op't Eynde, Peter; De Corte, Erik

    A survey study was conducted to investigate the nature of students' mathematics-related belief systems. A mathematics-related beliefs questionnaire was developed and administered to 365 Flemish junior high school students to gather data to identify and analyze the different components of students' belief systems. The focus was on the structure of…

  6. Precision Relative Positioning for Automated Aerial Refueling from a Stereo Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS Kyle P. Werner, 2Lt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS

  7. Models of quadratic quantum algebras and their relation to classical superintegrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E. G.; Miller, W.; Post, S.

    2009-05-15

    We show how to construct realizations (models) of quadratic algebras for 2D second order superintegrable systems in terms of differential or difference operators in one variable. We demonstrate how various models of the quantum algebras arise naturally from models of the Poisson algebras for the corresponding classical superintegrable system. These techniques extend to quadratic algebras related to superintegrable systems in n dimensions and are intimately related to multivariable orthogonal polynomials.

  8. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  9. 34 CFR 361.23 - Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technology for individuals with disabilities; (ii) The use of information and financial management systems... investment system. 361.23 Section 361.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Administration § 361.23 Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system. (a)...

  10. 34 CFR 361.23 - Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology for individuals with disabilities; (ii) The use of information and financial management systems... investment system. 361.23 Section 361.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Administration § 361.23 Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system. (a)...

  11. 34 CFR 361.23 - Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technology for individuals with disabilities; (ii) The use of information and financial management systems... investment system. 361.23 Section 361.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Administration § 361.23 Requirements related to the statewide workforce investment system. (a)...

  12. The relational clinical database: a possible solution to the star wars in registry systems.

    PubMed

    Michels, D K; Zamieroski, M

    1990-12-01

    In summary, having data from other service areas available in a relational clinical database could resolve many of the problems existing in today's registry systems. Uniting sophisticated information systems into a centralized database system could definitely be a corporate asset in managing the bottom line.

  13. System Thinking and Feeding Relations: Learning with a Live Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2012-01-01

    Considering well-documented difficulties in mastering ecology concepts and system thinking, the aim of the study was to examine 9th graders' understanding of the complex, multilevel, systemic construct of feeding relations, nested within a larger system of a live model. Fifty students interacted with the model and manipulated a variable within it…

  14. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html.

  15. Generating parity relations for detecting and identifying control system component failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Velder, Wallace E.; Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali

    1988-01-01

    The monitoring of control system sensors and actuators for failures is presently undertaken by means of an exceptionally simple form of generalized parity relations based on a discrete-time model of the dynamics of linear, time-invariant systems. These generalized parity relations are constructed by recourse to a transfer matrix-description of the system that is additionally useful in the interpretation of their properties. Attention is given to a novel method for constructing the parity relation of minimum length that depends on the output of only a single sensor.

  16. Technical Aspects of Interfacing MUMPS to an External SQL Relational Database Management System

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Walters, Richard F.; Penrod, Gail

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an interface connecting InterSystems MUMPS (M/VX) to an external relational DBMS, the SYBASE Database Management System. The interface enables MUMPS to operate in a relational environment and gives the MUMPS language full access to a complete set of SQL commands. MUMPS generates SQL statements as ASCII text and sends them to the RDBMS. The RDBMS executes the statements and returns ASCII results to MUMPS. The interface suggests that the language features of MUMPS make it an attractive tool for use in the relational database environment. The approach described in this paper separates MUMPS from the relational database. Positioning the relational database outside of MUMPS promotes data sharing and permits a number of different options to be used for working with the data. Other languages like C, FORTRAN, and COBOL can access the RDBMS database. Advanced tools provided by the relational database vendor can also be used. SYBASE is an advanced high-performance transaction-oriented relational database management system for the VAX/VMS and UNIX operating systems. SYBASE is designed using a distributed open-systems architecture, and is relatively easy to interface with MUMPS.

  17. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  18. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  19. Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E

    2011-07-01

    Angular cheilitis (AC) is associated with a variety of nutritional, systemic, and drug-related factors that may act exclusively or in combination with local factors. Establishing the underlying etiology of AC is required to appropriately focus treatment efforts.

  20. Development of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Y.; Oda, N.; Miyazaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Igawa, S.

    2006-07-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system [1]. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  1. The use of discontinuities and functional groups to assess relative resilience in complex systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Gunderson, Lance; Johnson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident when the resilience of a system has been exceeded and the system qualitatively changed. However, it is not clear how to measure resilience in a system prior to the demonstration that the capacity for resilient response has been exceeded. We argue that self-organizing human and natural systems are structured by a relatively small set of processes operating across scales in time and space. These structuring processes should generate a discontinuous distribution of structures and frequencies, where discontinuities mark the transition from one scale to another. Resilience is not driven by the identity of elements of a system, but rather by the functions those elements provide, and their distribution within and across scales. A self-organizing system that is resilient should maintain patterns of function within and across scales despite the turnover of specific elements (for example, species, cities). However, the loss of functions, or a decrease in functional representation at certain scales will decrease system resilience. It follows that some distributions of function should be more resilient than others. We propose that the determination of discontinuities, and the quantification of function both within and across scales, produce relative measures of resilience in ecological and other systems. We describe a set of methods to assess the relative resilience of a system based upon the determination of discontinuities and the quantification of the distribution of functions in relation to those discontinuities. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  3. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  4. The Nonlinear Relations of the Approximate Number System and Mathematical Language to Early Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Logan, Jessica A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability.…

  5. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  6. Relations between allometric scalings and fluctuations in complex systems: The case of Japanese firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate allometric scaling in complex systems, we investigated the underlying scaling relationships between typical three-scale indicators for approximately 500,000 Japanese firms; namely, annual sales, number of employees, and number of business partners. First, new scaling relations including the distributions of fluctuations were discovered by systematically analyzing conditional statistics. Second, we introduced simple probabilistic models that reproduce all these scaling relations, and we derived relations between scaling exponents and the magnitude of fluctuations.

  7. Teacher Attitudes as Related to the Implementation of the New Jersey Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donna

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative case study is on an attitudinal change of teachers towards teacher evaluation with the implementation of a new evaluation system. The goal of this qualitative case study was to gain an understanding of how the implementation of the new New Jersey teacher evaluation system relates to teachers' attitudes toward…

  8. Relationships among Teachers' Perspectives, Self-Reported Practices, and Concerns Related to an Alternate Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Gyoung; Angell, Maureen E.; O'Brian, Mary; Strand, Kenneth B.; Fulk, Barbara M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2006-01-01

    A statewide survey was completed by 234 special education teachers with experience in developing assessment portfolios within the Illinois Alternate Assessment (IAA) system. Relationships between these teachers' demographics and their perspectives, concerns, and self-reported practices related to the IAA system was identified and described. These…

  9. The Dynamics of Effective Performance Evaluation Systems in Education: Conceptual, Human Relations, and Technical Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A triad of conceptual, human relations, and technical domains is proposed as a basis for effective performance evaluation systems in education. Systems incorporating the relevant issues in this triad address a fundamental rule of performance evaluation: if it is worth doing, it is worth doing well. (SLD)

  10. Review of Architecture and Related Disciplines in the State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carl V.

    This review of architecture and architecture-related programs in the State University System of Florida consists of summaries of individual university consultant reports for three institutions visited, overviews based on status reports for programs not visited, and consultant recommendations regarding system-wide issues. Site visits took place at…

  11. Photogrammetry System and Method for Determining Relative Motion Between Two Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Samuel A. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A photogrammetry system and method provide for determining the relative position between two objects. The system utilizes one or more imaging devices, such as high speed cameras, that are mounted on a first body, and three or more photogrammetry targets of a known location on a second body. The system and method can be utilized with cameras having fish-eye, hyperbolic, omnidirectional, or other lenses. The system and method do not require overlapping fields-of-view if two or more cameras are utilized. The system and method derive relative orientation by equally weighting information from an arbitrary number of heterogeneous cameras, all with non-overlapping fields-of-view. Furthermore, the system can make the measurements with arbitrary wide-angle lenses on the cameras.

  12. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  13. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  14. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

  15. The Najd Fault System, Saudi Arabia and Egypt: a Late Precambrian Rift-Related Transform System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.

    1985-08-01

    The Najd Fault System is a complex set of left-lateral strike-slip faults and ductile shear zones that strike NW-SE across the Precambrian of Arabia and Egypt. This system was developed during the interval 540-620 Ma. It is up to 400 km wide with an exposed length of 1100 km; inferred buried extensions of the Najd give it a total length of 2000 km. It is the best exposed and may be the largest pre-Mesozoic zone of transcurrent faulting on earth. Previous models for the Najd Fault System suggest it formed as a result of a major Late Precambrian continent-continent collision. This model is not preferred here because (1) the lack of evidence for a pre-Late Precambrian continent to the east of the Najd Fault System; (2) the difference between the orientation of the Najd Fault System and that predicted by slip-line theory; (3) the younger age of Najd movements compared with that of collisional sutures in the Arabian Shield; and (4) lack of evidence for wide-spread crustal uplift that would be expected to accompany collision. A new model for the origin of the Najd Fault System accounts for each of these objections: The Najd Fault System formed in response to a broad zone of NW-SE directed crustal extension that accompanied juvenile continental crustal formation in northernmost Afro-Arabia. This model also accounts for the following observations: (1) Strands of the Najd parallel the direction of extension in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt and Sinai; (2) the timing of the principal rifting movements (ca. 575-600 Ma) overlap with those of the Najd (ca. 560-620 Ma); (3) in spite of observation (2), the Najd Fault System is not recognized in northernmost Afro-Arabia; instead the Najd deformation becomes increasingly ductile and these zones are more commonly intruded by sheared and foliated granites as the principal zone of extension is approached. The Najd Fault System thus represents a set of continental transforms developed in response to a major episode of Late

  16. Fishing for age-related visual system mutants: behavioral screening of retinal degeneration genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Yuhao; Chen, Dongyan; Shao, Jinping; Li, Xinle; Xu, Chen

    2010-02-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a mainstream model system for genetic studies of human diseases, such as neurological degenerative diseases, heart diseases, immuno-system disorders, etc. In this article, we will review some recent findings of the usefulness of zebrafish as a model vertebrate for behavioral screening of mutations in vertebrate visual system, for example, genes involved in age-related retinal degeneration.

  17. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  18. The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…

  19. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  20. The role of methylglyoxal and the glyoxalase system in diabetes and other age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Dionne E M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2015-06-01

    The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are related to diabetes and other age-related diseases. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is the major precursor in the formation of AGEs. MGO is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis. Under physiological circumstances, MGO is detoxified by the glyoxalase system into D-lactate, with glyoxalase I (GLO1) as the key enzyme in the anti-glycation defence. New insights indicate that increased levels of MGO and the major MGO-derived AGE, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), and dysfunctioning of the glyoxalase system are linked to several age-related health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and disorders of the central nervous system. The present review summarizes the mechanisms through which MGO is formed, its detoxification by the glyoxalase system and its effect on biochemical pathways in relation to the development of age-related diseases. Although several scavengers of MGO have been developed over the years, therapies to treat MGO-associated complications are not yet available for application in clinical practice. Small bioactive inducers of GLO1 can potentially form the basis for new treatment strategies for age-related disorders in which MGO plays a pivotal role.

  1. On the Fluctuation Relation for Nosé-Hoover Boundary Thermostated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2008-11-01

    We discuss the transient and steady state fluctuation relation for a mechanical system in contact with two deterministic thermostats at different temperatures. The system is a modified Lorentz gas in which the fixed scatterers exchange energy with the gas of particles, and the thermostats are modelled by two Nosé-Hoover thermostats applied at the boundaries of the system. The transient fluctuation relation, which holds only for a precise choice of the initial ensemble, is verified at all times, as expected. Times longer than the mesoscopic scale, needed for local equilibrium to be settled, are required if a different initial ensemble is considered. This shows how the transient fluctuation relation asymptotically leads to the steady state relation when, as explicitly checked in our systems, the condition found in (D.J. Searles, et al., J. Stat. Phys. 128:1337, 2007), for the validity of the steady state fluctuation relation, is verified. For the steady state fluctuations of the phase space contraction rate Λ and of the dissipation function Ω, a similar relaxation regime at shorter averaging times is found. The quantity Ω satisfies with good accuracy the fluctuation relation for times larger than the mesoscopic time scale; the quantity Λ appears to begin a monotonic convergence after such times. This is consistent with the fact that Ω and Λ differ by a total time derivative, and that the tails of the probability distribution function of Λ are Gaussian.

  2. Phase-lag synchronization analysis in complex systems with directed inter-relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, V. S. G.; Rodrigues, A. C.; Cerdeira, H. A.; Machado, B. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel way to estimate phase-lag synchronization in coupled systems. This approach was applied into two systems: a directed-coupled Rössler-Lorenz system and a network of Izhikevich neurons. For the former case, the phase-lag synchronization revealed an increase in complexity for the Lorenz subsystem components, when the coupling is activated. The opposite behavior was observed when the Izhikevich network were organized in a hierarchical way. Our results point out to emergent synchronism related to causal interactions in coupled complex systems.

  3. Models of Dynamic Relations Among Service Activities, System State and Service Quality on Computer and Network Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    service process in throughput, delay, and so on. Chen et al. [4] describe service quality requirements of various network applications for online services , e.g...relations among service activities, system state and service quality voice over IP, etc. Service quality requirements for those online services are

  4. Multiplicative consistency-based decision support system for incomplete linguistic preference relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Meimei; Xu, Zeshui; Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    The experts may have difficulty in expressing all their preferences over alternatives or criteria, and produce the incomplete linguistic preference relation. Consistency plays an important role in estimating unknown values from an incomplete linguistic preference relation. Many methods have been developed to obtain a complete linguistic preference relation based on additive consistency, but some unreasonable values may be produced in the estimation process. To overcome this issue, we propose a new characterisation about multiplicative consistency of the linguistic preference relation, present an algorithm to estimate missing values from an incomplete linguistic preference relation, and establish a decision support system for aiding the experts to complete their linguistic preference relations in a more consistent way. Some examples are also given to illustrate the proposed methods.

  5. Real time, high accuracy, relative state estimation for multiple vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Walton Ross

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation presents the development, implementation, and test results from a new instrumentation package for relative navigation between moving vehicles. The instrumentation package on each vehicle is composed of a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), a wireless communication system, and a modular computer system. The GPS places all vehicles into the same inertial reference frame and provides a common clock allowing synchronization among all instrument packages. The IMU tracks the high frequency motion of the vehicle alleviating the need for a fixed base station. The wireless communication system communicates GPS code and carrier phase measurements and computed state estimates from each vehicle at a rate fast enough to capture the dynamic changes in the vehicles. This data representing both GPS and IMU measurements from each vehicle is fused together on each vehicle to produce position, velocity and attitude estimates relative to the other vehicles. This capability to estimate relative motion without a base station appears unique. Furthermore, the application of fusion algorithms to address this new estimation problem is unique. The use of carrier phase provides very accurate relative measurements. In constructing carrier phase measurement, the integer number of wave lengths between vehicles must be resolved. Although there exist integer resolution schemes, these algorithms are ad hoe. The scheme presented here is based on generating the conditional probability of the hypothesis of each integer given the measurement sequence. This nonlinear filter is an elegant and novel contribution. The entire system is tested in real time in an experiment intended to validate the measurement accuracy. The system built using the algorithms designed in this dissertation is capable of estimating relative range to less than 5 cm. RMS, relative roll and pitch to less than 0.2 degrees RMS, and relative yaw to less than 0.7 degrees RMS

  6. Relative positioning-based system with tau control for collision avoidance in swarming application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahiki, M. R.; Talib, N. N. A.; Azrad, S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a relative positioning system by fusing infrared and ultrasonic range sensors data is employed to provide a more reliable relative distance data between quadcopters to achieve close proximity formation flight. This is due to lack of accuracy of positioning data from GPS due to its error of two to five meters. A leader-follower formation control strategy is used to control the distance between the quadcopters by applying data from the relative positioning system. An experiment to test the capability of the proposed strategy was done in the test platform environment equipped with Optitrack motion capture camera. Tau control was implemented as a braking system for the follower to avoid aggressive maneuvers that will make the quadcopters having high pitch along the formation control, which will affect the range detection of sensors. It has been proven from the results that close proximity formation flight is able to be achieved.

  7. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice.

  8. Control system failure monitoring using generalized parity relations. M.S. Thesis Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanschalkwyk, Christiaan Mauritz

    1991-01-01

    Many applications require that a control system must be tolerant to the failure of its components. This is especially true for large space-based systems that must work unattended and with long periods between maintenance. Fault tolerance can be obtained by detecting the failure of the control system component, determining which component has failed, and reconfiguring the system so that the failed component is isolated from the controller. Component failure detection experiments that were conducted on an experimental space structure, the NASA Langley Mini-Mast are presented. Two methodologies for failure detection and isolation (FDI) exist that do not require the specification of failure modes and are applicable to both actuators and sensors. These methods are known as the Failure Detection Filter and the method of Generalized Parity Relations. The latter method was applied to three different sensor types on the Mini-Mast. Failures were simulated in input-output data that were recorded during operation of the Mini-Mast. Both single and double sensor parity relations were tested and the effect of several design parameters on the performance of these relations is discussed. The detection of actuator failures is also treated. It is shown that in all the cases it is possible to identify the parity relations directly from input-output data. Frequency domain analysis is used to explain the behavior of the parity relations.

  9. Position-Momentum Uncertainty Relation for an Open Macroscopic Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeij, Hamid Reza; Shafiee, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    The macroscopic quantum systems are considered as a bridge between quantum and classical systems. In this study, we explore the validity of the original Heisenberg position-momentum uncertainty relation for a macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with environmental micro-particles. Our results show that, in the quasi-classical situation, the original uncertainty relation does not hold, when the number of particles in the environment is small. Nonetheless, increasing the environmental degrees of freedom removes the violation bounds in the regions of our investigation.

  10. Estimating Vehicle Pose Relative to Current Lane from Fisheye Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shigang; Oshima, Hideki; Nakanishi, Isao

    A fisheye camera system is usually used for eliminating the blind spot around a vehicle. In this paper we propose a method of estimating vehicle pose relative to current lane from the side fisheye cameras of such a fisheye camera system. The side fisheye camera with hemispherical field of view can observe the side boundary of the vehicle and the lane markings simultaneously. An algorithm of estimating the distance and the relative orientation between the vehicle and the current lane is presented based on the side boundary of the vehicle and the nearest lane marking. The experimental results are also presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. BIG DATA-Related Challenges and Opportunities in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's climate has increased immensely in recent decades, both through observational analysis and modeling. BIG DATA-related challenges emerge in our quest for understanding the variability and predictability of the climate and earth system on a range of time scales, as well as in our endeavor to improve predictive capability using state-of-the-science models. To enable further scientific discovery, bottlenecks in current paradigms need to be addressed. An overview of current NSF activities in Earth System Modeling with a focus on associated data-related challenges and opportunities, will be presented.

  12. Interoperability evaluation case study: an Obstetrics-Gynecology Department and related Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Blobel, Bernd; Bernad, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the steps and metrics for evaluating the interoperability of an Obstetrics-Gynecology Department Information System applied on Bega Clinic Timisoara regarding its readiness for interoperability in relation with similar systems. The developed OGD IS was modeled starting from the Generic Component Model and sends information to other medical units using the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture and Continuity of Care Document standards. The data for evaluation are real, collected between 2009 and 2010 from Bega Clinic Timisoara. The results were relatively good for the investigated data and structure.

  13. Duality relation among the Hamiltonian structures of a parametric coupled Korteweg-de Vries system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restuccia, Alvaro; Sotomayor, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the full Hamiltonian structure for a parametric coupled KdV system. The coupled system arises from four different real basic lagrangians. The associated Hamiltonian functionals and the corresponding Poisson structures follow from the geometry of a constrained phase space by using the Dirac approach for constrained systems. The overall algebraic structure for the system is given in terms of two pencils of Poisson structures with associated Hamiltonians depending on the parameter of the Poisson pencils. The algebraic construction we present admits the most general space of observables related to the coupled system. We then construct two master lagrangians for the coupled system whose field equations are the ɛ-parametric Gardner equations obtained from the coupled KdV system through a Gardner transformation. In the weak limit ɛ → 0 the lagrangians reduce to the ones of the coupled KdV system while, after a suitable redefinition of the fields, in the strong limit ɛ → ∞ we obtain the lagrangians of the coupled modified KdV system. The Hamiltonian structures of the coupled KdV system follow from the Hamiltonian structures of the master system by taking the two limits ɛ → 0 and ɛ → ∞.

  14. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  15. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  16. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, N. M.

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  17. Weapon-System-Oriented Supply Management at DLA: Relating Inventory Investment to Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    effect on Air Force readiness to all the Military Departments, and we validate and deepen earlier findings on opportunities for DLA improvements. As in...consumable LRU effects on weapon-system readiness are greater than "awaiting parts" effects .) "* Consumable LRUs are not numerous in comparison to the...suboptimizing effect of safety level constraints. "* Grouping items differently when system calculations are performed. The first three ideas are related

  18. Growth of complex systems can be related to the properties of their underlying determinants

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Growth—increase in size, number, or amount—in many cases appears to follow simple empirical laws. Such laws have been noted in a wide variety of fields for many years. Until now these laws have never been related to the underlying determinants of these systems. By starting with fundamental properties of the component mechanisms in such systems, one can derive a basic growth equation for which the well-known laws of growth are special cases. PMID:16592715

  19. Experimental reconstruction of work distribution and study of fluctuation relations in a closed quantum system.

    PubMed

    Batalhão, Tiago B; Souza, Alexandre M; Mazzola, Laura; Auccaise, Ruben; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Goold, John; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Serra, Roberto M

    2014-10-03

    We report the experimental reconstruction of the nonequilibrium work probability distribution in a closed quantum system, and the study of the corresponding quantum fluctuation relations. The experiment uses a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance platform that offers full control on the preparation and dynamics of the system. Our endeavors enable the characterization of the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum spin from a finite-time thermodynamics viewpoint.

  20. Age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system promotes matricidal hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-08-01

    The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here, we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching--intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death--displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ~70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans.

  1. What's in a code? Towards a formal account of the relation of ontologies and coding systems.

    PubMed

    Rector, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    Terminologies are increasingly based on "ontologies" developed in description logics and related languages such as the new Web Ontology Language, OWL. The use of description logic has been expected to reduce ambiguity and make it easier determine logical equivalence, deal with negation, and specify EHRs. However, this promise has not been fully realised: in part because early description logics were relatively inexpressive, in part, because the relation between coding systems, EHRs, and ontologies expressed in description logics has not been fully understood. This paper presents a unifying approach using the expressive formalisms available in the latest version of OWL, OWL 1.1.

  2. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system’s overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Georg Luebeck and Sergei Maslov. PMID:24308849

  3. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael A.; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Van Eepoel, John M.; DeWeese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereo-photoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  4. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  5. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew; Getzandanner, Kenneth; Van Eepoel, John; Deweese, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereophotoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  6. HAIM OMLET: An Expert System For Research In Orthomodular Lattices And Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankel, D. D.; Rodriguez, R. V.; Anger, F. D.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes research towards the construction of an expert system combining the brute force power of algorithmic computation and the inductive reasoning power of a rule-based inference engine in the mathematical area of discrete structures. Little research has been conducted on extending existing expert systems' technology to computationally complex areas. This research addresses the extension of expert systems into areas such as these, where the process of inference by itself will not produce the proper results. Additionally, the research will demonstrate the benefits of combining inference engines and mathematical algorithms to attack computationally complex problems. The specific aim is to produce an expert system which embodies expert level knowledge of orthomodular lattices, graphs, structure spaces, boolean algebras, incidence relations, and projective configurations. The resulting system, implemented on a micro-computer, will provide researchers a powerful and accessible tool for exploring these discrete structures. The system's "shell" will provide a structure for developing other expert systems with similar capabilities in such related areas as coding theory, categories, monoids, automata theory, and non-standard logics.

  7. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  8. Job-Stress and Burnout of the Venezuelan Teachers: Related to Educational Systems Change (Educacion Basica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; And Others

    Beginning with a review of the increasing literature concerning job-related teacher stress, this study examines the particular stress and burnout experiences of school teachers in Venezuela since the incorporation by law in 1980 of "Educacion Basica" (basic education) as a new level of the school system (grades 1-9). To compare teachers…

  9. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  10. Factors Related to Faculty Members' Attitude and Adoption of a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) play a crucial role in organizing the course contents. However, some instructors use LMS in their classes while some do not. This study aimed to discover the factors in relation to the instructors' attitude toward LMS and adoption of LMS in their course. A survey was administered to 62 instructors to follow up the…

  11. 76 FR 74839 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Import Statistics Relating to Competitive Need Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Need Limitations AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of 2011 relating to competitive need limitations (CNLs) under the Generalized System of Preferences....eop.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Competitive Need Limitations The GSP program provides for...

  12. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  13. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  14. Maxwell's Relations for a van der Waals Gas and a Nuclear Paramagnetic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, James; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Since Maxwell's relations are derived in general form from the first to second laws, and students often wonder what they mean and how they are used, appropriate partition functions for van der Waals gas and the nuclear paramagnetic system are used to obtain entropy expressions and equations of state. (Author/SK)

  15. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  16. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... articles the President determines no longer warrant control under United States Munitions List...

  17. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R. O.; Ollinger, O.; Venables, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1982-01-01

    Studies with algal cultures which relate to closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) are discussed. A description of a constant cell density apparatus for continuous culture of algae is included. Excretion of algal by-products, and nitrogen utilization and excretion are discussed.

  18. The Application of Grunig's Symmetry-Asymmetry Public Relations Models to Internal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    Based on J. E. Grunig's four models of public relations practice (press agent/publicity, public information, and two-way asymmetric and two-way symmetric practice), this paper examines the potential applicability of these models to internal communication systems in organizations. Following an introduction, in which Grunig's models are briefly…

  19. Engaging Communities through Vision Development: A Systems Approach to Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Patty L.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation in 2001 exemplifies extreme reaction to an escalating public unrest with educational systems over the past several decades of "educational reform." Effective public relations and communication with stakeholders is threatened during this time of increased public…

  20. Relational Data System Study. Final Report, 12 December 1969-12 June 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minker, Jack; Sable, Jerome

    A relational data system (RDS) is one that has the capability not only to retrieve specific facts but also the ability to deduce facts that are implicit rather than explicit in the data base. The study investigated the application of RDS technology to intelligence data processing. RDS technology and the nature of intelligence data processing are…

  1. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  2. Shear-zone systems and melts: feedback relations and self-organization in orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.

    1998-03-01

    In orogenic belts, the common spatial and temporal association of granites with crustal-scale shear-zone systems suggests melt transfer from source to upper crust was the result of a feedback relation. In this relation, the presence of melt in the crust profoundly affects the rheology, and induces localization of strain within shear-zone systems. Consequently, melt is moved out of the source preferentially along high-strain zones, which helps the system to accommodate strain. Because actively deforming orogenic belts are non-equilibrium systems, they may generate dissipative structure by self-organization; we interpret crustal-scale shear-zone systems and their associated granites as the manifestation of this self-organization. The architecture and permeability structure are controlled by the type of shear-zone system (transcurrent, normal, reverse or oblique); this is the primary control on melt transfer in orogenic belts. During active deformation, movement of melt is by percolative flow and melt essentially is pumped through the system parallel to the maximum principal finite elongation direction. If a build-up of melt pressure occurs, melt-enhanced embrittlement enables tensile and dilatant shear fracturing, and transfer of melt is by channelized flow. We illustrate feedback relations between migmatites, crustal-scale shear-zone systems and granites using examples from the Cadomian belt of western France and the northern Appalachian orogen of the eastern U.S.A. In orogenic belts dominated by transcurrent shear, where the maximum principal finite elongation direction may have a shallow to subhorizontal plunge, granite arrested during ascent through the system commonly develops C- S fabrics. This suggests percolative flow is not effective in expelling melt from these systems; the resulting build-up of melt pressure enables fracturing and channelized transfer of melt, which crystallizes during persistent deformation (e.g. the St. Malo migmatite belt, Cadomian belt

  3. Modeling the Behavior of an Underwater Acoustic Relative Positioning System Based on Complementary Set of Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Joaquín; Jiménez, Ana; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Ureña, Jesús; De Marziani, Carlos; Diego, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The great variability usually found in underwater media makes modeling a challenging task, but helpful for better understanding or predicting the performance of future deployed systems. In this work, an underwater acoustic propagation model is presented. This model obtains the multipath structure by means of the ray tracing technique. Using this model, the behavior of a relative positioning system is presented. One of the main advantages of relative positioning systems is that only the distances between all the buoys are needed to obtain their positions. In order to obtain the distances, the propagation times of acoustic signals coded by Complementary Set of Sequences (CSS) are used. In this case, the arrival instants are obtained by means of correlation processes. The distances are then used to obtain the position of the buoys by means of the Multidimensional Scaling Technique (MDS). As an early example of an application using this relative positioning system, a tracking of the position of the buoys at different times is performed. With this tracking, the surface current of a particular region could be studied. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of the distance from the real position to the estimated one. PMID:22247661

  4. Facies distributions, recharge-discharge relations, and aquifer sensitivity in a glacial aquifer system, northeastern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, A.H. ); Yarling, M. )

    1994-04-01

    The Huntertown aquifer system underlies about 650 km[sup 2] in the interlobate region of northeastern Indiana and corresponds to a sequence of Saginaw Lobe deposits sandwiched between two Erie Lobe till sheets. The northern part of the system typically consists of a 3 to 10 m thick basal outwash apron composed chiefly of sand and capped by a discontinuous sheet of sandy till. Several small to medium-sized (5 to 30km[sup 2]) ice-contact fans are superposed on this sequence and result in thick (15 to 30 m), transmissive sections of sand and gravel. To the southeast, these sediments grade into finer-grained fan-delta and slackwater facies associated with ancestral Lake Erie. Facies distributions, and thus aquifer connectivity, are related to topographic characteristics of the underlying till sheet, which controlled Saginaw Lobe meltwater drainage. The aquifer system is variably confined by a younger sequence of clayey tills and lacustrine mud. The degree of confinement is related to terrain characteristics, with the thickest till (15 to 25 m) being associated with ridged and moraines in the southern and central parts of the system. These features are characteristic of a regional discharge area and suggest a relatively longer residence time. Sensitivity of aquifers in this part of the system may thus be correspondingly less. The distribution of geochemical facies is much less predictable, however, and may be affected by several independent variables.

  5. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  6. How to justify avoidance of communications related to death anxiety in the health care system.

    PubMed

    Sariyar, Murat

    2015-08-01

    It might seem obvious that dealing with death anxiety in the health care system is desirable. Hence, there are either voices that demand more research on how this openness can be fostered or those who consider this topic unworthy of further investigations because of its triviality. The idea behind both deficient perspectives is that the health care system as a communication system can assume the position of a second-order observer who can account for his deficits. However, in terms of Luhmannian systems theory, external perturbations cannot force a functional system to reflect and change the structure of his communications in a certain way. The health care system as a communication system cannot do more than integrating the topic of death anxiety in terms of its functional perpetuation. For example, in hospitals, neither health care staff nor external counselors are able to address existential issues without being affected by functional and structural requirements of the hospital. We present an outline for the justification of the avoidance of death-anxiety related talk in the health care system by reference to systems theory and existential philosophy.

  7. The impact of lean production and related new systems of work organization on worker health.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, P A; Cahill, J; Schnall, P

    1999-04-01

    New systems of work organization, such as lean production and total quality management, have been introduced by employers throughout the industrialized world to improve productivity, quality, and profitability. However, few studies have examined the impact of such systems on occupational injuries or illnesses or on job characteristics related to job strain, which has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The studies reviewed provide little evidence to support the hypothesis that lean production "empowers" auto workers. In fact, auto industry studies suggest that lean production creates intensified work pace and demands. Increases in decision authority and skill levels are modest or temporary, whereas decision latitude typically remains low. Thus, such work can be considered to have job strain. In jobs with ergonomic stressors, intensification of labor appears to lead to increases in musculoskeletal disorders. The evidence for adverse health effects remains inconclusive for related new work systems in other industries, such as modular manufacturing or patient-focused care.

  8. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  9. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  10. On the identification and establishment of topological spatial relations by autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Human beings use spatial relations to describe many daily tasks in their language. For a mobile robot to be useful in daily life, it is necessary to have navigation algorithms capable of identifying and establishing spatial relations. To date in robotics, the navigation problem has been thoroughly researched as a task of guiding a robot from one spatial coordinate to another. Therefore, there is a difference in degree of abstraction between the language of human beings and the algorithms used in robot navigation. This article introduces a piece of research performed on the use of topological relations for the formalisation of spatial relations and navigation. So far, topological relations have been applied widely in geographical information systems and also in spatial logics. There are some proposals in robot navigation which use them for planning but there is no research about making decision in robot navigation. Our research focuses on decision-making methods to establish spatial relations. The main result is a new heuristic, called the Heuristic of Topological Qualitative Semantics (HTQS), which allows the identification and establishment of spatial relations decision-making from a set of actions. To demonstrate its effectiveness, HTQS has been implemented in the form of agents that can move in a two-dimensional virtual environment. HTQS opens a new door to designing algorithms for navigation based on the identification and establishment of spatial relations.

  11. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars in Wide Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present new chromospheric activity-age relations for M dwarf stars in wide binary systems with white dwarf companions. This study is unique in that we use the cooling age of the white dwarf to determine the age of the M dwarf star in the binary system. Assuming that the members of the gravitationally bound system are coeval, the age of the white dwarf is therefore the age of the M dwarf companion. The colors and magnitudes at which chromospheric activity becomes pervasive (at the ``Hα limit") in M stars have been shown to correlate linearly with log(age) in young (<= 4 Gyr) cluster M dwarfs. We find that M dwarfs in wide binaries older than 4 Gyr depart from this linear relation and are found to have activity at colors and magnitudes both bluer and brighter than predicted by M dwarf cluster relations. Also, activity is present in nearly all cluster M dwarfs above the ``Hα limit", whereas not all binary M dwarfs are found to be active above this limit. These relations differ considerably from the rotationally driven dynamo relation for F, G, and K stars that suggests a different magnetic heating mechanism for M dwarf stars. The new relations extend to ages beyond the oldest ages provided by cluster M dwarf activity-age estimates. However, more work is necessary to decrease the uncertainties in these new relations and extend them to later (>= M5.5) spectral types. This work was supported by the NASA Graduate Researchers Program Grant NGT 200415; A Grant-in-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society; NASA Grant Y701296; and NSF Grant AST 0206115.

  12. The Role of Chaotic Dynamics in the Cooling of Magmatic Systems in Subduction Related Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrelli, M.; El Omari, K.; Le Guer, Y.; Perugini, D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics occurring during the thermo-chemical evolution of igneous bodies is of crucial importance in both petrology and volcanology. This is particularly true in subduction related systems where large amount of magmas start, and sometime end, their differentiation histories at mid and lower crust levels. These magmas play a fundamental role in the evolution of both plutonic and volcanic systems but several key questions are still open about their thermal and chemical evolution: 1) what are the dynamics governing the development of these magmatic systems, 2) what are the timescales of cooling, crystallization and chemical differentiation; 4) how these systems contribute to the evolution of shallower magmatic systems? Recent works shed light on the mechanisms acting during the growing of new magmatic bodies and it is now accepted that large crustal igneous bodies result from the accretion and/or amalgamation of smaller ones. What is lacking now is how fluid dynamics of magma bodies can influence the evolution of these igneous systems. In this contribution we focus on the thermo-chemical evolution of a subduction related magmatic system at pressure conditions corresponding to mid-crustal levels (0.7 GPa, 20-25 km). In order to develop a robust model and address the Non-Newtonian behavior of crystal bearing magmas, we link the numerical formulation of the problem to experimental results and rheological modeling. We define quantitatively the thermo-chemical evolution of the system and address the timing required to reach the maximum packing fraction. We will shows that the development of chaotic dynamics significantly speed up the crystallization process decreasing the time needed to reach the maximum packing fraction. Our results have important implications for both the rheological history of the magmatic body and the refilling of shallower magmatic systems.

  13. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas` domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement.

  14. Environmental exposure to xenoestrogens and oestrogen related cancers: reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The role of steroids in carcinogenesis has become a major concern in environmental protection, biomonitoring, and clinical research. Although historically oestrogen has been related to development of reproductive system, research over the last decade has confirmed its crucial role in the development and homeostasis of other organ systems. As a number of anthropogenic agents are xenoestrogens, environmental health research has focused on oestrogen receptor level disturbances and of aromatase polymorphisms. Oestrogen and xenoestrogens mediate critical points in carcinogenesis by binding to oestrogen receptors, whose distribution is age-, gender-, and tissue-specific. This review brings data about cancer types whose eatiology may be found in environmental exposure to xenoestrogens. Cancer types that have been well documented in literature to be related with environmental exposure include the reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain. The results of our data mining show (a) a significant correlation between exposure to xenoestrogens and increased, gender-related, cancer risk and (b) a need to re-evaluate agents so far defined as endocrine disruptors, as they are also key molecules in carcinogenesis. This revision may be used to further research of cancer aetiology and to improvement of related legislation. Investigation of cancers caused by xenoestrogens may elucidate yet unknown mechanisms also valuable for oncology and the development of new therapies. PMID:22759508

  15. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karina K; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Kollmann, Martin; Schachtner, Joachim; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2010-04-02

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells in cell culture, we have now identified the ligand for this orphan receptor as being pQVTFSRDWNAamide, a neuropeptide that is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and that we therefore named ACP (AKH/corazonin-related peptide). ACP does not activate the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin receptors and, vice versa, AKH and corazonin do not activate the ACP receptor, showing that the ACP/receptor couple is an independent and so far unknown peptidergic signaling system. Because ACP is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and the ACP receptor between the AKH and corazonin receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera), the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera), and the bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). However, the ACP system is not present in 12 Drosophila species (Diptera), the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera), the body louse Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and the crustacean Daphnia pulex

  16. The approximate number system and its relation to early math achievement: evidence from the preschool years.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Justin W; Lourenco, Stella F

    2013-03-01

    Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early-developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed.

  17. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. PMID:26419911

  18. An Evaluation of Relative Damage to the Powertrain System in Tracked Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Goo, Sang-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Cheol; Cho, Ho-Young

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the reliability of the endurance test for the powertrain system of military tracked vehicles. The measurement system that measures the driving duty applied to the powertrain system caused by mobility on roads consists of eight analog channels and two pulse channels, including the propeller shaft output torques for the left and right sides. The data obtained from this measurement system can be used to introduce a new technology that produces the output torque of a torque converter and that can be applied to analyze the revolution counting for the endurance and road mobility in the front unit and represent the relative fatigue damages analysis technique and its results according to the driven roads through a cumulative fatigue method. PMID:22573990

  19. 3-D sensor using relative stereo method for bio-seedlings transplanting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroyasu, Takehisa; Hayashi, Jun'ichiro; Hojo, Hirotaka; Hata, Seiji

    2005-12-01

    In the plant factory of crone seedlings, most of the production processes are highly automated, but the transplanting process of the small seedlings is hard to be automated because the figures of small seedlings are not stable and to handle the seedlings it is required to observe the shapes of the small seedlings. Here, a 3-D vision system for robot to be used for the transplanting process in a plant factory has been introduced. This system has been employed relative stereo method and slit light measuring method and it can detect the shape of small seedlings and decides the cutting point. In this paper, the structure of the vision system and the image processing method for the system is explained.

  20. miRTex: A Text Mining System for miRNA-Gene Relation Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Ross, Karen E.; Arighi, Cecilia N.; Peng, Yifan; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide range of cellular and developmental processes through gene expression suppression or mRNA degradation. Experimentally validated miRNA gene targets are often reported in the literature. In this paper, we describe miRTex, a text mining system that extracts miRNA-target relations, as well as miRNA-gene and gene-miRNA regulation relations. The system achieves good precision and recall when evaluated on a literature corpus of 150 abstracts with F-scores close to 0.90 on the three different types of relations. We conducted full-scale text mining using miRTex to process all the Medline abstracts and all the full-length articles in the PubMed Central Open Access Subset. The results for all the Medline abstracts are stored in a database for interactive query and file download via the website at http://proteininformationresource.org/mirtex. Using miRTex, we identified genes potentially regulated by miRNAs in Triple Negative Breast Cancer, as well as miRNA-gene relations that, in conjunction with kinase-substrate relations, regulate the response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. These two use cases demonstrate the usefulness of miRTex text mining in the analysis of miRNA-regulated biological processes. PMID:26407127

  1. miRTex: A Text Mining System for miRNA-Gene Relation Extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Ross, Karen E; Arighi, Cecilia N; Peng, Yifan; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide range of cellular and developmental processes through gene expression suppression or mRNA degradation. Experimentally validated miRNA gene targets are often reported in the literature. In this paper, we describe miRTex, a text mining system that extracts miRNA-target relations, as well as miRNA-gene and gene-miRNA regulation relations. The system achieves good precision and recall when evaluated on a literature corpus of 150 abstracts with F-scores close to 0.90 on the three different types of relations. We conducted full-scale text mining using miRTex to process all the Medline abstracts and all the full-length articles in the PubMed Central Open Access Subset. The results for all the Medline abstracts are stored in a database for interactive query and file download via the website at http://proteininformationresource.org/mirtex. Using miRTex, we identified genes potentially regulated by miRNAs in Triple Negative Breast Cancer, as well as miRNA-gene relations that, in conjunction with kinase-substrate relations, regulate the response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. These two use cases demonstrate the usefulness of miRTex text mining in the analysis of miRNA-regulated biological processes.

  2. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined

  3. Representing and querying conceptual graphs with relational database management systems is possible.

    PubMed Central

    Schadow, G.; Barnes, M. R.; McDonald, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    This is an experimental study on the feasibility of maintaining medical concept dictionaries in production grade relational database management systems (RDBMS.) In the past, RDBMS did not support transitive relational structures and had therefore been unsuitable for managing knowledge bases. The revised SQL-99 standard, however, may change this. In this paper we show that modern RDBMS that support recursive queries are capable of querying transitive relationships in a generic data model. We show a simple but efficient indexed representation of transitive closure. We could confirm that even challenging combined transitive relationships can be queried in SQL. PMID:11825256

  4. Building Common Knowledge at the Boundaries between Professional Practices: Relational Agency and Relational Expertise in Systems of Distributed Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The article develops an earlier account of relational agency ("IJER" 2005). Its starting point is a view of practices as knowledge-laden and emotionally freighted sites of purposeful and expert activity. Arguments therefore draw on cultural historical analyses of activities, practices and the institutions that shape them. Relational agency in…

  5. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  6. External Visual Representations in Science Learning: The case of relations among system components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilam, Billie; Poyas, Yael

    2010-11-01

    How do external visual representations (e.g., graph, diagram) promote or constrain students' ability to identify system components and their interrelations, to reinforce a systemic view through the application of the STS approach? University students (N = 150) received information cards describing cellphones' communication system and its subsystem components. One group (n = 82) received a display of cards presenting this information in rich and diverse visual representations and a few text cards. Another group (n = 68) received a single representation display, of text only. Using these card sets, students were asked to identify the cellular systems' components and relations, and to construct new interrelations. Findings showed that, mostly, multimedia enabled better identification and construction of relations of higher component diversity, accuracy, description, and novelty, using a larger number of information cards than did the textual display. Generally, findings suggested that components' saliency and distinctiveness in the visual display afforded a better systemic view. However, curriculum designers and teachers should be aware of cases in which rich multimedia constrained performance.

  7. Stability and Relative Stability of Linear Systems with Many Constant Time Delays. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Larry Keith

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining the stability of linear systems with many constant time delays is developed. This technique, an extension of the tau-decomposition method, is used to examine not only the stability but also the relative stability of retarded systems with many delays and a class of neutral equations with one delay. Analytical equations are derived for partitioning the delay space of a retarded system with two time delays. The stability of the system in each of the regions defined by the partitioning curves in the parameter plane is determined using the extended tau-decomposition method. In addition, relative stability boundaries are defined using the extended tau-decompositon method in association with parameter plane techniques. Several applications of the extended tau-decomposition method are presented and compared with stability results obtained from other analyses. In all cases the results obtained using the method outlined herein coincide with and extend those of previous investigations. The extended tau-decomposition method applied to systems with time delays requires less computational effort and yields more complete stability analyses than previous techniques.

  8. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians’ article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  9. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation. PMID:26739522

  10. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, Lloyd L.; Smith, Larry K.

    1994-01-01

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises Ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

  11. Development of newly designed VHF interferometer system for observing earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Isao; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kamogawa, Masashi; Iyono, Atsushi; Kroumov, Valeri; Azakami, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Temporal correlation between atmospheric anomalies and earthquakes has recently been verified statistically through measuring VHF FM radio waves transmitted beyond the line-of-sight. In order to locate the sources of such atmospheric anomalies, we developed a VHF interferometer system (bistatic-radar type) capable of finding the arrival direction of FM radio waves scattered possibly by earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies. In general, frequency modulation of FM radio waves produces ambiguity of arrival direction. However, our system, employing high-sampling rates of the order of kHz, can precisely measure the arrival direction of FM radio waves by stacking received signals. PMID:20009381

  12. Development of newly designed VHF interferometer system for observing earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Isao; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kamogawa, Masashi; Iyono, Atsushi; Kroumov, Valeri; Azakami, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Temporal correlation between atmospheric anomalies and earthquakes has recently been verified statistically through measuring VHF FM radio waves transmitted beyond the line-of-sight. In order to locate the sources of such atmospheric anomalies, we developed a VHF interferometer system (bistatic-radar type) capable of finding the arrival direction of FM radio waves scattered possibly by earthquake-related atmospheric anomalies. In general, frequency modulation of FM radio waves produces ambiguity of arrival direction. However, our system, employing high-sampling rates of the order of kHz, can precisely measure the arrival direction of FM radio waves by stacking received signals.

  13. Thermodynamics of relation-based systems with applications in econophysics, sociophysics, and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2012-10-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze relation-based systems evolving in time by using the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics. The behavior of such systems can be tracked from the scattering matrix which is actually a network of directed vectors (or pathways) connecting subsequent values, which characterize an event, such as the index values in stock markets. A system behaves in a rigid (elastic) way to an external effect and resists permanent deformation, or it behaves in a viscous (or soft) way and deforms in an irreversible way. It was shown in the past that a formula derived using the slope of paths gives a measure about the extent of viscoelastic behavior of relation-based systems Gündüz (2009) [5] Gündüz and Gündüz (2010) [6]. In this research the ‘work’ associated with ‘elastic’ component, and ‘heat’ associated with ‘viscous’ component were discussed and elaborated. In a simple two subsequent pathway system in a scattering diagram the first vector represents ‘the cause’ and the second ‘the effect’. By using work and heat energy relations that involve force and also storage and loss modulus terms, respectively, one can calculate the energy involved in relation-based systems. The modulus values can be found from the parallel and vertical components of the second vector with respect to the first vector. Once work-like and heat-like terms were determined the internal energy is also easily found from their summation. The parallel and vertical components can also be used to calculate the magnitude of torque and torque energy in the system. Three cases, (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution. NASDAQ-100 exhibits highly dissipative behavior, and its work terms are very small but heat terms are of large magnitude. Its internal energy highly fluctuates

  14. Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    SILVA E SOUZA JUNIOR, Mario Honorato; CARNEIRO, Karina Gama Kato; LOBATO, Marcelo Figueiredo; SILVA E SOUZA, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues; de GÓES, Mário Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and influence of handling characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classified according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch and glass ionomer. The etch-andrinse systems require a specific acid-etch procedure and may be performed in two or three steps. Self-etch systems employ acidic monomers that demineralize and impregnate dental substrates almost at the same time. These systems are separated in one or two steps. Some advantages and deficiencies were noted for etch-and-rinse and self-etch approaches, mainly for the simplified ones due to some chemical associations and interactions. The SeM micrographs illustrate different relationships between adhesive systems and dental structures, particularly dentin. The knowledge of composition, characteristics and mechanisms of adhesion of each adhesive system is of fundamental importance to permit the adoption of ideal bonding strategies under clinical conditions. PMID:20856995

  15. Relation between repeatability and speed of robot-based systems for composite aircraft production through multilateration sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Perner, M.; Krombholz, C.; Beykirch, B.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber composites are becoming increasingly important in different fields of lightweight application. To guarantee the estimated demand of components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the use of industrial robots is suggested in production. High velocity of the layup process is addressed to significantly increase the production rate. Today, the layup of the fiber material is performed by gantry systems. They are heavy weight, slow and the variety of possible part shapes is limited. Articulated robots offer a huge operational area in relation to their construction size. Moreover, they are flexible enough to layup fiber material into different shaped molds. Thus, standard articulated robots are less accurate and more susceptible to vibration than gantry systems. Therefore, this paper illustrates an approach to classify volumetric errors to obtain a relation between the achievable speed in production and precision. The prediction of a precision at a defined speed is the result. Based on the measurement results the repeatability of the robotic unit within the workspace is calculated and presented. At the minimum speed that is applicable in production the repeatability is less than 30 mm. Subsequently, an online strategy for path error compensation is presented. The approach uses a multilateration system that consists of four laser tracer units and measures the current absolute position of a reflector mounted at the end-effector of the robot. By calculating the deviation between the planned and the actual position a compensated motion is applied. The paper concludes with a discussion for further investigations.

  16. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    PubMed

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research.

  17. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  18. Subsurface materials management and containment system, components thereof and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-04-18

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  19. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  20. Source-related variables for the description of the oceanic carbon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walin, G.; Hieronymus, J.; Nycander, J.

    2014-09-01

    oceanic carbon system is commonly described in terms of the two state variables total carbon, DIC, and alkalinity, Alk. Here we suggest the use of alternative source adapted state variables, Acidic Carbon, AC and Basic Carbon, BC, defined by and related to (DIC, Alk) with a simple linear transformation. (AC, BC) can be interpreted as representing respectively the supply to the system of carbon dioxide and dissolved carbonate, keeping in mind that supply of hydrogen ions acts to transform from basic carbon to acidic carbon. Accordingly these variables tell us how much carbon dioxide or dissolved carbonate we actually have in the water, despite the fact that the major part of the carbon resides in bicarbonate ions. We claim that using these source-related variables as a compliment to the traditional variables, offers a number of advantages in the formulation of continuity equations, as well as in the interpretation of observations and modeling results. The traditional definition of alkalinity is related to a measuring procedure rather than to the supply of material to the system. Here we demonstrate that alkalinity, though defined in the traditional way, may be interpreted in terms of sources and sinks acting on the system. In the case of ocean water this amounts to twice the supply of dissolved carbonate minus the net supply of free hydrogen ions. We argue that this interpretation is a useful complement to the traditional definition. Every process that affects the state of the carbon system may be quantified in terms of supply of carbon dioxide, Fa, carbonate ions, Fb, or hydrogen ions, E.

  1. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-01-07

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  2. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  3. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H. Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  4. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    PubMed

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning.

  5. Comparing systemic defence-related gene expression changes upon migratory and sedentary nematode attack in rice.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, T; Nahar, K; Haegeman, A; De Vleesschauwer, D; Höfte, M; Gheysen, G

    2012-03-01

    Complex defence signalling pathways, controlled by different hormones, are known to be involved in the reaction of plants to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stress factors. Here, we studied the differential expression of genes involved in stress and defence responses in systemic tissue of rice infected with the root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola and the migratory root rot nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae, two agronomically important rice pathogens with very different lifestyles. qRT-PCR revealed that all investigated systemic tissues had significantly lower expression of isochorismate synthase, a key enzyme for salicylic acid production involved in basal defence and systemic acquired resistance. The systemic defence response upon migratory nematode infection was remarkably similar to fungal rice blast infection. Almost all investigated defence-related genes were up-regulated in rice shoots 3 days after root rot nematode attack, including the phenylpropanoid pathway, ethylene pathway and PR genes, but many of which were suppressed at 7 dpi. Systemic shoot tissue of RKN-infected plants showed similar attenuation of expression of almost all studied genes already at 3 dpi, with clear attenuation of the ethylene pathway and methyl jasmonate biosynthesis. These results provide an interesting starting point for further studies to elucidate how nematodes are able to suppress systemic plant defence mechanisms and the effect in multitrophic interactions.

  6. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division.

    PubMed

    IMAEDA, T; OGURA, M

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150-163. 1963.-Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria.

  7. Density-functional studies of tungsten trioxide, tungsten bronzes, and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, B.; Hendy, S. C.; Chong, S. V.; Tallon, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    Tungsten trioxide adopts a variety of structures which can be intercalated with charged species to alter the electronic properties, thus forming “tungsten bronzes.” Similar effects are observed upon removing oxygen from WO3 . We present a computational study of cubic and hexagonal alkali bronzes and examine the effects on cell size and band structure as the size of the intercalated ion is increased. With the exception of hydrogen (which is predicted to be unstable as an intercalate), the behavior of the bronzes are relatively consistent. NaWO3 is the most stable of the cubic systems, although in the hexagonal system the larger ions are more stable. The band structures are identical, with the intercalated atom donating its single electron to the tungsten 5d valence band. A study of fractional doping in the NaxWO3 system (0⩽x⩽1) showed a linear variation in cell parameter and a systematic shift in the Fermi level into the conduction band. In the oxygen-deficient WO3-x system the Fermi level undergoes a sudden jump into the conduction band at around x=0.2 . Lastly, three compounds of a layered WO4•α,ω -diaminoalkane hybrid series were studied and found to be insulating, with features in the band structure similar to those of the parent WO3 compound that relate well to experimental UV-visible spectroscopy results.

  8. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later.

  9. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2016-10-01

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl-Teller and Gaussian wells.

  10. Toward a systemic ethics of public-private partnerships related to food and health.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonathan H

    2014-09-01

    Public-private partnerships have become widespread in the pursuit of both health-related research and public health interventions--most notably, in recent measures intended to address obesity. Participants emphasize synergies between the missions or goals of the public and private partners. However, the missions usually diverge in significant ways. Consequently, these partnerships can have serious implications for the integrity of, as well as trust and confidence in, the public partners. In this article, I highlight systemic concerns presented by public-private partnerships related to food and health. These include research agenda distortion and framing effects--not least, the characterization of obesity primarily as a question of individual behavior, and the minimization or neglect of the role of food systems and other social and environmental factors on health. Prevailing analytical approaches to public-private partnerships tend to downplay or ignore these systemic effects and their ethical implications. In this article, I offer guidance intended to help actors in the public sector fulfill their mission while thinking more critically and systemically about the ethical implications of public-private partnerships.

  11. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  12. Assessing the relative effects of emissions, climate means, and variability on large water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whateley, Sarah; Brown, Casey

    2016-11-01

    Some of the greatest societal risks of climate change rise from the potential impacts to water supply. Yet prescribing adaptation policies in the near term is made difficult by the uncertainty in climate projections at relevant spatial scales and the conflating effects of uncertainties in emissions, model error, and internal variability. In this work, a new framework is implemented to explore the vulnerability of reservoir systems in the northeastern U.S. to climate change and attribute vulnerabilities to changes in mean climate, natural variability, or emission scenarios. Analysis of variance is used to explore the contributions of uncertainties to system performance. Diagnosing the relative risks to water supply will help water resource engineers better adapt to uncertain future conditions. The results indicate that uncertainty in water supply system performance can be attributed mostly to uncertainty in internal variability over policy-relevant planning horizons, and thus, adaptation efforts should focus on managing variability.

  13. Phase transitions in systems of self-propelled agents and related network models.

    PubMed

    Aldana, M; Dossetti, V; Huepe, C; Kenkre, V M; Larralde, H

    2007-03-02

    An important characteristic of flocks of birds, schools of fish, and many similar assemblies of self-propelled particles is the emergence of states of collective order in which the particles move in the same direction. When noise is added into the system, the onset of such collective order occurs through a dynamical phase transition controlled by the noise intensity. While originally thought to be continuous, the phase transition has been claimed to be discontinuous on the basis of recently reported numerical evidence. We address this issue by analyzing two representative network models closely related to systems of self-propelled particles. We present analytical as well as numerical results showing that the nature of the phase transition depends crucially on the way in which noise is introduced into the system.

  14. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  15. On the existence of J 2 invariant relative orbits from the dynamical system point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2012-04-01

    The present paper addresses the existence of J 2 invariant relative orbits with arbitrary relative magnitude over the infinite time using the Routh reduction and Poincaré techniques in the J 2 Hamiltonian problem. The current research also proposes a novel numerical searching approach for J 2 invariant relative orbits from the dynamical system point of view. A new type of Poincaré mapping is defined from different central manifolds of the pseudo-circular orbits (parameterized by the Jacobi energy E, the polar component of momentum H z and the measure of distance Δ r between the fixed point and its central manifolds) to the nodal periods T d and the drifts of longitude of the ascending node during one period (ΔΩ), which differs from Koon et al.'s (AIAA 2001) definition on central manifolds parameterized by the same fixed point. The Poincaré mapping is surjective because it compresses the three-dimensional variables into two-dimensional images, and the mapping degenerates into a bijective mapping in consideration of the fixed points. An iteration algorithm to the degenerated bijective mapping is proposed from the continuation procedure to perform the ergodic representation of E- and H z -contour maps on the space of T d -ΔΩ. For the surjective mapping with Δ r ≠ 0, different pseudo-circular or elliptical orbits may share the same images. Hence, the inverse surjective mapping may achieve non-unique variables from a single image, which makes the generation of J 2 invariant relative orbits possible. The pseudo-circular or elliptical orbits generated from the surjective mapping will be defined in different meridian planes. Hence, the critical contribution of the present paper is the assignment of J 2 invariant relative orbits to different invariant parameters E and H z depending on the E- and H z -contour map, which will hold J 2 invariant relative orbits for extended durations. To investigate the high-order nonlinearity neglected by previous studies, a

  16. Scaling Relation of Mega-fault Systems for Strong Ground Motion Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irikura, K.; Awata, Y.; Miyake, H.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Matsushima, S.

    2006-12-01

    We are studying scaling relations between fault length (L) and seismic moment (Mo) for mega-fault systems such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 2002 Denali earthquake. Scholz (2002) proposed an idea that the scaling relation changes from L-model to W-model for extra large earthquakes. According to the idea, Ikikura et al. (2004) proposed three-stage scaling relations between fault rupture area (S) and seismic moment; i.e., Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3} for Mo<7.5x1018Nm, S^{1/2} for Mo <7.5x1020, S for extra large earthquakes. Meanwhile, Somerville et al. (1999) proposed an uniform scaling, Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3}, even for larger earthquakes. We consider that the difference of the two scaling relations causes from their treatments of fault width (W). Irikura et al. (2004) introduces saturation of fault width considering thickness of seismogenic zone. However, fault widths are not observed values but estimated from aftershock distributions. We have to carefully evaluate S-Mo relationship considering uncertainty of fault widths. We try to estimate fault width from two empirical relationships, fault length vs. fault displacement (D) and seismic moment Mo vs fault length (L). The relationship L vs D is from certain data based on geological and geomorphological investigations. As for fault displacement, Awata (2006) proposes liner relationship between behavioral fault segment length and its maximum displacement. He also proposed saturation of fault displacement in case of mega-fault system. We here propose and demonstrate new scaling relations between fault length and seismic moment for mega-fault systems compiling past earthquake data (introducing field data about behavioral fault segments). We compare the derived fault width with carefully validated fault width from waveform and geodetic inversions to develop scaling relation for strong ground motion estimation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: A portion of this study was supported by the JNES research topic

  17. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants’ performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement. PMID:28066291

  18. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978–2011

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. Objective: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Methods: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Results: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 105 employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 105 employees in Spain to 7·32 per 105 employees in Norway. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain. PMID:25335827

  19. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants' performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement.

  20. Application of the resource-based relative value scale system to pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Gerstle, Robert S; Molteni, Richard A; Andreae, Margie C; Bradley, Joel F; Brewer, Eileen D; Calabrese, Jamie; Krug, Steven E; Liechty, Edward A; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Pillsbury, Julia M; Tuli, Sanjeev Y

    2014-06-01

    The majority of public and private payers in the United States currently use the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale as the basis for physician payment. Many large group and academic practices have adopted this objective system of physician work to benchmark physician productivity, including using it, wholly or in part, to determine compensation. The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale survey instrument, used to value physician services, was designed primarily for procedural services, leading to current concerns that American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) surveys may undervalue nonprocedural evaluation and management services. The American Academy of Pediatrics is represented on the RUC, the committee charged with maintaining accurate physician work values across specialties and age groups. The Academy, working closely with other primary care and subspecialty societies, actively pursues a balanced RUC membership and a survey instrument that will ensure appropriate work relative value unit assignments, thereby allowing pediatricians to receive appropriate payment for their services relative to other services.

  1. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  2. Does Korea's current diagnosis-related group-based reimbursement system appropriately classify appendectomy patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kee-Hwan; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Kuon; Choi, Byung-Jo; Jeong, Wonjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As several years have passed since the implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system for appendicitis, its early outcomes should be assessed to determine if further improvements are warranted. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from Korean patients who underwent appendectomy, dividing the sample into 2 groups of those who received services before and after implementation of the DRG system. Based on the DRG code classification, patient data were collected including the amount of DRG reimbursement and the total in-patient costs. We subsequently performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent factors contributing to higher total in-patient cost. Results Although implementation of the DRG system for appendicitis significantly reduced postoperative length of stay (2.8 ± 1.0 days vs. 3.4 ± 1.9 days, P < 0.001), it did not reduce total in-hospital cost. The independent factors related to total inhospital cost included patient age of 70 years or more (odds ratio [OR], 3.214; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.769–5.840; P < 0.001) and operation time longer than 100 minutes (OR, 3.690; 95% CI, 2.007–6.599, P < 0.001). In addition, older patients (≥70 years) showed a nearly 10 times greater relative risk for having a comorbid condition (95% CI, 5.141–20.214; P < 0.001) and a 3.255 times greater relative risk for having higher total in-hospital cost (95% CI, 1.731–6.119, P < 0.001). Conclusion It appears that older patients (>70 years) have greater comorbidities, which contribute to higher inpatient costs. Thus, our study suggests that patient age be considered as a DRG classification variable. PMID:27478811

  3. Experiments with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) using the synthetic relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1994-01-01

    This study is intended to examine the impact of the synthetic relative humidity on the model simulation of mesoscale convective storm environment. The synthetic relative humidity is derived from the National Weather Services surface observations, and non-conventional sources including aircraft, radar, and satellite observations. The latter sources provide the mesoscale data of very high spatial and temporal resolution. The synthetic humidity data is used to complement the National Weather Services rawinsonde observations. It is believed that a realistic representation of initial moisture field in a mesoscale model is critical for the model simulation of thunderstorm development, and the formation of non-convective clouds as well as their effects on the surface energy budget. The impact will be investigated based on a real-data case study using the mesoscale atmospheric simulation system developed by Mesoscale Environmental Simulations Operations, Inc. The mesoscale atmospheric simulation system consists of objective analysis and initialization codes, and the coarse-mesh and fine-mesh dynamic prediction models. Both models are a three dimensional, primitive equation model containing the essential moist physics for simulating and forecasting mesoscale convective processes in the atmosphere. The modeling system is currently implemented at the Applied Meteorology Unit, Kennedy Space Center. Two procedures involving the synthetic relative humidity to define the model initial moisture fields are considered. It is proposed to perform several short-range (approximately 6 hours) comparative coarse-mesh simulation experiments with and without the synthetic data. They are aimed at revealing the model sensitivities should allow us both to refine the specification of the observational requirements, and to develop more accurate and efficient objective analysis schemes. The goal is to advance the MASS (Mesoscal Atmospheric Simulation System) modeling expertise so that the model

  4. Thrombectomy reduces the systemic complications in device-related right atrial septic thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Sontineni, Siva Prasad; White, Michael; Singh, Sindhu; Arouni, Amy; Cloutier, David; Nair, Chandra K; Mohiuddin, Syed M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Septic thrombosis of the right atrium is an unusual complication associated with the use of indwelling devices. The optimal management of this condition is unclear. Our experience with a patient with hemodialysis catheter-related septic thrombosis of the right atrium illustrates the difficulties associated with this condition. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of surgical thrombectomy compared with nonsurgical treatment with antibiotics (with or without anticoagulation) on mortality rates and complications in patients with device-related septic thrombosis of the right atrium. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all reported cases of device-related right heart septic thrombosis in which therapy and outcome were reported was conducted using a PubMed search in the English-language literature (1985 to 2006). RESULTS: Forty cases of device-related right atrial septic thromboses were reported in the literature during the chosen time period. The treatments administered were none (12.5%), antibiotics (12.5%), antibiotics and anticoagulation (20%), and thrombectomy (55%). The mean clot size was significantly larger in patients who underwent thrombectomy. All untreated patients died. Excluding the untreated patients from the analysis, systemic complications were significantly lower in the thrombectomy group than in the groups receiving nonsurgical therapies. Using multivariate modelling with survival as the primary outcome, age, sex, clot size, clot location, microbial organism or type of treatment were not predictive of the outcome. CONCLUSION: Device-related right atrial septic thrombosis is associated with significant mortality and is uniformly fatal if untreated. Surgical thrombectomy is associated with less frequent systemic complications. A well-designed prospective, randomized trial is needed to determine the optimal treatment of this condition. PMID:19214299

  5. Motor area activity for action-related and nonaction-related sounds in a three-dimensional sound field reproduction system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Koichiro; Ueno, Kanako; Shimada, Sotaro

    2015-03-25

    The motor cortical area is often activated to auditory stimuli in the human brain. In this study, we examined whether the motor area shows differential activation for action-related and nonaction-related sounds and whether it is susceptible to the quality of the sounds. A three-dimensional sound field recording and reproduction system based on the boundary surface control principle (BoSC system) was used for this purpose. We measured brain activity during hearing action-related or nonaction-related sounds with electroencephalography using mu rhythm suppression (mu-suppression) as an index of motor cortical activation. The results showed that mu-suppression was observed when the participant heard action-related sounds, but it was not evident when hearing nonaction-related sounds. Moreover, this suppression was significantly larger in the 3D sound field (62-ch loudspeaker condition), which generates a more realistic sound field, than in the 1-ch loudspeaker condition. Our results indicate that the motor area was indeed activated for action-related sounds and that its activation was enhanced with a 3D realistic sound field. We discuss our findings in relation to the mirror neuron system and the possibility of using its activity as an objective measure that reflects the subjective sense of reality in various virtual reality settings when interacting with others.

  6. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  7. Strengthening health information systems for disability-related rehabilitation in LMICs.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Anna; Durham, Jo; Richards, Nicola; Gouda, Hebe; Rampatige, Rasika; Whittaker, Maxine

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the state of rehabilitation health information systems (HIS) in different settings, and identify key processes and actions which contribute to the development of HIS which can effectively support low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) allocate resources to health-related rehabilitation to people with disabilities. Nine case studies were conducted across different disability and developmental settings using documentary review and semi-structured key informant interviews (N = 41). Results were analysed against the six building blocks of a HIS, based on the Health Metrics Network Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems and existing HIS capacity. Key barriers or enablers to good disability data collection and use, were documented for each HIS component. Research results suggest there is no gold standard HIS for rehabilitation. There was broad consensus however, that effective health related disability planning requires reliable data on disability prevalence, functional status, access to rehabilitation services and functional outcomes of rehabilitation. For low-resource settings, and where routine HIS are already challenged, planning to include disability and rehabilitation foci starting with a minimum dataset on functioning, and progressively improving the system for increased utility and harmonization, is likely to be most effective and minimize the potential for overburdening fragile systems. The recommendations from this study are based on the successes and challenges of countries with established information systems, and will assist LMICs to prioritize strategic measures to strengthen the collection and use of data for rehabilitation, and progressively realize the rights of people with disabilities.

  8. An investigation of integral facility scaling and data relation methods (Integral System Test Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, T K

    1987-02-01

    The Integral Systems Test (IST) Program was initiated in 1982 by government and industry to provide information needed to help resolve issues raised by the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. Three different integral test facilities, each scaled to a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) design nuclear steam supply system, will ultimately contribute data to meet the objectives of the program. Each of the facilities was designed using different scaling methodologies, and each has different operating capabilities, such as maximum operating pressure and core power. The overall scaling of each facility is examined in this report, and local scaling is analyzed to demonstrate potential similarities and dissimilarities in facility response relative to expected plant responses. The scaling relationships are used to show how local thermal-hydraulic phenomena in each facility can be compared to each other or to expected plant behavior. The concept of an equilibrium plot is used to show how the global response of each facility can be related for a specific small break loss-of-coolant transient. Potential complications that may arise as a consequence of the facility scaling or facility limitations are enumerated. The potential use of dimensionless groupings for relating and specifying experiments is discussed. Finally, some specific experiments and conditions are proposed for the purpose of simplifying interfacility comparison of test results.

  9. Is the CCR5 Δ 32 mutation associated with immune system-related diseases?

    PubMed

    Ghorban, Khodayar; Dadmanesh, Maryam; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Momeni, Mohammad; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Kennedy, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Hypersensitivity and autoimmunity are the main features of immune system-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), multiple sclerosis (MS), and asthma. It has been established that chemokines play key roles in the activation and regulation of immune cell migration which is important in the pathogenesis of the diseases mentioned. CC chemokines receptor 5 or CCR5 is a receptor for RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β and is expressed by several immune cells including NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages. It plays key roles in the regulation of migration and activation of the immune cells during immune responses against microbe and self-antigens during autoimmunity and hypersensitivity disorders. Therefore, any alteration in the sequence of CCR5 gene or in its expression could be associated with immune system-related diseases. Previous studies revealed that a 32-base pair deletion (Δ 32) in exon 1 of the CCR5 gene led to downregulation of the gene. Previous studies demonstrated that not only CCR5 expression was altered in autoimmune and hypersensitivity disorders, but also that the mutation is associated with the diseases. This review addresses the recent information regarding the association of the CCR5 Δ 32 mutation in immune-related diseases including T2D with and without nephropathy, MS, and asthma. Based on the collected data, it seems that the CCR5 Δ 32 mutation can be considered as a risk factor for MS, but not asthma and T2D with and without nephropathy.

  10. Individual Differences in Algebraic Cognition: Relation to the Approximate Number and Sematic Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    The relation between performance on measures of algebraic cognition and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and memory for addition facts was assessed for 171 (92 girls) 9th graders, controlling parental education, sex, reading achievement, speed of numeral processing, fluency of symbolic number processing, intelligence, and the central executive component of working memory. The algebraic tasks assessed accuracy in placing x,y pairs in the coordinate plane, speed and accuracy of expression evaluation, and schema memory for algebra equations. ANS acuity was related to accuracy of placements in the coordinate plane and expression evaluation, but not schema memory. Frequency of fact-retrieval errors was related to schema memory but not coordinate plane or expression evaluation accuracy. The results suggest the ANS may contribute to or is influenced by spatial-numerical and numerical only quantity judgments in algebraic contexts, whereas difficulties in committing addition facts to long-term memory may presage slow formation of memories for the basic structure of algebra equations. More generally, the results suggest different brain and cognitive systems are engaged during the learning of different components of algebraic competence, controlling demographic and domain general abilities. PMID:26255604

  11. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  12. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; C. Hsu; C. L. Atwood; M. B. Sattison; R. S. Hartley; V. N. Shah

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number and rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  13. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  14. IgG4-related hypophysitis presenting as a pituitary adenoma with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Ming-Tai; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Min

    2013-04-01

    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder that can mimic a pituitary tumor clinically or radiologically. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease is only a just recently characterized disorder. It can manifest as a systemic disease involving multiple organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, lungs, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, kidneys, and retroperitoneum. It is characterized by a high serum level of IgG4 clinically and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with sclerosis and phlebitis histologically. Herein, we report the case of a man 66 years of age who presented with nausea, vomiting, and poor appetite with a body weight loss of 4 kg. Image study revealed a pituitary infundibulum mass, right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses, as well as infiltrating masses in bilateral kidneys. Therefore, he received a thoracoscopic biopsy for the right-posterior mediastinal and paraspinal masses and a pathologic examination reported an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Then, transsphenoidal removal of the infundibulum mass was performed. Histologically, the infundibulum mass represented a IgG4-related hypophysitis manifested as an infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and some eosinophils with a fair number of IgG4-immunoreactive plasma cells. After the operation was complete, the patient took 5 mg of prednisolone every 2 days for 3 months. A follow-up computed tomography scan revealed improvement of the infiltrating masses in the bilateral kidneys.

  15. Relative Effect of Inclinations for Moonlets in the Triple Asteroidal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis and computational results for the inclination relative effect of moonlets of triple asteroidal systems. Perturbations on moonlets due to the primary's non-sphericity gravity, the solar gravity, and moonlets' relative gravity are discussed. The inclination vector for each moonlet follows a periodic elliptical motion; the motion period depends on the moonlet's semi-major axis and the primary's J2 perturbations. Perturbation on moonlets from the Solar gravity and moonlet's relative gravity makes the motion of the x component of the inclination vector of moonlet 1 and the y component of the inclination vector of moonlet 2 to be periodic. The mean motion of x component and the y component of the inclination vector of each moonlet forms an ellipse. However, the instantaneous motion of x component and the y component of the inclination vector may be an elliptical disc due to the coupling effect of perturbation forces. Furthermore, the x component of the inclination vector of moonlet 1 and the y component of the inclination vector of moonlet 2 form a quasi-periodic motion. Numerical calculation of dynamical configurations of two triple asteroidal systems (216) Kleopatra and (153591) 2001 SN263 validates the conclusion.

  16. Individual differences in algebraic cognition: Relation to the approximate number and semantic memory systems.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2015-12-01

    The relation between performance on measures of algebraic cognition and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and memory for addition facts was assessed for 171 ninth graders (92 girls) while controlling for parental education, sex, reading achievement, speed of numeral processing, fluency of symbolic number processing, intelligence, and the central executive component of working memory. The algebraic tasks assessed accuracy in placing x,y pairs in the coordinate plane, speed and accuracy of expression evaluation, and schema memory for algebra equations. ANS acuity was related to accuracy of placements in the coordinate plane and expression evaluation but not to schema memory. Frequency of fact retrieval errors was related to schema memory but not to coordinate plane or expression evaluation accuracy. The results suggest that the ANS may contribute to or be influenced by spatial-numerical and numerical-only quantity judgments in algebraic contexts, whereas difficulties in committing addition facts to long-term memory may presage slow formation of memories for the basic structure of algebra equations. More generally, the results suggest that different brain and cognitive systems are engaged during the learning of different components of algebraic competence while controlling for demographic and domain general abilities.

  17. Stress system activity, innate and T helper cytokines, and susceptibility to immune-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Calcagni, Emanuele; Elenkov, Ilia

    2006-06-01

    Associations between stress and health outcomes have now been carefully documented, but the mechanisms by which stress specifically influences disease susceptibility and outcome remain poorly understood. Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), the major stress hormones, inhibit systemically IL-12, TNF-alpha, and INF-gamma, but upregulate IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-beta production. Thus, during an immune and inflammatory response, the activation of the stress system, through induction of a Th2 shift may protect the organism from systemic "overshooting" with T helper lymphocyte 1 (Th1)/proinflammatory cytokines. In certain local responses and under certain conditions, however, stress hormones may actually facilitate inflammation, through induction of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-alpha, and CRP production, and through activation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/substance P(SP)-histamine axis. Autoimmunity, chronic infections, major depression, and atherosclerosis are characterized by a dysregulation of the pro/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Thus, hyperactive or hypoactive stress system, and a dysfunctional neuroendocrine-immune interface associated with abnormalities of the "systemic anti-inflammatory feedback" and/or "hyperactivity" of the local proinflammatory factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Conditions that are associated with significant changes in stress system activity, such as acute or chronic stress, cessation of chronic stress, pregnancy and the postpartum period, or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through modulation of the systemic or local pro/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, may suppress or potentiate disease activity and/or progression. Thus, stress hormones-induced inhibition or upregulation of innate and Th cytokine production may represent an important mechanism by which stress affects disease susceptibility, activity, and outcome of various immune-related

  18. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  19. Slip-System-Related Dislocation Study from In-Situ Neutron Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E-Wen; Barabash, Rozaliya; Jia, Nan; Wang, Yandong; Ice, Gene E; Clausen, Bjorn; Horton Jr, Joe A; Liaw, Peter K

    2008-01-01

    A combined experimental/computational approach is employed to study slip-system-related dislocation-substructure formation during uniaxial tension of a single-phase, face-centered-cubic (fcc), nickel-based alloy. In-situ neutron-diffraction measurements were conducted to monitor the peak-intensity, peak-position, and peak-broadening evolution during a displacement-controlled, monotonic-tension experiment at room temperature. The measured lattice-strain evolution and the macrostress/macrostrain curves were used to obtain the material parameters required for simulating the texture development by a visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. The simulated texture compared favorably with experimentally-determined texture results over a range of 0 to 30 pct engineering strain. The grain-orientation-dependent input into the Debye-intensity ring was considered. Grains favorably oriented relative to the two detector banks in the geometry of the neutron experiment were indicated. For the favorably oriented grains, the simulated slip-system activity was used to calculate the slip-system-dependent, dislocation-contrast factor. The combination of the calculated contrast factor with the experimentally-measured peak broadening allows the assessment of the parameters of the dislocation arrangement within the specifically oriented grains, which has a quantitative agreement with the transmission-electron-microscopy results.

  20. BIPM/IAU Joint Committee on relativity for space-time reference systems and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.

    At the Kyoto General Assembly, the IAU endorsed, by its Resolution B3 (1997), the creation of the Joint Committee on Relativity for space-time reference systems and metrology (JCR), which was also approved by the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) at its 86th meeting in September 1997. Its tasks are ``to establish definitions and conventions to provide a coherent relativistic frame ....... and to develop the adopted definitions and conventions for practical application by the user." The web site of the JCR (www.bipm.fr/WG/CCTF/JCR) contains the headlines of the JCR work. The BIPM/IAU JCR has worked in collaboration with the IAU Working Group on relativity for celestial mechanics and astrometry (RCMA) on the problems of astronomical relativistic space-time reference frames. A document was established in common (document jcrissue.html on the JCR web site) discussing as much as possible all topics that may be addressed by the two groups. The RCMA has specified a consistent framework for defining the barycentric and geocentric celestial reference systems at the first post-Newtonian level. Because new clock technology and space missions will necessitate the application of this framework for time and frequency measurements in the solar system, the JCR focused on these applications. The paper outlines the conclusions of the work and the proposed IAU resolutions, that were discussed at IAU Colloquium 180 in March 2000.

  1. Age-related changes in pharmacodynamics: focus on drugs acting on central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Spina, Edoardo

    2011-09-01

    Aging is characterized by progressive impairment of functional capacities of all system organs, reduction in homeostatic mechanisms, and altered response to receptor stimulation. These age-related physiologic changes influence both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in elderly patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics changes as well as polypharmacy and comorbidities may alter significantly the effect of pharmacological treatment with advancing age. With the same drug concentration at the site of action, significant differences in the response to several drugs have been observed in older patients as compared to younger patients. Elderly patients are particularly suceptibles to the effects of frequently prescribed drugs acting on central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium, with high potential for adverse drug reactions. Moreover, in older patients increased sensitivity to warfarin resulting in increased risk of bleeding has been previously documented. On the other hand, reduced effectiveness of conventional doses of cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and β-blockers, has been observed. Due to pharmacodynamic changes, therefore, dose adjustment of the above mentioned cardiovascular and psychotropic drugs is recommended in elderly. Clinicians should be aware of the age-related physiologic changes affecting several organ systems and their implications on the effect of drugs that are commonly prescribed to elderly patients.

  2. Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Letícia; Cardoso, Luciana de S; Torgan, Lezilda C

    2016-03-01

    Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon), which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.

  3. Development of a laser speckle imaging system for measuring relative blood flow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S. D.; Packulak, Ernie F.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-09-01

    Determining the viability of damaged or surgically reconstructed tissue is critical in most plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. Information about tissue blood flow in the region in question can make this determination much easier. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is one technique that could potentially aid in making this determination. LSI is a non-contact full-field imaging technique with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Tissue is illuminated with diffuse red laser light and the spatial and/or temporal statistics of the resulting speckle pattern can be used to calculate relative flow velocities. We have developed a LSI system that produces relative velocity blood flow images. Bench tests of the system indicate that it may be used to distinguish between normal, decreased, and increased blood flow states of a human finger. The system has also been used to take some initial laboratory measurements using an animal model - an epigastric free flap on a rat. Preliminary results indicate that the method may be used to distinguish states of venous or arterial occlusion from unoccluded states of the skin flap. While further experimentation is necessary, these initial results indicate that LSI could be a useful aid to the plastic surgeon for assessing tissue viability.

  4. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-01-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (−) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (−) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system. PMID:28281521

  5. Adipocytes Properties and Crosstalk with Immune System in Obesity-related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Giulia; Della Guardia, Lucio; Maurizi, Angela; Poloni, Antonella

    2017-02-09

    Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities. Although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, growing in adipocyte size and the inability of storing triglycerides under overfeeding conditions seem to be crucial for the switching to a dysfunctional metabolic profile, which is characterized by inflammatory and apoptotic pathways activation and by the shifting to pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion. In obesity, changes in adipokines secretion along with adipocyte deregulation and fatty acids release into circulation contribute to maintain immune cells activation as well as their infiltration into regulatory organs. Over the well-established role of macrophages, recent findings suggest the involvement of new classes of immune cells such as T regulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils in the development inflammation and multi systemic worsening. Deeply understanding the pathways of adipocyte regulation and the de-differentiation process could be extremely useful for developing novel strategies aimed at curbing obesity-related inflammation and related metabolic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  7. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-10

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  8. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, J; Moller, S; Schifter, S; Abrahamsen, J; Becker, U

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Static and dynamic functions of the wall of large arteries are largely unknown in cirrhosis in vivo. The present study was undertaken to determine arterial compliance (COMPart) in relation to vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems in patients with cirrhosis. In addition, vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen.
STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS—In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMPart (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation.
RESULTS—COMPart was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p< 0.05) and inversely related to plasma adrenaline levels (r=−0.53; p<0.02) but positively related to circulating levels of CGRP (r=0.58; p<0.01). No significant relation was found for plasma noradrenaline, renin activity, or endothelin-1. COMPart was positively related to plasma volume (r=0.50; p<0.02) and inversely to systemic vascular resistance (r=−0.69; p<0.001) and central circulation time (r=−0.49; p<0.02). During oxygen inhalation, COMPart decreased (−13%; p<0.005) and systemic vascular resistance increased (+10%; p<0.001) towards normal values without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. Plasma adrenaline (−16%; p<0.01) decreased and the relation to COMPart disappeared. The relation of COMPart to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged.
CONCLUSION—Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline, renin, endothelin-1). Thus the altered static and dynamic characteristics of the wall of large arteries are intimately associated with circulatory and

  9. The nonlinear relations of the approximate number system and mathematical language to early mathematics development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R

    2015-12-01

    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability. Participants included 114 children who were assessed in the fall and spring of preschool on a battery of academic and cognitive tasks. Children were 3.12 to 5.26 years old (M = 4.18, SD = .58) and 53.6% were girls. Both mixed-effect and quantile regressions were conducted. The mixed-effect regressions indicated that mathematical language, but not the ANS, nor other cognitive domains, predicted mathematics performance. However, the quantile regression analyses revealed a more nuanced relation among domains. Specifically, it was found that mathematical language and the ANS predicted mathematical performance at different points on the ability continuum. These dual nonlinear relations indicate that different mechanisms may enhance mathematical acquisition dependent on children's developmental abilities.

  10. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae; Markley, John L

    2012-10-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  11. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  12. System for rapid assessment of pneumonia and influenza-related mortality-Ohio, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Loren E; Paulson, John; Fowler, Brian; Duffy, Rosemary

    2015-02-01

    Rapid mortality surveillance is critical for state emergency preparedness. To enhance timeliness during the 2009-2010 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, the Ohio Department of Health activated a drop-down menu within Ohio's Electronic Death Registration System for reporting of pneumonia- or influenza-related deaths approximately 5 days postmortem. We used International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes, available 2-3 months postmortem as the standard, and assessed their agreement with drop-down-menu codes for pneumonia- or influenza-related deaths. Among 56 660 Ohio deaths during September 2009-March 2010, agreement was 97.9% for pneumonia (κ = 0.85) and 99.9% for influenza (κ = 0.79). Sensitivity was 80.2% for pneumonia and 73.9% for influenza. Drop-down menu coding enhanced timeliness while maintaining high agreement with ICD-10 codes.

  13. Genetic associations of leptin-related polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wu, Hui; Langefeld, Carl D; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kelly, Jennifer A; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Alarcón, Graciela S; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Criswell, Lindsey A; Freedman, Barry I; Kamen, Diane L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Jacob, Chaim O; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T; Gaffney, Patrick M; Sivils, Kathy Moser; Niewold, Timothy B; Petri, Michelle A; Song, Seung Taek; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Scofield, R Hal; Stevens, Anne M; Boackle, Susan A; Vilá, Luis M; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Vyse, Timothy J; Harley, John B; Brown, Elizabeth E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Hahn, Bevra H; Grossman, Jennifer M; Tsao, Betty P; La Cava, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is abnormally elevated in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), where it is thought to promote and/or sustain pro-inflammatory responses. Whether this association could reflect an increased genetic susceptibility to develop SLE is not known, and studies of genetic associations with leptin-related polymorphisms in SLE patients have been so far inconclusive. Here we genotyped DNA samples from 15,706 SLE patients and healthy matched controls from four different ancestral groups, to correlate polymorphisms of genes of the leptin pathway to risk for SLE. It was found that although several SNPs showed weak associations, those associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. These data do not support associations between defined leptin-related polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to develop SLE.

  14. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  15. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'Ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Bøggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, José A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhänen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Grégory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hee Hong, Byung; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min Kim, Jong; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Löfwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari

    2015-03-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

  16. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  17. Personality and racial/ethnic relations: a perspective from Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Goldman-Flythe, Michelle

    2009-10-01

    The five articles in this special section examine personality and racial/ethnic relations from the perspective of Mischel and Shoda's Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory. In this introductory piece, we first provide a primer on CAPS theory. In particular, we try to highlight the role that context plays in the construction and manifestation of personality as well as the dynamic ways that people interpret and react to input from their environment. We then review research on race-based rejection sensitivity as a programmatic illustration of the role expectancies play in racial/ethnic relations. Finally, we summarize and tie together the articles that comprise this section via a set of emergent themes that are common to the present contributions.

  18. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  19. The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre: systems thinking to prevent lifestyle-related chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew; Wutzke, Sonia; Overs, Marge

    2014-11-28

    Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in Australia and the biggest contributor to premature death and disability. Although prevention of chronic disease can be effective and cost-effective, it has proven difficult to systematically implement interventions that target important lifestyle-related risk factors for chronic disease such as poor nutrition, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use. Prevention efforts targeting these lifestyle-related risk factors have had mixed success due to issues around designing and implementing effective interventions that address the complexity of risk factors, and incorporating evidence and implementing interventions at a scale, duration, intensity and quality required to achieve population effects. There is increasing recognition that multilevel, multisector approaches are required for the effective and sustained prevention of complex chronic disease. The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre, one of two National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Centres established in 2013, is researching and developing systems perspectives to prevent lifestyle-related chronic disease in Australia. The Centre's collaborative approach is providing opportunities for researchers to work with policy makers and practitioners to develop research questions, conduct research, and analyse, interpret and disseminate the findings. As such, it is the model of interaction that is being tested as much as the specific projects. With its funding partners, the Centre has developed plans for more than 30 projects. It has also established four capacity units that will improve the gathering, sharing and use of evidence to build a prevention system in Australia. The Centre is exploring new ways to advance prevention by bringing together researchers, policy makers and practitioners to determine the information and actions needed for an effective prevention system for Australia.

  20. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed.

  1. Characterization of system-related geometric distortions in MR images employed in Gamma Knife radiosurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. P.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Nomikos, P.; Karaiskos, P.

    2016-10-01

    This work provides characterization of system-related geometric distortions present in MRIs used in Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. A custom-made phantom, compatible with the Leksell stereotactic frame model G and encompassing 947 control points (CPs), was utilized. MR images were obtained with and without the frame, thus allowing discrimination of frame-induced distortions. In the absence of the frame and following compensation for field inhomogeneities, measured average CP disposition owing to gradient nonlinearities was 0.53 mm. In presence of the frame, contrarily, detected distortion was greatly increased (up to about 5 mm) in the vicinity of the frame base due to eddy currents induced in the closed loop of its aluminum material. Frame-related distortion was obliterated at approximately 90 mm from the frame base. Although the region with the maximum observed distortion may not lie within the GK treatable volume, the presence of the frame results in distortion of the order of 1.5 mm at a 7 cm distance from the center of the Leksell space. Additionally, severe distortions observed outside the treatable volume could possibly impinge on the delivery accuracy mainly by adversely affecting the registration process (e.g. the position of the lower part of the N-shaped fiducials used to define the stereotactic space may be miss-registered). Images acquired with a modified version of the frame developed by replacing its front side with an acrylic bar, thus interrupting the closed aluminum loop and reducing the induced eddy currents, were shown to benefit from relatively reduced distortion. System-related distortion was also identified in patient MR images. Using corresponding CT angiography images as a reference, an offset of 1.1 mm was detected for two vessels lying in close proximity to the frame base, while excellent spatial agreement was observed for a vessel far apart from the frame base.

  2. The accommodation of relative motion at depth on the San Andreas fault system in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, W. H.; Nur, A.

    1981-01-01

    Plate motion below the seismogenic layer along the San Andreas fault system in California is assumed to form by aseismic slip along a deeper extension of the fault or may result from lateral distribution of deformation below the seismogenic layer. The shallow depth of California earthquakes, the depth of the coseismic slip during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and the presence of widely separated parallel faults indicate that relative motion is distributed below the seismogenic zone, occurring by inelastic flow rather than by aseismic slip on discrete fault planes.

  3. Stochastic Parameter Resonance of Road-Vehicle Systems and Related Bifurcation Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedig, Walter V.

    The paper investigates stochastic dynamics of road-vehicle systems and related bifurcation problems. The ride on rough roads generates vertical car vibrations whose root-mean-squares are resonant for critical car speeds and vanish when the car velocity is increasing, infinitely. These investigations are extended to wheel suspensions with progressive spring characteristics. For weak but still positive damping, the car vibrations become unstable when the velocity reaches the parameter resonance near twice the critical speed bifurcating into stochastic chaos of larger non-stationary car vibrations.

  4. Economic and demographic issues related to deployment of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Hill, L. G.; Santini, D. J.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption stimulated interest in exploitation of renewable sources of electric energy. One technology that was proposed is the Satellite Power System (SPS). Before committing the U.S. to such a large program, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are jointly participating in an SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This white paper on industrial and population relocation is part of the FY 78 preliminary evaluation of related socio-economic issues. Results of four preliminary assessment activities are documented.

  5. Generalised monogamy relation of convex-roof extended negativity in multi-level systems

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Luo, Yu; Li, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the generalised monogamy inequalities of convex-roof extended negativity (CREN) in multi-level systems. The generalised monogamy inequalities provide the upper and lower bounds of bipartite entanglement, which are obtained by using CREN and the CREN of assistance (CRENOA). Furthermore, we show that the CREN of multi-qubit pure states satisfies some monogamy relations. Additionally, we test the generalised monogamy inequalities for qudits by considering the partially coherent superposition of a generalised W-class state in a vacuum and show that the generalised monogamy inequalities are satisfied in this case as well. PMID:27857163

  6. Three semi-discrete integrable systems related to orthogonal polynomials and their generalized determinant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Min; Chang, Xiang-Ke; Sun, Jian-Qing; Hu, Xing-Biao; Yeh, Yeong-Nan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized Toeplitz determinant solution for the generalized Schur flow and propose a mixed form of the two known relativistic Toda chains together with its generalized Toeplitz determinant solution. In addition, we also give a Hankel type determinant solution for a nonisospectral Toda lattice. All these results are obtained by technical determinant operations. As a bonus, we finally obtain some new combinatorial numbers based on the moment relations with respect to these semi-discrete integrable systems and give the corresponding combinatorial interpretations by means of the lattice paths.

  7. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A calcium related injury in lettuce termed tipburn was the focus of this study. It affects the young developing leaves as they become enclosed during head formation. It is a good model system to study because the injury can be induced with good predictability and lettuce is one of the crops chosen by the CELSS program for concentrated study. Investigations were undertaken to study a number of different procedures, that would have the potential for encouraging movement of calcium into the young developing leaves and to study the time course and pattern of calcium accumulation in developing leaves to provide a basis for developing effective control procedures for this injury.

  8. Systematic construction of genuine-multipartite-entanglement criteria in continuous-variable systems using uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, F.; Saboia, A.; Avelar, A. T.; Walborn, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    A general procedure to construct criteria for identifying genuine multipartite continuous-variable entanglement is presented. It relies on the definition of adequate global operators describing the multipartite system, the positive partial transpose criterion of separability, and quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations. As a consequence, each criterion encountered consists of a single inequality that is nicely computable and experimentally feasible. Violation of the inequality is a sufficient condition for genuine multipartite entanglement. Additionally, we show that the previous work of van Loock and Furusawa [P. van Loock and A. Furusawa, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.052315] is a special case of our result.

  9. Practical Aerobic Oxidations of Alcohols and Amines with Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO and Related Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and amine oxidations are common reactions in laboratory and industrial synthesis of organic molecules. Aerobic oxidation methods have long been sought for these transformations, but few practical methods exist that offer advantages over traditional oxidation methods. Recently developed homogeneous Cu/TEMPO (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl) and related catalyst systems appear to fill this void. The reactions exhibit high levels of chemoselectivity and broad functional-group tolerance, and they often operate efficiently at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. These advances, together with their historical context and recent applications, are highlighted in this minireview. PMID:25044821

  10. Rapid solidification processing system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2004-06-08

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the in-flight atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  11. Tight entropic uncertainty relations for systems with dimension three to five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    We consider two (natural) families of observables Ok for systems with dimension d =3 ,4 ,5 : the spin observables Sx,Sy , and Sz, and the observables that have mutually unbiased bases as eigenstates. We derive tight entropic uncertainty relations for these families, in the form ∑kH (Ok) ≥αd , where H (Ok) is the Shannon entropy of the measurement outcomes of Ok and αd is a constant. We show that most of our bounds are stronger than previously known ones. We also give the form of the states that attain these inequalities.

  12. Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.; Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Smith, L.K.

    1994-01-18

    An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca[sub 5](PO[sub 4])[sub 3]F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode. 9 figures.

  13. Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

  14. ON THE RELATIVE SIZES OF PLANETS WITHIN KEPLER MULTIPLE-CANDIDATE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardi, David R.; Gautier, T. N. III; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2013-01-20

    We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple-candidate systems discovered with the Kepler mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet pairs for which one or both objects are approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size-location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet pair has a radius of {approx}> 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }, 68% {+-} 6% of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than {approx}< 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }.

  15. Defect-related hysteresis in nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Tsetseris, Leonidas; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2011-03-22

    The electronic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) depend on the positions of their walls with respect to neighboring shells. This fact can enable several applications of MWCNTs as nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). In this article, we report the findings of a first-principles study on the stability and dynamics of point defects in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and their role in the response of the host systems under inter-tube displacement. Key defect-related effects, namely, sudden energy changes and hysteresis, are identified, and their relevance to a host of MWCNT-based NEMS is highlighted. The results also demonstrate the dependence of these effects on defect clustering and chirality of DWCNT shells.

  16. The relative effects of entry parameters on thermal protection system weight. [space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasaki, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    Shielding a spacecraft from the severe thermal environment of an atmospheric entry requires a sophisticated thermal protection system (TPS). Thermal computer program models were developed for two such TPS designs proposed for the space shuttle orbiter. The multilayer systems, a reusable surface insulation TPS, and a re-radiative metallic skin TPS, were sized for a cross-section of trajectories in the entry corridor. This analysis indicates the relative influence of the entry parameters on the weight of each TPS concept. The results are summarized graphically. The trajectory variables considered were down-range, cross-range, orbit inclination, entry interface velocity and flight path angle, maximum heating rate level, angle of attack, and ballistic coefficient. Variations in cross-range and flight path angle over the ranges considered had virtually no effect on the required entry TPS weight. The TPS weight was significantly more sensitive to variations in angle of attack than to dispersions in the other trajectory considered.

  17. Solar system and related topics study by the methods of the low-frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Melnik, V. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Reznik, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    In the present report the possibilities and some results of the high sensitive investigations of the Solar system objects at lowest frequencies have been reviewed. The Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, interplanetary medium, and other objects have been considered. Special attention has been paid to the space weather problem. The stellar-planetary relations have been also investigated, particularly a search of active stars and exo-planets radio emission. During the last years many observations have been performed with the largest decameter arrays UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and URAN system (Ukraine) and new receiving equipment. These investigations provided the possibility to get the important information about the fine time-frequency structures of the weak sporadic radio emission. Very good perspectives come into existence in connection to the creation and implementation of the new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes, i.e. LOFAR (the Netherlands), E-LOFAR (European countries), LWA (USA), LSS (France), GURT (Ukraine), etc.

  18. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  19. A Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems model of SES-related health and behavioral disparities.

    PubMed

    Bickel, W K; Moody, L; Quisenberry, A J; Ramey, C T; Sheffer, C E

    2014-11-01

    We propose that executive dysfunction is an important component relating to the socio-economic status gradient of select health behaviors. We review and find evidence supporting an SES gradient associated with (1) negative health behaviors (e.g., obesity, excessive use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances), and (2) executive dysfunction. Moreover, the evidence supports that stress and insufficient cognitive resources contribute to executive dysfunction and that executive dysfunction is evident among individuals who smoke cigarettes, are obese, abuse alcohol, and use illicit drugs. Collectively these data support the dual system model of cognitive control, referred to here as the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems hypothesis. The implications of these relationships for intervention and social justice considerations are discussed.

  20. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  1. Early Tertiary transtension-related deformation and magmatism along the Tintina fault system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, A.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Friedman, R.; Layer, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Transtensional deformation was concentrated in a zone adjacent to the Tintina strike-slip fault system in Alaska during the early Tertiary. The deformation occurred along the Victoria Creek fault, the trace of the Tintina system that connects it with the Kaltag fault; together the Tintina and Kaltag fault systems girdle Alaska from east to west. Over an area of ???25 by 70 km between the Victoria Creek and Tozitna faults, bimodal volcanics erupted; lacustrine and fluvial rocks were deposited; plutons were emplaced and deformed; and metamorphic rocks cooled, all at about the same time. Plutonic and volcanic rocks in this zone yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 60 Ma; 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages from those plutons and adjacent metamorphic rocks are also ca. 60 Ma. Although early Tertiary magmatism occurred over a broad area in central Alaska, meta- morphism and ductile deformation accompanied that magmatism in this one zone only. Within the zone of deformation, pluton aureoles and metamorphic rocks display consistent NE-SW-stretching lineations parallel to the Victoria Creek fault, suggesting that deformation processes involved subhorizontal elongation of the package. The most deeply buried metamorphic rocks, kyanite-bearing metapelites, occur as lenses adjacent to the fault, which cuts the crust to the Moho (Beaudoin et al., 1997). Geochronologic data and field relationships suggest that the amount of early Tertiary exhumation was greatest adjacent to the Victoria Creek fault. The early Tertiary crustal-scale events that may have operated to produce transtension in this area are (1) increased heat flux and related bimodal within-plate magmatism, (2) movement on a releasing stepover within the Tintina fault system or on a regional scale involving both the Tintina and the Kobuk fault systems, and (3) oroclinal bending of the Tintina-Kaltag fault system with counterclockwise rotation of western Alaska. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  3. Impact of a diagnosis-related group payment system on cesarean section in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Park, Hye Ki

    2016-06-01

    Cesarean sections (CSs) are the most expensive method of delivery, which may affect the physician's choice of treatment when providing health services to patients. We investigated the effects of the diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment system on CSs in Korea. We used National Health Insurance claim data from 2011 to 2014, which included 1,289,989 delivery cases at 674 hospitals. We used a generalized estimating equation model to evaluate the association between the likelihood of cesarean delivery and the length of the DRG adoption period. A total of 477,309 (37.0%) delivery cases were performed by CSs. We found that a longer DRG adoption period was associated with a lower odds ratio of CSs (odds ratio [OR]: 0.997, 95% CI: 0.996-0.998). In addition, a longer DRG adoption period was associated with a lower odds ratio for CSs in hospitals that had voluntarily adopted the DRG system. Similar results were also observed for urban hospitals, primiparas, and those under 28 years old and over 33 years old. Our results suggest that the change in the reimbursement system was associated with a low likelihood of CSs. The impact of DRG adoption on cesarean delivery can also be expected to increase with time, as our finding provides evidence that the reimbursement system is associated with the health provider's decision to provide health services for patients.

  4. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin.

  5. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  6. Event-related potentials in performance monitoring are influenced by the endogenous opioid system.

    PubMed

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Pripfl, Jürgen; Kroll, Sara L; Sailer, Uta; Lamm, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Recent research suggests that not only the dopamine neurotransmitter system but also the endogenous opioid system is involved in performance monitoring and the generation of prediction error signals. Heightened performance monitoring is also associated with psychopathology such as internalizing disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated the potential link between the functional opioid peptide prodynorphin (PDYN) 68 bp VNTR genetic polymorphism and neuronal correlates of performance monitoring. To this end, 47 healthy participants genotyped for this polymorphism, related to high-, intermediate-, and low-expression levels of PDYN, performed a choice-reaction task while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. On the behavioural level, no differences between the three PDYN groups could be observed. EEG data, however, showed significant differences. High PDYN expression individuals showed heightened neural error processing indicated by higher ERN amplitudes, compared to intermediate and low expression individuals. Later stages of error processing, indexed by late Pe amplitudes, and stimulus-driven conflict processing, indexed by N2 amplitudes, were not affected by PDYN genotype. The current results corroborate the notion of an indirect effect of endogenous opioids on performance monitoring, probably mediated by the mesencephalic dopamine system. Overall, enhanced ERN amplitudes suggest a hyper-active performance monitoring system in high PDYN expression individuals, and this might also be an indicator of a higher risk for internalizing disorders.

  7. Relation between structure and low-temperature geothermal systems in Fukuoka city, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, H.; Nishijima, J.; Hirano, T.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Ehara, S.

    2008-08-01

    The Fukuoka area is located in the southwestern part of Japan. The Yokote-Ijiri area, located in the southern part of Fukuoka city, has several low-temperature geothermal systems, including eleven hot springs. From 1996 to 2008, the Fukuoka area was investigated by gravity survey, using Scintrex CG-3 and CG-3M gravimeters, in an attempt to delineate its subsurface structure. The surveys were intended to improve the understanding of the relation between the geothermal systems and the subsurface structure as well as to locate the active faults in the surveyed area, which are responsible for generating large earthquakes. The gravity data were analyzed using integrated gradient interpretation techniques, such as the Horizontal Gradient (HG), Tilt Derivative (TDR), and Euler deconvolution methods. With these techniques, many faults were detected, including the famous Kego fault, which is an active fault in Fukuoka city. A 2-D gravity model was constructed to show the relationship between the faults and the geothermal systems. The results of the present study will hopefully lead to an understanding of the relationships between the interpreted faults and the location of the low-temperature geothermal systems and possibly aid in future geothermal exploration of the area.

  8. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility.

  9. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  10. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  11. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  12. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  13. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  14. A Framework for Relating Cognitive to Neural Systems. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 84-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    This paper reviews the aspects of cognitive science that relate best to using electrical and magnetic recording to understand the function of brain systems. It outlines a framework for relating cognitive activities of daily life (typing, reading) to underlying neural systems. The framework uses five levels of analysis: task, elementary operations,…

  15. A GPS based fawn saving system using relative distance and angle determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Biebl, E.

    2016-09-01

    Active UHF RFID systems are often used for identifying, tracking and locating objects. In the present publication a GPS- based localization system for saving fawns during pasture mowing was introduced and tested. Fawns were first found by a UAV before mowing began. They were then tagged with small active RFID transponders, and an appropriate reader was installed on a mowing machine. Conventional direction-of-arrival approaches require a large antenna array with multiple elements and a corresponding coherent receiver, which introduces a large degree of complexity on the reader-side. Instead, our transponders were equipped with a small GPS module, allowing a transponder to determine its own position on request from the reader. A UHF link was used to transmit the location to a machine- mounted reader, where a second GPS receiver was installed. Using information from this second position and a machine- mounted magnetometer for determining the relative north direction of a vehicle, relative distance, and angle between GPS receivers can be calculated. The accuracy and reliability of this novel method were tested under realistic operating conditions, considering critical factors such as the height of grass, the lying position of a fawn, humidity and geographical area.

  16. Consumer citizenship: acting to minimise environmental health risks related to the food system.

    PubMed

    Kriflik, Lynda

    2006-05-01

    Public health practitioners interested in supporting consumers to make healthy, sustainable food choices need to understand consumer motivations to reduce food system risk. Increasingly food technologies that have enhanced access to food supply are being recognised as also impacting on the sustainability of the food system. This study explored the actions taken by Australian participants in response to their concerns about perceived food related threats to health and environment. Variance in willingness to act is analysed within the context of environmental and ecological citizenship, and a continuum describes the range of positions held. From the outset some participants self-identified as environmentally concerned and proactive, while others indicated a secondary interest in the environment. The catalyst for action for the majority was the priority of individual health and such self-interest can be a powerful motivator for change. Others related health to the environment and described efforts to minimise individual impact. Equally important for action to occur is being at a stage in life where other demands do not compete for the time and energy necessary to take citizenship actions. These results provide insight into the support that public health practitioners can offer to consumers who wish to make sustainable food choices.

  17. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  18. Apparatus and method for measuring relative phase of signals in a multiple-echo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froggatt, Mark E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the relative phase of echo signals in a multiple-echo system. A signal generator generates an exciting tone burst and subsequent tone bursts delayed in phase from the exciting tone burst. The exciting tone burst is gated into a transducer coupled to the multiple-echo system. Each subsequent tone burst is converted into a series of pulses. Each pulse triggers a sample/hold circuit to sample each echo signal. The samples of the echo signal are averaged and then compared to a reference value. The signal generator is controlled to vary the subsequent tone burst phase delay to determine for each echo signal a subsequent tone burst phase delay that causes the average of the samples of the echo signal to be substantially equal to the reference value wherein the determined subsequent tone burst phase delay is the phase delay of the echo signal with respect to the exciting tone burst. The control circuit then determines the difference in phase delay between echo signals to determine the relative phase delay of the echo signals.

  19. A novel sex determination system in a close relative of the house mouse.

    PubMed

    Veyrunes, Frederic; Chevret, Pascale; Catalan, Josette; Castiglia, Riccardo; Watson, Johan; Dobigny, Gauthier; Robinson, Terence J; Britton-Davidian, Janice

    2010-04-07

    Therian mammals have an extremely conserved XX/XY sex determination system. A limited number of mammal species have, however, evolved to escape convention and present aberrant sex chromosome complements. In this study, we identified a new case of atypical sex determination in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, a close evolutionary relative of the house mouse. The pygmy mouse is characterized by a very high proportion of XY females (74%, n = 27) from geographically widespread Southern and Eastern African populations. Sequencing of the high mobility group domain of the mammalian sex determining gene Sry, and karyological analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding data, suggest that the sex reversal is most probably not owing to a mutation of Sry, but rather to a chromosomal rearrangement on the X chromosome. In effect, two morphologically different X chromosomes were identified, one of which, designated X*, is invariably associated with sex-reversed females. The asterisk designates the still unknown mutation converting X*Y individuals into females. Although relatively still unexplored, such an atypical sex chromosome system offers a unique opportunity to unravel new genetic interactions involved in the initiation of sex determination in mammals.

  20. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitivity to independently observable teen misbehavior as well as long-term, predictive links between maternal symptoms and teen behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted relative increases over time in teen externalizing behavior. Child effects were also found, however, in which teen externalizing behavior predicted future relative increases in maternal depressive symptoms. Findings are interpreted as revealing a tightly-linked behavioral-affective system in families with mothers experiencing depressive symptoms and teens engaged in externalizing behavior, and further suggest that research on depressive symptoms in women with adolescent offspring should now consider offspring externalizing behaviors as a significant risk factor. PMID:21090880

  1. Data analysis and interpretation related to space system/environment interactions at LEO altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. John; Schunk, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies made on the interaction of active systems with the LEO space environment experienced from orbital or suborbital platforms are covered. The issue of high voltage space interaction is covered by theoretical modeling studies of the interaction of charged solar cell arrays with the ionospheric plasma. The theoretical studies were complemented by experimental measurements made in a vacuum chamber. The other active system studied was the emission of effluent from a space platform. In one study the emission of plasma into the LEO environment was studied by using initially a 2-D model, and then extending this model to 3-D to correctly take account of plasma motion parallel to the geomagnetic field. The other effluent studies related to the releases of neutral gas from an orbiting platform. One model which was extended and used determined the density, velocity, and energy of both an effluent gas and the ambient upper atmospheric gases over a large volume around the platform. This model was adapted to study both ambient and contaminant distributions around smaller objects in the orbital frame of reference with scale sizes of 1 m. The other effluent studies related to the interaction of the released neutral gas with the ambient ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic model was used to help understand anomalously high plasma densities measured at times in the vicinity of the space shuttle orbiter.

  2. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  3. CRISPR System Acquisition and Evolution of an Obligate Intracellular Chlamydia-Related Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Bertelli, Claire; Cissé, Ousmane H.; Rusconi, Brigida; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Croxatto, Antony; Goesmann, Alexander; Collyn, François; Greub, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new Chlamydia-related organism, Protochlamydia naegleriophila KNic, was discovered within a Naegleria amoeba. To decipher the mechanisms at play in the modeling of genomes from the Protochlamydia genus, we sequenced the full genome of Pr. naegleriophila, which includes a 2,885,090 bp chromosome and a 145,285 bp megaplasmid. For the first time within the Chlamydiales order, we describe the presence of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, the immune system of bacteria, located on the chromosome. It is composed of a small CRISPR locus comprising eight repeats and associated cas-cse genes of the subtype I-E. A CRISPR locus is also present within Chlamydia sp. Diamant, another Pr. naegleriophila strain, suggesting that the CRISPR system was acquired by a common ancestor of Pr. naegleriophila, after its divergence from Pr. amoebophila. Both nucleotide bias and comparative genomics approaches identified probable horizontal gene acquisitions within two and four genomic islands in Pr. naegleriophila KNic and Diamant genomes, respectively. The plasmid encodes an F-type conjugative system highly similar to 1) that found in the Pam100G genomic island of Pr. amoebophila UWE25 chromosome, as well as on the plasmid of Rubidus massiliensis and 2) to the three genes remaining in the chromosome of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae strains. Therefore, this conjugative system was likely acquired on an ancestral plasmid before the divergence of Parachlamydiaceae. Overall, this new complete Pr. naegleriophila genome sequence enables further investigation of the dynamic processes shaping the genomes of the family Parachlamydiaceae and the genus Protochlamydia. PMID:27516530

  4. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolaore, P.

    2016-03-01

    A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

  5. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Kendall, Carol; Evans, John R.; Fries, Terry L.

    1993-08-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH 4 + by K + or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14‰ range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles.

  6. Melting relations in the MgO-MgSiO3 system up to 70 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Satoka; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Toru

    2017-02-01

    Melting experiments in a binary system MgO-MgSiO3 were performed up to 70 GPa using a CO2 laser heated diamond anvil cell. The quenched samples were polished and analyzed by a dualbeam focused ion beam (FIB) and a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), respectively. The liquidus phase and the eutectic composition were determined on the basis of textual and chemical analyses of sample cross sections. Our experimental results show that the eutectic composition is the Si/Mg molar ratio of 0.76 at 35 GPa and it decreases with increasing pressure. Above 45 GPa, it becomes relatively constant at about 0.64-0.65 Si/Mg molar ratio. Using our experimental data collected at a wide pressure range up to 70 GPa together with previous experimental data, we have constructed a thermodynamic model of the eutectic composition of the MgO-MgSiO3 system. The eutectic composition extrapolated to the pressure and temperature conditions at the base of the mantle is about 0.64 Si/Mg molar ratio. The modeled eutectic composition is quite consistent with a previous prediction from ab initio calculations (de Koker et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 361:58-63, 2013), suggesting that the simple assumption of a non-ideal regular solution model can well describe the melting relation of the MgO-MgSiO3 system at high pressure. Our results show that the liquidus phase changes from MgO-periclase to MgSiO3-bridgmanite at 35 GPa for the simplified pyrolite composition ( 0.7 Si/Mg molar ratio), while MgSiO3-bridgmanite is the liquidus phase at the entire lower mantle conditions for the chondritic composition ( 0.84 Si/Mg molar ratio).

  7. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  8. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Hullam, Gabor; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Antal, Peter; Anderson, Ian Muir; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Deakin, J. F. William; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Galanin is a stress-inducible neuropeptide and cotransmitter in serotonin and norepinephrine neurons with a possible role in stress-related disorders. Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events in a European white population cohort totaling 2,361 from Manchester, United Kingdom and Budapest, Hungary. Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed a greater relevance of galanin system genes in highly stressed subjects compared with subjects with moderate or low life stress. Using the same method, the effect of the galanin system genes was stronger than the effect of the well-studied 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). Conventional multivariate analysis using general linear models demonstrated that interaction of galanin system genes with life stressors explained more variance (1.7%, P = 0.005) than the life stress-only model. This effect replicated in independent analysis of the Manchester and Budapest subpopulations, and in males and females. The results suggest that the galanin pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression in humans by increasing the vulnerability to early and recent psychosocial stress. Correcting abnormal galanin function in depression could prove to be a novel target for drug development. The findings further emphasize the importance of modeling environmental interaction in finding new genes for depression. PMID:24706871

  9. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  10. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development.

  11. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  12. 77 FR 52036 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; FDA Records Related to Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Records Related to Research Misconduct Proceedings AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Related to Research Misconduct Proceedings, HHS/FDA/OC'' System No. 09-10-0020. Under the Department of... Misconduct, FDA has responsibilities for addressing research integrity and misconduct issues related to...

  13. The impact of age-related dysregulation of the angiotensin system on mitochondrial redox balance

    PubMed Central

    Vajapey, Ramya; Rini, David; Walston, Jeremy; Abadir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of various deleterious changes in cells. According to the free radical and mitochondrial theory of aging, mitochondria initiate most of the deleterious changes in aging and govern life span. The failure of mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis and the formation of excessive free radicals are tightly linked to dysregulation in the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS). A main rate-controlling step in RAS is renin, an enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to generate angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further converted to Angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Ang II binds with equal affinity to two main angiotensin receptors—type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R). The binding of Ang II to AT1R activates NADPH oxidase, which leads to increased generation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS). This Ang II-AT1R–NADPH-ROS signal triggers the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels and mitochondrial ROS production in a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, RAS has been implicated in the decrease of many of ROS scavenging enzymes, thereby leading to detrimental levels of free radicals in the cell. AT2R is less understood, but evidence supports an anti-oxidative and mitochondria-protective function for AT2R. The overlap between age related changes in RAS and mitochondria, and the consequences of this overlap on age-related diseases are quite complex. RAS dysregulation has been implicated in many pathological conditions due to its contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased age-related, renal and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was seen in patients treated with angiotensin receptor blockers. The aim of this review is to: (a) report the most recent information elucidating the role of RAS in mitochondrial redox hemostasis and (b) discuss the effect of age-related activation of RAS on generation of free radicals. PMID:25505418

  14. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  15. Interpretation of Mössbauer experiment in a rotating system: A new proof for general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2015-04-01

    A historical experiment by Kündig on the transverse Doppler shift in a rotating system measured with the Mössbauer effect (Mössbauer rotor experiment) has been recently first re-analyzed and then replied by an experimental research group. The results of re-analyzing the experiment have shown that a correct re-processing of Kündig's experimental data gives an interesting deviation of a relative redshift between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilatation of time. That prediction gives a redshift ∇E/E ≃ -1/2 v2/c2 where v is the tangential velocity of the absorber of resonant radiation, c is the velocity of light in vacuum and the result is given to the accuracy of first-order in v2/c2. Data re-processing gave ∇E/E ≃ - kv2/c2 with k = 0.596 ± 0.006. Subsequent new experimental results by the reply of Kündig experiment have shown a redshift with k = 0.68 ± 0.03 instead. By using Einstein Equivalence Principle, which states the equivalence between the gravitational "force" and the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial frame of reference (included a rotating frame of reference) here we re-analyze the theoretical framework of Mössbauer rotor experiments directly in the rotating frame of reference by using a general relativistic treatment. It will be shown that previous analyses missed an important effect of clock synchronization and that the correct general relativistic prevision in the rotating frame gives k ≃ 2/3 in perfect agreement with the new experimental results. Such an effect of clock synchronization has been missed in various papers in the literature with some subsequent claim of invalidity of relativity theory and/or some attempts to explain the experimental results through "exotic" effects. Our general relativistic interpretation shows, instead, that the new experimental results of the Mössbauer rotor experiment are a new, strong and independent, proof of

  16. The Role of Evaluation Pharmacy Information System in Management of Medication Related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Sakineh Saghaeiannejad; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Ehteshami, Asghar; Janesari, Hassan; Feizi, Avat; Mirzaeian, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As a natural phenomenon in the patient’s medication therapy, medication clinical complications potentially or concretely interrupt medical care consequential productivity for the patients. Medication related clinical complications include drug errors, drug side effects, drug interactions and drug usage-related challenges. The present research intends to explore the role that the Pharmacy Information System (PIS) may play in the management of medication complications with reference to the pharmaceutical societies of America and Australia in selected teaching, private and social services hospitals of the city of Isfahan. Methodology As an applied, descriptive-analytical study, this study has been conducted in teaching, private and social services hospitals situated in the city of Isfahan in 2011. The research population consisted of the PISs used in the hospitals under study. Research sample was the same as the population. The data collection instrument used was a self-designed checklist developed based on the guidelines of the American Society of Health System Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Society of Australia validity of which was assessed by expert professors’ views. The data, collected by observation and interview methods, were put into SPSS 18 software to be analyzed. Findings The findings of the study revealed that among the 19 hospitals in question, the highest and lowest ranks in observing the societies of the pharmacists’ established standards related to medication therapy, i.e. registration of drug use status and drug interactions belonged to social services hospitals (mean score of %10.1) and private hospitals (mean score of %6.24), respectively. Conclusion Based on the findings, it can be claimed that the hospitals in question did not pay due attention to standards established by the societies of pharmacists regarding the medication therapy including register of drug usage status, drug interactions and drug side effects in their PISs

  17. Detector system comparison using relative CNR for specific imaging tasks related to neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (neuro-EIGIs)

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-EIGIs require visualization of very small endovascular devices and small vessels. A Microangiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) x-ray detector was developed to improve on the standard flat panel detector’s (FPD’s) ability to visualize small objects during neuro-EIGIs. To compare the performance of FPD and MAF imaging systems, specific imaging tasks related to those encountered during neuro-EIGIs were used to assess contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of different objects. A bar phantom and a stent were placed at a fixed distance from the x-ray focal spot to mimic a clinical imaging geometry and both objects were imaged by each detector system. Imaging was done without anti-scatter grids and using the same conditions for each system including: the same x-ray beam quality, collimator position, source to imager distance (SID), and source to object distance (SOD). For each object, relative contrasts were found for both imaging systems using the peak and trough signals. The relative noise was found using mean background signal and background noise for varying detector exposures. Next, the CNRs were found for these values for each object imaged and for each imaging system used. A relative CNR metric is defined and used to compare detector imaging performance. The MAF utilizes a temporal filter to reduce the overall image noise. The effects of using this filter with the MAF while imaging the clinical object’s CNRs are reported. The relative CNR for the detectors demonstrated that the MAF has superior CNRs for most objects and exposures investigated for this specific imaging task. PMID:25301999

  18. Detector system comparison using relative CNR for specific imaging tasks related to neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (neuro-EIGIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Neuro-EIGIs require visualization of very small endovascular devices and small vessels. A Microangiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) x-ray detector was developed to improve on the standard flat panel detector's (FPD's) ability to visualize small objects during neuro-EIGIs. To compare the performance of FPD and MAF imaging systems, specific imaging tasks related to those encountered during neuro-EIGIs were used to assess contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of different objects. A bar phantom and a stent were placed at a fixed distance from the x-ray focal spot to mimic a clinical imaging geometry and both objects were imaged by each detector system. Imaging was done without anti-scatter grids and using the same conditions for each system including: the same x-ray beam quality, collimator position, source to imager distance (SID), and source to object distance (SOD). For each object, relative contrasts were found for both imaging systems using the peak and trough signals. The relative noise was found using mean background signal and background noise for varying detector exposures. Next, the CNRs were found for these values for each object imaged and for each imaging system used. A relative CNR metric is defined and used to compare detector imaging performance. The MAF utilizes a temporal filter to reduce the overall image noise. The effects of using this filter with the MAF while imaging the clinical object's CNRs are reported. The relative CNR for the detectors demonstrated that the MAF has superior CNRs for most objects and exposures investigated for this specific imaging task.

  19. Detector system comparison using relative CNR for specific imaging tasks related to neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (neuro-EIGIs).

    PubMed

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S N; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Neuro-EIGIs require visualization of very small endovascular devices and small vessels. A Microangiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) x-ray detector was developed to improve on the standard flat panel detector's (FPD's) ability to visualize small objects during neuro-EIGIs. To compare the performance of FPD and MAF imaging systems, specific imaging tasks related to those encountered during neuro-EIGIs were used to assess contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of different objects. A bar phantom and a stent were placed at a fixed distance from the x-ray focal spot to mimic a clinical imaging geometry and both objects were imaged by each detector system. Imaging was done without anti-scatter grids and using the same conditions for each system including: the same x-ray beam quality, collimator position, source to imager distance (SID), and source to object distance (SOD). For each object, relative contrasts were found for both imaging systems using the peak and trough signals. The relative noise was found using mean background signal and background noise for varying detector exposures. Next, the CNRs were found for these values for each object imaged and for each imaging system used. A relative CNR metric is defined and used to compare detector imaging performance. The MAF utilizes a temporal filter to reduce the overall image noise. The effects of using this filter with the MAF while imaging the clinical object's CNRs are reported. The relative CNR for the detectors demonstrated that the MAF has superior CNRs for most objects and exposures investigated for this specific imaging task.

  20. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  1. NASA Activities as they Relate to Microwave Technology for Aerospace Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses current NASA activities and plans as they relate to microwave technology for aerospace communications. The presentations discusses some examples of the aforementioned technology within the context of the existing and future communications architectures and technology development roadmaps. Examples of the evolution of key technology from idea to deployment are provided as well as the challenges that lay ahead regarding advancing microwave technology to ensure that future NASA missions are not constrained by lack of communication or navigation capabilities. The presentation closes with some examples of emerging ongoing opportunities for establishing collaborative efforts between NASA, Industry, and Academia to encourage the development, demonstration and insertion of communications technology in pertinent aerospace systems.

  2. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  3. Think before you flush! A sustainable aquatic eco-system's relation to human health.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Elaine; Pawloski, Judith

    2012-12-18

    What we do every day at work and in our home lives can make a difference in the quality of our environment. Consider, for example, the flushing of pharmaceuticals into the sewer system can lead to water pollution resulting in a threat to aquatic and human life. In contrast, keeping aquatic life healthy may contribute to human health. Some aquatic-based medications are currently on the market. Others are in various stages of development. In this article the authors argue that, for the benefit of both human and marine life, it is time to implement safer disposal methods for unwanted medications. The authors begin by sharing nursing's guiding principles for environmental health; after which they review research related to pharmaceutical pollution of water resources; describe health care treatments derived from marine life; and discuss suggestions for promoting aquatic health. They conclude that by taking care to preserve aquatic life, we contribute to the quality of our own human lives.

  4. Providing therapy to children and families in foster care: a systemic-relational approach.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Foster care is a system created to protect children from an unsafe home environment yet multiple foster home placements, conflictual or nonexistent relationships between foster parents and birth parents, long, drawn out court battles, and living in an on-going state of not knowing when or if they will be going home are just some of the challenges many children in care are expected to manage. This paper presents a guide for therapists working with families involved in foster care. Utilizing ideas from the postmodern therapies and structural family therapy, suggestions will be provided about who needs to talk to whom about what, when to have these necessary conversations, and how to talk to people in a way that mobilizes adults to take action for the children, with the goal of minimizing postplacement trauma, strengthening and repairing relational bonds, and moving children out of foster care and into permanent homes as quickly as possible.

  5. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  6. Unusual compulsive behaviors primarily related to dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Andrew; Josephs, Keith A; Klos, Kevin J; Hecksel, Kathleen; Bower, James H; Michael Bostwick, J; Eric Ahlskog, J

    2007-12-01

    Unusual compulsive behaviors (weighing, card and video game playing, fishing, gardening, intense interest in established hobbies, locking and unlocking doors, repetitive dressing and undressing) occurred in relation to dopamine agonist therapy (six patients) and levodopa therapy (one patient) in seven patients with parkinsonism (seven Parkinson's disease, one multiple system atrophy). These behaviors occurred in tandem with pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping or punding in six of the seven cases. Obsessive thoughts were present in one patient, with no prior history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomenologically distinct behaviors in this group of patients suggests that a broad spectrum of psychopathology may occur in this context and should be monitored for in routine neurological practice.

  7. Effect of low doses of methamphetamine on rat limbic-related neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Cordova, Nathaniel M; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Martin, Amber L; Hanson, Glen R

    2015-08-01

    Administration of methamphetamine (METH) alters limbic-related (LR) neurotensin (NT) systems. Thus, through a D1-receptor mechanism, noncontingent high doses (5-15 mg kg(-1)), and likely self-administration, of METH appears to reduce NT release causing its accumulation and an elevation of NT-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) in limbic-related NT pathways. For comparison, we tested the effect of low doses of METH, that are more like those used in therapy, on NTLI in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and NAs), prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), the lateral habenula (Hb) and basolateral amygdala (Amyg). METH at the dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) in particular, but not 1.00 mg kg(-1), decreased NTLI concentration in all of the LR structures studied, except for the prefrontal cortex; however, these effects were rapid and brief being observed at 5 h but not at 24 h after treatment. In all of the LR areas where NTLI levels were reduced after the low dose of METH, the effect was blocked by pretreatment with either a D1 or a D2 antagonist. Thus, opposite to high doses like those associated with abuse, the therapeutic-like low-dose METH treatment induced reduction in NT tissue levels likely reflected an increase in NT release and a short-term depletion of the levels of this neuropeptide in LR structures, manifesting features comparable to the response of basal ganglia NT systems to similar low doses of METH.

  8. Experience with a medicolegal decision-making system for occupational hearing loss-related tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Dejonckere, Philippe H; Coryn, Christiane; Lebacq, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Owing to an increasing number of requests for compensation, a medicolegal decision-making system for tinnitus related to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been elaborated at the Federal Belgian Institute of Occupational Diseases. Experience with 113 patients, all of them claiming compensation for NIHL and tinnitus, is now available. The patients underwent an exhaustive audiological investigation, and their professional career and noise exposure were carefully and objectively documented. We reviewed the group of 35 "accepted" cases (i.e., with chronic tinnitus recognized as related to NIHL and financially compensated as an occupational disease) and analyzed the medicolegal arguments for acceptance or rejection. In these patients, tinnitus was mostly bilateral, was perceived on average at a frequency of 4 KHz and with a supraliminal intensity of 7.2 dB, and lasted on average for 7.3 years. To gain better insight into the relationship between cochlear damage and chronic tinnitus, we compared our group to a control group of 35 patients with similar hearing thresholds at 3 and 4 KHz but free of tinnitus. The main difference is a significantly steeper slope of the audiometric curve between 2 and 3 KHz in the tinnitus group. Furthermore, a notch in the distortion product-gram is noticed in 60% of the ears affected by tinnitus versus 9% of the ears in the control group. This abrupt discontinuity in the activity along the tonotopic axis of the auditory system-the main characteristic of NIHL-could be a factor eliciting tinnitus, as a correspondence between the audiometric notch and tinnitus frequency appears to exist.

  9. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  10. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, P V; Deall, C E; McArdle, C; Burge, T

    2016-06-30

    Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes. Thirty-nine patients sustained 43 burns from contact with exhaust mechanisms, and the majority were less than 5 years of age. 77% of the patients were male. Burns affected critical areas such as the hands and feet in 26% of cases. Most burns involved a total body surface area of ≤1% and were partial thickness in depth. Thirty-three percent of patients required operative intervention. Time to heal was less than 3 weeks in 69% of cases and 3 patients healed with hypertrophic scarring. The majority of burns were small in size and partial thickness in depth. Most were treated conservatively and healed with low complication rates. More than 1 in 5 injuries involved critical burn areas, highlighting the potential for considerable morbidity. The age profile in our study contrasted with other results worldwide. Our study highlights the need for vigilant supervision of children around motorcycles. We recommend the wearing of protective long trousers when riding motorcycles and the fitting of external shields to motorcycle exhaust pipes.

  11. A multicenter study confirms CD226 gene association with systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CD226 genetic variants have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases and recently with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to test the influence of CD226 loci in SSc susceptibility, clinical phenotypes and autoantibody status in a large multicenter European population. Methods A total of seven European populations of Caucasian ancestry were included, comprising 2,131 patients with SSc and 3,966 healthy controls. Three CD226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs763361, rs3479968 and rs727088, were genotyped using Taqman 5'allelic discrimination assays. Results Pooled analyses showed no evidence of association of the three SNPs, neither with the global disease nor with the analyzed subphenotypes. However, haplotype block analysis revealed a significant association for the TCG haplotype (SNP order: rs763361, rs34794968, rs727088) with lung fibrosis positive patients (PBonf = 3.18E-02 OR 1.27 (1.05 to 1.54)). Conclusion Our data suggest that the tested genetic variants do not individually influence SSc susceptibility but a CD226 three-variant haplotype is related with genetic predisposition to SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:22531499

  12. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related toCO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of coupled hydrological and geomechanical processes during a deep underground injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a hypothetical brine aquifer. We consider a multilayer system in which the injection zone is situated below a sequence of caprock and aquifer layers that are intersected by a vertical fault zone. The fault zone consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprock layers that are located just above the injection zone. Initially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealed with minerals, but we allow fractures (and the fractured zones) to open as a result of injection induced reductions in effective stresses. Our results indicate that even when assuming a very sensitive relationship between effective stress and fractured-zone permeability, the injection-induced changes in permeability across are only moderate with largest changes occurring in the first caprock layer, just above the injection zone. As a result, the upward leakage rate remains relatively small and therefore changes in fluid pressure and hydromechanical effects in overlying zones are also relatively small for the case studied in this paper.

  13. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    PubMed

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment.

  14. Optimized swimmer tracking system based on a novel multi-related-targets approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarab, D.; Napoléon, T.; Alfalou, A.; Verney, A.; Hellard, P.

    2017-02-01

    Robust tracking is a crucial step in automatic swimmer evaluation from video sequences. We designed a robust swimmer tracking system using a new multi-related-targets approach. The main idea is to consider the swimmer as a bloc of connected subtargets that advance at the same speed. If one of the subtargets is partially or totally occluded, it can be localized by knowing the position of the others. In this paper, we first introduce the two-dimensional direct linear transformation technique that we used to calibrate the videos. Then, we present the classical tracking approach based on dynamic fusion. Next, we highlight the main contribution of our work, which is the multi-related-targets tracking approach. This approach, the classical head-only approach and the ground truth are then compared, through testing on a database of high-level swimmers in training, national and international competitions (French National Championships, Limoges 2015, and World Championships, Kazan 2015). Tracking percentage and the accuracy of the instantaneous speed are evaluated and the findings show that our new appraoach is significantly more accurate than the classical approach.

  15. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination.

  16. The accommodation of relative motion at depth on the San Andreas fault system in California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Nur, A.

    1981-01-01

    Plate motion below the seismogenic layer along the San Andreas fault system in California is generally assumed to occur by aseismic slip along a deeper extension of the fault. It is also possible that below the seismogenic layer, deformation is distributed laterally over a zone. Several observed features of the San Andreas fault in California have implications about the mode of accommodation of relative motion along the plate boundary beneath the seismogenic zone: the shallow depth of all earthquakes in California, the depth to which coseismic slip occurred during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the broad zone of strain accumulation, the broad heat flow anomaly, and the existence of widely separated parallel faults. The observations strongly imply that below the seismogenic zone, relative motion is distributed over a zone and occurs by inelastic flow rather than by aseismic slip on discrete fault planes. The existence of multiple faults further suggests that tractions at the base of the brittle layer are significant over time periods of years to hundreds of years.-Authors

  17. Exhaust system-related burns affecting children: a UK perspective and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vermaak, P.V.; Deall, C.E.; McArdle, C.; Burge, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes. Thirty-nine patients sustained 43 burns from contact with exhaust mechanisms, and the majority were less than 5 years of age. 77% of the patients were male. Burns affected critical areas such as the hands and feet in 26% of cases. Most burns involved a total body surface area of ≤1% and were partial thickness in depth. Thirty-three percent of patients required operative intervention. Time to heal was less than 3 weeks in 69% of cases and 3 patients healed with hypertrophic scarring. The majority of burns were small in size and partial thickness in depth. Most were treated conservatively and healed with low complication rates. More than 1 in 5 injuries involved critical burn areas, highlighting the potential for considerable morbidity. The age profile in our study contrasted with other results worldwide. Our study highlights the need for vigilant supervision of children around motorcycles. We recommend the wearing of protective long trousers when riding motorcycles and the fitting of external shields to motorcycle exhaust pipes. PMID:28149228

  18. Giving support to others reduces sympathetic nervous system-related responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-04-01

    Social support is a major contributor to the link between social ties and beneficial health outcomes. Research to date has focused on how receiving support from others might be good for us; however, we know less about the health effects of giving support to others. Based on prior work in animals showing that stimulating neural circuitry important for caregiving behavior can reduce sympathetic-related responses to stressors, it is possible that, in humans, giving to others can reduce stressor-evoked sympathetic nervous system responding, which has implications for health outcomes. To test the effect of giving support on the physiological stress response, participants either wrote a supportive note to a friend (support-giving condition) or wrote about their route to school/work (control condition) before undergoing a standard laboratory-based stress task. Physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol), and self-reported stress were collected throughout the protocol. In line with hypotheses, support giving (vs. control) reduced sympathetic-related responses (systolic blood pressure and alpha-amylase) to the stressor. No effects of support giving were found on self-reported psychological stress or cortisol levels. Results add to existing knowledge of the pathways by which support giving may lead to health benefits and highlight the contribution of giving to others in the broader social support-health link.

  19. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 female primary infertility patients and 1100 female secondary infertility patients were included in this study, as well as 627 healthy female controls. The above autoantibodies were tested and the positive rates in each group were calculated. Results: the positive rate of ASAb were significantly higher in primary infertility female than that in male, further analysis revealed that primary infertility population all exhibit significant higher positive rate of EMAb, AOAb, AZP and ACA compared with control group. Furthermore, the positive rates of all the antibodies in primary infertility female were significantly higher than those in secondary infertility female. Conclusions: Our study thus indicates that these autoantibodies might be associated with immunological related primary infertility and may have clinical significance in its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26550366

  20. Cardiac reflections and natural vibrations: Force-frequency relation recording system in the stress echo lab

    PubMed Central

    Bombardini, Tonino; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Venneri, Lucia; Petersen, Christina; Pasanisi, Emilio; Pratali, Lorenza; Pianelli, Mascia; Faita, Francesco; Giannoni, Massimo; Picano, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    Background The inherent ability of ventricular myocardium to increase its force of contraction in response to an increase in contraction frequency is known as the cardiac force-frequency relation (FFR). This relation can be easily obtained in the stress echo lab, where the force is computed as the systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index ratio, and measured for increasing heart rates during stress. Ideally, the noninvasive, imaging independent, objective assessment of FFR would greatly enhance its practical appeal. Objectives 1 – To evaluate the feasibility of the cardiac force measurement by a precordial cutaneous sensor. 2 – To build the curve of force variation as a function of the heart rate. 3 – To compare the standard stress echo results vs. this sensor operator-independent built FFR. Methods The transcutaneous force sensor was positioned in the precordial region in 88 consecutive patients referred for exercise, dipyridamole, or pacing stress. The force was measured as the myocardial vibrations amplitude in the isovolumic contraction period. FFR was computed as the curve of force variation as a function of heart rate. Standard echocardiographic FFR measurements were performed. Results A consistent FFR was obtained in all patients. Both the sensor built and the echo built FFR identifiy pts with normal or abnormal contractile reserve. The best cut-off value of the sensor built FFR was 15.5 g * 10-3 (Sensitivity = 0.85, Specificity = 0.77). Sensor built FFR slope and shape mirror pressure/volume relation during stress. This approach is extendable to daily physiological exercise and could be potentially attractive in home monitoring systems. PMID:18031588

  1. Age-related gene expression change of GABAergic system in visual cortex of rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenghong; Han, Qian; Ma, Yuanye; Su, Bing

    2016-09-30

    Degradation of visual function is a common phenomenon during aging and likely mediated by change in the impaired central visual pathway. Treatment with GABA or its agonist could recover the ability of visual neurons in the primary visual cortex of senescent macaques. However, little is known about how GABAergic system change is related to the aged degradation of visual function in nonhuman primate. With the use of quantitative PCR method, we measured the expression change of 24 GABA related genes in the primary visual cortex (Brodmann's 17) of different age groups. In this study, both of mRNA and protein of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results revealed that the level of GAD65 message was not significantly altered, but the proteins were significantly decreased in the aged monkey. As GAD65 plays an important role in GABA synthesis, the down-regulation of GAD65 protein was likely the key factor leading to the observed GABA reduction in the primary visual cortex of the aged macaques. In addition, 7 of 14 GABA receptor genes were up-regulated and one GABA receptor gene was significantly reduced during aging process even after Banjamini correction for multiple comparisons (P<0.05). These results suggested that the dysregulation of GAD65 protein might contribute to some age-related neural visual dysfunctions and most of GABA receptor genes induce a clear indication of compensatory effect for the reduced GABA release in the healthy aged monkey cortex.

  2. The systems V(IV)O(2+)-glutathione and related ligands: a potentiometric and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, João Costa; Tomaz, Isabel; Kiss, Tamás; Kiss, Erzsébet; Buglyó, Péter

    2002-03-01

    The equilibria in the system V(IV)O(2+)-glutathione in aqueous solution were studied in the pH range 2-11 by a combination of pH-potentiometry and spectroscopy (EPR, visible absorption and circular dichroism). The results of the various methods are consistent and the equilibrium model includes the species MLH(3), MLH(2), MLH, ML(2)H(2), MLH(-1), and MLH(-2) and several hydrolysis products (where H(4)L denotes totally protonated glutathione); individual formation constants and spectra are given. ML(2)H(2) is the predominant species at physiological pH. Plausible structures for each stoichiometry are discussed. The related V(IV)O(2+) systems of S-methylglutathione and gamma- L-glutamyl- L-cysteinyl ethyl ester were studied by means of the same spectroscopic techniques in order to support the established binding modes for the glutathione complexes. The importance of glutathione and oxidized glutathione in binding V(IV)O(2+) in cells is assessed.

  3. Average Offsets of the Local Vertical Datums in New Zealand Relative to the World Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, Robert; Abdalla, Ahmed; Vatrt, Viliam; Dayoub, Nadim

    2010-05-01

    We determine the average offsets of 12 major local vertical datums (LVDs) in New Zealand relative to the World Height System (WHS). The LVD offsets are estimated using the EGM2008 global geopotential model coefficients complete to degree 2160 of spherical harmonics and the GPS-levelling data. The WHS is defined by the currently adopted best-estimated geoidal geopotential value W0= 62636856 m2s-2. Our test results reveal that the average offsets of 12 major local vertical datums situated throughout the South and North Islands of New Zealand range from -0.25 to 1.34 m. The EGM2008 and GPS-levelling data are further used to compute the differences between the NZGeoid05 regional quasigeoid model and the EGM2008 global quasigeoid model. The same analysis is done for the NZGeoid09 which is the latest version of the official national quasigeoid model for New Zealand. The numerical results at the network of GPS-levelling points show that the differences between the NZGeoid05 and the EGM2008 quasigeoid models vary from 0.24 to 0.81 m with the mean of 0.56 m. The corresponding differences between the NZGeoid09 and the EGM2008 quasigeoid models vary from 0.27 to 1.14 m with the mean of 0.51 m. Keywords: geoidal geopotential value, GPS-leveling data, local vertical datum, World Height System

  4. Neurocysticercosis: local and systemic immune-inflammatory features related to severity.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Brenda; Fleury, Agnes; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández, Marisela; Crispin, José C; Vargas-Rojas, María I; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda

    2012-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. Previous studies have established that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the severity of the disease. However, the relationship between peripheral and local immune response remains inconclusive. This work studies the peripheral and local immune-inflammatory features and their relationships, toward the identification of potential peripheral immunologic features related to severity. A panel of cytokines was measured in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in the supernatant of antigen-specific stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples (SN) in a total of 31 untreated inflammatory and non-inflammatory NC patients. Increased clinical and radiologic severity was associated with an increased cerebrospinal fluid cell count. A peripheral proliferative depression that negatively correlates with CSF cellularity and TNFα and that positively correlates with SN IL5 was observed in severe NC patients. These results provide evidences to support the systemic proliferative response as a biomarker to monitor the level of neuroinflammation, of possible value in the patients' follow-up during treatment.

  5. Relative optical wavefront measurement in displacement measuring interferometer systems with sub-nm precision.

    PubMed

    Meskers, Arjan J H; Voigt, Dirk; Spronck, Jo W

    2013-07-29

    Many error sources can affect the accuracy of displacement measuring interferometer systems. In heterodyne interferometry two laser source frequencies constitute the finally detected wavefront. When the wavefronts of these source frequencies are non-ideal and one of them walks off the detector, the shape of the detected wavefront will vary. This leads to a change in measured phase at the detector resulting in increased measurement uncertainty. A new wavefront measurement tool described in this publication measures the relative phase difference between the two wavefronts of the two source frequencies of a coaxial heterodyne laser source as used in commercial heterodyne interferometer systems. The proposed measurement method uses standard commercial optics and operates with the same phase measurement equipment that is normally used for heterodyne displacement interferometry. In the presented method a bare tip of a multimode fiber represents the receiving detection aperture and is used for locally sampling the wavefront during a line scan. The difference in phase between the beating frequency of the scanning fiber and a reference beating frequency that results from integration over the entire beam, is used for the reconstruction of the wavefront. The method shows to have a phase resolution in the order of ~25 pm or ~λ/25000 for λ 632.8 nm, and a spatial resolution of ~60 µm at a repeatability better than 1 nm over one week.

  6. Therapeutic targeting of the complement system in age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Troutbeck, Robyn; Al-Qureshi, Salmaan; Guymer, Robyn H

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has produced pivotal change in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of global blindness. In this time, the complement system has featured as a unifying theme for several elements of new evidence: initially, the discovery of complement proteins within drusen and subsequently, the association between AMD and mutations in various complement pathway genes, most notably complement factor H. Increasingly, a wealth of data are pointing towards a role for chronic local inflammation and complement activation in the patho-aetiology of AMD. These findings have paved the way for the exploration of a new paradigm of therapy in AMD management; targeting of specific molecular constituents in the complement pathway thus producing dampening or inhibition of the inflammatory response. Such an approach has the potential to intervene earlier in the disease process and ideally before vision is compromised. In this review we discuss the role of the complement system in AMD, novel therapies in preclinical evaluation and clinical trial, and whether these have a part to play in reducing the burden of disease.

  7. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.C.

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  8. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J. J.; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish. PMID:26703710

  9. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Zweibel, K. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Definition of IFN-γ-related pathways critical for chemically-induced systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pollard, K Michael; Hultman, Per; Toomey, Christopher B; Cauvi, David M; Hoffman, Hal M; Hamel, John C; Kono, Dwight H

    2012-12-01

    IFN-γ is essential for idiopathic and murine mercury-induced systemic autoimmunity (mHgIA), and heterozygous IFN-γ(+/-) mice also exhibit reduced disease. This suggests that blocking specific IFN-γ-related pathways that may only partially inhibit IFN-γ production or function will also suppress autoimmunity. To test this hypothesis, mice deficient in genes regulating IFN-γ expression (Casp1, Nlrp3, Il12a, Il12b, Stat4) or function (Ifngr1, Irf1) were examined for mHgIA susceptibility. Absence of either Ifngr1 or Irf1 resulted in a striking reduction of disease, while deficiency of genes promoting IFN-γ expression had modest to no effect. Furthermore, both Irf1- and Ifng-deficiency only modestly reduced the expansion of CD44(hi) and CD44(hi)CD55(lo) CD4(+) T cells, indicating that they are not absolutely required for T cell activation. Thus, there is substantial redundancy in genes that regulate IFN-γ expression in contrast to those that mediate later signaling events. These findings have implications for the therapeutic targeting of IFN-γ pathways in systemic autoimmunity.

  11. Effect of molecular adsorbent recirculating system in hepatitis C virus-related intractable pruritus.

    PubMed

    Doria, Cataldo; Mandalá, Lucio; Smith, Jan; Vitale, Claudio H; Lauro, Augusto; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Marino, Ignazio R; Foglieni, Carlo Scotti; Magnone, Mario; Scott, Victor L

    2003-04-01

    Intractable pruritus is more common in cholestatic liver diseases and may be the presenting symptom and/or major complaint of hepatitis C and/or hepatitic C virus-related cirrhosis. From September 2000 to May 2002, three patients affected by intractable pruritus secondary to hepatitis C cirrhosis that failed medical treatment were treated with a molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). MARS is an artificial liver support system that aims to clear the blood of metabolic waste products normally metabolized by the liver. Each patient underwent seven MARS sessions. Liver function tests, the 36-Item Short Form quality-of-life test, visual analog scale for itching, and bile acid measurement in the serum, albumin circuit and ultrafiltrate were performed before and after each MARS session. Moreover, at hospital admission, each patient underwent a psychological workup and abdominal imaging study. Subjective improvement in pruritus and quality of life, along with a decrease in serum bile acid concentration, was observed in every patient; no patient underwent retreatment and/or liver transplantation up to a 9-month follow-up. One patient died 201 days after MARS treatment. Although we observed a decreased level of serum bile acids, one cannot conclude that this was the mechanism of action for the reduction in pruritus intensity in patients in our series. Different toxins and/or a placebo effect might have had a role in this setting.

  12. Central nervous system and musculoskeletal medication profile of a veteran cohort with blast-related injuries.

    PubMed

    French, Dustin D; Bair, Matthew J; Bass, Elizabeth; Campbell, Robert R; Siddharthan, Kris

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the utilization of central nervous system (CNS) and musculoskeletal (MS) medications in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with blast-related injuries (BRIs). We followed prescription drug use among a cohort of 133 OIF/OEF veterans with BRIs by using the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry, the Tampa Polytrauma Registry, and electronic medical records. We extracted 12 months of national medication records from the Veterans Health Administration Decision Support System and analyzed them with descriptive statistics. Over the 12-month period (fiscal year 2007), CNS medications comprised 27.9% (4,225/15,143) of total prescriptions dispensed to 90.2% (120/133) of our cohort. Approximately one-half (48.9%) of the 133 patients were treated with opioid analgesics. Nearly 60% received antidepressants. More than one-half (51.1%) of patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics were dispensed to 17.3% and 15.8%, respectively. For MS medicines, 804 were prescribed for 48.1% (64/133) of veterans. Nearly one-fourth (24.8%) were treated with skeletal muscle relaxants. The CNS and MS medications, in general, were continuously prescribed over the 12-month study period. This study provides insight into the complex medical management involved in the care of veterans with BRIs.

  13. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Keiser, G. M.; Lockhart, J. M.; Ohshima, Y.; Shestople, P.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16fo clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency3. The 16fo clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16fo clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests.

  14. Some mineral stability relations in the system CaOMgOSiO2H2OHCl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luce, R.W.; Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Mineral-aqueous solution equilibria for the assemblages talc-quartz, tremolite-talc-quartz, diopside-tremolite-quartz, wollastonite-diopside-quartz and wollastonite-quartz have been studied at 2 kb total pressure, 500?? to 700??C and chloride concentrations from 0.03 to 6.0 molal. Most work was at 1 m chloride. Both buffered and unbuffered data were obtained and a recalibration of the Ag-AgCl buffer is presented. Log equilibrium quotients at 500??, 600?? and 700??C are respectively: Ta-Qz ( mMgCl2 mHCl2) 2.57, 1.71, 0.73; Tr-Ta-Qz and Di-Tr-Qz ( mCaCl2 mMgCl2mHCl2) 4.98, 3.99, 2.21 and 7.29, 5.30, 3.56; WoDi-Qz ( mCaCl2 mMgCl2) 3.30, 3.00, 2.79: Wo-Qz ( mCaCl2 mHCl2) 5.15, 3.95, 2.68. Mineral stability fields plotted in terms of these concentration data more tangibly represent the compositional character of real systems and the mass transfer capabilities of their fluids than do the analogous theoretical activity diagrams. Overall dissociation constants of MgCl2 and CaCl2 were calculated from the experimental data using the calculated ionic activity constants for the reactions and the established dissociation constants of HCl. The negative log values are respectively: 3.88. 6.63, 9.20 for CaCl2 and 4.60, 7.54, 10.37 for MgCl2 at 500??, 600?? and 700??C, 2 kb. The Ca values are about an order of magnitude more positive than the conductance-derived values by Frantz and Marshall (1982). The phase relations developed in this study have application to the genesis of talc, tremolite, and diopside-bearing assemblages in some regional metamorphic rocks, but more specifically to the calcsilicate skarn assemblages of many metasomatic aureoles. The equilibrium fluids are characterized by high concentrations of Ca relative to Mg and increasing Ca Mg ratios with decreasing temperatures. The stability fields of talc, tremolite, and quartz expand relative to those of diopside and wollastonite with decreasing temperature, hence their more common appearance as retrograde products in

  15. Genetic Diversity and the Reproductive System in Related Species of Antirrhinum

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-ANDRÉS, I.; DE PACO, L.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seven related species of Antirrhinum (A. siculum, A. majus, A. latifolium, A. linkianum, A. litigiosum, A. cirrhigherum and A. tortuosum) were studied in order to compare levels of genetic variation and its partitioning in them, and to check relationships between genetic patterns and the reproductive system. • Methods Eight hundred and fifty-one plants were screened for variability at 13 allozyme loci by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Parameters of genetic diversity and its partitioning, the inbreeding coefficient as well as an indirect estimate of gene flow based on the equation: Nm = (1 − GST)/4GST, were calculated. • Key Results Genetic variability in A. siculum was found to be the lowest known in the genus. Mean values of FIT and FIS were mostly positive and not significantly different from zero. Population differentiation (FST) ranged between 6·1 in A. tortuosum and 17·6 in A. linkianum. The inbreeding coefficient within populations ranged between FIS = −0·5 in A. tortuosum and FIS = 1 in A. siculum. Estimates of gene flow ranged between Nm = 15 in A. majus (considered as very high) to Nm = 0·42 in A. siculum (considered as low). • Conclusions Correlation was found between levels of diversity and differentiation on one hand, and the reproductive system of the studied taxa on the other. Striking differences among species in the inbreeding coefficient (FIS) show different reproductive systems, which mostly support previous reports. Strategies for the conservation of A. siculum are recommended, such as preservation of natural populations as well as ex situ preservation of seeds from different populations. PMID:17008348

  16. Logarithmic and Power Law Input-Output Relations in Sensory Systems with Fold-Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Miri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Two central biophysical laws describe sensory responses to input signals. One is a logarithmic relationship between input and output, and the other is a power law relationship. These laws are sometimes called the Weber-Fechner law and the Stevens power law, respectively. The two laws are found in a wide variety of human sensory systems including hearing, vision, taste, and weight perception; they also occur in the responses of cells to stimuli. However the mechanistic origin of these laws is not fully understood. To address this, we consider a class of biological circuits exhibiting a property called fold-change detection (FCD). In these circuits the response dynamics depend only on the relative change in input signal and not its absolute level, a property which applies to many physiological and cellular sensory systems. We show analytically that by changing a single parameter in the FCD circuits, both logarithmic and power-law relationships emerge; these laws are modified versions of the Weber-Fechner and Stevens laws. The parameter that determines which law is found is the steepness (effective Hill coefficient) of the effect of the internal variable on the output. This finding applies to major circuit architectures found in biological systems, including the incoherent feed-forward loop and nonlinear integral feedback loops. Therefore, if one measures the response to different fold changes in input signal and observes a logarithmic or power law, the present theory can be used to rule out certain FCD mechanisms, and to predict their cooperativity parameter. We demonstrate this approach using data from eukaryotic chemotaxis signaling. PMID:25121598

  17. Detached binary system MQ Centauri and its relation with Crux OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Efecan; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the astrophysical characteristics of eclipsing binary system MQ Cen and its relation with Crux OB1 association has been investigated by means of analysing high resolution (R ˜48000) spectra and light curves in Strömgren bands. Analysis of the available data yielded high precision parameters of the system which allowed us to derive reliable age and distance. The Fourier disentangling method was applied to the composite spectra of MQ Cen for reconstructing the component spectra. The modeling of the high resolution spectra revealed that the secondary component of MQ Cen rotates slower than the synchronous rotation velocity unlike the primary star which is in synchronous rotation. The photometric distance of the binary was found to be consistent with the distance given for Crux OB1 associaton (2.7 kpc) by Kaltcheva and Georgiev (1993). Space velocity of the system also supports the membership of MQ Cen to the Crux OB1 association. Age estimation was made by comparing the positions of components on HR diagram with isochrones. Conclusion shows that MQ Cen is older than the age determined for Crux OB1 association in the literature. This result implies that MQ Cen may belong to one of the older subgroups in the Crux OB1 association complex and the stellar formation in the complex started long ago than previously predicted. The evolutionary status of the component stars suggest that both components have reached the final stage of their Main Sequence lifetime and proceed to the Giant Branch. KEYWORDS: Absolute parameters, Cru OB1, eclipsing binaries, MQ Cen, OB associations, spectral disentangling.

  18. Inhibition of methyldigoxin-induced arrhythmias by pentadecapeptide BPC 157: a relation with NO-system.

    PubMed

    Balenovic, Dijana; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Udovicic, Mario; Simonji, Karol; Hanzevacki, Jadranka Separovic; Barisic, Ivan; Kranjcevic, Stjepan; Prkacin, Ingrid; Coric, Vedran; Brcic, Luka; Coric, Marijana; Brcic, Iva; Borovic, Suzana; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2009-08-07

    Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) reversed congestive heart failure and various arrhythmias, influenced the NO-system and showed no proarrhythmic effect. In therapy analogy, we challenged rats with digitalis, to show attenuation by BPC 157 and the relation between the NO-system and digitalis toxicity. (i). BPC 157 prophylactic effect. Development of cumulative intravenous digitalis toxicity, BPC 157 (50 microg, 10 microg, 10 ng/kg applied intravenously immediately before a methyldigoxin increment regimen (2.0/1.5/1.5/1.0 mg/kg at 15 min-intervals, total dose 6.0 mg/kg/45 min)) reduced the number of ventricular premature beats, prolonged the time before onset of ventricular tachycardia, reduced ventricular tachycardia and AV-block duration (microg-regimes) or reduced mainly the AV-block duration (ng-regimen). (ii). BPC 157 therapy. Advanced methyldigoxin toxicity (6.0 mg/kg i.v. bolus). BPC 157 applied at the 20th second of the grade 3 AV-block shortened AV-blocks, mitigated a further digitalis toxicity course. Ventricular tachycardias were either avoided (50 microg), or markedly reduced (10 microg, 10 ng). Fatal outcome was either avoided (50 microg), reduced (10 microg), or only delayed (10 ng) (iii) BPC 157, L-NAME, l-arginine, L-NAME+l-arginine application. L-NAME-application (5 mg/kg i.p.) aggravated methyldigoxin-arrhythmias. l-arginine (200 mg/kg i.p.) alone had no effect but blunted L-NAME-exaggeration (L-NAME+l-arginine). In this respect, BPC 157 (50 microg/kg i.p.) was prophylactically and therapeutically more effective: the antagonism of L-NAME with BPC 157 produced an effect similar to BPC 157 alone. In conclusion, digitalis-induced arrhythmias in rats could be prevented and counteracted by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, mainly through an interaction with the NO-system.

  19. Collaborative play in young children as a complex dynamic system: revealing gender related differences.

    PubMed

    Steenbeek, Henderien; van der Aalsvoort, Diny; van Geert, Paul

    2014-07-01

    This study was focused on the role of gender-related differences in collaborative play, by examining properties of play as a complex system, and by using micro-genetic analysis techniques. A complex dynamic systems model of dyadic play was used to make predictions with regard to duration and number of contact-episodes during play of same-sex dyads, both on the micro- (i.e., per individual session), meso- (i.e., in smoothed data), and macro time scale (i.e., the change over six consecutive play sessions). The empirical data came from a study that examined the collaborative play skills of children who experienced six twenty minute play sessions within a three week period of time. Monte Carlo permutation analyses were used to compare model predictions and empirical data. The findings point to strongly asymmetric distributions in the duration and number of contact episodes in all dyads over the six sessions, as a direct consequence of the underlying dynamics of the play system. The model prediction that girls-dyads would show longer contact episodes than boys-dyads was confirmed, but the prediction regarding the difference in number of peaks was not confirmed. In addition, the majority of the model predictions regarding changes over the course of six sessions were consistent with the data. That is, the average duration and the maximum duration of contact-episodes increases both in boys-dyads and girls-dyads, but differences occur in the strength of the increase. Contrary to expectation, the number of contact-episodes decreases both in boys-dyads and in girls-dyads.

  20. Inter-system biases estimation in multi-GNSS relative positioning with GPS and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Cecile; Warnant, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the European Galileo program has experienced major progress in 2015 with the launch of 6 satellites belonging to the new Full Operational Capability (FOC) generation. Associated with the ongoing GPS modernization, many more frequencies and satellites are now available. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on GPS and Galileo overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. Once these biases estimated and removed from the model, a solution involving a unique pivot satellite for the two considered constellations can be obtained. Such an approach implies that the addition of even one single Galileo satellite to the GPS-only model will strengthen it. The combined use of L1 and L5 from GPS with E1 and E5a from Galileo in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependant error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs is conducted on various pairs of receivers over large time spans. The possible influence of temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values is also investigated. Our study is based on the 5 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi-GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS and Galileo standalone solutions.

  1. Engineering Safety- and Security-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    malicious Agents ( humans , systems , and the environment) • Safety Risks are kept acceptably low • The preceding Problems are Prevented, Detected...consequence mitigated • Threats (i.e., Threatening Conditions) are eliminated or mitigated: — System Vulnerabilities — Malicious Agents ( humans , systems ...Agent (Security) Malware Non-malicious Human Agent User System Developer System Operator System Maintainer Foreign Government Cracker Disgruntled

  2. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  3. Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management Kick-off Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    At this meeting, grantees from Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management and Sustainable Chesapeake: A Community-Based Approach to Stormwater Management Using Green Infrastructure

  4. Relative electron dosimetry using the Scanditronix-Wellhoefer beam imaging system-2G

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, Kirsten . E-mail: kirsten.nygaard@helse-bergen.no; Odland, Odd Harald; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2006-10-01

    The Beam Imaging System 2G (BIS-2G) from Scanditronix-Wellhoefer is a two-dimensional (2D) charge-coupled device (CCD)-camera that measures the scintillation light produced by incident radiation. We examined the performance of the BIS-2G as a tool in quality control of patient boluses. In an attempt to simplify the production of the patient boluses, bolus edges were built as staircases and the dose distributions were measured and compared to the dose profiles below corresponding sloped bolus edges. Perspex plates covering half the irradiated field were used as generalized bolus edges. All BIS-2G measurements were performed using buildup of solid water while a diode measured corresponding dose profiles in a water phantom. Below the patient boluses, regions with doses < 95% and > 107% of the prescribed dose were defined. Below the edge, the relative doses measured by the BIS-2G were generally within 3% in dose and 3 mm in position compared to the diode measurements. Close to the field edge below the bolus, the BIS-2G measurements were in some cases as much as 7% lower in dose than the diode measurements. The BIS-2G measurements revealed hotspots below the patient boluses covering 1-16% of the total irradiated area. The highest point dose measured below the patient boluses ranged from 105% to 125% of the prescribed dose. For all bolus thicknesses, each edge in the staircase bolus caused a fluctuation in dose and increased the maximum dose compared to the sloped edge. For several cases, the maximum dose increased with 13% in relative dose, e.g., from 103% to 116%. The BIS-2G was found to be a useful tool in quality control of patient boluses, revealing large hot spots in the treatment volume for several patients. Bolus edges built as staircases cause considerable dose fluctuations and increase the maximum dose, and can therefore not be recommended.

  5. Hydrogeological structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough backarc basin are considered as related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting. Since the seafloor is dominantly covered with felsic volcaniclastic material and/or terrigenous sediment, hydrothermal circulation is expected to be distributed within sediment layers of significantly high porosity. Deep drilling through an active hydrothermal field at the Iheya North Knoll in the middle Okinawa Trough during IODP Expedition 331 provided a unique opportunity to directly access the subseafloor. While sedimentation along the slopes of the knoll was dominated by volcanic clasts of tubular pumice, intense hydrothermal alteration was recognized in the vicinity of the hydrothermal center even at very shallow depths. Detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies of hydrothermal clay minerals in the altered sediment suggest that the prevalent alteration is attributed to laterally extensive fluid intrusion and occupation within the sediment layer. Onboard measurements of physical properties of the obtained sediment revealed drastic changes of the porosity caused by hydrothermal interactions. While unaltered sediment showed porosity higher than 70%, the porosity drastically decreased in the layer of anhydrite formation. On the other hand, the porosity remained high (~50%) in the layer of only chlorite alteration. Cap rock formation caused by anhydrite precipitation would inhibit the ascent of high temperature fluids to the seafloor. Moreover, an interbedded nature of pelagic mud units and matrix-free pumice deposits may prompt formation of a tightly layered architecture of aquifers and aquicludes. This sediment architecture should be highly conducive to lateral flow pseudo-parallel to the surface topography. Occurrence of sphalerite-rich sulfides was recognized as associated with detrital and altered sediment, suggesting mineralization related to subsurface chemical processes. Moreover, the vertical profiles of

  6. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-06-16

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, in this paper we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3–24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3–30 h, 3–27 h, and 3–30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20–22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. Finally, these regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions.

  7. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    DOE PAGES

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; ...

    2016-06-16

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, in this paper we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3–24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3–30 h, 3–27 h, and 3–30 hmore » per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20–22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. Finally, these regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions.« less

  8. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3-24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3-30 h, 3-27 h, and 3-30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20-22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. These regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions.

  9. Quantum scattering in one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2016-12-01

    In quantum gravity theories, when the scattering energy is comparable to the Planck energy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle breaks down and is replaced by the minimal length uncertainty relation. In this paper, the consequences of the minimal length uncertainty relation on one-dimensional quantum scattering are studied using an approach involving a recently proposed second-order differential equation. An exact analytical expression for the tunneling probability through a locally-periodic rectangular potential barrier system is obtained. Results show that the existence of a non-zero minimal length uncertainty tends to shift the resonant tunneling energies to the positive direction. Scattering through a locally-periodic potential composed of double-rectangular potential barriers shows that the first band of resonant tunneling energies widens for minimal length cases when the double-rectangular potential barrier is symmetric but narrows down when the double-rectangular potential barrier is asymmetric. A numerical solution which exploits the use of Wronskians is used to calculate the transmission probabilities through the Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian barrier, and double-Gaussian barrier. Results show that the probability of passage through the Pöschl-Teller well and Gaussian barrier is smaller in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. For the double-Gaussian barrier, the probability of passage for energies that are more positive than the resonant tunneling energy is larger in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. The approach is exact and applicable to many types of scattering potential.

  10. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3–24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3–30 h, 3–27 h, and 3–30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20–22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. These regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions. PMID:27313203

  11. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  12. A systemic approach to cancer treatment: tumor cell reprogramming focused on endocrine-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Biava, P M; Nicolini, A; Ferrari, P; Carpi, A; Sell, S

    2014-01-01

    The term "cancer cell reprogramming" is used to define any kind of intervention aimed at transforming cancer cells into terminally differentiated cells. Using this approach, new technologies have been applied with different methods for a more systemic approach to cancer treatment. This review reports on advances of these technologies, including our personal contributions, mainly carried out on endocrine-related cancers. Some of the interventions, aimed at reverting cancer cells into a normal phenotype, are based on the evidence that tumor development is suppressed by the embryonic microenvironment. On the basis of this rationale, experiments have been conducted using stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs) taken at different stages of development of Zebrafish embryos, oocyte extracts, or naïve human umbilical cord matrix derived stem cells (UMDSCs). SCDSFs induce significant growth inhibition on different tumor cell lines in vitro, likely because of increases in cell cycle regulatory molecules, such as p53 and pRb. Treatment with these factors activates apoptosis and differentiation related to caspase-3. This is achieved via p73 apoptotic-dependent pathway activation with a concurrent normalization of the E-cadherin and beta-catenin ratio. Extracts from prophase amphibian oocytes could reprogram relevant epigenetic alterations in MCF-7 and HCC1954 breast cancer cell lines, while un-engineered (naïve) human UMDSCs attenuated growth of MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells. A product prepared for human treatments, containing SCDSFs at very low doses, yielded favorable results in breast cancer and in intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Other reprogramming interventions used in the models of breast, prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines are described. Finally, current and future perspectives of this novel technology are discussed and a new hallmark of cancer is suggested: the loss of differentiation of cancer cells.

  13. Systemic Complement Inhibition with Eculizumab for Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yehoshua, Zohar; Filho, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia; Nunes, Renata Portella; Gregori, Giovanni; Penha, Fernando M.; Moshfeghi, Andrew A.; Zhang, Kang; Sadda, SriniVas; Feuer, William; Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of eculizumab, a systemic inhibitor of complement component (C5), on the growth of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Participants Patients with GA measuring from 1.25 to 18 mm2 based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Methods Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive intravenous eculizumab or placebo over 6 months. In the eculizumab treatment arm, the first 10 patients received a low-dose regimen of 600 mg weekly for 4 weeks followed by 900 mg every 2 weeks until week 24, and the next 10 patients received a high-dose regimen of 900 mg weekly for 4 weeks followed by 1200 mg every 2 weeks until week 24. The placebo group was infused with saline. Patients were observed off treatment for an additional 26 weeks. Both normal-luminance and lowluminance visual acuities were measured throughout the study, and the low-luminance deficits were calculated as the difference between the letter scores. Main Outcome Measures Change in area of GA at 26 weeks. Results Thirty eyes of 30 patients were enrolled. Eighteen fellow eyes also met inclusion criteria and were analyzed as a secondary endpoint. For the 30 study eyes, mean square root of GA area measurements ± standard deviation at baseline were 2.55±0.94 and 2.02±0.74 mm in the eculizumab and placebo groups,respectively (P = 0.13). At 26 weeks, GA enlarged by a mean of 0.19±0.12 and 0.18±0.15 mm in the eculizumab and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.96). At 52 weeks of follow-up, GA enlarged by a mean of 0.37±0.22 mm in the eculizumab-treated eyes and by a mean of 0.37±0.21 mm in the placebo group (P = 0.93, 2 sample t test). None of the eyes converted to wet AMD. No drug-related adverse events were identified. Conclusions Systemic complement inhibition with eculizumab was well tolerated through 6 months but did not decrease the growth rate of GA significantly

  14. Phase relations in the system Fe-Si determined in an internally-resistive heated DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komabayashi, T.; Antonangeli, D.; Morard, G.; Sinmyo, R.; Mezouar, N.

    2015-12-01

    It is believed that the iron-rich Earth's core contains some amounts of light elements on the basis of the density deficit of 7 % compared to pure iron. The identification of the kinds and amounts of the light elements in the core places constraints on the origin, formation, and evolution of the Earth because dissolution of light elements into an iron-rich core should place important constraints on the thermodynamic conditions (pressure (P), temperature (T), and oxygen fugacity) of the equilibration between liquid silicate and liquid iron during the core formation. Among potential light elements, silicon has been attracting attentions because it is abundant in the mantle, partitioned into both solid and liquid irons, and very sensitive to the oxygen fugacity. An important phase relation in iron alloy is a transition between the face-centred cubic (FCC) structure and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure. This boundary is a key to infer the stable structure in the inner core and is used to derive thermodynamic properties of the phases (Komabayashi, 2014). In the Fe-Si system, previous reports were based on experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells (DAC), which might have included large termperature uncertainties. We have revisited this boundary in the system Fe-Si using an internally resistive-heated DAC combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the beamline ID27, ESRF. The internally-heated DAC (Komabayashi et al., 2009; 2012) provides much more stable heating than the laser-heated DAC and much higher temperature than externally resistive-heated DAC, which enables us to place tight constraints on the P-T locations of the boundaries. Also because the minimum measurable temperature is as low as 1000 K due to the stable electric heating, the internal heating is able to examine the low temperature phase stability which was not studied by the previous studies. We will report the P-T locations of the boundaries and evaluate the effect of Si on the phase

  15. Dietary inflammatory index is related to asthma risk, lung function and systemic inflammation in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lisa G; Shivappa, Nitin; Berthon, Bronwyn S; Gibson, Peter G; Hebert, James R

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma prevalence has increased in recent years and evidence suggests that diet may be a contributing factor. Increased use of processed foods has led to a decrease in diet quality, which may be creating a pro-inflammatory environment, thereby leading to the development and/or progression of various chronic inflammatory diseases and conditions. Recently, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) has been developed and validated to assess the inflammatory potential of individual diets. Objective This study aimed to examine the DII in subjects with asthma compared to healthy controls and to relate the DII to asthma risk, lung function and systemic inflammation. Methods Subjects with asthma (n=99) and healthy controls (n=61) were recruited. Blood was collected and spirometry was performed. The DII was calculated from food frequency questionnaires administered to study subjects. Results The mean DII score for the asthmatics was higher than the DII score for healthy controls (−1.40 versus −1.86, p=0.04), indicating their diets were more pro-inflammatory. For every 1 unit increase in DII score the odds of having asthma increased by 70% (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.14; p=0.040). FEV1 was significantly associated with DII score (β=−3.44, 95% CI: −6.50,−0.39; p=0.020), indicating that for every 1 unit increase in DII score, FEV1 decreased by 3.44 times. Furthermore, plasma IL-6 concentrations were positively associated with DII score (β=0.13, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.21;p=0.002). Conclusion and clinical relevance As assessed using the DII score, the usual diet consumed by asthmatics in this study was pro-inflammatory relative to the diet consumed by the healthy controls. The DII score was associated with increased systemic inflammation and lower lung function. Hence, consumption of pro-inflammatory foods may contribute to worse asthma status and targeting an improvement in DII in asthmatics, as an indicator of suitable dietary intake, might be a useful strategy for

  16. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  17. Phase relations in the Fe-FeSi system at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Reaman, Daniel M.; Miller, Noah A.; Heinz, Dion L.; Dera, Przymyslaw; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-07-29

    The Earth's core is comprised mostly of iron and nickel, but it also contains several weight percent of one or more unknown light elements, which may include silicon. Therefore it is important to understand the high pressure, high temperature properties and behavior of alloys in the Fe–FeSi system, such as their phase diagrams. We determined melting temperatures and subsolidus phase relations of Fe–9 wt% Si and stoichiometric FeSi using synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures, up to ~200 GPa and ~145 GPa, respectively. Combining this data with that of previous studies, we generated phase diagrams in pressure–temperature, temperature–composition, and pressure–composition space. We find the B2 crystal structure in Fe–9Si where previous studies reported the less ordered bcc structure, and a shallower slope for the hcp+B2 to fcc+B2 boundary than previously reported. In stoichiometric FeSi, we report a wide B2+B20 two-phase field, with complete conversion to the B2 structure at ~42 GPa. The minimum temperature of an Fe–Si outer core is 4380 K, based on the eutectic melting point of Fe–9Si, and silicon is shown to be less efficient at depressing the melting point of iron at core conditions than oxygen or sulfur. At the highest pressures reached, only the hcp and B2 structures are seen in the Fe–FeSi system. We predict that alloys containing more than ~4–8 wt% silicon will convert to an hcp+B2 mixture and later to the hcp structure with increasing pressure, and that an iron–silicon alloy in the Earth's inner core would most likely be a mixture of hcp and B2 phases.

  18. Linear constraint relations in biochemical reaction systems: II. Diagnosis and estimation of gross errors.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, R T; Romein, B; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Luyben, K C

    1994-01-05

    Conservation equations derived from elemental balances, heat balances, and metabolic stoichiometry, can be used to constrain the values of conversion rates of relevant components. In the present work, their use will be discussed for detection and localization of significant errors of the following types: 1.At least one of the primary measurements has a significant error (gross measurement error).2.The system definition is incorrect: a component a.is not included in the system description.b.has a composition different from that specified.3.The specified variances are too small, resulting in a too-sensitive test.The error diagnosis technique presented here, is based on the following: given the conservation equations, for each set of measured rates, a vector of residuals of these equations can be constructed, of which the direction is related to the error source, as its length is a measure of the error size. The similarity of the directions of such a residual vector and certain compare vectors, each corresponding to a specific error source, is considered in a statistical test. If two compare vectors that result from different error sources have (almost) the same direction, errors of these types cannot be distinguished from each other. For each possible error in the primary measurements of flows and concentrations, the compare vector can be constructed a priori, thus allowing analysis beforehand, which errors can be observed. Therefore, the detectability of certain errors likely to occur can be insured by selecting a proper measurement set. The possibility of performing this analysis before experiments are carried out is an important advantage, providing a profound understanding of the detectability of errors. The characteristics of the method with respect to diagnosis of simultaneous errors and error size estimation are discussed and compared to those of the serial elimination method and the serial compensation strategy, published elsewhere. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons

  19. How Phosphotransferase System-Related Protein Phosphorylation Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism in Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, Josef; Francke, Christof; Postma, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is found only in bacteria, where it catalyzes the transport and phosphorylation of numerous monosaccharides, disaccharides, amino sugars, polyols, and other sugar derivatives. To carry out its catalytic function in sugar transport and phosphorylation, the PTS uses PEP as an energy source and phosphoryl donor. The phosphoryl group of PEP is usually transferred via four distinct proteins (domains) to the transported sugar bound to the respective membrane component(s) (EIIC and EIID) of the PTS. The organization of the PTS as a four-step phosphoryl transfer system, in which all P derivatives exhibit similar energy (phosphorylation occurs at histidyl or cysteyl residues), is surprising, as a single protein (or domain) coupling energy transfer and sugar phosphorylation would be sufficient for PTS function. A possible explanation for the complexity of the PTS was provided by the discovery that the PTS also carries out numerous regulatory functions. Depending on their phosphorylation state, the four proteins (domains) forming the PTS phosphorylation cascade (EI, HPr, EIIA, and EIIB) can phosphorylate or interact with numerous non-PTS proteins and thereby regulate their activity. In addition, in certain bacteria, one of the PTS components (HPr) is phosphorylated by ATP at a seryl residue, which increases the complexity of PTS-mediated regulation. In this review, we try to summarize the known protein phosphorylation-related regulatory functions of the PTS. As we shall see, the PTS regulation network not only controls carbohydrate uptake and metabolism but also interferes with the utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus and the virulence of certain pathogens. PMID:17158705

  20. GLM: A relational database system for linkage mapping on PC compatibles

    SciTech Connect

    Lucek, P.; Ott, J.

    1994-09-01

    Collection and management of family data, phenotypes, genotypes and the creation of a catalog of available and potential genetic markers can easily become overwhelming. The General Linkage Mapping (GLM) database and analysis system is designed to be an easy to use program with an intuitive interface for managing the data required for input and the resulting data output from two point linkage mapping analysis programs such as LINKAGE, MLINK, and ILINK. A comprehensive context-sensitive help system in integrated into the program along with data transfer and data backup capabilities. The relational databases managed by the GLM program are structured such that each project/disease can have multiple families, and marker, genotype, and result databases. Family data includes father/mother relationships; twin relationships, sex, age, date of birth/death, availability for typing, laboratory ID, and up to 50 phenotypes or diagnostic criteria, with corresponding liability classes and ages of onset. The liability classes can be entered manually or can be calculated from the individual`s age or age of disease onset. Phenotype data can either be quantitative, binary or of the affection status type. Genotype data, cross-referenced by laboratory ID, can be entered using any unique identification for each allele (e.g. size of dinucleotide repeats). Marker information includes marker name, chromosome, sex-ratio, allele identifications and frequencies. The GLM program creates all of the ASCII output files required by LINKAGE, MLINK and ILINK for input. Multiple or single families can be run. Upon execution of these programs, the GLM program imports the results of the analysis and keeps a database family, marker, date of analysis, and LOD scores. Future versions will include two-point exclusion mapping capabilities and output files for multipoint analysis.