Science.gov

Sample records for systematic design methodology

  1. Development of a systematic and practical methodology for the design of vehicles semi-active suspension control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolandhemmat, Hamidreza; Clark, Christopher M.; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic and practical methodology is presented for design of vehicle semi-active suspension systems. Typically, the semi-active control strategies developed to improve vehicle ride comfort and stability have a switching nature. This makes the design of the controlled suspension systems difficult and highly dependent on an extensive trial-and-error process. The proposed methodology maps the discontinuous control system model to a continuous linear region, where all the time and frequency design techniques, established in the conventional control system theory, can be applied. If the semi-active control system is designed to satisfy some ride and stability requirements, an inverse mapping offers the ultimate control law. At the end, the entire design procedure is summarised in six steps. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the design of a semi-active suspension system for a Cadillac SRX 2005 is demonstrated with road tests results. Real-time experiments confirm that the use of the newly developed systematic design method reduces the required time and effort in real industrial problems.

  2. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  3. [Improving practice and organisation of care: methodology for systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Vincent; Savoldelli, Virginie; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The number of intervention studies designed to improve quality of care is increasing exponentially, making it difficult to access all available information on a given subject. Systematic reviews are tools that provide health professionals with comprehensive and objective information. This article describes the main phases of a systematic review: formulating the research question, search and selection of studies, data extraction and analysis, assessment of the methodological quality of studies, and synthesis of the results. Interventions designed to improve professional practices and organisation of care have specific characteristics that determine the methodology of systematic reviews. For example, the often substantial heterogeneity between populations, organisations, and intervention settings among studies must be taken into account, which makes meta-analysis more difficult. Knowledge on specific features of systematic reviews designed to improve quality of care is essential to ensure a good review of the literature, or to evaluate the level of evidence of published systematic reviews.

  4. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.

  5. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  6. Solid lubrication design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Yonushonis, T. M.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A single element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at the contact of a ball against a flat disc at room temperature under combined rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. The test program showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested; a lubricant should, therefore, be selected on the basis of its ability to prevent wear of the contact surfaces. Traction vs. slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data was used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. Qualitative design guidelines for solid lubricated concentrated contacts are proposed.

  7. Methodological quality of behavioural weight loss studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lemon, S C; Wang, M L; Haughton, C F; Estabrook, D P; Frisard, C F; Pagoto, S L

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review assessed the methodological quality of behavioural weight loss intervention studies conducted among adults and associations between quality and statistically significant weight loss outcome, strength of intervention effectiveness and sample size. Searches for trials published between January, 2009 and December, 2014 were conducted using PUBMED, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO and identified ninety studies. Methodological quality indicators included study design, anthropometric measurement approach, sample size calculations, intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, loss to follow-up rate, missing data strategy, sampling strategy, report of treatment receipt and report of intervention fidelity (mean = 6.3). Indicators most commonly utilized included randomized design (100%), objectively measured anthropometrics (96.7%), ITT analysis (86.7%) and reporting treatment adherence (76.7%). Most studies (62.2%) had a follow-up rate > 75% and reported a loss to follow-up analytic strategy or minimal missing data (69.9%). Describing intervention fidelity (34.4%) and sampling from a known population (41.1%) were least common. Methodological quality was not associated with reporting a statistically significant result, effect size or sample size. This review found the published literature of behavioural weight loss trials to be of high quality for specific indicators, including study design and measurement. Identified for improvement include utilization of more rigorous statistical approaches to loss to follow up and better fidelity reporting.

  8. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  9. A Systematic Methodology for Verifying Superscalar Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Hosabettu, Ravi; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    1999-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to decompose and incrementally build the proof of correctness of pipelined microprocessors. The central idea is to construct the abstraction function by using completion functions, one per unfinished instruction, each of which specifies the effect (on the observables) of completing the instruction. In addition to avoiding the term size and case explosion problem that limits the pure flushing approach, our method helps localize errors, and also handles stages with interactive loops. The technique is illustrated on pipelined and superscalar pipelined implementations of a subset of the DLX architecture. It has also been applied to a processor with out-of-order execution.

  10. Systematic Review Evidence Methodology: Providing Quality Family Planning Services.

    PubMed

    Tregear, Stephen J; Gavin, Loretta E; Williams, Jessica R

    2015-08-01

    From 2010 to 2014, CDC and the Office of Population Affairs at the USDHHS collaborated on the development of clinical recommendations for providing quality family planning services. A high priority was placed on the use of existing scientific evidence in developing the recommendations, in accordance with IOM guidelines for how to develop "trustworthy" clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, a series of systematic reviews were developed using a transparent and reproducible methodology aimed at ensuring that the clinical practice guidelines would be based on evidence collected in the most unbiased manner possible. This article describes the methodology used in conducting these systematic reviews, which occurred from mid-2011 through 2012. PMID:26190844

  11. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  12. Space Engineering Projects in Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R.; Wood, K.; Nichols, S.; Hearn, C.; Corrier, S.; DeKunder, G.; George, S.; Hysinger, C.; Johnson, C.; Kubasta, K.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design courses of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, focusing on the first-semester design methodology course. The philosophical basis and pedagogical structure of this course is summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper includes a summary of the projects completed during the 1992-93 Academic Year in the methodology course, and concludes with an example of two projects completed by student design teams.

  13. Assuring data transparency through design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Allen

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of design methodologies and practices in the assurance of technology transparency. The development of several subsystems on large, long life cycle government programs was analyzed to glean those characteristics in the design, development, test, and evaluation that precluded or enabled the insertion of new technology. The programs examined were Minuteman, DSP, B1-B, and space shuttle. All these were long life cycle, technology-intensive programs. The design methodologies (or lack thereof) and design practices for each were analyzed in terms of the success or failure in incorporating evolving technology. Common elements contributing to the success or failure were extracted and compared to current methodologies being proposed by the Department of Defense and NASA. The relevance of these practices to the design and deployment of Space Station Freedom were evaluated. In particular, appropriate methodologies now being used on the core development contract were examined.

  14. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  15. A design methodology for unattended monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,JAMES D.; DELAND,SHARON M.

    2000-03-01

    The authors presented a high-level methodology for the design of unattended monitoring systems, focusing on a system to detect diversion of nuclear materials from a storage facility. The methodology is composed of seven, interrelated analyses: Facility Analysis, Vulnerability Analysis, Threat Assessment, Scenario Assessment, Design Analysis, Conceptual Design, and Performance Assessment. The design of the monitoring system is iteratively improved until it meets a set of pre-established performance criteria. The methodology presented here is based on other, well-established system analysis methodologies and hence they believe it can be adapted to other verification or compliance applications. In order to make this approach more generic, however, there needs to be more work on techniques for establishing evaluation criteria and associated performance metrics. They found that defining general-purpose evaluation criteria for verifying compliance with international agreements was a significant undertaking in itself. They finally focused on diversion of nuclear material in order to simplify the problem so that they could work out an overall approach for the design methodology. However, general guidelines for the development of evaluation criteria are critical for a general-purpose methodology. A poor choice in evaluation criteria could result in a monitoring system design that solves the wrong problem.

  16. General Methodology for Designing Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravishankar; Morcos, Fady; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for designing spacecraft trajectories in any gravitational environment within the solar system has been developed. The methodology facilitates modeling and optimization for problems ranging from that of a single spacecraft orbiting a single celestial body to that of a mission involving multiple spacecraft and multiple propulsion systems operating in gravitational fields of multiple celestial bodies. The methodology consolidates almost all spacecraft trajectory design and optimization problems into a single conceptual framework requiring solution of either a system of nonlinear equations or a parameter-optimization problem with equality and/or inequality constraints.

  17. Applying Software Design Methodology to Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, J. Philip

    2004-01-01

    The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…

  18. Methodological Alignment in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical research is all about trying to model and predict the world. In this article, I discuss how design-based research methods can help do this effectively. In particular, design-based research methods can help with the problem of methodological alignment: ensuring that the research methods we use actually test what we think they are testing.…

  19. Design methodology and projects for space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  20. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  1. Failure detection system design methodology. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a failure detection and identification system consists of designing a robust residual generation process and a high performance decision making process. The design of these two processes are examined separately. Residual generation is based on analytical redundancy. Redundancy relations that are insensitive to modelling errors and noise effects are important for designing robust residual generation processes. The characterization of the concept of analytical redundancy in terms of a generalized parity space provides a framework in which a systematic approach to the determination of robust redundancy relations are developed. The Bayesian approach is adopted for the design of high performance decision processes. The FDI decision problem is formulated as a Bayes sequential decision problem. Since the optimal decision rule is incomputable, a methodology for designing suboptimal rules is proposed. A numerical algorithm is developed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of suboptimal rules.

  2. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  3. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational

  4. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    PubMed Central

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  5. Performance-based asphalt mixture design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Al-Hosain Mansour

    Today, several State D.O.T.s are being investigating the use of tire rubber with local conventional materials. Several of the ongoing investigations identified potential benefits from the use of these materials, including improvements in material properties and performance. One of the major problems is being associated with the transferability of asphalt rubber technology without appropriately considering the effects of the variety of conventional materials on mixture behavior and performance. Typically, the design of these mixtures is being adapted to the physical properties of the conventional materials by using the empirical Marshall mixture design and without considering fundamental mixture behavior and performance. Use of design criteria related to the most common modes of failure for asphalt mixtures, such as rutting, fatigue cracking, and low temperature thermal cracking have to be developed and used for identifying the "best mixture," in term of performance, for the specific local materials and loading conditions. The main objective of this study was the development of a mixture design methodology that considers mixture behavior and performance. In order to achieve this objective a laboratory investigation able to evaluate mixture properties that can be related to mixture performance, (in terms of rutting, low temperature cracking, moisture damage and fatigue), and simulating the actual field loading conditions that the material is being exposed to, was conducted. The results proved that the inclusion of rubber into asphalt mixtures improved physical characteristics such as elasticity, flexibility, rebound, aging properties, increased fatigue resistance, and reduced rutting potential. The possibility of coupling the traditional Marshall mix design method with parameters related to mixture behavior and performance was investigated. Also, the SHRP SUPERPAVE mix design methodology was reviewed and considered in this study for the development of an integrated

  6. Statins, cognition, and dementia—systematic review and methodological commentary.

    PubMed

    Power, Melinda C; Weuve, Jennifer; Sharrett, A Richey; Blacker, Deborah; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2015-04-01

    Firm conclusions about whether mid-life or long-term statin use has an impact on cognitive decline and dementia remain elusive. Here, our objective was to systematically review, synthesize and critique the epidemiological literature that examines the relationship between statin use and cognition, so as to assess the current state of knowledge, identify gaps in our understanding, and make recommendations for future research. We summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies, grouped according to study design. We discuss the methods for each, and consider likely sources of bias, such as reverse causation and confounding. Although observational studies that considered statin use at or near the time of dementia diagnosis suggest a protective effect of statins, these findings could be attributable to reverse causation. RCTs and well-conducted observational studies of baseline statin use and subsequent cognition over several years of follow-up do not support a causal preventative effect of late-life statin use on cognitive decline or dementia. Given that much of the human research on statins and cognition in the future will be observational, careful study design and analysis will be essential. PMID:25799928

  7. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  8. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  9. Control/structure interaction design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Layman, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The Control Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts (such as active structure) and new tools (such as a combined structure and control optimization algorithm) and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. The new CSI design methodology is centered around interdisciplinary engineers using new tools that closely integrate structures and controls. Verification is an important CSI theme and analysts will be closely integrated to the CSI Test Bed laboratory. Components, concepts, tools and algorithms will be developed and tested in the lab and in future Shuttle-based flight experiments. The design methodology is summarized in block diagrams depicting the evolution of a spacecraft design and descriptions of analytical capabilities used in the process. The multiyear JPL CSI implementation plan is described along with the essentials of several new tools. A distributed network of computation servers and workstations was designed that will provide a state-of-the-art development base for the CSI technologies.

  10. Systems Thinking and Systematic Methodology: A Semi-Empirical Experience in Support of the ISPI Value Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the ISPI (International Society for Performance Improvement) definition of human performance technology and the need to use performance improvement concepts from other fields focuses on applying systems thinking and systematic methodology from management design. Describes the application of these techniques in teaching a graduate…

  11. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  12. Thermal design methodology for attaching morphing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermiller, Jason M.; Cable, Kristin M.; Hemmelgarn, Christopher D.; Qi, H. Jerry; Castro, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    Seamless skins for morphing vehicles have been demonstrated as feasible but establishing robust fastening methods for morphing skins is one of the next key challenges. Skin materials previously developed by Cornerstone Research Group and others include high-performance, reinforced elastomeric and shape memory polymer (SMP)-based composites. Recent focus has shifted to improving performance and increasing the technology readiness level of these materials. Cycling of recently demonstrated morphing skins has determined that an abrupt interface between rigid and soft materials leads to localized failure at the interface over time. In this paper, a fundamental understanding between skin material properties and transition zone design are combined with advanced modeling techniques. A thermal gradient methodology is simulated to predict performance benefits. Experimental testing and simulations demonstrated improvement in morphing component performance for a uniaxial case. This work continues to advance development to eliminate fastening as the weak link in morphing skin technology and provides tools for use in morphing structure design.

  13. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    PubMed Central

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

  14. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  15. Sketching Designs Using the Five Design-Sheet Methodology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan C; Headleand, Chris; Ritsos, Panagiotis D

    2016-01-01

    Sketching designs has been shown to be a useful way of planning and considering alternative solutions. The use of lo-fidelity prototyping, especially paper-based sketching, can save time, money and converge to better solutions more quickly. However, this design process is often viewed to be too informal. Consequently users do not know how to manage their thoughts and ideas (to first think divergently, to then finally converge on a suitable solution). We present the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology. The methodology enables users to create information visualization interfaces through lo-fidelity methods. Users sketch and plan their ideas, helping them express different possibilities, think through these ideas to consider their potential effectiveness as solutions to the task (sheet 1); they create three principle designs (sheets 2,3 and 4); before converging on a final realization design that can then be implemented (sheet 5). In this article, we present (i) a review of the use of sketching as a planning method for visualization and the benefits of sketching, (ii) a detailed description of the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology, and (iii) an evaluation of the FdS using the System Usability Scale, along with a case-study of its use in industry and experience of its use in teaching.

  16. Lean management in health care: definition, concepts, methodology and effects reported (systematic review protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lean is a set of operating philosophies and methods that help create a maximum value for patients by reducing waste and waits. It emphasizes the consideration of the customer’s needs, employee involvement and continuous improvement. Research on the application and implementation of lean principles in health care has been limited. Methods This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the effects of lean implementation in health care settings especially the potential effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. We have developed a Medline keyword search strategy, and this focused strategy will be translated into other databases. All search strategies will be provided in the review. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, non-randomised controlled trials controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case–control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyse the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low- versus high-quality studies) and the reported types of implementation in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in a tabular form. Discussion Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin the implementation of lean activities in health care settings as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of lean and implementation methodologies reported in health care. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014008853 PMID:25238974

  17. Methodological Considerations in Designing and Evaluating Animal-Assisted Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Cindy; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary There is a growing literature on the benefits of companion animals to human mental and physical health. Despite the literature base, these benefits are not well understood, because of flawed methodologies. This paper draws upon four systematic reviews, focusing exclusively on the use of canine-assisted interventions for older people residing in long-term care. Two guides are offered for researchers, one for qualitative research, one for quantitative studies, in order to improve the empirical basis of knowledge. Research in the area of the human-animal bond and the potential benefits that derive from it can be better promoted with the use of uniform and rigorous methodological approaches. Abstract This paper presents a discussion of the literature on animal-assisted interventions and describes limitations surrounding current methodological quality. Benefits to human physical, psychological and social health cannot be empirically confirmed due to the methodological limitations of the existing body of research, and comparisons cannot validly be made across different studies. Without a solid research base animal-assisted interventions will not receive recognition and acceptance as a credible alternative health care treatment. The paper draws on the work of four systematic reviews conducted over April–May 2009, with no date restrictions, focusing exclusively on the use of canine-assisted interventions for older people residing in long-term care. The reviews revealed a lack of good quality studies. Although the literature base has grown in volume since its inception, it predominantly consists of anecdotal accounts and reports. Experimental studies undertaken are often flawed in aspects of design, conduct and reporting. There are few qualitative studies available leading to the inability to draw definitive conclusions. It is clear that due to the complexities associated with these interventions not all weaknesses can be eliminated. However, there are

  18. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  19. A systematic methodology for selecting decontamination strategies following a biocontamination event.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Paula; Edwards, Donna; Yang, Lynn; Tucker, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Decontamination and recovery of a facility or outdoor area after a wide-area biological incident involving a highly persistent agent (eg, Bacillus anthracis spores) is a complex process that requires extensive information and significant resources, which are likely to be limited, particularly if multiple facilities or areas are affected. This article proposes a systematic methodology for evaluating information to select the decontamination or alternative treatments that optimize use of resources if decontamination is required for the facility or area. The methodology covers a wide range of approaches, including volumetric and surface decontamination, monitored natural attenuation, and seal and abandon strategies. A proposed trade-off analysis can help decision makers understand the relative appropriateness, efficacy, and labor, skill, and cost requirements of the various decontamination methods for the particular facility or area needing treatment--whether alone or as part of a larger decontamination effort. Because the state of decontamination knowledge and technology continues to evolve rapidly, the methodology presented here is designed to accommodate new strategies and materials and changing information. PMID:21823924

  20. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian; Dwan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design. Objective We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews. Methodology We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews. Principal Findings We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63%) Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56%) used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21%) of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32%) trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed. PMID:27409076

  1. New methodology for systematic construction of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Faroughi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Transforming an algorithm, represented by mathematical expressions with uniform and bounded index spaces, into a systolic-array architecture is discussed. Systolic arrays are highly structured architectures tailored to a specific application. They have specific architectural properties such as simple processing elements (cells), simple and regular data and control communication, and local-cell interconnections. The new design method is based on an understanding of the relationship between two highly structured representations of the algorithms: the mathematical expressions and their systolic solutions. The method consists of three major steps: algorithm representation, algorithm model, and architecture specification. The algorithm representation involves the translation of mathematical expressions into a set of equivalent simple computations which are grouped into subsets based on the required set of operations and same type operands. In the algorithm model, the properties of systolic arrays are represented in terms of feature interrelationships. A sub-systolic array is designed separately for each subset of the simple computations. The final array is constructed by joining the sub-systolic arrays. Other architecture specifications, such as data movement and cell count ratio, are determined early in a design process and thus can be used to select systolic solutions that require fewest cells and lowest I/O bandwidth.

  2. Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard P.; Stamp, Jason E.; Eddy, John P.; Henry, Jordan M; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Abdallah, Tarek

    2015-09-30

    Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  3. Enhancing the Front-End Phase of Design Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Erasto

    2006-01-01

    Design methodology (DM) is defined by the procedural path, expressed in design models, and techniques or methods used to untangle the various activities within a design model. Design education in universities is mainly based on descriptive design models. Much knowledge and organization have been built into DM to facilitate design teaching.…

  4. Reporting of results from network meta-analyses: methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Seror, Raphaèle; Ravaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how the results of network meta-analyses are reported. Design Methodological systematic review of published reports of network meta-analyses. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Medline, and Embase, searched from inception to 12 July 2012. Study selection All network meta-analyses comparing the clinical efficacy of three or more interventions in randomised controlled trials were included, excluding meta-analyses with an open loop network of three interventions. Data extraction and synthesis The reporting of the network and results was assessed. A composite outcome included the description of the network (number of interventions, direct comparisons, and randomised controlled trials and patients for each comparison) and the reporting of effect sizes derived from direct evidence, indirect evidence, and the network meta-analysis. Results 121 network meta-analyses (55 published in general journals; 48 funded by at least one private source) were included. The network and its geometry (network graph) were not reported in 100 (83%) articles. The effect sizes derived from direct evidence, indirect evidence, and the network meta-analysis were not reported in 48 (40%), 108 (89%), and 43 (36%) articles, respectively. In 52 reports that ranked interventions, 43 did not report the uncertainty in ranking. Overall, 119 (98%) reports of network meta-analyses did not give a description of the network or effect sizes from direct evidence, indirect evidence, and the network meta-analysis. This finding did not differ by journal type or funding source. Conclusions The results of network meta-analyses are heterogeneously reported. Development of reporting guidelines to assist authors in writing and readers in critically appraising reports of network meta-analyses is timely. PMID:24618053

  5. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers. Results We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results

  6. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  7. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    This program report is the final report covering all the work done on this project. The goal of this project is technology transfer of methodologies to improve design process. The specific objectives are: 1. To learn and understand the Probabilistic design analysis using NESSUS. 2. To assign Design Projects to either undergraduate or graduate students on the application of NESSUS. 3. To integrate the application of NESSUS into some selected senior level courses in Civil and Mechanical Engineering curricula. 4. To develop courseware in Probabilistic Design methodology to be included in a graduate level Design Methodology course. 5. To study the relationship between the Probabilistic design methodology and Axiomatic design methodology.

  8. Methodology for Three Dimensional Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.; Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the selection and methods of analysis for designing a hypersonic scramjet nozzle are discussed. The criteria are based on external and internal flow requirements, related to drag, lift, and pitching moments of the vehicle and thrust of the engine. The steps involved in establishing the criteria are analyzed. Mathematical models of the design procedure are provided.

  9. A prototype computerized synthesis methodology for generic space access vehicle (SAV) conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Today's and especially tomorrow's competitive launch vehicle design environment requires the development of a dedicated generic Space Access Vehicle (SAV) design methodology. A total of 115 industrial, research, and academic aircraft, helicopter, missile, and launch vehicle design synthesis methodologies have been evaluated. As the survey indicates, each synthesis methodology tends to focus on a specific flight vehicle configuration, thus precluding the key capability to systematically compare flight vehicle design alternatives. The aim of the research investigation is to provide decision-making bodies and the practicing engineer a design process and tool box for robust modeling and simulation of flight vehicles where the ultimate performance characteristics may hinge on numerical subtleties. This will enable the designer of a SAV for the first time to consistently compare different classes of SAV configurations on an impartial basis. This dissertation presents the development steps required towards a generic (configuration independent) hands-on flight vehicle conceptual design synthesis methodology. This process is developed such that it can be applied to any flight vehicle class if desired. In the present context, the methodology has been put into operation for the conceptual design of a tourist Space Access Vehicle. The case study illustrates elements of the design methodology & algorithm for the class of Horizontal Takeoff and Horizontal Landing (HTHL) SAVs. The HTHL SAV design application clearly outlines how the conceptual design process can be centrally organized, executed and documented with focus on design transparency, physical understanding and the capability to reproduce results. This approach offers the project lead and creative design team a management process and tool which iteratively refines the individual design logic chosen, leading to mature design methods and algorithms. As illustrated, the HTHL SAV hands-on design methodology offers growth

  10. Design Study Methodology: Reflections from the Trenches and the Stacks.

    PubMed

    Sedlmair, M; Meyer, M; Munzner, T

    2012-12-01

    Design studies are an increasingly popular form of problem-driven visualization research, yet there is little guidance available about how to do them effectively. In this paper we reflect on our combined experience of conducting twenty-one design studies, as well as reading and reviewing many more, and on an extensive literature review of other field work methods and methodologies. Based on this foundation we provide definitions, propose a methodological framework, and provide practical guidance for conducting design studies. We define a design study as a project in which visualization researchers analyze a specific real-world problem faced by domain experts, design a visualization system that supports solving this problem, validate the design, and reflect about lessons learned in order to refine visualization design guidelines. We characterize two axes - a task clarity axis from fuzzy to crisp and an information location axis from the domain expert's head to the computer - and use these axes to reason about design study contributions, their suitability, and uniqueness from other approaches. The proposed methodological framework consists of 9 stages: learn, winnow, cast, discover, design, implement, deploy, reflect, and write. For each stage we provide practical guidance and outline potential pitfalls. We also conducted an extensive literature survey of related methodological approaches that involve a significant amount of qualitative field work, and compare design study methodology to that of ethnography, grounded theory, and action research.

  11. Implicit Shape Parameterization for Kansei Design Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordgren, Andreas Kjell; Aoyama, Hideki

    Implicit shape parameterization for Kansei design is a procedure that use 3D-models, or concepts, to span a shape space for surfaces in the automotive field. A low-dimensional, yet accurate shape descriptor was found by Principal Component Analysis of an ensemble of point-clouds, which were extracted from mesh-based surfaces modeled in a CAD-program. A theoretical background of the procedure is given along with step-by-step instructions for the required data-processing. The results show that complex surfaces can be described very efficiently, and encode design features by an implicit approach that does not rely on error-prone explicit parameterizations. This provides a very intuitive way to explore shapes for a designer, because various design features can simply be introduced by adding new concepts to the ensemble. Complex shapes have been difficult to analyze with Kansei methods due to the large number of parameters involved, but implicit parameterization of design features provides a low-dimensional shape descriptor for efficient data collection, model-building and analysis of emotional content in 3D-surfaces.

  12. A wing design methodology for low-boom low-drag supersonic business jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Daniel B.

    2009-12-01

    The arguably most critical hindrance to the successful development of a commercial supersonic aircraft is the impact of the sonic boom signature. The sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft is predicted using sonic boom theory, which formulates a relationship between the complex three-dimensional geometry of the aircraft to the pressure distribution and decomposes the geometry in terms of simple geometrical components. The supersonic aircraft design process is typically based on boom minimization theory. This theory provides a theoretical equivalent area distribution which should be matched by the conceptual design in order to achieve the pre-determined sonic boom signature. The difference between the target equivalent area distribution and the actual equivalent area distribution is referred to here as the gap distribution. The primary intent of this dissertation is to provide the designer with a systematic and structured approach to designing the aircraft wings with limited changes to the baseline concept while achieving critical design goals. The design process can be easily overwhelmed and may be difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. The wing design is decoupled into two separate processes, one focused on the planform design and the other on the camber design. Moreover, this design methodology supplements the designer by allowing trade studies to be conducted between important design parameters and objectives. The wing planform design methodology incorporates a continuous gradient-based optimization scheme to supplement the design process. This is not meant to substitute the vast amount of knowledge and design decisions that are needed for a successful design. Instead, the numerical optimization helps the designer to refine creative concepts. Last, this dissertation integrates a risk mitigation scheme throughout the wing design process. The design methodology implements minimal design changes to the wing geometry white achieving the target design goal

  13. Philosophical and Methodological Beliefs of Instructional Design Faculty and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Michael D.; Johnson, R. Burke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to probe the philosophical beliefs of instructional designers using sound philosophical constructs and quantitative data collection and analysis. We investigated the philosophical and methodological beliefs of instructional designers, including 152 instructional design faculty members and 118 non-faculty…

  14. Experimental Validation of an Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1996-01-01

    The first experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of large order, flexible space structures is described. Integrated redesign of the controls-structures-interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, was described earlier. The redesigned structure was fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally tested against the original structure. Experimental results indicate that the structure redesigned using the integrated design methodology requires significantly less average control power than the nominal structure with control-optimized designs, while maintaining the required line-of-sight pointing performance. Thus, the superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is experimentally demonstrated. Furthermore, amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. Using Linear-Quadratic-Guassian optimal dissipative controllers, it is observed that the redesigned structure leads to significantly improved performance with alternate controllers as well.

  15. Investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews: a methodologic review of guidance in the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While there is some consensus on methods for investigating statistical and methodological heterogeneity, little attention has been paid to clinical aspects of heterogeneity. The objective of this study is to summarize and collate suggested methods for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews. Methods We searched databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and CONSORT, to December 2010) and reference lists and contacted experts to identify resources providing suggestions for investigating clinical heterogeneity between controlled clinical trials included in systematic reviews. We extracted recommendations, assessed resources for risk of bias, and collated the recommendations. Results One hundred and one resources were collected, including narrative reviews, methodological reviews, statistical methods papers, and textbooks. These resources generally had a low risk of bias, but there was minimal consensus among them. Resources suggested that planned investigations of clinical heterogeneity should be made explicit in the protocol of the review; clinical experts should be included on the review team; a set of clinical covariates should be chosen considering variables from the participant level, intervention level, outcome level, research setting, or others unique to the research question; covariates should have a clear scientific rationale; there should be a sufficient number of trials per covariate; and results of any such investigations should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions Though the consensus was minimal, there were many recommendations in the literature for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews. Formal recommendations for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews of controlled trials are required. PMID:22846171

  16. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  17. Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic-related systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Aziz, T; Compton, S; Nassar, U; Matthews, D; Ansari, K; Flores-Mir, C

    2013-04-01

    Ideally, healthcare systematic reviews (SRs) should be beneficial to practicing professionals in making evidence-based clinical decisions. However, the conclusions drawn from SRs are directly related to the quality of the SR and of the included studies. The aim was to investigate the methodological quality and key descriptive characteristics of SRs published in prosthodontics. Methodological quality was analysed using the Assessment of Multiple Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Several electronic resources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and American Dental Association's Evidence-based Dentistry website) were searched. In total 106 SRs were located. Key descriptive characteristics and methodological quality features were gathered and assessed, and descriptive and inferential statistical testing performed. Most SRs in this sample originated from the European continent followed by North America. Two to five authors conducted most SRs; the majority was affiliated with academic institutions and had prior experience publishing SRs. The majority of SRs were published in specialty dentistry journals, with implant or implant-related topics, the primary topics of interest for most. According to AMSTAR, most quality aspects were adequately fulfilled by less than half of the reviews. Publication bias and grey literature searches were the most poorly adhered components. Overall, the methodological quality of the prosthodontic-related systematic was deemed limited. Future recommendations would include authors to have prior training in conducting SRs and for journals to include a universal checklist that should be adhered to address all key characteristics of an unbiased SR process.

  18. A Methodology for the Neutronics Design of Space Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    A methodology for the neutronics design of space power reactors is presented. This methodology involves balancing the competing requirements of having sufficient excess reactivity for the desired lifetime, keeping the reactor subcritical at launch and during submersion accidents, and providing sufficient control over the lifetime of the reactor. These requirements are addressed by three reactivity values for a given reactor design: the excess reactivity at beginning of mission, the negative reactivity at shutdown, and the negative reactivity margin in submersion accidents. These reactivity values define the control worth and the safety worth in submersion accidents, used for evaluating the merit of a proposed reactor type and design. The Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters space reactor core design is evaluated and modified based on the proposed methodology. The final reactor core design has sufficient excess reactivity for 10 years of nominal operation at 1.82 MW of fission power and is subcritical at launch and in all water submersion accidents.

  19. A Methodology for the Neutronics Design of Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-01

    A methodology for the neutronics design of space power reactors is presented. This methodology involves balancing the competing requirements of having sufficient excess reactivity for the desired lifetime, keeping the reactor subcritical at launch and during submersion accidents, and providing sufficient control over the lifetime of the reactor. These requirements are addressed by three reactivity values for a given reactor design: the excess reactivity at beginning of mission, the negative reactivity at shutdown, and the negative reactivity margin in submersion accidents. These reactivity values define the control worth and the safety worth in submersion accidents, used for evaluating the merit of a proposed reactor type and design. The Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters space reactor core design is evaluated and modified based on the proposed methodology. The final reactor core design has sufficient excess reactivity for 10 years of nominal operation at 1.82 MW of fission power and is subcritical at launch and in all water submersion accidents.

  20. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    It would be fair to say that in the past few decades, theory and computer modeling have played a major role in elucidating the microscopic factors that dictate the properties of functional novel materials. Together with advances in experimental techniques, theoretical methods are becoming increasingly capable of predicting properties of materials at different length scales, thereby bringing in sight the long-sought goal of designing material properties according to need. Advances in computer technology and their availability at a reasonable cost around the world have made tit all the more urgent to disseminate what is now known about these modern computational techniques. In this special issue on computational methodologies for materials by design we have tried to solicit articles from authors whose works collectively represent the microcosm of developments in the area. This turned out to be a difficult task for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is space limitation in this special issue. Nevertheless, we gathered twenty articles that represent some of the important directions in which theory and modeling are proceeding in the general effort to capture the ability to produce materials by design. The majority of papers presented here focus on technique developments that are expected to uncover further the fundamental processes responsible for material properties, and for their growth modes and morphological evolutions. As for material properties, some of the articles here address the challenges that continue to emerge from attempts at accurate descriptions of magnetic properties, of electronically excited states, and of sparse matter, all of which demand new looks at density functional theory (DFT). I should hasten to add that much of the success in accurate computational modeling of materials emanates from the remarkable predictive power of DFT, without which we would not be able to place the subject on firm theoretical grounds. As we know and will also

  1. Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

  2. A methodological survey of the analysis, reporting and interpretation of Absolute Risk ReductiOn in systematic revieWs (ARROW): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians, providers and guideline panels use absolute effects to weigh the advantages and downsides of treatment alternatives. Relative measures have the potential to mislead readers. However, little is known about the reporting of absolute measures in systematic reviews. The objectives of our study are to determine the proportion of systematic reviews that report absolute measures of effect for the most important outcomes, and ascertain how they are analyzed, reported and interpreted. Methods/design We will conduct a methodological survey of systematic reviews published in 2010. We will conduct a 1:1 stratified random sampling of Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane systematic reviews. We will calculate the proportion of systematic reviews reporting at least one absolute estimate of effect for the most patient-important outcome for the comparison of interest. We will conduct multivariable logistic regression analyses with the reporting of an absolute estimate of effect as the dependent variable and pre-specified study characteristics as the independent variables. For systematic reviews reporting an absolute estimate of effect, we will document the methods used for the analysis, reporting and interpretation of the absolute estimate. Discussion Our methodological survey will inform current practices regarding reporting of absolute estimates in systematic reviews. Our findings may influence recommendations on reporting, conduct and interpretation of absolute estimates. Our results are likely to be of interest to systematic review authors, funding agencies, clinicians, guideline developers and journal editors. PMID:24330779

  3. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  4. Methodological Innovation in Practice-Based Design Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Joyce S. R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a selective review of recent design PhDs that identify and analyse the methodological innovation that is occurring in the field, in order to inform future provision of research training. Six recently completed design PhDs are used to highlight possible philosophical and practical models that can be adopted by future PhD…

  5. Application of an Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control Design to a STOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane

    1994-01-01

    An advanced methodology for integrated flight propulsion control (IFPC) design for future aircraft, which will use propulsion system generated forces and moments for enhanced maneuver capabilities, is briefly described. This methodology has the potential to address in a systematic manner the coupling between the airframe and the propulsion subsystems typical of such enhanced maneuverability aircraft. Application of the methodology to a short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft in the landing approach to hover transition flight phase is presented with brief description of the various steps in the IFPC design methodology. The details of the individual steps have been described in previous publications and the objective of this paper is to focus on how the components of the control system designed at each step integrate into the overall IFPC system. The full nonlinear IFPC system was evaluated extensively in nonreal-time simulations as well as piloted simulations. Results from the nonreal-time evaluations are presented in this paper. Lessons learned from this application study are summarized in terms of areas of potential improvements in the STOVL IFPC design as well as identification of technology development areas to enhance the applicability of the proposed design methodology.

  6. Fast detection of manufacturing systematic design pattern failures causing device yield loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Denmat, Jean-Christophe; Feldman, Nelly; Riewer, Olivia; Yesilada, Emek; Vallet, Michel; Suzor, Christophe; Talluto, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    Starting from the 45nm technology node, systematic defectivity has a significant impact on device yield loss with each new technology node. The effort required to achieve patterning maturity with zero yield detractor is also significantly increasing with technology nodes. Within the manufacturing environment, new in-line wafer inspection methods have been developed to identify device systematic defects, including the process window qualification (PWQ) methodology used to characterize process robustness. Although patterning is characterized with PWQ methodology, some questions remain: How can we demonstrate that the measured process window is large enough to avoid design-based defects which will impact the device yield? Can we monitor the systematic yield loss on nominal wafers? From device test engineering point of view, systematic yield detractors are expected to be identified by Automated Test Pattern Generator (ATPG) test results diagnostics performed after electrical wafer sort (EWS). Test diagnostics can identify failed nets or cells causing systematic yield loss [1],[2]. Convergence from device failed nets and cells to failed manufacturing design pattern are usually based on assumptions that should be confirmed by an electrical failure analysis (EFA). However, many EFA investigations are required before the design pattern failures are found, and thus design pattern failure identification was costly in time and resources. With this situation, an opportunity to share knowledge exists between device test engineering and manufacturing environments to help with device yield improvement. This paper presents a new yield diagnostics flow dedicated to correlation of critical design patterns detected within manufacturing environment, with the observed device yield loss. The results obtained with this new flow on a 28nm technology device are described, with the defects of interest and the device yield impact for each design pattern. The EFA done to validate the design

  7. Application of Systematic Review Methodology to the Field of Nutrition12

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Lau, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach to synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas, and formulate scientific consensus statements. The use of systematic reviews for nutrition-related topics is more recent. Systematic reviews provide independently conducted comprehensive and objective assessments of available information addressing precise questions. This approach to summarizing available data is a useful tool for identifying the state of science including knowledge gaps and associated research needs, supporting development of science-based recommendations and guidelines, and serving as the foundation for updates as new data emerge. Our objective is to describe the steps for performing systematic reviews and highlight areas unique to the discipline of nutrition that are important to consider in data assessment. The steps involved in generating systematic reviews include identifying staffing and planning for outside expert input, forming a research team, developing an analytic framework, developing and refining research questions, defining eligibility criteria, identifying search terms, screening abstracts according to eligibility criteria, retrieving articles for evaluation, constructing evidence and summary tables, assessing methodological quality and applicability, and synthesizing results including performing meta-analysis, if appropriate. Unique and at times challenging, nutrition-related considerations include baseline nutrient exposure, nutrient status, bioequivalence of bioactive compounds, bioavailability, multiple and interrelated biological functions, undefined nature of some interventions, and uncertainties in intake assessment. Systematic reviews are a valuable and independent component of decision-making processes by groups responsible for developing science-based recommendations

  8. A methodology for designing aircraft to low sonic boom constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Needleman, Kathy E.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing conceptual supersonic cruise aircraft to meet low sonic boom requirements is outlined and described. The aircraft design is guided through a systematic evolution from initial three view drawing to a final numerical model description, while the designer using the method controls the integration of low sonic boom, high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, adequate low speed handling, and reasonable structure and materials technologies. Some experience in preliminary aircraft design and in the use of various analytical and numerical codes is required for integrating the volume and lift requirements throughout the design process.

  9. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 1: Introduction and methodology.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Ann Marie; Mitchell, Laura

    2014-11-01

    This clinical systematic review of and evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus were developed by a physician volunteer task force. They are provided as an educational tool based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information as well as accepted approaches to treatment. They are not intended to be a fixed protocol, because some patients may require more or less treatment. In Part 1, the authors introduce the reader to the complex topic of hydrocephalus and the lack of consensus on its appropriate treatment. The authors describe the development of the Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force charged with reviewing the literature and recommending treatments for hydrocephalus, and they set out the basic methodology used throughout the specific topics covered in later chapters.

  10. Methodologies for measuring travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Shruti; Régner, Isabelle; Brouqui, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies in the past have stressed the importance of travelers' psychology and perception in the implementation of preventive measures. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the methodologies used in studies reporting on travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases. A systematic search for relevant literature was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There were 39 studies identified. In 35 of 39 studies, the methodology used was that of a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey based on questionnaires. One study used a combination of questionnaires and a visual psychometric measuring instrument called the 'pictorial representation of illness and self-measurement" or PRISM. One study used a self-representation model (SRM) method. Two studies measured psychosocial factors. Valuable information was obtained from KAP surveys showing an overall lack of knowledge among travelers about the most frequent travel-associated infections and associated preventive measures. This methodological approach however, is mainly descriptive, addressing knowledge, attitudes, and practices separately and lacking an examination of the interrelationships between these three components. Another limitation of the KAP method is underestimating psychosocial variables that have proved influential in health related behaviors, including perceived benefits and costs of preventive measures, perceived social pressure, perceived personal control, unrealistic optimism and risk propensity. Future risk perception studies in travel medicine should consider psychosocial variables with inferential and multivariate statistical analyses. The use of implicit measurements of attitudes could also provide new insights in the field of travelers' risk perception of travel-associated infectious diseases. PMID:27238906

  11. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  12. A design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty: Application to nonlinear controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G.

    1982-01-01

    A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.

  13. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  14. Quantum circuit physical design methodology with emphasis on physical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Naser; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    In our previous works, we have introduced the concept of "physical synthesis" as a method to consider the mutual effects of quantum circuit synthesis and physical design. While physical synthesis can involve various techniques to improve the characteristics of the resulting quantum circuit, we have proposed two techniques (namely gate exchanging and auxiliary qubit selection) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical synthesis. However, the previous contributions focused mainly on the physical synthesis concept, and the techniques were proposed only as a proof of concept. In this paper, we propose a methodological framework for physical synthesis that involves all previously proposed techniques along with a newly introduced one (called auxiliary qubit insertion). We will show that the entire flow can be seen as one monolithic methodology. The proposed methodology is analyzed using a large set of benchmarks. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology decreases the average latency of quantum circuits by about 36.81 % for the attempted benchmarks.

  15. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a

  16. Prognostics and health management design for rotary machinery systems—Reviews, methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay; Wu, Fangji; Zhao, Wenyu; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Linxia; Siegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in prognostics and health management (PHM), an emerging field in mechanical engineering that is gaining interest from both academia and industry. Most of these efforts have been in the area of machinery PHM, resulting in the development of many algorithms for this particular application. The majority of these algorithms concentrate on applications involving common rotary machinery components, such as bearings and gears. Knowledge of this prior work is a necessity for any future research efforts to be conducted; however, there has not been a comprehensive overview that details previous and on-going efforts in PHM. In addition, a systematic method for developing and deploying a PHM system has yet to be established. Such a method would enable rapid customization and integration of PHM systems for diverse applications. To address these gaps, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the PHM field, followed by an introduction of a systematic PHM design methodology, 5S methodology, for converting data to prognostics information. This methodology includes procedures for identifying critical components, as well as tools for selecting the most appropriate algorithms for specific applications. Visualization tools are presented for displaying prognostics information in an appropriate fashion for quick and accurate decision making. Industrial case studies are included in this paper to show how this methodology can help in the design of an effective PHM system.

  17. Implementation of Probabilistic Design Methodology at Tennessee State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere

    1996-01-01

    Engineering Design is one of the most important areas in engineering education. Deterministic Design Methodology (DDM) is the only design method that is taught in most engineering schools. This method does not give a direct account of uncertainties in design parameters. Hence, it is impossible to quantify the uncertainties in the response and the actual safety margin remains unknown. The desire for a design methodology tha can identify the primitive (random) variables that affect the structural behavior has led to a growing interest on Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). This method is gaining more recognition in industries than in educational institutions. Some of the reasons for the limited use of the PDM at the moment are that many are unaware of its potentials, and most of the software developed for PDM are very recent. The central goal of the PDM project at Tennessee State University is to introduce engineering students to the method. The students participating in the project learn about PDM and the computer codes that are available to the design engineer. The software being used of this project is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) developed under NASA probabilistic structural analysis program. NESSUS has three different modules which make it a very comprehensive computer code for PDM. A research in technology transfer through course offering in PDM is in effect a Tennessee State University. The aim is to familiarize students with the problem of uncertainties in engineering design. Included in the paper are some projects on PDM carried out by some students and faculty. The areas this method is being applied at the moment include, Design of Gears (spur and worm); Design of Shafts; Design of Statistically Indeterminate Frame Structures; Design of Helical Springs; and Design of Shock Absorbers. Some of the current results of these projects are presented.

  18. A Practical Methodology for Quantifying Random and Systematic Components of Unexplained Variance in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard; Obara, Clifford J.; Goodman, Wesley L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents a check standard wind tunnel test conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3M TCT) that was designed and analyzed using the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE). The test designed to partition the unexplained variance of typical wind tunnel data samples into two constituent components, one attributable to ordinary random error, and one attributable to systematic error induced by covariate effects. Covariate effects in wind tunnel testing are discussed, with examples. The impact of systematic (non-random) unexplained variance on the statistical independence of sequential measurements is reviewed. The corresponding correlation among experimental errors is discussed, as is the impact of such correlation on experimental results generally. The specific experiment documented herein was organized as a formal test for the presence of unexplained variance in representative samples of wind tunnel data, in order to quantify the frequency with which such systematic error was detected, and its magnitude relative to ordinary random error. Levels of systematic and random error reported here are representative of those quantified in other facilities, as cited in the references.

  19. Probabilistic Based Design Methodology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-05-01

    A probabilistic-based component design methodology is developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This method takes into account the randomness in SOFC material properties as well as the stresses arising from different manufacturing and operating conditions. The purpose of this work is to provide the SOFC designers a design methodology such that desired level of component reliability can be achieved with deterministic design functions using an equivalent safety factor to account for the uncertainties in material properties and structural stresses. Multi-physics-based finite element analyses were used to predict the electrochemical and thermal mechanical responses of SOFC stacks with different geometric variations and under different operating conditions. Failures in the anode and the seal were used as design examples. The predicted maximum principal stresses in the anode and the seal were compared with the experimentally determined strength characteristics for the anode and the seal respectively. Component failure probabilities for the current design were then calculated under different operating conditions. It was found that anode failure probability is very low under all conditions examined. The seal failure probability is relatively high, particularly for high fuel utilization rate under low average cell temperature. Next, the procedures for calculating the equivalent safety factors for anode and seal were demonstrated such that uniform failure probability of the anode and seal can be achieved. Analysis procedures were also included for non-normal distributed random variables such that more realistic distributions of strength and stress can be analyzed using the proposed design methodology.

  20. Extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfeldt, Bradley A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    The extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology is examined. This analysis is approached from a computational cost and accuracy perspective. The sensitivity of the solution's computational cost is examined by analysing effects such as the number of design variables, nonlinearity of the CAs, and nonlinearity of the response in addition to several potential complexity metrics. Relative to traditional robust design methods, the linear rapid robust design methodology scaled better with the size of the problem and had performance that exceeded the traditional techniques examined. The accuracy of applying a method with linear fundamentals to nonlinear problems was examined. It is observed that if the magnitude of nonlinearity is less than 1000 times that of the nominal linear response, the error associated with applying successive linearization will result in ? errors in the response less than 10% compared to the full nonlinear error.

  1. Impact of rehabilitation on self-concept following traumatic brain injury: An exploratory systematic review of intervention methodology and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Haslam, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To date, reviews of rehabilitation efficacy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have overlooked the impact on sense of self, focusing instead on functional impairment and psychological distress. The present review sought to address this gap by critically appraising the methodology and efficacy of intervention studies that assess changes in self-concept. A systematic search of PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL and PubMed was conducted from inception to September 2013 to identify studies reporting pre- and post-intervention changes on validated measures of self-esteem or self-concept in adults with TBI. Methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 17 studies (10 RCTs, 4 non-RCT group studies, 3 case studies) was identified, which examined the impact of psychotherapy, family-based support, cognitive rehabilitation or activity-based interventions on self-concept. The findings on the efficacy of these interventions were mixed, with only 10 studies showing some evidence of improvement in self-concept based on within-group or pre-post comparisons. Such findings highlight the need for greater focus on the impact of rehabilitation on self-understanding with improved assessment and intervention methodology. We draw upon theories of identity reconstruction and highlight implications for the design and evaluation of identity-oriented interventions that can supplement existing rehabilitation programmes for people with TBI.

  2. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  3. Chicken or Egg? Communicative Methodology or Communicative Syllabus Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalden, Janice

    A consensus has emerged on many issues in communicative language teaching, but one question that needs attention is the question of what ought to constitute the appropriate starting point in the design and implementation of a second language program. Two positions to consider are the following: first, the development of communicative methodology,…

  4. Systematic review of foodborne burden of disease studies: quality assessment of data and methodology.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Polinder, Suzanne; Stein, Claudia E; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-08-16

    Burden of disease (BoD) studies aim to identify the public health impact of different health problems and risk factors. To assess BoD, detailed knowledge is needed on epidemiology, disability and mortality in the population under study. This is particularly challenging for foodborne disease, because of the multitude of causative agents and their health effects. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the methodology of foodborne BoD studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1) which data sources and approaches were used to assess mortality, morbidity and disability?, 2) which methodological choices were made to calculate Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), and 3) were uncertainty analyses performed and if so, how? Studies (1990-June 2012) in international peer-reviewed journals and grey literature were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed disability adjusted life years related to foodborne disease. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. To assess incidence or prevalence of foodborne disease in the population, four approaches could be distinguished, each using a different data source as a starting point, namely 1) laboratory-confirmed cases, 2) cohort or cross-sectional data, 3) syndrome surveillance data and 4) exposure data. Considerable variation existed in BoD methodology (e.g. disability weights, discounting, age-weighting). Almost all studies analyzed the effect of uncertainty as a result of possible imprecision in the parameter values. Awareness of epidemiological and methodological rigor between foodborne BoD studies using the DALY approach is a critical priority for advancing burden of disease studies. Harmonization of methodology that is used and of modeling techniques and high quality data can enlarge the detection of real variation in DALY outcomes between pathogens, between populations or over time. This harmonization can be achieved by identifying substantial data gaps and uncertainty and

  5. A computer simulator for development of engineering system design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program designed to simulate and improve engineering system design methodology is described. The simulator mimics the qualitative behavior and data couplings occurring among the subsystems of a complex engineering system. It eliminates the engineering analyses in the subsystems by replacing them with judiciously chosen analytical functions. With the cost of analysis eliminated, the simulator is used for experimentation with a large variety of candidate algorithms for multilevel design optimization to choose the best ones for the actual application. Thus, the simulator serves as a development tool for multilevel design optimization strategy. The simulator concept, implementation, and status are described and illustrated with examples.

  6. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 1: simulation methodology, design applications, and TORMIS computer code. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and risk has been assessed for a hypothetical nuclear power plant design case study.

  7. Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys.

    PubMed

    Fewster, R M

    2011-12-01

    In spatial surveys for estimating the density of objects in a survey region, systematic designs will generally yield lower variance than random designs. However, estimating the systematic variance is well known to be a difficult problem. Existing methods tend to overestimate the variance, so although the variance is genuinely reduced, it is over-reported, and the gain from the more efficient design is lost. The current approaches to estimating a systematic variance for spatial surveys are to approximate the systematic design by a random design, or approximate it by a stratified design. Previous work has shown that approximation by a random design can perform very poorly, while approximation by a stratified design is an improvement but can still be severely biased in some situations. We develop a new estimator based on modeling the encounter process over space. The new "striplet" estimator has negligible bias and excellent precision in a wide range of simulation scenarios, including strip-sampling, distance-sampling, and quadrat-sampling surveys, and including populations that are highly trended or have strong aggregation of objects. We apply the new estimator to survey data for the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and find that the reported coefficient of variation for estimated density is 20% using approximation by a random design, 17% using approximation by a stratified design, and 11% using the new striplet estimator. This large reduction in reported variance is verified by simulation. PMID:21534940

  8. Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys.

    PubMed

    Fewster, R M

    2011-12-01

    In spatial surveys for estimating the density of objects in a survey region, systematic designs will generally yield lower variance than random designs. However, estimating the systematic variance is well known to be a difficult problem. Existing methods tend to overestimate the variance, so although the variance is genuinely reduced, it is over-reported, and the gain from the more efficient design is lost. The current approaches to estimating a systematic variance for spatial surveys are to approximate the systematic design by a random design, or approximate it by a stratified design. Previous work has shown that approximation by a random design can perform very poorly, while approximation by a stratified design is an improvement but can still be severely biased in some situations. We develop a new estimator based on modeling the encounter process over space. The new "striplet" estimator has negligible bias and excellent precision in a wide range of simulation scenarios, including strip-sampling, distance-sampling, and quadrat-sampling surveys, and including populations that are highly trended or have strong aggregation of objects. We apply the new estimator to survey data for the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and find that the reported coefficient of variation for estimated density is 20% using approximation by a random design, 17% using approximation by a stratified design, and 11% using the new striplet estimator. This large reduction in reported variance is verified by simulation.

  9. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    It would be fair to say that in the past few decades, theory and computer modeling have played a major role in elucidating the microscopic factors that dictate the properties of functional novel materials. Together with advances in experimental techniques, theoretical methods are becoming increasingly capable of predicting properties of materials at different length scales, thereby bringing in sight the long-sought goal of designing material properties according to need. Advances in computer technology and their availability at a reasonable cost around the world have made tit all the more urgent to disseminate what is now known about these modern computational techniques. In this special issue on computational methodologies for materials by design we have tried to solicit articles from authors whose works collectively represent the microcosm of developments in the area. This turned out to be a difficult task for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is space limitation in this special issue. Nevertheless, we gathered twenty articles that represent some of the important directions in which theory and modeling are proceeding in the general effort to capture the ability to produce materials by design. The majority of papers presented here focus on technique developments that are expected to uncover further the fundamental processes responsible for material properties, and for their growth modes and morphological evolutions. As for material properties, some of the articles here address the challenges that continue to emerge from attempts at accurate descriptions of magnetic properties, of electronically excited states, and of sparse matter, all of which demand new looks at density functional theory (DFT). I should hasten to add that much of the success in accurate computational modeling of materials emanates from the remarkable predictive power of DFT, without which we would not be able to place the subject on firm theoretical grounds. As we know and will also

  10. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  11. Are we talking the same paradigm? Considering methodological choices in health education systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For the past two decades, there have been calls for medical education to become more evidence-based. Whilst previous works have described how to use such methods, there are no works discussing when or why to select different methods from either a conceptual or pragmatic perspective. This question is not to suggest the superiority of such methods, but that having a clear rationale to underpin such choices is key and should be communicated to the reader of such works. Our goal within this manuscript is to consider the philosophical alignment of these different review and synthesis modalities and how this impacts on their suitability to answer different systematic review questions within health education. The key characteristic of a systematic review that should impact the synthesis choice is discussed in detail. By clearly defining this and the related outcome expected from the review and for educators who will receive this outcome, the alignment will become apparent. This will then allow deployment of an appropriate methodology that is fit for purpose and will indeed justify the significant work needed to complete a systematic. Key items discussed are the positivist synthesis methods meta-analysis and content analysis to address questions in the form of ‘whether and what’ education is effective. These can be juxtaposed with the constructivist aligned thematic analysis and meta-ethnography to address questions in the form of ‘why’. The concept of the realist review is also considered. It is proposed that authors of such work should describe their research alignment and the link between question, alignment and evidence synthesis method selected. The process of exploring the range of modalities and their alignment highlights gaps in the researcher’s arsenal. Future works are needed to explore the impact of such changes in writing from authors of medical education systematic review. PMID:27007488

  12. A robust optimization methodology for preliminary aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, S.; Maréchal, P.; Rondepierre, A.; Druot, T.; Belleville, M.

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on a robust optimization of an aircraft preliminary design under operational constraints. According to engineers' know-how, the aircraft preliminary design problem can be modelled as an uncertain optimization problem whose objective (the cost or the fuel consumption) is almost affine, and whose constraints are convex. It is shown that this uncertain optimization problem can be approximated in a conservative manner by an uncertain linear optimization program, which enables the use of the techniques of robust linear programming of Ben-Tal, El Ghaoui, and Nemirovski [Robust Optimization, Princeton University Press, 2009]. This methodology is then applied to two real cases of aircraft design and numerical results are presented.

  13. Extending Design Science Research Methodology for a Multicultural World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Carl; Tuunanen, Tuure; Myers, Michael D.

    Design science research (DSR) is a relatively new approach in information systems research. A fundamental tenet of DSR is that understanding comes from creating information technology artifacts. However, with an increasingly connected and globalized world, designing IT artifacts for a multicultural world is a challenge. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to propose extending the DSR methodology by integrating critical ethnography to the evaluation phase. Critical ethnography provides a way for IS researchers using DSR to better understand culture, and may help to ensure that IT artifacts are designed for a variety of cultural contexts.

  14. Qualitative systematic reviews of treatment burden in stroke, heart failure and diabetes - Methodological challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment burden can be defined as the self-care practices that patients with chronic illness must perform to respond to the requirements of their healthcare providers, as well as the impact that these practices have on patient functioning and well being. Increasing levels of treatment burden may lead to suboptimal adherence and negative outcomes. Systematic review of the qualitative literature is a useful method for exploring the patient experience of care, in this case the experience of treatment burden. There is no consensus on methods for qualitative systematic review. This paper describes the methodology used for qualitative systematic reviews of the treatment burdens identified in three different common chronic conditions, using stroke as our exemplar. Methods Qualitative studies in peer reviewed journals seeking to understand the patient experience of stroke management were sought. Limitations of English language and year of publication 2000 onwards were set. An exhaustive search strategy was employed, consisting of a scoping search, database searches (Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline & PsycINFO) and reference, footnote and citation searching. Papers were screened, data extracted, quality appraised and analysed by two individuals, with a third party for disagreements. Data analysis was carried out using a coding framework underpinned by Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Results A total of 4364 papers were identified, 54 were included in the review. Of these, 51 (94%) were retrieved from our database search. Methodological issues included: creating an appropriate search strategy; investigating a topic not previously conceptualised; sorting through irrelevant data within papers; the quality appraisal of qualitative research; and the use of NPT as a novel method of data analysis, shown to be a useful method for the purposes of this review. Conclusion The creation of our search strategy may be of particular interest to other researchers carrying out

  15. [Systematization of types and methods of radiotherapy, methods and methodology of irradiating patients].

    PubMed

    Vaĭnberg, M Sh

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the principles of systematization and classification of radiation therapy, approaches to the regulation of its terminology. They are based on the distinction of the concepts of radiation therapy and irradiation of patients. The author gives a concise historical review of improvement of the methodology of radiation therapy in the course of developing of its methods and facilities. Problems of terminology are under discussion. There is a table of types and methods of radiation therapy, methods and techniques of irradiation. In the appendices one can find a table of typical legends and examples of graphic signs to denote methods of irradiation. Potentialities of a practical use of the system are described.

  16. [Nursing care systematization according to the nurses' view: a methodological approach based on grounded theory].

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Ana Lúcia; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; de Cabral, Rômulo Wanderley Lima

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at understanding, from the nurses' perspective, the experience of going through the Systematization of nursing care (SNC) in an obstetric service unit. We used grounded theory as the theoretical and methodological framework. The subjects of this study consisted of thirteen nurses from a public hospital in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. The data analysis resulted in the following phenomenon. "perceiving SNC as a working method that organizes, directs and improves the quality of care by bringing visibility and providing security for the nursing staff" The nurses expressed the extent of knowledge about the SNC experienced in obstetrics as well as considered the nursing process as a decision-making process, which guides the reasoning of nurses in the planning of nursing care in obstetrics. It was concluded that nurses perceive the SNC as an instrument of theoretical-practical articulation leading to personalized assistance.

  17. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  18. Development of a Design Methodology for Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; McLean, C.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of flight control systems that exhibit stability and performance-robustness in the presence of actuator failures. The design is based upon two elements. The first element consists of a control law that will ensure at least stability in the presence of a class of actuator failures. This law is created by inner-loop, reduced-order, linear dynamic inversion, and outer-loop compensation based upon Quantitative Feedback Theory. The second element consists of adaptive compensators obtained from simple and approximate time-domain identification of the dynamics of the 'effective vehicle' with failed actuator(s). An example involving the lateral-directional control of a fighter aircraft is employed both to introduce the proposed methodology and to demonstrate its effectiveness and limitations.

  19. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  20. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  1. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies. Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory’ and 'highly desirable’ standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard

  2. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  3. Power processing methodology. [computerized design of spacecraft electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, K. A.; Hansen, I. G.; Hayden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the interim results of a program to investigate the feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems. The object of the total program is to develop a flexible engineering tool which will allow the power processor designer to effectively and rapidly assess and analyze the tradeoffs available by providing, in one comprehensive program, a mathematical model, an analysis of expected performance, simulation, and a comparative evaluation with alternative designs. This requires an understanding of electrical power source characteristics and the effects of load control, protection, and total system interaction.

  4. Optimal input design for aircraft instrumentation systematic error estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for designing optimal flight test inputs for accurate estimation of instrumentation systematic errors was developed and demonstrated. A simulation model of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the optimal input compared to input recorded during flight test. Instrumentation systematic error parameter estimates and their standard errors were compared. It was found that the optimal input design improved error parameter estimates and their accuracies for a fixed time input design. Pilot acceptability of the optimal input design was demonstrated using a six degree-of-freedom fixed base piloted simulation of the F-18 HARV. The technique described in this work provides a practical, optimal procedure for designing inputs for data compatibility experiments.

  5. When Playing Meets Learning: Methodological Framework for Designing Educational Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Schwarz, Daniel; Bopp, Matthias; Albert, Dietrich

    Game-based learning builds upon the idea of using the motivational potential of video games in the educational context. Thus, the design of educational games has to address optimizing enjoyment as well as optimizing learning. Within the EC-project ELEKTRA a methodological framework for the conceptual design of educational games was developed. Thereby state-of-the-art psycho-pedagogical approaches were combined with insights of media-psychology as well as with best-practice game design. This science-based interdisciplinary approach was enriched by enclosed empirical research to answer open questions on educational game-design. Additionally, several evaluation-cycles were implemented to achieve further improvements. The psycho-pedagogical core of the methodology can be summarized by the ELEKTRA's 4Ms: Macroadaptivity, Microadaptivity, Metacognition, and Motivation. The conceptual framework is structured in eight phases which have several interconnections and feedback-cycles that enable a close interdisciplinary collaboration between game design, pedagogy, cognitive science and media psychology.

  6. Acceptance testing for PACS: from methodology to design to implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    Acceptance Testing (AT) is a crucial step in the implementation process of a PACS within a clinical environment. AT determines whether the PACS is ready for clinical use and marks the official sign off of the PACS product. Most PACS vendors have Acceptance Testing (AT) plans, however, these plans do not provide a complete and robust evaluation of the full system. In addition, different sites will have different special requirements that vendor AT plans do not cover. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a protocol for AT design and present case studies of AT performed on clinical PACS. A methodology is presented that includes identifying testing components within PACS, quality assurance for both functionality and performance, and technical testing focusing on key single points-of-failure within the PACS product. Tools and resources that provide assistance in performing AT are discussed. In addition, implementation of the AT within the clinical environment and the overall implementation timeline of the PACS process are presented. Finally, case studies of actual AT of clinical PACS performed in the healthcare environment will be reviewed. The methodology for designing and implementing a robust AT plan for PACS was documented and has been used in PACS acceptance tests in several sites. This methodology can be applied to any PACS and can be used as a validation for the PACS product being acquired by radiology departments and hospitals. A methodology for AT design and implementation was presented that can be applied to future PACS installations. A robust AT plan for a PACS installation can increase both the utilization and satisfaction of a successful implementation of a PACS product that benefits both vendor and customer.

  7. Implementation of probabilistic design methodology at Tennessee State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere

    1995-01-01

    The fact that Deterministic Design Method no longer satisfies most design needs calls for methods that will cope with the high trend in technology. The advance in computer technology has reduced the rigors that normally accompany many design analysis methods that account for uncertainties in design parameters. Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM) is beginning to make impact in engineering design. This method is gaining more recognition in industries than in educational institutions. Some of the reasons for the limited use of the PDM at the moment are that many are unaware of its potentials, and most of the software developed for PDM are very recent. The central goal of the PDM project at Tennessee State University is to introduce engineering students to this method. The students participating in the project learn about PDM and the computer codes that are available to the design engineer. The software being used for this project is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) developed under NASA probabilistic structural analysis program. NESSUS has three different modules which make it a very comprehensive computer code for PDM. Since this method is new to the students, its introduction into the engineering curriculum is to be in stages. These range from the introduction of PDM and its software to the applications. While this program is being developed for its eventual inclusion into the engineering curriculum, some graduate and undergraduate students are already carrying out some projects using this method. As the students are increasing their understanding on PDM, they are at the same time applying it to some common design problems. The areas this method is being applied at the moment include, Design of Gears (spur and worm); Design of Brakes; Design of Heat Exchangers Design of Helical Springs; and Design of Shock Absorbers. Some of the current results of these projects are presented.

  8. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  9. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  10. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials.

  11. Behavioral headache research: methodologic considerations and research design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hursey, Karl G; Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; Nash, Justin M; Nicholson, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral headache treatments have garnered solid empirical support in recent years, but there is substantial opportunity to strengthen the next generation of studies with improved methods and consistency across studies. Recently, Guidelines for Trials of Behavioral Treatments for Recurrent Headache were published to facilitate the production of high-quality research. The present article compliments the guidelines with a discussion of methodologic and research design considerations. Since there is no research design that is applicable in every situation, selecting an appropriate research design is fundamental to producing meaningful results. Investigators in behavioral headache and other areas of research consider the developmental phase of the research, the principle objectives of the project, and the sources of error or alternative interpretations in selecting a design. Phases of clinical trials typically include pilot studies, efficacy studies, and effectiveness studies. These trials may be categorized as primarily pragmatic or explanatory. The most appropriate research designs for these different phases and different objectives vary on such characteristics as sample size and assignment to condition, types of control conditions, periods or frequency of measurement, and the dimensions along which comparisons are made. A research design also must fit within constraints on available resources. There are a large number of potential research designs that can be used and considering these characteristics allows selection of appropriate research designs.

  12. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  13. Designs and Methods in School Improvement Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhoff, Tobias; Radisch, Falk; Bischof, Linda Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on challenges faced by longitudinal quantitative analyses of school improvement processes and offers a systematic literature review of current papers that use longitudinal analyses. In this context, the authors assessed designs and methods that are used to analyze the relation between school…

  14. Aircraft conceptual design - an adaptable parametric sizing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Gary John, Jr.

    Aerospace is a maturing industry with successful and refined baselines which work well for traditional baseline missions, markets and technologies. However, when new markets (space tourism) or new constrains (environmental) or new technologies (composite, natural laminar flow) emerge, the conventional solution is not necessarily best for the new situation. Which begs the question "how does a design team quickly screen and compare novel solutions to conventional solutions for new aerospace challenges?" The answer is rapid and flexible conceptual design Parametric Sizing. In the product design life-cycle, parametric sizing is the first step in screening the total vehicle in terms of mission, configuration and technology to quickly assess first order design and mission sensitivities. During this phase, various missions and technologies are assessed. During this phase, the designer is identifying design solutions of concepts and configurations to meet combinations of mission and technology. This research undertaking contributes the state-of-the-art in aircraft parametric sizing through (1) development of a dedicated conceptual design process and disciplinary methods library, (2) development of a novel and robust parametric sizing process based on 'best-practice' approaches found in the process and disciplinary methods library, and (3) application of the parametric sizing process to a variety of design missions (transonic, supersonic and hypersonic transports), different configurations (tail-aft, blended wing body, strut-braced wing, hypersonic blended bodies, etc.), and different technologies (composite, natural laminar flow, thrust vectored control, etc.), in order to demonstrate the robustness of the methodology and unearth first-order design sensitivities to current and future aerospace design problems. This research undertaking demonstrates the importance of this early design step in selecting the correct combination of mission, technologies and configuration to

  15. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n = 1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n = 1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n = 4); (3) dental shape and size (n = 5); (4) dental angulation and position (n = 2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n = 1); and (6) dental shape (n = 1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n = 9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n = 4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved. PMID:25398633

  16. The uniqueness of the human dentition as forensic evidence: a systematic review on the technological methodology.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Thevissen, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The uniqueness of human dentition is routinely approached as identification evidence in forensic odontology. Specifically in bitemark and human identification cases, positive identifications are obtained under the hypothesis that two individuals do not have the same dental features. The present study compiles methodological information from articles on the uniqueness of human dentition to support investigations into the mentioned hypothesis. In April 2014, three electronic library databases (SciELO®, MEDLINE®/PubMed®, and LILACS®) were systematically searched. In parallel, reference lists of relevant studies were also screened. From the obtained articles (n = 1235), 13 full-text articles were considered eligible. They were examined according to the studied parameters: the sample size, the number of examined teeth, the registration technique for data collection, the methods for data analysis, and the study outcomes. Six combinations of studied data were detected: (1) dental shape, size, angulation, and position (n = 1); (2) dental shape, size, and angulation (n = 4); (3) dental shape and size (n = 5); (4) dental angulation and position (n = 2); (5) dental shape and angulation (n = 1); and (6) dental shape (n = 1). The sample size ranged between 10 and 1099 human dentitions. Ten articles examined the six anterior teeth, while three articles examined more teeth. Four articles exclusively addressed three-dimensional (3D) data registration, while six articles used two-dimensional (2D) imaging. In three articles, both imaging registrations were combined. Most articles (n = 9) explored the data using landmark placement. The other articles (n = 4) comprised digital comparison of superimposed dental contours. Although there were large methodological variations within the investigated articles, the uniqueness of human dentition remains unproved.

  17. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  18. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  19. Unified methodology for fire safety assessment and optimal design

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, N.K.; Deaves, D.M.; Gierlinski, J.T.; Dogliani, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a unified, fully-probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology has been developed by integrating Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) techniques with the modern methods of Structural System Reliability Analysis (SRA) and Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). The integration has been achieved by using platform-specific extended event-trees which model in detail the escalation paths leading to the failure of Temporary Refuge (TR), Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) systems or structural collapse of the topside. Probabilities of events for which historical data are not generally available are calculated using structural reliability methods. The optimization of fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system and the cost of failure of the platform (loss of life, loss of asset, environmental damage) is minimized while satisfying reliability constraints.

  20. Fast underdetermined BSS architecture design methodology for real time applications.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Suresh; Reddy, P Sreenivasa; Acharyya, Amit; Naik, Ganesh R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a high speed architecture design methodology for the Under-determined Blind Source Separation (UBSS) algorithm using our recently proposed high speed Discrete Hilbert Transform (DHT) targeting real time applications. In UBSS algorithm, unlike the typical BSS, the number of sensors are less than the number of the sources, which is of more interest in the real time applications. The DHT architecture has been implemented based on sub matrix multiplication method to compute M point DHT, which uses N point architecture recursively and where M is an integer multiples of N. The DHT architecture and state of the art architecture are coded in VHDL for 16 bit word length and ASIC implementation is carried out using UMC 90 - nm technology @V DD = 1V and @ 1MHZ clock frequency. The proposed architecture implementation and experimental comparison results show that the DHT design is two times faster than state of the art architecture. PMID:26737514

  1. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  2. Clinical Research Methodology 1: Study Designs and Methodologic Sources of Error.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I; Imrey, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Clinical research can be categorized by the timing of data collection: retrospective or prospective. Clinical research also can be categorized by study design. In case-control studies, investigators compare previous exposures (including genetic and other personal factors, environmental influences, and medical treatments) among groups distinguished by later disease status (broadly defined to include the development of disease or response to treatment). In cohort studies, investigators compare subsequent incidences of disease among groups distinguished by one or more exposures. Comparative clinical trials are prospective cohort studies that compare treatments assigned to patients by the researchers. Most errors in clinical research findings arise from 5 largely distinguishable classes of methodologic problems: selection bias, confounding, measurement bias, reverse causation, and excessive chance variation.

  3. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    The structural design, or the design of machine elements, has been traditionally based on deterministic design methodology. The deterministic method considers all design parameters to be known with certainty. This methodology is, therefore, inadequate to design complex structures that are subjected to a variety of complex, severe loading conditions. A nonlinear behavior that is dependent on stress, stress rate, temperature, number of load cycles, and time is observed on all components subjected to complex conditions. These complex conditions introduce uncertainties; hence, the actual factor of safety margin remains unknown. In the deterministic methodology, the contingency of failure is discounted; hence, there is a use of a high factor of safety. It may be most useful in situations where the design structures are simple. The probabilistic method is concerned with the probability of non-failure performance of structures or machine elements. It is much more useful in situations where the design is characterized by complex geometry, possibility of catastrophic failure, sensitive loads and material properties. Also included: Comparative Study of the use of AGMA Geometry Factors and Probabilistic Design Methodology in the Design of Compact Spur Gear Set.

  4. A design methodology for biologically inspired dry fibrillar adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksak, Burak

    Realization of the unique aspects of gecko adhesion and incorporating these aspects into a comprehensive design methodology is essential to enable fabrication of application oriented gecko-inspired dry fibrillar adhesives. To address the need for such a design methodology, we propose a fibrillar adhesion model that evaluates the effect of fiber dimensions and material on adhesive performance of fiber arrays. A fibrillar adhesion model is developed to predict the adhesive characteristics of an array of fibrillar structures, and quantify the effect of fiber length, radius, spacing, and material. Photolithography techniques were utilized to fabricate elastomer microfiber arrays. Fibers that are fabricated from stiff SU-8 photoresist are used to fabricate a flexible negative mold that facilitates fabrication of fiber arrays from various elastomers with high yield. The tips of the cylindrical fibers are modified to mushroom-like tip shapes. Adhesive strengths in excess of 100 kPa is obtained with mushroom tipped elastomer microfibers. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are utilized as enhanced friction materials by partially embedding inside soft polyurethanes. Friction coefficients up to 1 were repeatedly obtained from the resulting VACNF composite structures. A novel fabrication method is used to attach Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) molecular brush-like structures on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These brushes are grown on unstructured PDMS and PDMS fibers with mushroom tips. Pull-off force is enhanced by up to 7 times with PBA brush grafted micro-fiber arrays over unstructured PDMS substrate. Adhesion model, initially developed for curved smooth surfaces, is extended to self-affine fractal surfaces to better reflect the adhesion performance of fiber arrays on natural surfaces. Developed adhesion model for fiber arrays is used in an optimization scheme which estimates optimal design parameters to obtain maximum adhesive strength on a given

  5. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    PubMed

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  6. A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

  7. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula.

  8. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27303124

  9. Systematic search for major genes in schizophrenia: Methodological issues and results from chromosome 12

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.; Powell, J.F.; Sham, P.

    1995-10-09

    We describe a method of systematically searching for major genes in disorders of unknown mode of inheritance, using linkage analysis. Our method is designed to minimize the probability of missing linkage due to inadequate exploration of data. We illustrate this method with the results of a search for a locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 12 using 22 highly polymorphic markers in 23 high density pedigrees. The markers span approximately 85-90% of the chromosome and are on average 9.35 cM apart. We have analysed the data using the most plausible current genetic models and allowing for the presence of genetic heterogeneity. None of the markers was supportive of linkage and the distribution of the heterogeneity statistics was in accordance with the null hypothesis. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. [Based on evidence to establish reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis: a methodology discussion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Ya-Li; Yang, Ke-Hu; Guo, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Existing reporting guidelines for systematic reviews/Meta-analysis (SRs/MAs) cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice and scientific research, so based on evidence, methods and thoughts on establishing reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis were proposed. Through literature analysis, according to evidence-based principle, preliminary ideas on methodology of establishing reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews /Meta-analysis were proposed. With consensus as one main research method, it was proposed that in the consensus that was selected and established by experts, the pro- portion of Chinese scholars should be increased to fully declare the opinions of Chinese acupuncturists, and by verification of practice and application, the reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis can be finally made.

  11. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  12. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal experiments for the design of preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Wever, Kimberley E; Avey, Marc T; Stephens, Martin L; Sena, Emily S; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified.

  13. A design methodology for portable software on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Miller, Keith W.; Chrisman, Dan A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report for research that was supported by grant number NAG-1-995 documents our progress in addressing two difficulties in parallel programming. The first difficulty is developing software that will execute quickly on a parallel computer. The second difficulty is transporting software between dissimilar parallel computers. In general, we expect that more hardware-specific information will be included in software designs for parallel computers than in designs for sequential computers. This inclusion is an instance of portability being sacrificed for high performance. New parallel computers are being introduced frequently. Trying to keep one's software on the current high performance hardware, a software developer almost continually faces yet another expensive software transportation. The problem of the proposed research is to create a design methodology that helps designers to more precisely control both portability and hardware-specific programming details. The proposed research emphasizes programming for scientific applications. We completed our study of the parallelizability of a subsystem of the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data processing system. This work is summarized in section two. A more detailed description is provided in Appendix A ('Programming Practices to Support Eventual Parallelism'). Mr. Chrisman, a graduate student, wrote and successfully defended a Ph.D. dissertation proposal which describes our research associated with the issues of software portability and high performance. The list of research tasks are specified in the proposal. The proposal 'A Design Methodology for Portable Software on Parallel Computers' is summarized in section three and is provided in its entirety in Appendix B. We are currently studying a proposed subsystem of the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data processing system. This software is the proof-of-concept for the Ph.D. dissertation. We have implemented and measured

  14. Sonic Boom Mitigation Through Aircraft Design and Adjoint Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Siriam K.; Diskin, Boris; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to design of the supersonic aircraft outer mold line (OML) by optimizing the A-weighted loudness of sonic boom signature predicted on the ground. The optimization process uses the sensitivity information obtained by coupling the discrete adjoint formulations for the augmented Burgers Equation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) equations. This coupled formulation links the loudness of the ground boom signature to the aircraft geometry thus allowing efficient shape optimization for the purpose of minimizing the impact of loudness. The accuracy of the adjoint-based sensitivities is verified against sensitivities obtained using an independent complex-variable approach. The adjoint based optimization methodology is applied to a configuration previously optimized using alternative state of the art optimization methods and produces additional loudness reduction. The results of the optimizations are reported and discussed.

  15. Bond energy analysis revisited and designed toward a rigorous methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Hiromi; Ohashi, Hideaki; Imamura, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yasuaki

    2011-09-01

    The present study theoretically revisits and numerically assesses two-body energy decomposition schemes including a newly proposed one. The new decomposition scheme is designed to make the equilibrium bond distance equivalent with the minimum point of bond energies. Although the other decomposition schemes generally predict the wrong order of the C-C bond strengths of C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6, the new decomposition scheme is capable of reproducing the C-C bond strengths. Numerical assessment on a training set of molecules demonstrates that the present scheme exhibits a stronger correlation with bond dissociation energies than the other decomposition schemes do, which suggests that the new decomposition scheme is a reliable and powerful analysis methodology.

  16. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  17. A novel methodology for building robust design rules by using design based metrology (DBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myeongdong; Choi, Seiryung; Choi, Jinwoo; Kim, Jeahyun; Sung, Hyunju; Yeo, Hyunyoung; Shim, Myoungseob; Jin, Gyoyoung; Chung, Eunseung; Roh, Yonghan

    2013-03-01

    This paper addresses a methodology for building robust design rules by using design based metrology (DBM). Conventional method for building design rules has been using a simulation tool and a simple pattern spider mask. At the early stage of the device, the estimation of simulation tool is poor. And the evaluation of the simple pattern spider mask is rather subjective because it depends on the experiential judgment of an engineer. In this work, we designed a huge number of pattern situations including various 1D and 2D design structures. In order to overcome the difficulties of inspecting many types of patterns, we introduced Design Based Metrology (DBM) of Nano Geometry Research, Inc. And those mass patterns could be inspected at a fast speed with DBM. We also carried out quantitative analysis on PWQ silicon data to estimate process variability. Our methodology demonstrates high speed and accuracy for building design rules. All of test patterns were inspected within a few hours. Mass silicon data were handled with not personal decision but statistical processing. From the results, robust design rules are successfully verified and extracted. Finally we found out that our methodology is appropriate for building robust design rules.

  18. Design of integrated pitch axis for autopilot/autothrottle and integrated lateral axis for autopilot/yaw damper for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.; Coleman, Edward E.; Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.

    1990-01-01

    Two designs are presented for control systems for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV) using integral Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methodology. The first is an integrated longitudinal autopilot/autothrottle design and the second design is an integrated lateral autopilot/yaw damper/sideslip controller design. It is shown that a systematic top-down approach to a complex design problem combined with proper application of modern control synthesis techniques yields a satisfactory solution in a reasonable period of time.

  19. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  20. An NAFP Project: Use of Object Oriented Methodologies and Design Patterns to Refactor Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    In the early problem-solution era of software programming, functional decompositions were mainly used to design and implement software solutions. In functional decompositions, functions and data are introduced as two separate entities during the design phase, and are followed as such in the implementation phase. Functional decompositions make use of refactoring through optimizing the algorithms, grouping similar functionalities into common reusable functions, and using abstract representations of data where possible; all these are done during the implementation phase. This paper advocates the usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns as the centerpieces of refactoring software solutions. Refactoring software is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its external functionalities. The combined usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns to refactor should also benefit the overall software life cycle cost with improved software.

  1. The Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology: A Rigorous and Transparent Method for Translating Environmental Health Science into Better Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthesizing what is known about the environmental drivers of health is instrumental to taking prevention-oriented action. Methods of research synthesis commonly used in environmental health lag behind systematic review methods developed in the clinical sciences over the past 20 years. Objectives: We sought to develop a proof of concept of the “Navigation Guide,” a systematic and transparent method of research synthesis in environmental health. Discussion: The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include a prespecified protocol, standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment, a comprehensive search strategy, assessment of “risk of bias,” and separation of the science from values and preferences. Key points of departure from evidence-based medicine include assigning a “moderate” quality rating to human observational studies and combining diverse evidence streams. Conclusions: The Navigation Guide methodology is a systematic and rigorous approach to research synthesis that has been developed to reduce bias and maximize transparency in the evaluation of environmental health information. Although novel aspects of the method will require further development and validation, our findings demonstrated that improved methods of research synthesis under development at the National Toxicology Program and under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are fully achievable. The institutionalization of robust methods of systematic and transparent review would provide a concrete mechanism for linking science to timely action to prevent harm. Citation: Woodruff TJ, Sutton P. 2014. The Navigation Guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into

  2. Optimizing drug delivery systems using systematic "design of experiments." Part I: fundamental aspects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Kumar, Rajiv; Ahuja, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    Design of an impeccable drug delivery product normally encompasses multiple objectives. For decades, this task has been attempted through trial and error, supplemented with the previous experience, knowledge, and wisdom of the formulator. Optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation or process using this traditional approach involves changing one variable at a time. Using this methodology, the solution of a specific problematic formulation characteristic can certainly be achieved, but attainment of the true optimal composition is never guaranteed. And for improvement in one characteristic, one has to trade off for degeneration in another. This customary approach of developing a drug product or process has been proved to be not only uneconomical in terms of time, money, and effort, but also unfavorable to fix errors, unpredictable, and at times even unsuccessful. On the other hand, the modern formulation optimization approaches, employing systematic Design of Experiments (DoE), are extensively practiced in the development of diverse kinds of drug delivery devices to improve such irregularities. Such systematic approaches are far more advantageous, because they require fewer experiments to achieve an optimum formulation, make problem tracing and rectification quite easier, reveal drug/polymer interactions, simulate the product performance, and comprehend the process to assist in better formulation development and subsequent scale-up. Optimization techniques using DoE represent effective and cost-effective analytical tools to yield the "best solution" to a particular "problem." Through quantification of drug delivery systems, these approaches provide a depth of understanding as well as an ability to explore and defend ranges for formulation factors, where experimentation is completed before optimization is attempted. The key elements of a DoE optimization methodology encompass planning the study objectives, screening of influential variables, experimental designs

  3. Architectural Exploration and Design Methodologies of Photonic Interconnection Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jong Wu

    Photonic technology is becoming an increasingly attractive solution to the problems facing today's electronic chip-scale interconnection networks. Recent progress in silicon photonics research has enabled the demonstration of all the necessary optical building blocks for creating extremely high-bandwidth density and energy-efficient links for on- and off-chip communications. From the feasibility and architecture perspective however, photonics represents a dramatic paradigm shift from traditional electronic network designs due to fundamental differences in how electronics and photonics function and behave. As a result of these differences, new modeling and analysis methods must be employed in order to properly realize a functional photonic chip-scale interconnect design. In this work, we present a methodology for characterizing and modeling fundamental photonic building blocks which can subsequently be combined to form full photonic network architectures. We also describe a set of tools which can be utilized to assess the physical-layer and system-level performance properties of a photonic network. The models and tools are integrated in a novel open-source design and simulation environment called PhoenixSim. Next, we leverage PhoenixSim for the study of chip-scale photonic networks. We examine several photonic networks through the synergistic study of both physical-layer metrics and system-level metrics. This holistic analysis method enables us to provide deeper insight into architecture scalability since it considers insertion loss, crosstalk, and power dissipation. In addition to these novel physical-layer metrics, traditional system-level metrics of bandwidth and latency are also obtained. Lastly, we propose a novel routing architecture known as wavelength-selective spatial routing. This routing architecture is analogous to electronic virtual channels since it enables the transmission of multiple logical optical channels through a single physical plane (i.e. the

  4. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  5. SysSon - A Framework for Systematic Sonification Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Goudarzi, Visda; Holger Rutz, Hanns

    2015-04-01

    SysSon is a research approach on introducing sonification systematically to a scientific community where it is not yet commonly used - e.g., in climate science. Thereby, both technical and socio-cultural barriers have to be met. The approach was further developed with climate scientists, who participated in contextual inquiries, usability tests and a workshop of collaborative design. Following from these extensive user tests resulted our final software framework. As frontend, a graphical user interface allows climate scientists to parametrize standard sonifications with their own data sets. Additionally, an interactive shell allows to code new sonifications for users competent in sound design. The framework is a standalone desktop application, available as open source (for details see http://sysson.kug.ac.at/) and works with data in NetCDF format.

  6. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Irwin, C K; Yoon, K J; Wang, C; Hoff, S J; Zimmerman, J J; Denagamage, T; O'Connor, A M

    2011-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design. PMID:21148699

  7. Using the Systematic Review Methodology To Evaluate Factors That Influence the Persistence of Influenza Virus in Environmental Matrices▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, C. K.; Yoon, K. J.; Wang, C.; Hoff, S. J.; Zimmerman, J. J.; Denagamage, T.; O'Connor, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design. PMID:21148699

  8. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Irwin, C K; Yoon, K J; Wang, C; Hoff, S J; Zimmerman, J J; Denagamage, T; O'Connor, A M

    2011-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design.

  9. New systematic methodology for incorporating dynamic heat transfer modelling in multi-phase biochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new modelling methodology for dynamically predicting the heat produced or consumed in the transformations of any biological reactor using Hess's law. Starting from a complete description of model components stoichiometry and formation enthalpies, the proposed modelling methodology has integrated successfully the simultaneous calculation of both the conventional mass balances and the enthalpy change of reaction in an expandable multi-phase matrix structure, which facilitates a detailed prediction of the main heat fluxes in the biochemical reactors. The methodology has been implemented in a plant-wide modelling methodology in order to facilitate the dynamic description of mass and heat throughout the plant. After validation with literature data, as illustrative examples of the capability of the methodology, two case studies have been described. In the first one, a predenitrification-nitrification dynamic process has been analysed, with the aim of demonstrating the easy integration of the methodology in any system. In the second case study, the simulation of a thermal model for an ATAD has shown the potential of the proposed methodology for analysing the effect of ventilation and influent characterization. PMID:24852412

  10. New systematic methodology for incorporating dynamic heat transfer modelling in multi-phase biochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new modelling methodology for dynamically predicting the heat produced or consumed in the transformations of any biological reactor using Hess's law. Starting from a complete description of model components stoichiometry and formation enthalpies, the proposed modelling methodology has integrated successfully the simultaneous calculation of both the conventional mass balances and the enthalpy change of reaction in an expandable multi-phase matrix structure, which facilitates a detailed prediction of the main heat fluxes in the biochemical reactors. The methodology has been implemented in a plant-wide modelling methodology in order to facilitate the dynamic description of mass and heat throughout the plant. After validation with literature data, as illustrative examples of the capability of the methodology, two case studies have been described. In the first one, a predenitrification-nitrification dynamic process has been analysed, with the aim of demonstrating the easy integration of the methodology in any system. In the second case study, the simulation of a thermal model for an ATAD has shown the potential of the proposed methodology for analysing the effect of ventilation and influent characterization.

  11. Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah

    An integrated design and optimization methodology has been developed for the conceptual design of an aircraft. The methodology brings higher fidelity Computer Aided Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD, CAE and CAM) Tools such as CATIA, FLUENT, ANSYS and SURFCAM into the conceptual design by utilizing Excel as the integrator and controller. The approach is demonstrated to integrate with many of the existing low to medium fidelity codes such as the aerodynamic panel code called CMARC and sizing and constraint analysis codes, thus providing the multi-fidelity capabilities to the aircraft designer. The higher fidelity design information from the CAD and CAE tools for the geometry, aerodynamics, structural and environmental performance is provided for the application of the structured design methods such as the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Pugh's Method. The higher fidelity tools bring the quantitative aspects of a design such as precise measurements of weight, volume, surface areas, center of gravity (CG) location, lift over drag ratio, and structural weight, as well as the qualitative aspects such as external geometry definition, internal layout, and coloring scheme early in the design process. The performance and safety risks involved with the new technologies can be reduced by modeling and assessing their impact more accurately on the performance of the aircraft. The methodology also enables the design and evaluation of the novel concepts such as the blended (BWB) and the hybrid wing body (HWB) concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) allow verification of the claims for the performance gains in aerodynamics and ascertain risks of structural failure due to different pressure distribution in the fuselage as compared with the tube and wing design. The higher fidelity aerodynamics and structural models can lead to better cost estimates that help reduce the financial risks as well. This helps in

  12. A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology with application to autoland design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1987-01-01

    A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology was developed. The objective of the feedforward control law is to track the commanded trajectory, whereas the feedback control law tries to maintain the plant state near the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties about the plant. The feedforward control law design is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem and is embedded into the stochastic output feedback problem where the plant contains unstable and uncontrollable modes. An algorithm to compute the optimal feedforward is developed. In this approach, the use of error integral feedback, dynamic compensation, control rate command structures are an integral part of the methodology. An incremental implementation is recommended. Results on the eigenvalues of the implemented versus designed control laws are presented. The stochastic feedforward/feedback control methodology is used to design a digital automatic landing system for the ATOPS Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100 aircraft. The system control modes include localizer and glideslope capture and track, and flare to touchdown. Results of a detailed nonlinear simulation of the digital control laws, actuator systems, and aircraft aerodynamics are presented.

  13. Methodology for the optimal design of an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant combined with power cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Rami; Gomez, Adrien; Saint-Antonin, Valérie; Schweitzer, Jean-Marc; Maréchal, François

    2016-08-01

    The application of methodologies for the optimal design of integrated processes has seen increased interest in literature. This article builds on previous works and applies a systematic methodology to an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant with power cogeneration. The methodology breaks into process simulation, heat integration, thermo-economic evaluation, exergy efficiency vs. capital costs, multi-variable, evolutionary optimization, and process selection via profitability maximization. Optimization generated Pareto solutions with exergy efficiency ranging between 39.2% and 44.4% and capital costs from 210M$ to 390M$. The Net Present Value was positive for only two scenarios and for low efficiency, low hydrolysis points. The minimum cellulosic ethanol selling price was sought to obtain a maximum NPV of zero for high efficiency, high hydrolysis alternatives. The obtained optimal configuration presented maximum exergy efficiency, hydrolyzed bagasse fraction, capital costs and ethanol production rate, and minimum cooling water consumption and power production rate. PMID:27160954

  14. Q-methodology: a systematic approach to assessing learners in palliative care education.

    PubMed

    Gaebler-Uhing, Charlene

    2003-06-01

    Q-methodology is a qualitative research method that has increasingly been used to identify the complex attributes and behaviors that impact learning within medicine. Because learners bring a lifetime of experiences, values, and beliefs to a palliative care education, this method is ideal for identifying the typology of learner's present, thus making it possible to adapt the palliative care curriculum to meet the identified needs of each subgroup of learners. A step-by-step overview of the methodology using an example from pediatric graduate medical education illustrates the process. Potential uses of Q-methodology in palliative care are outlined including its application to the assessment of affective learning competencies, before and after a palliative care curriculum. The development of a universal palliative care education Q-sample, a collection of subjective opinion statements reflecting the spectrum of opinions on the topic, would advance the use of the Q-methodology in palliative medicine education.

  15. A Synergy between the Technological Process and a Methodology for Web Design: Implications for Technological Problem Solving and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakovljevic, Maria; Ankiewicz, Piet; De swardt, Estelle; Gross, Elna

    2004-01-01

    Traditional instructional methodology in the Information System Design (ISD) environment lacks explicit strategies for promoting the cognitive skills of prospective system designers. This contributes to the fragmented knowledge and low motivational and creative involvement of learners in system design tasks. In addition, present ISD methodologies,…

  16. Risk of bias and methodological appraisal practices in systematic reviews published in anaesthetic journals: a meta-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Detweiler, B N; Kollmorgen, L E; Umberham, B A; Hedin, R J; Vassar, B M

    2016-08-01

    The validity of primary study results included in systematic reviews plays an important role in drawing conclusions about intervention effectiveness and carries implications for clinical decision-making. We evaluated the prevalence of methodological quality and risk of bias assessments in systematic reviews published in the five highest-ranked anaesthesia journals since 2007. The initial PubMed search yielded 315 citations, and our final sample after screening consisted of 207 systematic reviews. One hundred and seventy-four reviews conducted methodological quality/risk of bias analyses. The Jadad scale was most frequently used. Forty-four of the 83 reviews that included high risk of bias studies re-analysed their data omitting these trials: 20 showed differences in pooled effect estimates. Reviews containing a greater number of primary studies evaluated quality less frequently than smaller reviews. Overall, the majority of reviews evaluated bias; however, many applied questionable methods. Given the potential effects of bias on summary outcomes, greater attention is warranted.

  17. A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

  18. Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey

    PubMed Central

    Anouti, Sirine; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicts of interest may bias the findings of systematic reviews. The objective of this methodological survey was to assess the frequency and different types of conflicts of interest that authors of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews report. Methods We searched for systematic reviews using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid MEDLINE (limited to the 119 Core Clinical Journals and the year 2015). We defined a conflict of interest disclosure as the reporting of whether a conflict of interest exists or not, and used a framework to classify conflicts of interest into individual (financial, professional and intellectual) and institutional (financial and advocatory) conflicts of interest. We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Results Of the 200 systematic reviews, 194 (97%) reported authors' conflicts of interest disclosures, typically in the main document, and in a few cases either online (2%) or on request (5%). Of the 194 Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, 49% and 33%, respectively, had at least one author reporting any type of conflict of interest (p=0.023). Institutional conflicts of interest were less frequently reported than individual conflicts of interest, and Cochrane reviews were more likely to report individual intellectual conflicts of interest compared with non-Cochrane reviews (19% and 5%, respectively, p=0.004). Regression analyses showed a positive association between reporting of conflicts of interest (at least one type of conflict of interest, individual financial conflict of interest, institutional financial conflict of interest) and journal impact factor and between reporting individual financial conflicts of interest and pharmacological versus non-pharmacological intervention. Conclusions Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest

  19. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  20. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare. PMID:24626368

  1. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    PubMed

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  2. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization

    PubMed Central

    Adly, Amr A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K.

    2014-01-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper. PMID:26257939

  3. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  4. Methodological criteria for the assessment of moderators in systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials: a consensus study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current methodological guidelines provide advice about the assessment of sub-group analysis within RCTs, but do not specify explicit criteria for assessment. Our objective was to provide researchers with a set of criteria that will facilitate the grading of evidence for moderators, in systematic reviews. Method We developed a set of criteria from methodological manuscripts (n = 18) using snowballing technique, and electronic database searches. Criteria were reviewed by an international Delphi panel (n = 21), comprising authors who have published methodological papers in this area, and researchers who have been active in the study of sub-group analysis in RCTs. We used the Research ANd Development/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness method to assess consensus on the quantitative data. Free responses were coded for consensus and disagreement. In a subsequent round additional criteria were extracted from the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook, and the process was repeated. Results The recommendations are that meta-analysts report both confirmatory and exploratory findings for sub-groups analysis. Confirmatory findings must only come from studies in which a specific theory/evidence based a-priori statement is made. Exploratory findings may be used to inform future/subsequent trials. However, for inclusion in the meta-analysis of moderators, the following additional criteria should be applied to each study: Baseline factors should be measured prior to randomisation, measurement of baseline factors should be of adequate reliability and validity, and a specific test of the interaction between baseline factors and interventions must be presented. Conclusions There is consensus from a group of 21 international experts that methodological criteria to assess moderators within systematic reviews of RCTs is both timely and necessary. The consensus from the experts resulted in five criteria divided into two groups when synthesising evidence: confirmatory

  5. Design methodology of the strength properties of medical knitted meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczyk, Z.; Walkowska, A.

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important utility properties of medical knitted meshes intended for hernia and urological treatment is their bidirectional strength along the courses and wales. The value of this parameter, expected by the manufacturers and surgeons, is estimated at 100 N per 5 cm of the sample width. The most frequently, these meshes are produced on the basis of single- or double-guide stitches. They are made of polypropylene and polyester monofilament yarns with the diameter in the range from 0.6 to 1.2 mm, characterized by a high medical purity. The aim of the study was to develop the design methodology of meshes strength based on the geometrical construction of the stitch and strength of yarn. In the environment of the ProCAD warpknit 5 software the simulated stretching process of meshes together with an analysis of their geometry changes was carried out. Simulations were made for four selected representative stitches. Both on a built, unique measuring position and on the tensile testing machine the real parameters of the loops geometry of meshes were measured. Model of mechanical stretching of warp-knitted meshes along the courses and wales was developed. The thesis argument was made, that the force that breaks the loop of warp-knitted fabric is the lowest value of breaking forces of loop link yarns or yarns that create straight sections of loop. This thesis was associate with the theory of strength that uses the “the weakest link concept”. Experimental verification of model was carried out for the basic structure of the single-guide mesh. It has been shown that the real, relative strength of the mesh related to one course is equal to the strength of the yarn breakage in a loop, while the strength along the wales is close to breaking strength of a single yarn. In relation to the specific construction of the medical mesh, based on the knowledge of the density of the loops structure, the a-jour mesh geometry and the yarns strength, it is possible, with high

  6. Design guided data analysis for summarizing systematic pattern defects and process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qian; Venkatachalam, Panneerselvam; Lee, Julie; Chen, Zhijin; Zafar, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    As the semiconductor process technology moves into more advanced nodes, design and process induced systematic defects become increasingly significant yield limiters. Therefore, early detection of these defects is crucial. Focus Exposure Matrix (FEM) and Process Window Qualification (PWQ) are routine methods for discovering systematic patterning defects and establishing the lithography process window. These methods require the stepper to expose a reticle onto the wafer at various focus and exposure settings (also known as modulations). The wafer is subsequently inspected by a bright field, broadband plasma or an E-Beam Inspection tool using a high sensitivity inspection recipe (i.e. hot scan) that often reports a million or more defects. Analyzing this vast stream of data to identify the weak patterns and arrive at the optimal focus/exposure settings requires a significant amount of data reduction through aggressive sampling and nuisance filtering schemes. However, these schemes increase alpha risk, i.e. the probability of not catching some systematic or otherwise important defects within a modulation and thus reporting that modulation as a good condition for production wafers. In order to reduce this risk and establish a more accurate process window, we describe a technique that introduces image-and-design integration methodologies into the inspection data analysis workflow. These image-and-design integration methodologies include contour extraction and alignment to design, contour-to-design defect detection, defective/nuisance pattern retrieval, confirmed defective/nuisance pattern overlay with inspection data, and modulation-related weak-pattern ranking. The technique we present provides greater automation, from defect detection to defective pattern retrieval to decision-making steps, that allows for statistically summarized results and increased coverage of the wafer to be achieved without an adverse impact on cycle time. Statistically summarized results, lead

  7. A systematic review and analysis of factors associated with methodological quality in laparoscopic randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Stavros Athanasios; Andreou, Alexandros; Antoniou, George Athanasios; Bertsias, Antonios; Köhler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for assessment of methodological quality in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been developed during the past few years. Factors associated with quality in laparoscopic surgery have not been defined till date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bibliometric and the methodological quality of laparoscopic RCTs. The PubMed search engine was queried to identify RCTs on minimally invasive surgery published in 2012 in the 10 highest impact factor surgery journals and the 5 highest impact factor laparoscopic journals. Eligible studies were blindly assessed by two independent investigators using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool for RCTs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential associations with methodological quality. A total of 114 relevant RCTs were identified. More than half of the trials were of high or acceptable quality. Half of the reports provided information on comparative demo graphic data and only 21% performed intention-to-treat analysis. RCTs with sample size of at least 60 patients presented higher methodological quality (p = 0.025). Upon multiple regression, reporting on preoperative care and the experience level of surgeons were independent factors of quality. PMID:25896540

  8. Nominating under Constraints: A Systematic Comparison of Unlimited and Limited Peer Nomination Methodologies in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gommans, Rob; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Children's peer relationships are frequently assessed with peer nominations. An important methodological issue is whether to collect unlimited or limited nominations. Some researchers have argued that the psychometric differences between both methods are negligible, while others have claimed that one is superior over the other. The current…

  9. A Systematic Review of Brief Functional Analysis Methodology with Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Spencer, Trina D.; Boelter, Eric W.; DuBard, Melanie; Jennett, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    Brief functional analysis (BFA) is an abbreviated assessment methodology derived from traditional extended functional analysis methods. BFAs are often conducted when time constraints in clinics, schools or homes are of concern. While BFAs have been used extensively to identify the function of problem behavior for children with disabilities, their…

  10. Staffing by Design: A Methodology for Staffing Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David; Phetteplace, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The growth in number and kind of online reference services has resulted in both new users consulting library research services as well as new patterns of service use. Staffing in-person and virtual reference services desks adequately requires a systematic analysis of patterns of use across service points in order to successfully meet fluctuating…

  11. A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.

  12. USDA Nutrition Evidence Library: methodology used to identify topics and develop systematic review questions for the birth-to-24-mo population.

    PubMed

    Obbagy, Julie E; Blum-Kemelor, Donna M; Essery, Eve V; Lyon, Joan M G; Spahn, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    The USDA's Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) specializes in conducting food- and nutrition-related systematic reviews that are used to inform federal government decision making. To ensure the utility of NEL systematic reviews, the most relevant topics must be addressed, questions must be clearly focused and appropriate in scope, and review frameworks must reflect the state of the science. Identifying the optimal topics and questions requires input from a variety of stakeholders, including scientists with technical expertise, as well as government policy and program leaders. The objective of this article is to describe the rationale and NEL methodology for identifying topics and developing systematic review questions implemented as part of the "Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 months of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans--the B-24 Project." This is the first phase of a larger project designed to develop dietary guidance for the birth to 24-mo population in the United States.

  13. Behavioral Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Applied Programs for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.

    To be maximally effective in solving problems, researchers must place their methodological and theoretical models of science within social and political contexts. They must become aware of biases and assumptions and move toward a more valid perception of social realities. Psychologists must view women in the situational context within which…

  14. Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.

  15. Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology for Flexible Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Joshi, S. M.; Price, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the design of flexible spacecraft, wherein the structural design and the control system design are performed simultaneously. The integrated design problem is posed as an optimization problem in which both the structural parameters and the control system parameters constitute the design variables, which are used to optimize a common objective function, thereby resulting in an optimal overall design. The approach is demonstrated by application to the integrated design of a geostationary platform, and to a ground-based flexible structure experiment. The numerical results obtained indicate that the integrated design approach generally yields spacecraft designs that are substantially superior to the conventional approach, wherein the structural design and control design are performed sequentially.

  16. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  17. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  18. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  19. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois

    2014-01-01

    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…

  20. Using QALYs in telehealth evaluations: a systematic review of methodology and transparency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a recognised outcome measure in health economic evaluations. QALY incorporates individual preferences and identifies health gains by combining mortality and morbidity into one single index number. A literature review was conducted to examine and discuss the use of QALYs to measure outcomes in telehealth evaluations. Methods Evaluations were identified via a literature search in all relevant databases. Only economic evaluations measuring both costs and QALYs using primary patient level data of two or more alternatives were included. Results A total of 17 economic evaluations estimating QALYs were identified. All evaluations used validated generic health related-quality of life (HRQoL) instruments to describe health states. They used accepted methods for transforming the quality scores into utility values. The methodology used varied between the evaluations. The evaluations used four different preference measures (EQ-5D, SF-6D, QWB and HUI3), and utility scores were elicited from the general population. Most studies reported the methodology used in calculating QALYs. The evaluations were less transparent in reporting utility weights at different time points and variability around utilities and QALYs. Few made adjustments for differences in baseline utilities. The QALYs gained in the reviewed evaluations varied from 0.001 to 0.118 in implying a small but positive effect of telehealth intervention on patient’s health. The evaluations reported mixed cost-effectiveness results. Conclusion The use of QALYs in telehealth evaluations has increased over the last few years. Different methodologies and utility measures have been used to calculate QALYs. A more harmonised methodology and utility measure is needed to ensure comparability across telehealth evaluations. PMID:25086443

  1. Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.; Devi, V. Kusum

    2012-01-01

    Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 32 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P≤0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics. PMID:22470891

  2. A Rapid Python-Based Methodology for Target-Focused Combinatorial Library Design.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Song, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical space is so vast that only a small portion of it has been examined. As a complementary approach to systematically probe the chemical space, virtual combinatorial library design has extended enormous impacts on generating novel and diverse structures for drug discovery. Despite the favorable contributions, high attrition rates in drug development that mainly resulted from lack of efficacy and side effects make it increasingly challenging to discover good chemical starting points. In most cases, focused libraries, which are restricted to particular regions of the chemical space, are deftly exploited to maximize hit rate and improve efficiency at the beginning of the drug discovery and drug development pipeline. This paper presented a valid methodology for fast target-focused combinatorial library design in both reaction-based and production-based ways with the library creating rates of approximately 70,000 molecules per second. Simple, quick and convenient operating procedures are the specific features of the method. SHAFTS, a hybrid 3D similarity calculation software, was embedded to help refine the size of the libraries and improve hit rates. Two target-focused (p38-focused and COX2-focused) libraries were constructed efficiently in this study. This rapid library enumeration method is portable and applicable to any other targets for good chemical starting points identification collaborated with either structure-based or ligand-based virtual screening.

  3. An overview of systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included.

  4. Analysis and design methodology for VLSI computing networks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lev-Ari, H.

    1984-08-01

    Several methods for modeling and analysis of parallel algorithms and architectures have been proposed in the recent years. These include recursion-type methods, like recursion equations, z-transform descriptions and do-loops in high-level programming languages, and precedence-graph-type methods like data-flow graphs (marked graphs) and related Petri-net derived models. Most efforts have been recently directed towards developing methodologies for structured parallel algorithms and architectures and, in particular, for systolic-array-like systems. Some important properties of parallel algorithms have been identified in the process of this research effort. These include executability (the absence of deadlocks) pipelinability, regularity of structure, locality of interconnections, and dimensionality. The research has also demonstrated the feasibility of multirate systolic arrays with different rates of data propagation along different directions in the array. This final report presents a new methodology for modeling and analysis of parallel algorithms and architectures. This methodology provides a unified conceptual framework, which is called modular computing network, that clearly displays the key properties of parallel systems.

  5. Developing a Methodology for Designing Systems of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Polly

    This report presents a description of a process for instructional system design, identification of the steps in the design process, and determination of their sequence and interrelationships. As currently envisioned, several interrelated steps must be taken, five of which provide the inputs to the final design process. There are analysis of…

  6. Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvo, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the shift from observation of users to participation with users, describing and investigating three examples of user-centered design practice in order to consider the new ethical demands being made of technical communicators. Explores Pelle Ehn's participatory design method, Roger Whitehouse's design of tactile signage for blind users,…

  7. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. A systematic review of mosquito coils and passive emanators: defining recommendations for spatial repellency testing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Moore, Sarah J; Maia, Marta F

    2012-12-07

    Mosquito coils, vaporizer mats and emanators confer protection against mosquito bites through the spatial action of emanated vapor or airborne pyrethroid particles. These products dominate the pest control market; therefore, it is vital to characterize mosquito responses elicited by the chemical actives and their potential for disease prevention. The aim of this review was to determine effects of mosquito coils and emanators on mosquito responses that reduce human-vector contact and to propose scientific consensus on terminologies and methodologies used for evaluation of product formats that could contain spatial chemical actives, including indoor residual spraying (IRS), long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and insecticide treated materials (ITMs). PubMed, (National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH), MEDLINE, LILAC, Cochrane library, IBECS and Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System search engines were used to identify studies of pyrethroid based coils and emanators with key-words "Mosquito coils" "Mosquito emanators" and "Spatial repellents". It was concluded that there is need to improve statistical reporting of studies, and reach consensus in the methodologies and terminologies used through standardized testing guidelines. Despite differing evaluation methodologies, data showed that coils and emanators induce mortality, deterrence, repellency as well as reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. Available data on efficacy outdoors, dose-response relationships and effective distance of coils and emanators is inadequate for developing a target product profile (TPP), which will be required for such chemicals before optimized implementation can occur for maximum benefits in disease control.

  9. A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases. PMID:25859149

  10. Study designs and systematic reviews of interventions: building evidence across study designs.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Kelton, D F; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the second article in a series of six focusing on systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. This article addresses the strengths and limitations of study designs commonly used in animal agriculture and veterinary research to assess interventions (preventive or therapeutic treatments) and discusses the appropriateness of their use in systematic reviews of interventions. Different study designs provide different evidentiary value for addressing questions about the efficacy of interventions. Experimental study designs range from in vivo proof of concept experiments to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) under real-world conditions. The key characteristic of experimental design in intervention studies is that the investigator controls the allocation of individuals or groups to different intervention strategies. The RCT is considered the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy of interventions and, if there are well-executed RCTs available for inclusion in a systematic review, that review may be restricted to only this design. In some instances, RCTs may not be feasible or ethical to perform, and there are fewer RCTs published in the veterinary literature compared to the human healthcare literature. Therefore, observational study designs, where the investigator does not control intervention allocation, may provide the only available evidence of intervention efficacy. While observational studies tend to be relevant to real-world use of an intervention, they are more prone to bias. Human healthcare researchers use a pyramid of evidence diagram to describe the evidentiary value of different study designs for assessing interventions. Modifications for veterinary medicine are presented in this article. PMID:24905992

  11. Breast cancer statistics and prediction methodology: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data. PMID:26028079

  12. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  13. Improved FTA Methodology and Application to Subsea Pipeline Reliability Design

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    An innovative logic tree, Failure Expansion Tree (FET), is proposed in this paper, which improves on traditional Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). It describes a different thinking approach for risk factor identification and reliability risk assessment. By providing a more comprehensive and objective methodology, the rather subjective nature of FTA node discovery is significantly reduced and the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. Applied to the Useful Life phase of a subsea pipeline engineering project, the approach provides a more structured analysis by constructing a tree following the laws of physics and geometry. Resulting improvements are summarized in comparison table form. PMID:24667681

  14. Innovative design methodology for implementing heterogeneous multiprocessor architectures in VLSI

    SciTech Connect

    Tientien Li

    1983-01-01

    Considering the design cost of today's VLSI systems, advanced VLSI technology may not be cost-effective for implementing complex computer systems. In the paper, an innovative design approach which can drastically reduce the cost of implementing heterogeneous multiprocessor architectures in VLSI is presented. The author introduces high-level architectural design tools for assisting the design of multiprocessor systems with distributed memory modules and communication networks, and presents a logic/firmware synthesis scheme for automatically implementing multitasking structures and system service functions for multiprocessor architectures. Furthermore, the importance of the firmware synthesis aspect of VLSI system design is emphasized. Most logic of complex VLSI systems can be implemented very easily in firmware using the design approach introduced here. 10 references.

  15. A Systematic Methodology for Constructing High-Order Energy-Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    A third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme developed by Yamaleev and Carpenter (AIAA 2008-2876, 2008) was proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, a systematic approach is presented that enables \\energy stable" modifications for existing WENO schemes of any order. The technique is demonstrated by developing a one-parameter family of fifth-order upwind-biased ESWENO schemes; ESWENO schemes up to eighth order are presented in the appendix. New weight functions are also developed that provide (1) formal consistency, (2) much faster convergence for smooth solutions with an arbitrary number of vanishing derivatives, and (3) improved resolution near strong discontinuities.

  16. A Systematic Methodology for Constructing High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    A third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non{Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme developed by Yamaleev and Carpenter [1] was proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, a systematic approach is presented that enables "energy stable" modifications for existing WENO schemes of any order. The technique is demonstrated by developing a one-parameter family of fifth-order upwind-biased ESWENO schemes; ESWENO schemes up to eighth order are presented in the appendix. New weight functions are also developed that provide (1) formal consistency, (2) much faster convergence for smooth solutions with an arbitrary number of vanishing derivatives, and (3) improved resolution near strong discontinuities.

  17. A methodology and a tool for the computer aided design with constraints of electrical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, F.; Bigeon, J.; Poirson, C.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for the computer aided constrained design of electrical devices is presented and validated through the design of a slotless permanent structure. It is based on the use of the analytical design equations of the device. Symbolic calculation is widely used to generate an analysis program and a sensitivity computation program. Those programs are linked with an optimization algorithm that can take constraints into account. The methodology is tested with an experimental software named PASCOSMA.

  18. Optimal Color Design of Psychological Counseling Room by Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients’ perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients’ impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the ‘central point’, and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients’ satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room. PMID:24594683

  19. Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan

    2002-10-01

    A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.

  20. Perceived barriers to children's active commuting to school: a systematic review of empirical, methodological and theoretical evidence.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Lee, Chanam; Goodson, Patricia; Ory, Marcia G; Wang, Suojin

    2014-11-18

    Active commuting to school (ACS) may increase children's daily physical activity and help them maintain a healthy weight. Previous studies have identified various perceived barriers related to children's ACS. However, it is not clear whether and how these studies were methodologically sound and theoretically grounded. The purpose of this review was to critically assess the current literature on perceived barriers to children's ACS and provide recommendations for future studies. Empirically based literature on perceived barriers to ACS was systematically searched from six databases. A methodological quality scale (MQS) and a theory utilization quality scale (TQS) were created based on previously established instruments and tailored for the current review. Among the 39 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 19 (48.7%) reported statistically significant perceived barriers to child's ACS. The methodological and theory utilization qualities of reviewed studies varied, with MQS scores ranging between 7 and 20 (Mean =12.95, SD =2.95) and TQS scores from 1 to 7 (Mean =3.62, SD =1.74). A detailed appraisal of the literature suggests several empirical, methodological, and theoretical recommendations for future studies on perceived barriers to ACS. Empirically, increasing the diversity of study regions and samples should be a high priority, particularly in Asian and European countries, and among rural residents; more prospective and interventions studies are needed to determine the causal mechanism liking the perceived factors and ACS; future researchers should include policy-related barriers into their inquiries. Methodologically, the conceptualization of ACS should be standardized or at least well rationalized in future studies to ensure the comparability of results; researchers' awareness need to be increased for improving the methodological rigor of studies, especially in regard to appropriate statistical analysis techniques, control variable estimation

  1. Participatory Pattern Workshops: A Methodology for Open Learning Design Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their…

  2. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  3. Approach, Design and Procedure: Their Role in Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.; Rodgers, Ted

    Three interrelated pedagogical elements--approach, design, and procedure--are basic in a discussion of language teaching. Approach defines those foundational assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and language learning. Design specifies the relationships of theories to both the form and use of instructional materials.…

  4. LWR design decision methodology: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Techniques were identified to augment existing design process at the component and system level in order to optimize cost and safety between alternative system designs. The method was demonstrated using the Surry Low Pressure Injection System (LPIS). Three possible backfit options were analyzed for the Surry LPIS, assessing the safety level of each option and estimating the acquisition and installation costs for each. (DLC)

  5. Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance.

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, F R; Kazdin, A E

    1981-01-01

    Single-case experimental designs have advanced considerably in the evaluation of functional relationships between interventions and behavior change. The systematic investigation of response maintenance once intervention effects have been demonstrated has, however, received relatively little attention. The lack of research on maintenance may stem in part from the paucity of design options that systematically evaluate factors that contribute to maintenance. The present paper discusses three design options potentially useful for the investigation of response maintenance. These include: (a) the sequential-withdrawal, (b) the partial-withdrawal, and (c) the partial-sequential withdrawal designs. Each design is illustrated and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:7287597

  6. Influence of Glenosphere Design on Outcomes and Complications of Reverse Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cassandra; Williams, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Different implant designs are utilized in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a traditional (Grammont) prosthesis and a lateralized prosthesis for the treatment of cuff tear arthropathy and massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed via a search of two electronic databases. Two reviewers evaluated the quality of methodology and retrieved data from each included study. In cases where the outcomes data were similar between studies, the data were pooled using frequency-weighted mean values to generate summary outcomes. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographics were similar between treatment groups. The frequency-weighted mean active external rotation was 24° in the traditional group and 46° in the lateralized group (p = 0.0001). Scapular notching was noted in 44.9% of patients in the traditional group compared to 5.4% of patients in the lateralized group (p = 0.0001). The rate of clinically significant glenoid loosening was 1.8% in the traditional group and 8.8% in the lateralized group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Both the traditional Grammont and the lateralized offset reverse arthroplasty designs can improve pain and function in patients with diagnoses of cuff tear arthropathy and irreparable rotator cuff tear. While a lateralized design can result in increased active external rotation and decreased rates of scapular notching, there may be a higher rate of glenoid baseplate loosening. PMID:27583112

  7. Information System Design Methodology Based on PERT/CPM Networking and Optimization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Anindya

    The dissertation attempts to demonstrate that the program evaluation and review technique (PERT)/Critical Path Method (CPM) or some modified version thereof can be developed into an information system design methodology. The methodology utilizes PERT/CPM which isolates the basic functional units of a system and sets them in a dynamic time/cost…

  8. Designing and Integrating Purposeful Learning in Game Play: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Via a systematic review of the literature on learning games, this article presents a systematic discussion on the design of intrinsic integration of domain-specific learning in game mechanics and game world design. A total of 69 articles ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were coded for the literature synthesis. Exemplary learning games…

  9. The methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in the field of obstetrics and gynecology published in the last decade. A MEDLINE search was performed to find economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology from the years 1997 through 2009. We included full economic evaluation studies concerning tests or interventions in the field of obstetrics or gynecology. Each included study was evaluated by two reviewers using a quality checklist that was based on international guidelines for medical economic evaluation studies and a checklist used in a previous review. The mean number of quality criteria adhered to was 23 of 30 items, whereas five articles (3%) met all 30 criteria. Compliance was low for the description of the perspective (40%), the completeness of costs looking at the perspective (48%) or time horizon (48%), and reporting of quantities of resources (47%). Furthermore, if no discounting was applied, an explanation was infrequently given (14%). A comparison of study quality to that reported by Smith and Blackmore showed a considerable improvement in the following criteria: presentation perspective (from 19 to 40%), statement of primary outcome measure (from 72 to 81%), completeness costs looking at the time horizon (from 14 to 48%), the presentation of discount rates (from 10 to 54%), details of sensitivity analyses (from 21 to 61%), reporting incremental results (from 17 to 70%), and reporting a summary measure (from 57 to 74%). The quality of economic studies in obstetrics and gynecology has considerably improved in the last decade, but room for further improvement is present.

  10. A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

    Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

  11. eLSE Methodology: A Systematic Approach to the e-Learning Systems Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanzilotti, Rosa; Ardito, Carmelo; Costabile, Maria F.; De Angeli, Antonella

    2006-01-01

    Quality of e-learning systems is one of the important topics that the researchers are investigating in the last years. This paper refines the concept of quality of e-learning systems and proposes a new framework, called TICS (Technology, Interaction, Content, Services), which focuses on the most important aspects to be considered when designing or…

  12. Structural Design Methodology Based on Concepts of Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Du, Jiaji; Rusk, David

    2000-01-01

    In this report, an approach to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design is proposed based on the concept of an equivalent "Level of Safety" that incorporates past service experience in the design of new structures. The discrete "Level of Safety" for a single inspection event is defined as the compliment of the probability that a single flaw size larger than the critical flaw size for residual strength of the structure exists, and that the flaw will not be detected. The cumulative "Level of Safety" for the entire structure is the product of the discrete "Level of Safety" values for each flaw of each damage type present at each location in the structure. Based on the definition of "Level of Safety", a design procedure was identified and demonstrated on a composite sandwich panel for various damage types, with results showing the sensitivity of the structural sizing parameters to the relative safety of the design. The "Level of Safety" approach has broad potential application to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design with uncertainty.

  13. Design, construction, and characterization methodologies for synthetic microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans C; Carlson, Ross P

    2014-01-01

    Engineered microbial consortia are of growing interest to a range of scientists including bioprocess engineers, systems biologists, and microbiologists because of their ability to simultaneously optimize multiple tasks, to test fundamental systems science, and to understand the microbial ecology of environments like chronic wounds. Metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and microbial ecology provide a sound scientific basis for designing, building, and analyzing consortium-based microbial platforms.This chapter outlines strategies and protocols useful for (1) in silico network design, (2) experimental strain construction, (3) consortia culturing including biofilm growth methods, and (4) physiological characterization of consortia. The laboratory and computational methods given here may be adapted for synthesis and characterization of other engineered consortia designs.

  14. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  15. Structural design methodologies for ceramic-based material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary pacing items for realizing the full potential of ceramic-based structural components is the development of new design methods and protocols. The focus here is on low temperature, fast-fracture analysis of monolithic, whisker-toughened, laminated, and woven ceramic composites. A number of design models and criteria are highlighted. Public domain computer algorithms, which aid engineers in predicting the fast-fracture reliability of structural components, are mentioned. Emphasis is not placed on evaluating the models, but instead is focused on the issues relevant to the current state of the art.

  16. Structural design methodologies for ceramic-based material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary pacing items for realizing the full potential of ceramic-based structural components is the development of new design methods and protocols. The focus here is on low temperature, fast-fracture analysis of monolithic, whisker-toughened, laminated, and woven ceramic composites. A number of design models and criteria are highlighted. Public domain computer algorithms, which aid engineers in predicting the fast-fracture reliability of structural components, are mentioned. Emphasis is not placed on evaluating the models, but instead is focused on the issues relevant to the current state of the art.

  17. Dynamic testing of learning potential in adults with cognitive impairments: A systematic review of methodology and predictive value.

    PubMed

    Boosman, Hileen; Bovend'Eerdt, Thamar J H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic testing includes procedures that examine the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-training change reflects patients' learning potential. The objective of this systematic review was to provide clinicians and researchers insight into the concept and methodology of dynamic testing and to explore its predictive validity in adult patients with cognitive impairments. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase/Medline. Of 1141 potentially relevant articles, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean methodological quality score was 4.6 of 8. Eleven different dynamic tests were used. The majority of studies used dynamic versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The training mostly consisted of a combination of performance feedback, reinforcement, expanded instruction, or strategy training. Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and categorical (groups) indices. In five of six longitudinal studies, learning potential significantly predicted rehabilitation outcome. Three of four studies supported the added value of dynamic testing over conventional testing in predicting rehabilitation outcome. This review provides preliminary support that dynamic tests can provide a valuable addition to conventional tests to assess patients' abilities. Although promising, there was a large variability in methods used for dynamic testing and, therefore, it remains unclear which dynamic testing methods are most appropriate for patients with cognitive impairments. More research is warranted to further evaluate and refine dynamic testing methodology and to further elucidate its predictive validity concerning rehabilitation outcomes relative to other cognitive and functional status indices.

  18. 77 FR 66471 - Methodology for Designation of Frontier and Remote Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Methodology for Designation of Frontier and Remote Areas AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Request for...

  19. New Methods in Design Education: The Systemic Methodology and the Use of Sketch in the Conceptual Design Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Juan Carlos Briede; Ortuno, Bernabe Hernandis

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of a new product concurrent design methodologies in the context in the education of industrial design. The use of the sketch has been utilized many times as a tool of creative expression especially in the conceptual design stage, in an intuitive way and a little out of the context of the reality needs that the…

  20. Designing institutions and incentives in hospitals: an organization economics methodology.

    PubMed

    Eid, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Recent seminal developments in organization economics, namely the decision rights approach, offer an opportunity to shed new light on an old question, the design of effective institutions. Drawing on conclusions about how and why firm organizational boundaries change, the decision rights approach is used in this article as an analytical lens to develop a new method for assessing institutional and incentive design in restructured hospitals. The article explains the decision rights approach and shows how the Decision Rights Framework developed from it, is a way of mapping of incentive structures to allow a comparative assessment of institutional design, an understudied area, as most work on hospitals has focused on assessing equity versus efficiency tradeoffs. The new method is illustrated drawing on one example from a case study of an innovative self-corporatized hospital in Lebanon that was at the vanguard of hospital restructuring legislation, adopted for system-wide reforms. A country with a strong private sector tradition, Lebanon was fertile territory for analyzing how high-powered incentive schemes emerge from a public sector setting, in a manner similar to the evolution of a firm in reaction to market forces. Among the findings revealed by the approach is that key to "good" design is the identification of requisite incentives and the matching up of incentives with goals through decision rights allocations. The appropriate organizational form is then a logical result. PMID:15839525

  1. Designing institutions and incentives in hospitals: an organization economics methodology.

    PubMed

    Eid, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Recent seminal developments in organization economics, namely the decision rights approach, offer an opportunity to shed new light on an old question, the design of effective institutions. Drawing on conclusions about how and why firm organizational boundaries change, the decision rights approach is used in this article as an analytical lens to develop a new method for assessing institutional and incentive design in restructured hospitals. The article explains the decision rights approach and shows how the Decision Rights Framework developed from it, is a way of mapping of incentive structures to allow a comparative assessment of institutional design, an understudied area, as most work on hospitals has focused on assessing equity versus efficiency tradeoffs. The new method is illustrated drawing on one example from a case study of an innovative self-corporatized hospital in Lebanon that was at the vanguard of hospital restructuring legislation, adopted for system-wide reforms. A country with a strong private sector tradition, Lebanon was fertile territory for analyzing how high-powered incentive schemes emerge from a public sector setting, in a manner similar to the evolution of a firm in reaction to market forces. Among the findings revealed by the approach is that key to "good" design is the identification of requisite incentives and the matching up of incentives with goals through decision rights allocations. The appropriate organizational form is then a logical result.

  2. A Methodology for the Design of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and discusses some theoretical starting points and design considerations for addressing emotional and aesthetic aspects of virtual learning environments (VLEs) for support of ubiquitous teaching, studying and learning. In this article, we note that a VLE should be viewed upon as an interactive and sensations arousing…

  3. Design Based Research Methodology for Teaching with Technology in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetnikoff, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Design based research (DBR) is an appropriate method for small scale educational research projects involving collaboration between teachers, students and researchers. It is particularly useful in collaborative projects where an intervention is implemented and evaluated in a grounded context. The intervention can be technological, or a new program…

  4. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population. PMID:21781341

  5. Serration Design Methodology for Wind Turbine Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, J.; Singh, A.; Madsen, J.; Arce León, C.

    2016-09-01

    Trailing edge serrations are today an established method to reduce the aeroacoustic noise from wind turbine blades. In this paper, a brief introduction to the aerodynamic and acoustic design procedure used at LM Wind Power is given. Early field tests on serrations, retrofitted to the turbine blades, gave preliminary indication of their noise reduction potential. However, a multitude of challenges stand in the way of any proof of concept and a viable commercial product. LM undertook a methodical test and validation procedure to understand the impact of design parameters on serration performance, and quantify the uncertainties associated with the proposed designs. Aerodynamic and acoustic validation tests were carried out in number of wind tunnel facilities. Models were written to predict the aerodynamic, acoustic and structural performance of the serrations. LM serration designs have evolved over the period of time to address constraints imposed by aero performance, structural reliability, manufacturing and installation. The latest LM serration offering was tested in the field on three different wind turbines. A consistent noise reduction in excess of 1.5 dB was achieved in the field for all three turbines.

  6. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  7. A general methodology and applications for conduction-like flow-channel design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2004-02-01

    A novel design methodology is developed for creating conduction devices in which fields are piecewise uniform. This methodology allows the normally analytically intractable problem of Lagrangian transport to be solved using algebraic and trigonometric equations. Low-dispersion turns, manifolds, and expansions are developed. In this methodology, regions of piece-wise constant specific permeability (permeability per unit width) border each other with straight, generally tilted interfaces. The fields within each region are made uniform by satisfying a simple compatibility relation between the tilt angle and ratio of specific permeability of adjacent regions. This methodology has particular promise in the rational design of quasi-planar devices, in which the specific permeability is proportional to the depth of the channel. For such devices, the methodology can be implemented by connecting channel facets having two or more depths, fabricated, e.g., using a simple two-etch process.

  8. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    -subsonic future fleet. The methodology, procedures, and recommendations for the development of future HSCT and the subsonic fleet scenarios used for this evaluation are discussed.

  9. One Controller at a Time (1-CAT): A mimo design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Lucas, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The One Controller at a Time (1-CAT) methodology for designing digital controllers for Large Space Structures (LSS's) is introduced and illustrated. The flexible mode problem is first discussed. Next, desirable features of a LSS control system design methodology are delineated. The 1-CAT approach is presented, along with an analytical technique for carrying out the 1-CAT process. Next, 1-CAT is used to design digital controllers for the proposed Space Based Laser (SBL). Finally, the SBL design is evaluated for dynamical performance, noise rejection, and robustness.

  10. Application of an integrated flight/propulsion control design methodology to a STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The application of an emerging Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control design methodology to a STOVL aircraft in transition flight is reported. The methodology steps consist of: (1) design of a centralized feedback controller to provide command tracking and stability and performance robustness considering the fully integrated airframe/propulsion model as one high-order system; (2) partition of the centralized controller into a decentralized, hierarchical form compatible with implementation requirements; and (3) design of command shaping prefilters from pilot control effectors to commanded variables to provide the overall desired response to pilot inputs. Intermediate design results using this methodology are presented, the complete point control design with the propulsion system operating schedule and limit protection logic included is evaluated for sample pilot control inputs, and the response is compared with that of an 'ideal response model' derived from Level I handling qualities requirements.

  11. Software Design Methodology Migration for a Distributed Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, George; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has been developed and has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes. The new Software processes still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Process have evolved highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project .

  12. Theories and Research Methodologies for Design-Based Implementation Research: Examples from Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Jackson, Kara; Krumm, Andrew E.; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Design-Based Implementation Research is the process of engaging "learning scientists, policy researchers, and practitioners in a model of collaborative, iterative, and systematic research and development" designed to address persistent problems of teaching and learning. Addressing persistent problems of teaching and learning requires…

  13. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  14. Design-Based Research: Is This a Suitable Methodology for Short-Term Projects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jessica; Laubscher, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a design-based methodology of a thesis in which a fully face-to-face contact module was converted into a blended learning course. The purpose of the article is to report on how design-based phases, in the form of micro-, meso- and macro-cycles were applied to improve practice and to generate design principles. Design-based…

  15. Reporting of planned statistical methods in published surgical randomised trial protocols: a protocol for a methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kim; Arseneau, Erika; Evaniew, Nathan; Smith, Christopher S; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor reporting can lead to inadequate presentation of data, confusion regarding research methodology used, selective reporting of results, and other misinformation regarding health research. One of the most recent attempts to improve quality of reporting comes from the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) Group, which makes recommendations for the reporting of protocols. In this report, we present a protocol for a systematic review of published surgical randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocols, with the purpose of assessing the reporting quality and completeness of the statistical aspects. Methods We will include all published protocols of randomised trials that investigate surgical interventions. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for relevant studies. Author pairs will independently review all titles, abstracts, and full texts identified by the literature search, and extract data using a structured data extraction form. We will extract the following: year of publication, country, sample size, description of study population, description of intervention and control, primary outcome, important methodological qualities, and quality of reporting of planned statistical methods based on the SPIRIT guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will demonstrate the quality of statistical reporting of published surgical RCT protocols. This knowledge will inform recommendations to surgeons, researchers, journal editors and peer reviewers, and other knowledge users that focus on common deficiencies in reporting and how to rectify them. Ethics approval for this study is not required. We will disseminate the results of this review in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and at a doctoral independent study of oral defence. PMID:27259528

  16. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  17. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  18. The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ivan Luiz de; Batiz, Eduardo Concepción

    2012-01-01

    The process of product development has received special attention as it is being recognized as a source of competitive gain. Through its systematic use companies reduce costs, increase quality and decrease development time. However, one can find products being launched on the market that cause dissatisfaction to its users, and in consequence if the customer feels harmed or injured he will no longer purchase a product from the same brand. This in regard only to the commercial aspect; usually the danger of an accident or injury is not even thought about. This paper is the basis of the dissertation master's degree and used a literature research to build the repertoire, analyzing the methodologies applied by product design engineers, designers and ergonomists. The analysis results demonstrate the inefficiency of the design methodologies ergonomic issues. The contribution of this work lies in the suggestion to include ergonomic tools in all phases of product development and the presentation of a table with the tools that points out its most suitable time of application and results.

  19. A User-Centered Methodological Framework for the Design of Hypermedia-based CALL Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jae-eun; Wastell, David G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses research aimed at improving the educational quality of hypermedia-based computer assisted language learning systems. Focuses on a methodological framework that draws on recent developments in the field of human-computer interaction regarding interactive system design and a general constructivist approach to the design of computer-based…

  20. A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark; Counce, Robert M.; Watson, Jack S.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Kamath, Haresh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an evolutionary procedure to be used by Chemical Engineering students for the base-case design of a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery. The design methodology is based on the work of Douglas (1985) and provides a profitability analysis at each decision level so that more profitable alternatives and directions can be…

  1. Designing Trend-Monitoring Sounds for Helicopters: Methodological Issues and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Kirsteen; Loxley, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This article explores methodological issues in sonification and sound design arising from the design of helicopter monitoring sounds. Six monitoring sounds (each with 5 levels) were tested for similarity and meaning with 3 different techniques: hierarchical cluster analysis, linkage analysis, and multidimensional scaling. In Experiment 1,…

  2. The quality of dietary intake methodology and reporting in child and adolescent obesity intervention trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burrows, T; Golley, R K; Khambalia, A; McNaughton, S A; Magarey, A; Rosenkranz, R R; Alllman-Farinelli, M; Rangan, A M; Truby, H; Collins, C

    2012-12-01

    Assessing dietary intake is important in evaluating childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the dietary intake methods and reporting in intervention studies that included a dietary component to treat overweight or obese children. A systematic review of studies published in the English language, between 1985 and August 2010 in health databases. The search identified 2,295 papers, of which 335 were retrieved and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies reported energy intake as an outcome measure, 20 reported macronutrient intakes and 10 studies reported food intake outcomes. The most common dietary method employed was the food diary (n = 13), followed by 24-h recall (n = 5), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 4) and dietary questionnaire (n = 4). The quality of the dietary intake methods reporting was rated as 'poor' in 15 studies (52%) and only 3 were rated as 'excellent'. The reporting quality of FFQs tended to be higher than food diaries/recalls. Deficiencies in the quality of dietary intake methods reporting in child obesity studies were identified. Use of a dietary intake methods reporting checklist is recommended. This will enable the quality of dietary intake results to be evaluated, and an increased ability to replicate study methodology by other researchers.

  3. The quality of dietary intake methodology and reporting in child and adolescent obesity intervention trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burrows, T; Golley, R K; Khambalia, A; McNaughton, S A; Magarey, A; Rosenkranz, R R; Alllman-Farinelli, M; Rangan, A M; Truby, H; Collins, C

    2012-12-01

    Assessing dietary intake is important in evaluating childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the dietary intake methods and reporting in intervention studies that included a dietary component to treat overweight or obese children. A systematic review of studies published in the English language, between 1985 and August 2010 in health databases. The search identified 2,295 papers, of which 335 were retrieved and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies reported energy intake as an outcome measure, 20 reported macronutrient intakes and 10 studies reported food intake outcomes. The most common dietary method employed was the food diary (n = 13), followed by 24-h recall (n = 5), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 4) and dietary questionnaire (n = 4). The quality of the dietary intake methods reporting was rated as 'poor' in 15 studies (52%) and only 3 were rated as 'excellent'. The reporting quality of FFQs tended to be higher than food diaries/recalls. Deficiencies in the quality of dietary intake methods reporting in child obesity studies were identified. Use of a dietary intake methods reporting checklist is recommended. This will enable the quality of dietary intake results to be evaluated, and an increased ability to replicate study methodology by other researchers. PMID:22891692

  4. Three-dimensional viscous design methodology for advanced technology aircraft supersonic inlet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    A broad program to develop advanced, reliable, and user oriented three-dimensional viscous design techniques for supersonic inlet systems, and encourage their transfer into the general user community is discussed. Features of the program include: (1) develop effective methods of computing three-dimensional flows within a zonal modeling methodology; (2) ensure reasonable agreement between said analysis and selective sets of benchmark validation data; (3) develop user orientation into said analysis; and (4) explore and develop advanced numerical methodology.

  5. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  6. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  7. Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology: Redesign of an Evolutionary Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1997-01-01

    An optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures is described, and the phase-0 Controls-Structures-Integration evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, is redesigned using this integrated design methodology. The integrated controls-structures design is posed as a nonlinear programming problem to minimize the control effort required to maintain a specified line-of-sight pointing performance, under persistent white noise disturbance. Static and dynamic dissipative control strategies are employed for feedback control, and parameters of these controllers are considered as the control design variables. Sizes of strut elements in various sections of the CEM are used as the structural design variables. Design guides for the struts are developed and employed in the integrated design process, to ensure that the redesigned structure can be effectively fabricated. The superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is demonstrated analytically by observing a significant reduction in the average control power needed to maintain specified pointing performance with the integrated design approach.

  8. Co-design of RAD and ETHICS methodologies: a combination of information system development methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi, Arezo; Shahriyari, Salman

    2011-12-01

    Co-design is a new trend in the social world which tries to capture different ideas in order to use the most appropriate features for a system. In this paper, co-design of two information system methodologies is regarded; rapid application development (RAD) and effective technical and human implementation of computer-based systems (ETHICS). We tried to consider the characteristics of these methodologies to see the possibility of having a co-design or combination of them for developing an information system. To reach this purpose, four different aspects of them are analyzed: social or technical approach, user participation and user involvement, job satisfaction, and overcoming change resistance. Finally, a case study using the quantitative method is analyzed in order to examine the possibility of co-design using these factors. The paper concludes that RAD and ETHICS are appropriate to be co-designed and brings some suggestions for the co-design.

  9. Design and tolerance analysis of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber using statistical design methodology.

    PubMed

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Debaes, Christof; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Watté, Jan; Wojcik, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2008-03-31

    We present the design of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber for a 180?-bend fiber socket application, including a tolerance analysis for manufacturability. To this aim, we make use of statistical design methodology, combined with a fully vectorial mode solver. Two resulting designs are presented and their performance in terms of bending loss, coupling loss to Corning SMF-28 standard telecom fiber, and cut-off wavelength is calculated.

  10. Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Massingham, Tim; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael; Cotton, James A

    2009-08-01

    In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced a method for experimental design in phylogenetics based on the expected information to be gained that has barely been used in practice. Here we use this method to explore the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial (mt) genes, mt genomes, and nuclear rag1 for studies of the systematics of caecilian amphibians, as well as the effect of taxon addition on the stabilization of a controversial branch of the tree. Overall phylogenetic information estimates per gene, specific estimates per branch of the tree, estimates for combined (mitogenomic) data sets, and estimates as a hypothetical new taxon is added to different parts of the caecilian tree are calculated and compared. In general, the most informative data sets are those for mt transfer and ribosomal RNA genes. Our results also show at which positions in the caecilian tree the addition of taxa have the greatest potential to increase phylogenetic information with respect to the controversial relationships of Scolecomorphus, Boulengerula, and all other teresomatan caecilians. These positions are, as intuitively expected, mostly (but not all) adjacent to the controversial branch. Generating whole mitogenomic and rag1 data for additional taxa joining the Scolecomorphus branch may be a more efficient strategy than sequencing a similar amount of additional nucleotides spread across the current caecilian taxon sampling. The methodology employed in this study allows an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of the appropriateness of particular experimental designs to solve specific questions at

  11. Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Massingham, Tim; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael; Cotton, James A

    2009-08-01

    In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced a method for experimental design in phylogenetics based on the expected information to be gained that has barely been used in practice. Here we use this method to explore the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial (mt) genes, mt genomes, and nuclear rag1 for studies of the systematics of caecilian amphibians, as well as the effect of taxon addition on the stabilization of a controversial branch of the tree. Overall phylogenetic information estimates per gene, specific estimates per branch of the tree, estimates for combined (mitogenomic) data sets, and estimates as a hypothetical new taxon is added to different parts of the caecilian tree are calculated and compared. In general, the most informative data sets are those for mt transfer and ribosomal RNA genes. Our results also show at which positions in the caecilian tree the addition of taxa have the greatest potential to increase phylogenetic information with respect to the controversial relationships of Scolecomorphus, Boulengerula, and all other teresomatan caecilians. These positions are, as intuitively expected, mostly (but not all) adjacent to the controversial branch. Generating whole mitogenomic and rag1 data for additional taxa joining the Scolecomorphus branch may be a more efficient strategy than sequencing a similar amount of additional nucleotides spread across the current caecilian taxon sampling. The methodology employed in this study allows an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of the appropriateness of particular experimental designs to solve specific questions at

  12. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    PubMed Central

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  13. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    PubMed

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms.

  14. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    PubMed

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  15. Systematic design of membership functions for fuzzy-logic control: A case study on one-stage partial nitritation/anammox treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-10-01

    A methodology is developed to systematically design the membership functions of fuzzy-logic controllers for multivariable systems. The methodology consists of a systematic derivation of the critical points of the membership functions as a function of predefined control objectives. Several constrained optimization problems corresponding to different qualitative operation states of the system are defined and solved to identify, in a consistent manner, the critical points of the membership functions for the input variables. The consistently identified critical points, together with the linguistic rules, determine the long term reachability of the control objectives by the fuzzy logic controller. The methodology is highlighted using a single-stage side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox reactor as a case study. As a result, a new fuzzy-logic controller for high and stable total nitrogen removal efficiency is designed. Rigorous simulations are carried out to evaluate and benchmark the performance of the controller. The results demonstrate that the novel control strategy is capable of rejecting the long-term influent disturbances, and can achieve a stable and high TN removal efficiency. Additionally, the controller was tested, and showed robustness, against measurement noise levels typical for wastewater sensors. A feedforward-feedback configuration using the present controller would give even better performance. In comparison, a previously developed fuzzy-logic controller using merely expert and intuitive knowledge performed worse. This proved the importance of using a systematic methodology for the derivation of the membership functions for multivariable systems. These results are promising for future applications of the controller in real full-scale plants. Furthermore, the methodology can be used as a tool to help systematically design fuzzy logic control applications for other biological processes.

  16. Systematic design of membership functions for fuzzy-logic control: A case study on one-stage partial nitritation/anammox treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-10-01

    A methodology is developed to systematically design the membership functions of fuzzy-logic controllers for multivariable systems. The methodology consists of a systematic derivation of the critical points of the membership functions as a function of predefined control objectives. Several constrained optimization problems corresponding to different qualitative operation states of the system are defined and solved to identify, in a consistent manner, the critical points of the membership functions for the input variables. The consistently identified critical points, together with the linguistic rules, determine the long term reachability of the control objectives by the fuzzy logic controller. The methodology is highlighted using a single-stage side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox reactor as a case study. As a result, a new fuzzy-logic controller for high and stable total nitrogen removal efficiency is designed. Rigorous simulations are carried out to evaluate and benchmark the performance of the controller. The results demonstrate that the novel control strategy is capable of rejecting the long-term influent disturbances, and can achieve a stable and high TN removal efficiency. Additionally, the controller was tested, and showed robustness, against measurement noise levels typical for wastewater sensors. A feedforward-feedback configuration using the present controller would give even better performance. In comparison, a previously developed fuzzy-logic controller using merely expert and intuitive knowledge performed worse. This proved the importance of using a systematic methodology for the derivation of the membership functions for multivariable systems. These results are promising for future applications of the controller in real full-scale plants. Furthermore, the methodology can be used as a tool to help systematically design fuzzy logic control applications for other biological processes. PMID:27390035

  17. Conjecture Mapping: An Approach to Systematic Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, William

    2014-01-01

    Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This…

  18. The functional foetal brain: A systematic preview of methodological factors in reporting foetal visual and auditory capacity.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kirsty; Reissland, Nadja; Reid, Vincent M

    2015-06-01

    Due to technological advancements in functional brain imaging, foetal brain responses to visual and auditory stimuli is a growing area of research despite being relatively small with much variation between research laboratories. A number of inconsistencies between studies are, nonetheless, present in the literature. This article aims to explore the potential contribution of methodological factors to variation in reports of foetal neural responses to external stimuli. Some of the variation in reports can be explained by methodological differences in aspects of study design, such as brightness and wavelength of light source. In contrast to visual foetal processing, auditory foetal processing has been more frequently investigated and findings are more consistent between different studies. This is an early preview of an emerging field with many articles reporting small sample sizes with techniques that are yet to be replicated. We suggest areas for improvement for the field as a whole, such as the standardisation of stimulus delivery and a more detailed reporting of methods and results. This will improve our understanding of foetal functional response to light and sound. We suggest that enhanced technology will allow for a more reliable description of the developmental trajectory of foetal processing of light stimuli. PMID:25967364

  19. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  20. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  1. Space station definitions, design, and development. Task 5: Multiple arm telerobot coordination and control: Manipulator design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed methodology applicable to the design of manipulator systems is described. The current design process is especially weak in the preliminary design phase, since there is no accepted measure to be used in trading off different options available for the various subsystems. The design process described uses Cartesian End-Effector Impedance as a measure of performance for the system. Having this measure of performance, it is shown how it may be used to determine the trade-offs necessary to the preliminary design phase. The design process involves three main parts: (1) determination of desired system performance in terms of End-Effector Impedance; (2) trade-off design options to achieve this desired performance; and (3) verification of system performance through laboratory testing. The design process is developed using numerous examples and experiments to demonstrate the feasability of this approach to manipulator design.

  2. Physical Activity Participation of Disabled Children: A Systematic Review of Conceptual and Methodological Approaches in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Samantha Mae; Bogart, Kathleen R.; Logan, Samuel W.; Case, Layne; Fine, Jeremiah; Thompson, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation is widely recognized as a critical component of health and development for disabled and non-disabled children. Emergent literature reflects a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of childhood PA as a multi-dimensional construct, encompassing aspects of physical performance, and self-perceived engagement. However, ambiguity remains around how participation as a health construct is integrated into PA research. The primary objective of the present mini-review is to critically examine current conceptual and methodological approaches to evaluating PA participation among disabled children. We conducted a systematic review of contemporary literature (published between 2000 and 2016). Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, and their research approach was classified into guiding framework, definition of the key construct, and measurement used. The primary guiding framework was the international classification of functioning, disability and health. An explicit definition of PA participation was absent from all studies. Eight studies (47%) operationalized PA and participation as independent constructs. Measurements included traditional performance-based aspects of PA (frequency, duration, and intensity), and alternative participation measures (subjective perception of involvement, inclusion, or enjoyment). Approximately 64% of included articles were published in the past 2 years (2014–2016) indicating a rising interest in the topic of PA participation. Drawing from the broader discussion of participation in the literature, we offer a working definition of PA participation as it pertains to active, health-associated behaviors. Further description of alternative approaches to framing and measuring PA participation are offered to support effective assessment of health status among disabled children. PMID:27656639

  3. Physical Activity Participation of Disabled Children: A Systematic Review of Conceptual and Methodological Approaches in Health Research.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samantha Mae; Bogart, Kathleen R; Logan, Samuel W; Case, Layne; Fine, Jeremiah; Thompson, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation is widely recognized as a critical component of health and development for disabled and non-disabled children. Emergent literature reflects a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of childhood PA as a multi-dimensional construct, encompassing aspects of physical performance, and self-perceived engagement. However, ambiguity remains around how participation as a health construct is integrated into PA research. The primary objective of the present mini-review is to critically examine current conceptual and methodological approaches to evaluating PA participation among disabled children. We conducted a systematic review of contemporary literature (published between 2000 and 2016). Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, and their research approach was classified into guiding framework, definition of the key construct, and measurement used. The primary guiding framework was the international classification of functioning, disability and health. An explicit definition of PA participation was absent from all studies. Eight studies (47%) operationalized PA and participation as independent constructs. Measurements included traditional performance-based aspects of PA (frequency, duration, and intensity), and alternative participation measures (subjective perception of involvement, inclusion, or enjoyment). Approximately 64% of included articles were published in the past 2 years (2014-2016) indicating a rising interest in the topic of PA participation. Drawing from the broader discussion of participation in the literature, we offer a working definition of PA participation as it pertains to active, health-associated behaviors. Further description of alternative approaches to framing and measuring PA participation are offered to support effective assessment of health status among disabled children. PMID:27656639

  4. Physical Activity Participation of Disabled Children: A Systematic Review of Conceptual and Methodological Approaches in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Samantha Mae; Bogart, Kathleen R.; Logan, Samuel W.; Case, Layne; Fine, Jeremiah; Thompson, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation is widely recognized as a critical component of health and development for disabled and non-disabled children. Emergent literature reflects a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of childhood PA as a multi-dimensional construct, encompassing aspects of physical performance, and self-perceived engagement. However, ambiguity remains around how participation as a health construct is integrated into PA research. The primary objective of the present mini-review is to critically examine current conceptual and methodological approaches to evaluating PA participation among disabled children. We conducted a systematic review of contemporary literature (published between 2000 and 2016). Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, and their research approach was classified into guiding framework, definition of the key construct, and measurement used. The primary guiding framework was the international classification of functioning, disability and health. An explicit definition of PA participation was absent from all studies. Eight studies (47%) operationalized PA and participation as independent constructs. Measurements included traditional performance-based aspects of PA (frequency, duration, and intensity), and alternative participation measures (subjective perception of involvement, inclusion, or enjoyment). Approximately 64% of included articles were published in the past 2 years (2014–2016) indicating a rising interest in the topic of PA participation. Drawing from the broader discussion of participation in the literature, we offer a working definition of PA participation as it pertains to active, health-associated behaviors. Further description of alternative approaches to framing and measuring PA participation are offered to support effective assessment of health status among disabled children.

  5. A cost-effective methodology for the design of massively-parallel VLSI functional units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, N.; Sriram, G.; Desouza, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we propose a generalized methodology for the design of cost-effective massively-parallel VLSI Functional Units. This methodology is based on a technique of generating and reducing a massive bit-array on the mask-programmable PAcube VLSI array. This methodology unifies (maintains identical data flow and control) the execution of complex arithmetic functions on PAcube arrays. It is highly regular, expandable and uniform with respect to problem-size and wordlength, thereby reducing the communication complexity. The memory-functional unit interface is regular and expandable. Using this technique functional units of dedicated processors can be mask-programmed on the naked PAcube arrays, reducing the turn-around time. The production cost of such dedicated processors can be drastically reduced since the naked PAcube arrays can be mass-produced. Analysis of the the performance of functional units designed by our method yields promising results.

  6. Cyber-Informed Engineering: The Need for a New Risk Informed and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Joseph Daniel; Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Current engineering and risk management methodologies do not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Current methodologies focus on equipment failures or human error as initiating events for a hazard, while cyber attacks use the functionality of a trusted system to perform operations outside of the intended design and without the operator’s knowledge. These threats can by-pass or manipulate traditionally engineered safety barriers and present false information, invalidating the fundamental basis of a safety analysis. Cyber threats must be fundamentally analyzed from a completely new perspective where neither equipment nor human operation can be fully trusted. A new risk analysis and design methodology needs to be developed to address this rapidly evolving threatscape.

  7. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Plum, Michael A; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lu, Wei; McTeer, Stephen Mark

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  8. Systematic designs of buffers in macropipelines of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, B.W.; Aboelaze, M.; Shang, W.

    1988-02-01

    In a macropipeline of systolic arrays, outputs of one systolic array in a given format have to be fed as inputs to another systolic array in a possibly different format. A common memory becomes a bottleneck and limits the number of systolic arrays that can be connected together. In this paper, they study designs of buffers to convert data from one format to another. The minimum number of buffers is determined by a dynamic-programming algorithm with THETA(n/sup 2/) computational complexity, where n is the problem size. A general-purpose converter to convert data from any distribution to any other in a subset of the possible data distribution is also proposed. Last, buffer designs for a macropipeline to perform feature extraction and pattern classification are used to exemplify the design process.

  9. Gaining Methodological Insight through the Use of Single Subject Designs in Hearing-Impaired Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Teachers should familiarize themselves with the practical advantages of single-subject methodology in attempting to meet the various learning needs of hearing-impaired students. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these designs can act as tools for deciding which of several teaching methods are most beneficial to particular students.…

  10. A Methodological Framework for Instructional Design Model Development: Critical Dimensions and Synthesized Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Jang, Seonyoung

    2014-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) models have been developed to promote understandings of ID reality and guide ID performance. As the number and diversity of ID practices grows, implicit doubts regarding the reliability, validity, and usefulness of ID models suggest the need for methodological guidance that would help to generate ID models that are…

  11. Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Piljae

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

  12. IDR: A Participatory Methodology for Interdisciplinary Design in Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay

    2008-01-01

    One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL'07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly…

  13. Fundamentals of clinical outcomes assessment for spinal disorders: study designs, methodologies, and analyses.

    PubMed

    Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B; Shen, Francis H; Chapman, Jens R; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Study Design A broad narrative review. Objective Management of spinal disorders is continuously evolving, with new technologies being constantly developed. Regardless, assessment of patient outcomes is key in understanding the safety and efficacy of various therapeutic interventions. As such, evidence-based spine care is an essential component to the armamentarium of the spine specialist in an effort to critically analyze the reported literature and execute studies in an effort to improve patient care and change clinical practice. The following article, part one of a two-part series, is meant to bring attention to the pros and cons of various study designs, their methodological issues, as well as statistical considerations. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language of publication, addressing study designs and their methodologies as well as statistical concepts. Results Numerous articles and concepts addressing study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analytical concepts have been reported. Their applications in the context of spine-related conditions and disorders were noted. Conclusion Understanding the fundamental principles of study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analyses can further advance and improve future spine-related research.

  14. The Case in Case-Based Design of Educational Software: A Methodological Interrogation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the value of case study methodology in the design of an educational computer simulation. Three sources of knowledge were compared to assess the value of case study: practitioner and programmer knowledge, disciplinary knowledge, and knowledge obtained from a case study of teacher practice. A retrospective analysis revealed…

  15. QFD: a methodological tool for integration of ergonomics at the design stage.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute launched in 1999 a research program on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design. After a brief review of the problems of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the paper shows how the "Quality Function Deployment" method has been applied to the design of a boning knife and it highlights the difficulties encountered. Then, it demonstrates how this method can be a methodological tool geared to greater ergonomics consideration in product design. PMID:15694072

  16. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  17. Low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications. Description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.; Lewison, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    A low-power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp-hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous no-sun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  18. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  19. Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. S.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of a high-lift system is crucial in the preliminary design process of a subsonic civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to increase the allowable aircraft weight or decrease the aircraft's wing area for a given takeoff and landing performance. However, the implementation of a high-lift system into a design must be done carefully, for it can improve the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft but may also drastically increase the aircraft empty weight. If designed properly, a high-lift system can improve the cost effectiveness of an aircraft by increasing the payload weight for a given takeoff and landing performance. This is why the design methodology for a high-lift system should incorporate aerodynamic performance, weight, and cost. The airframe industry has experienced rapid technological growth in recent years which has led to significant advances in high-lift systems. For this reason many existing design methodologies have become obsolete since they are based on outdated low Reynolds number wind-tunnel data and can no longer accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics or weight of current multi-element wings. Therefore, a new design methodology has been created that reflects current aerodynamic, weight, and cost data and provides enough flexibility to allow incorporation of new data when it becomes available.

  20. A Digital Tool Set for Systematic Model Design in Process-Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Hylke; Tramper, Johannes; Hartog, Rob J.M.; Vermue, Marian

    2006-01-01

    One of the objectives of the process technology curriculum at Wageningen University is that students learn how to design mathematical models in the context of process engineering, using a systematic problem analysis approach. Students find it difficult to learn to design a model and little material exists to meet this learning objective. For these…

  1. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses.

  2. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the ‘Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes’ to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses. PMID:25105014

  3. Three-dimensional viscous design methodology for advanced technology aircraft supersonic inlet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1984-01-01

    A broad program to develop advanced, reliable, and user oriented three-dimensional viscous design techniques for supersonic inlet systems, and encourage their transfer into the general user community is discussed. Features of the program include: (1) develop effective methods of computing three-dimensional flows within a zonal modeling methodology; (2) ensure reasonable agreement between said analysis and selective sets of benchmark validation data; (3) develop user orientation into said analysis; and (4) explore and develop advanced numerical methodology. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13190

  4. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  5. Aero-Mechanical Design Methodology for Subsonic Civil Transport High-Lift Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, C. P.; Shaw, S. G.; VanderKam, J. C.; Brodeur, R. R.; Rudolph, P. K. C.; Kinney, D.

    2000-01-01

    In today's highly competitive and economically driven commercial aviation market, the trend is to make aircraft systems simpler and to shorten their design cycle which reduces recurring, non-recurring and operating costs. One such system is the high-lift system. A methodology has been developed which merges aerodynamic data with kinematic analysis of the trailing-edge flap mechanism with minimum mechanism definition required. This methodology provides quick and accurate aerodynamic performance prediction for a given flap deployment mechanism early on in the high-lift system preliminary design stage. Sample analysis results for four different deployment mechanisms are presented as well as descriptions of the aerodynamic and mechanism data required for evaluation. Extensions to interactive design capabilities are also discussed.

  6. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-03-11

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator.

  7. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator. PMID:26978370

  8. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator. PMID:26978370

  9. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    and obtaining energy security. On the other hand, Process Integration (PI) as defined by Natural Resource Canada as the combination of activities which aim at improving process systems, their unit operations and their interactions in order to maximize the efficiency of using water, energy and raw materials can also help biorefineries lower their energy consumptions and improve their economics. Energy integration techniques such as pinch analysis adopted by different industries over the years have ensured using heat sources within a plant to supply the demand internally and decrease the external utility consumption. Therefore, adopting energy integration can be one of the ways biorefinery technology owners can consider in their process development as well as their business model in order to improve their overall economics. The objective of this thesis is to propose a methodology for designing integrated downstream separation in a biorefinery. This methodology is tested in an ethanol biorefinery case study. Several alternative separation techniques are evaluated in their energy consumption and economics in three different scenarios; stand-alone without energy integration, stand-alone with internal energy integration and integrated-with Kraft. The energy consumptions and capital costs of separation techniques are assessed in each scenario and the cost and benefit of integration are determined and finally the best alternative is found through techno-economic metrics. Another advantage of this methodology is the use of a graphical tool which provides insights on decreasing energy consumption by modifying the process condition. The pivot point of this work is the use of a novel energy integration method called Bridge analysis. This systematic method which originally is intended for retrofit situation is used here for integration with Kraft process. Integration potentials are identified through this method and savings are presented for each design. In stand-alone with

  10. A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2001-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60<0.10, which is a level acceptable for commercial engines. For each of these missions strategies, an 'Optimal Robust' (open loop control) and an 'Optimal Adaptive' (closed loop control) installation was designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and

  11. A methodology for robust structural design with application to active aeroelastic wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Paul Scott

    A new design process for Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology was developed, in which control surface gear ratios and structural design variables were treated together in the same optimization problem, acting towards the same objective of weight minimization. This is in contrast to traditional AAW design processes that treat design of the gear ratios and design of the structure as separate optimization problems, each with their own different objectives and constraints, executed in an iterative fashion. The demonstration of the new AAW design process, implemented in an efficient modal-based structural analysis and optimization code, on a lightweight fighter resulted in a 15% reduction in wing box skin weight over a more traditional AAW design process. In addition, the new process was far more streamlined than the traditional approach in that it was performed in one continuous run and did not require the exchange of data between modules. The new AAW design process was then used in the development of a methodology for the design of AAW structures that are robust to uncertainty in maneuver loads which arise from the use of linear aerodynamics. Maneuver load uncertainty was modeled probabilistically and based on typical differences between rigid loads as predicted by nonlinear and linear aerodynamic theory. These models were used to augment the linear aerodynamic loads that had been used in the AAW design process. Characteristics of the robust design methodology included: use of a criticality criterion based on a strain energy formulation to determine what loads were most critical to the structure, Latin Hypercube Sampling for the propagation of uncertainty to the criterion function, and redesign of the structure, using the new AAW design process, to the most critical loads identified. The demonstration of the methodology resulted in a wing box skin structure that was 11% heavier than an AAW structure designed only with linear aerodynamics. However, it was

  12. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: Balancing methodological rigor and research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions – such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines – has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of “risk homeostasis,” which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. PMID:23597916

  13. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste pre-collection system. A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • MSW recovery starts at homes; therefore it is important to facilitate it to people. • Additionally, to optimize MSW collection a previous pre-collection must be planned. • A methodology to organize pre-collection considering several factors is presented. • The methodology has been verified applying it to a Spanish middle town. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has

  14. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  15. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  16. Evaluating faculty performance: a systematically designed and assessed approach.

    PubMed

    Bland, Carole J; Wersal, Lisa; VanLoy, Wendy; Jacott, William

    2002-01-01

    The authors explain how the Department of Family Practice and Community Health (DFPCH) at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine has responded to the need to create for its faculty an evaluation system that provides information for both feedback and merit-pay decisions. The development process, begun in 1996, is described, and its present format detailed. Also presented are the results of a 1999 assessment of the system, which found high satisfaction among the faculty and the department head. In particular, this system has allowed the department head to have a more objective basis for making salary decisions, to increase his role as coach, and to commit more time to career correction and/or development. Other observed outcomes include an enhanced ability to track faculty productivity, increased clarity in organizational structure and goals, increased research productivity, and early retirement of senior faculty receiving low evaluations. The key components of the DFPCH system mirror recommended elements for the design of faculty evaluation systems offered by evaluation professionals. Specific elements that the DFPCH found critical to success were stable and supportive departmental and project leadership, supportive faculty, skilled staff, a willingness to weather resistance to change, tailoring of the system to the department's specific needs and culture, and a willingness to allow the process to evolve. A key question that the evaluation system has evoked at the DFPCH is whether "merit" equals "worth"; that is, does the collective meritorious work of faculty members effectively address program and departmental goals? PMID:11788318

  17. Methodology for the Design of Streamline-Traced External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2014-01-01

    A design methodology based on streamline-tracing is discussed for the design of external-compression, supersonic inlets for flight below Mach 2.0. The methodology establishes a supersonic compression surface and capture cross-section by tracing streamlines through an axisymmetric Busemann flowfield. The compression system of shock and Mach waves is altered through modifications to the leading edge and shoulder of the compression surface. An external terminal shock is established to create subsonic flow which is diffused in the subsonic diffuser. The design methodology was implemented into the SUPIN inlet design tool. SUPIN uses specified design factors to design the inlets and computes the inlet performance, which includes the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and wave drag. A design study was conducted using SUPIN and the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics code to design and analyze the properties of two streamline-traced, external-compression (STEX) supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 freestream conditions. The STEX inlets were compared to axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional, and axisymmetric spike inlets. The STEX inlets had slightly lower total pressure recovery and higher levels of total pressure distortion than the axisymmetric spike inlet. The cowl wave drag coefficients of the STEX inlets were 20% of those for the axisymmetric spike inlet. The STEX inlets had external sound pressures that were 37% of those of the axisymmetric spike inlet, which may result in lower adverse sonic boom characteristics. The flexibility of the shape of the capture cross-section may result in benefits for the integration of STEX inlets with aircraft.

  18. Progress in the Development of a Nozzle Design Methodology for Pulsed Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, B. A.; Waltrup, P. J.; Rice, T.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), in support of the NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), is investigating performance methodologies and system integration issues related to Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE) nozzles. The primary goal of this ongoing effort is to develop design and performance assessment methodologies applicable to PDE exit nozzle(s). APL is currently focusing its efforts on a common plenum chamber design that collects the exhaust products from multiple PDE tubes prior to expansion in a single converging-diverging exit nozzle. To accomplish this goal, a time-dependent, quasi-one-dimensional analysis for determining the flow properties in and through a single plenum and exhaust nozzle is underway. In support of these design activities, parallel modeling efforts using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software are on-going. These efforts include both two and three-dimensional as well as steady and time-dependent computations to assess the flow in and through these devices. This paper discusses the progress in developing this nozzle design methodology.

  19. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives.

  20. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives. PMID:22678214

  1. Impact of User-Centered Design Methodology on the Design of Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of incorporating user-centered design within information systems design practices. Highlights include a definition of user-centered design based on human-computer interface; questions asked about users, including outcome, process, and task variables; and three criteria for when to use this approach in information systems…

  2. Robust model matching design methodology for a stochastic synthetic gene network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Chao; Wu, Chih-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Ching

    2011-03-01

    Synthetic biology has shown its potential and promising applications in the last decade. However, many synthetic gene networks cannot work properly and maintain their desired behaviors due to intrinsic parameter variations and extrinsic disturbances. In this study, the intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances are modeled in a non-linear stochastic gene network to mimic the real environment in the host cell. Then a non-linear stochastic robust matching design methodology is introduced to withstand the intrinsic parameter fluctuations and to attenuate the extrinsic disturbances in order to achieve a desired reference matching purpose. To avoid solving the Hamilton-Jacobi inequality (HJI) in the non-linear stochastic robust matching design, global linearization technique is used to simplify the design procedure by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). As a result, the proposed matching design methodology of the robust synthetic gene network can be efficiently designed with the help of LMI toolbox in Matlab. Finally, two in silico design examples of the robust synthetic gene network are given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust model matching performance to achieve the desired behavior in spite of stochastic parameter fluctuations and environmental disturbances in the host cell. PMID:21215760

  3. Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C E S; Cani, S P N; Segatto, M E; Pontes, M J; Romero, M A

    2009-08-01

    This paper proposes a new design methodology for discrete multi-pumped Raman amplifier. In a multi-objective optimization scenario, in a first step the whole solution-space is inspected by a CW analytical formulation. Then, the most promising solutions are fully investigated by a rigorous numerical treatment and the Raman amplification performance is thus determined by the combination of analytical and numerical approaches. As an application of our methodology we designed an photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier configuration which provides low ripple, high gain, clear eye opening and a low power penalty. The amplifier configuration also enables to fully compensate the dispersion introduced by a 70-km singlemode fiber in a 10 Gbit/s system. We have successfully obtained a configuration with 8.5 dB average gain over the C-band and 0.71 dB ripple with almost zero eye-penalty using only two pump lasers with relatively low pump power.

  4. Designing and implementing INTREPID, an intensive program in translational research methodologies for new investigators.

    PubMed

    Plottel, Claudia S; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Shao, Yongzhao; Micoli, Keith J; Fang, Yixin; Goldberg, Judith D; Galeano, Claudia R; Stangel, Jessica H; Chavis-Keeling, Deborah; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Pillinger, Michael H

    2014-12-01

    Senior housestaff and junior faculty are often expected to perform clinical research, yet may not always have the requisite knowledge and skills to do so successfully. Formal degree programs provide such knowledge, but require a significant commitment of time and money. Short-term training programs (days to weeks) provide alternative ways to accrue essential information and acquire fundamental methodological skills. Unfortunately, published information about short-term programs is sparse. To encourage discussion and exchange of ideas regarding such programs, we here share our experience developing and implementing INtensive Training in Research Statistics, Ethics, and Protocol Informatics and Design (INTREPID), a 24-day immersion training program in clinical research methodologies. Designing, planning, and offering INTREPID was feasible, and required significant faculty commitment, support personnel and infrastructure, as well as committed trainees.

  5. Spintronic logic design methodology based on spin Hall effect-driven magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Wang, Zhaohao; Zhang, Youguang; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-02-01

    Conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology is now approaching its physical scaling limits to enable Moore’s law to continue. Spintronic devices, as one of the potential alternatives, show great promise to replace CMOS technology for next-generation low-power integrated circuits in nanoscale technology nodes. Until now, spintronic memory has been successfully commercialized. However spintronic logic still faces many critical challenges (e.g. direct cascading capability and small operation gain) before it can be practically applied. In this paper, we propose a standard complimentary spintronic logic (CSL) design methodology to form a CMOS-like logic design paradigm. Using the spin Hall effect (SHE)-driven magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device as an example, we demonstrate CSL implementation, functionality and performance. This logic family provides a unified design methodology for spintronic logic circuits and partly solves the challenges of direct cascading capability and small operation gain in the previously proposed spintronic logic designs. By solving a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, the magnetization dynamics in the free layer of the MTJ is theoretically described and a compact electrical model is developed. With this electrical model, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed CSL design. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CSL design paradigm is rather promising for low-power logic computing.

  6. Methodology for CFD Design Analysis of National Launch System Nozzle Manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haire, Scot L.

    1993-01-01

    The current design environment dictates that high technology CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis produce quality results in a timely manner if it is to be integrated into the design process. The design methodology outlined describes the CFD analysis of an NLS (National Launch System) nozzle film cooling manifold. The objective of the analysis was to obtain a qualitative estimate for the flow distribution within the manifold. A complex, 3D, multiple zone, structured grid was generated from a 3D CAD file of the geometry. A Euler solution was computed with a fully implicit compressible flow solver. Post processing consisted of full 3D color graphics and mass averaged performance. The result was a qualitative CFD solution that provided the design team with relevant information concerning the flow distribution in and performance characteristics of the film cooling manifold within an effective time frame. Also, this design methodology was the foundation for a quick turnaround CFD analysis of the next iteration in the manifold design.

  7. The Atomic Intrinsic Integration Approach: A Structured Methodology for the Design of Games for the Conceptual Understanding of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Alejandro; Barrios, Enrique; Nussbaum, Miguel; Amestica, Matias; Leclerc, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations combined with games have been successfully used to teach conceptual physics. However, there is no clear methodology for guiding the design of these types of games. To remedy this, we propose a structured methodology for the design of conceptual physics games that explicitly integrates the principles of the intrinsic…

  8. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  9. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Miranta; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi

    2016-01-01

    Background Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient’s biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker’s clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible. Methods and Findings We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design. Conclusions Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs. PMID:26910238

  10. Storytelling to Enhance Teaching and Learning: The Systematic Design, Development, and Testing of Two Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Sivo, Stephen; Pounds, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Storytelling may be a powerful instructional approach for engaging learners and facilitating e-learning. However, relatively little is known about how to apply story within the context of systematic instructional design processes and claims for the effectiveness of storytelling in training and education have been primarily anecdotal and…

  11. The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Online Credit Nutrition Courses: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy L.; Carbone, Elena T.; Beffa-Negrini, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how postsecondary online nutrition education courses (ONEC) are delivered, determine ONEC effectiveness, identify theoretical models used, and identify future research needs. Design: Systematic search of database literature. Setting: Postsecondary education. Participants: Nine research articles evaluating postsecondary ONEC.…

  12. Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed research on digital games and learning for K-16 students. We synthesized comparisons of game versus nongame conditions (i.e., media comparisons) and comparisons of augmented games versus standard game designs (i.e., value-added comparisons). We used random-effects meta-regression models with robust…

  13. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  14. Application of an integrated flight/propulsion control design methodology to a STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of an emerging Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control (IFPC) design methodology to a Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The steps in the methodology consist of designing command shaping prefilters to provide the overall desired response to pilot command inputs. A previously designed centralized controller is first validated for the integrated airframe/engine plant used. This integrated plant is derived from a different model of the engine subsystem than the one used for the centralized controller design. The centralized controller is then partitioned in a decentralized, hierarchical structure comprising of airframe lateral and longitudinal subcontrollers and an engine subcontroller. Command shaping prefilters from the pilot control effector inputs are then designed and time histories of the closed loop IFPC system response to simulated pilot commands are compared to desired responses based on handling qualities requirements. Finally, the propulsion system safety and nonlinear limited protection logic is wrapped around the engine subcontroller and the response of the closed loop integrated system is evaluated for transients that encounter the propulsion surge margin limit.

  15. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  16. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Traub, R J; Pryor, K H

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y(-1) for the whole body and 100 mSv y(-1) for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR WORKER NEUTRON EXPOSURE EVALUATION IN THE PDCF FACILITY DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Traub, Richard J.; Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2004-08-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y?1 for the whole body and 100 mSv y?1 for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modeling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularizing the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons were

  18. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Traub, R J; Pryor, K H

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y(-1) for the whole body and 100 mSv y(-1) for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons

  19. Spacecraft Design-for-Demise implementation strategy & decision-making methodology for low earth orbit missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waswa, Peter M. B.; Elliot, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    Space missions designed to completely ablate upon an uncontrolled Earth atmosphere reentry are likely to be simpler and cheaper than those designed to execute controlled reentry. This is because mission risk (unavailability) stemming from controlled reentry subsystem failure(s) is essentially eliminated. NASA has not customarily implemented Design-for-Demise meticulously. NASA has rather approached Design-for-Demise in an ad hoc manner that fails to entrench Design-for-Demise as a mission design driver. Thus, enormous demisability challenges at later formulation stages of missions aspired to be demisable are evident due to these perpetuated oversights in entrenching Design-for-Demise practices. The investigators hence propose a strategy for a consistent integration of Design-for-Demise practices in all phases of a space mission lifecycle. Secondly, an all-inclusive risk-informed, decision-making methodology referred to as Analytic Deliberative Process is proposed. This criterion facilitates in making a choice between an uncontrolled reentry demisable or controlled reentry. The authors finally conceive and synthesize Objectives Hierarchy, Attributes, and Quantitative Performance Measures of the Analytical Deliberative Process for a Design-for-Demise risk-informed decision-making process.

  20. A methodology towards virtualisation-based high performance simulation platform supporting multidisciplinary design of complex products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; (Luke) Zhang, Xiaolong; Luo, Yongliang; Zhang, Yabin

    2012-08-01

    Multidisciplinary design of complex products leads to an increasing demand for high performance simulation (HPS) platforms. One great challenge is how to achieve high efficient utilisation of large-scale simulation resources in distributed and heterogeneous environments. This article reports a virtualisation-based methodology to realise a HPS platform. This research is driven by the issues concerning large-scale simulation resources deployment and complex simulation environment construction, efficient and transparent utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources and high reliable simulation with fault tolerance. A framework of virtualisation-based simulation platform (VSIM) is first proposed. Then the article investigates and discusses key approaches in VSIM, including simulation resources modelling, a method to automatically deploying simulation resources for dynamic construction of system environment, and a live migration mechanism in case of faults in run-time simulation. Furthermore, the proposed methodology is applied to a multidisciplinary design system for aircraft virtual prototyping and some experiments are conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology can (1) significantly improve the utilisation of fine-grained simulation resources, (2) result in a great reduction in deployment time and an increased flexibility for simulation environment construction and (3)achieve fault tolerant simulation.

  1. Device Thrombogenicty Emulator (DTE) – Design optimization Methodology for Cardiovascular Devices: A Study in Two Bileaflet MHV Designs

    PubMed Central

    Xenos, Michalis; Girdhar, Gaurav; Alemu, Yared; Jesty, Jolyon; Slepian, Marvin; Einav, Shmuel; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Patients who receive prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implants require mandatory anticoagulation medication after implantation due to the thrombogenic potential of the valve. Optimization of PHV designs may facilitate reduction of flow-induced thrombogenicity and reduce or eliminate the need for post-implant anticoagulants. We present a methodology entitled Device Thrombogenicty Emulator (DTE) for optimizing the thrombo-resistance performance of PHV by combining numerical and experimental approaches. Two bileaflet mechanical heart valves (MHV) designs – St. Jude Medical (SJM) and ATS were investigated, by studying the effect of distinct flow phases on platelet activation. Transient turbulent and direct numerical simulations (DNS) were conducted, and stress loading histories experienced by the platelets were calculated along flow trajectories. The numerical simulations indicated distinct design dependent differences between the two valves. The stress-loading waveforms extracted from the numerical simulations were programmed into a hemodynamic shearing device (HSD), emulating the flow conditions past the valves in distinct ‘hot spot’ flow regions that are implicated in MHV thrombogenicity. The resultant platelet activity was measured with a modified prothrombinase assay, and was found to be significantly higher in the SJM valve, mostly during the regurgitation phase. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated platelet activation potential. This establishes the utility of the DTE methodology for serving as a test bed for evaluating design modifications for achieving better thrombogenic performance for such devices. PMID:20483411

  2. Neotype designation for Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 (Sauria: Agamidae) with notes on its systematics.

    PubMed

    Gowande, Gaurang; Mishra, Anurag; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2016-01-01

    Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 is one of the most widespread agamid lizard species which was described without a locality. The type specimen of the species has long been considered lost; however most workers considered Pondicherry as the type locality for the species. Studies by Zug et al. 2006 confirmed that C. versicolor is a complex of multiple species which necessitates fixing type locality and specimen for the species in order to resolve the systematics of the species complex. An adult male from Pondicherry was collected and is here designated as the neotype. A re-description of the species is provided along with notes on systematics of the species. PMID:27395587

  3. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  4. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained. PMID:26960227

  5. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design.

  6. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design. PMID:27563908

  7. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained.

  8. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design. PMID:27563908

  9. Hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients: a systematic review of effectiveness and methodology related to hypnosis interventions.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Janet; Smith, Joanna E; McCall, Gillian; Pilkington, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically appraise the evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients. A comprehensive search of major biomedical and specialist complementary and alternative medicine databases was conducted. Citations were included from the databases' inception to March 2005. Efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Controlled trials were appraised using predefined criteria. Clinical commentaries were obtained for each study. Seven randomized controlled clinical trials and one controlled clinical trial were found. Studies report positive results, including statistically significant reductions in pain and anxiety/distress, but a number of methodological limitations were identified. Systematic searching and appraisal has demonstrated that hypnosis has potential as a clinically valuable intervention for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients. Further research into the effectiveness and acceptability of hypnosis for pediatric cancer patients is recommended. PMID:16442484

  10. Study design, methodology and statistical analyses in the clinical development of sparfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Genevois, E; Lelouer, V; Vercken, J B; Caillon, R

    1996-05-01

    Many publications in the past 10 years have emphasised the difficulties of evaluating anti-infective drugs and the need for well-designed clinical trials in this therapeutic field. The clinical development of sparfloxacin in Europe, involving more than 4000 patients in ten countries, provided the opportunity to implement a methodology for evaluation and statistical analyses which would take into account actual requirements and past insufficiencies. This methodology focused on a rigorous and accurate patient classification for evaluability, subgroups of particular interest, efficacy assessment based on automation (algorithm) and individual case review by expert panel committees. In addition, the statistical analyses did not use significance testing but rather confidence intervals to determine whether sparfloxacin was therapeutically equivalent to the reference comparator antibacterial agents. PMID:8737126

  11. Study design, methodology and statistical analyses in the clinical development of sparfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Genevois, E; Lelouer, V; Vercken, J B; Caillon, R

    1996-05-01

    Many publications in the past 10 years have emphasised the difficulties of evaluating anti-infective drugs and the need for well-designed clinical trials in this therapeutic field. The clinical development of sparfloxacin in Europe, involving more than 4000 patients in ten countries, provided the opportunity to implement a methodology for evaluation and statistical analyses which would take into account actual requirements and past insufficiencies. This methodology focused on a rigorous and accurate patient classification for evaluability, subgroups of particular interest, efficacy assessment based on automation (algorithm) and individual case review by expert panel committees. In addition, the statistical analyses did not use significance testing but rather confidence intervals to determine whether sparfloxacin was therapeutically equivalent to the reference comparator antibacterial agents.

  12. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  13. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2015-02-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town. PMID:25443095

  14. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2014-11-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town. PMID:25008298

  15. Multirate Flutter Suppression System Design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing. Part 2; Methodology Application Software Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Gregory S.; Berg, Martin C.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies were applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing. This report describes the user's manual and software toolbox developed at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression control law for the BACT wing.

  16. Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Groenink, Lucianne; Verdouw, P Monika; Bakker, Brenda; Wever, Kimberley E

    2015-04-15

    The separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups is one of many that has been used to screen for anxiolytic-like properties of drugs. The test is based on the cross-species phenomenon that infants emit distress calls when placed in social isolation. Here we report a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological intervention in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups. Electronic databases were searched for original research articles, yielding 32 studies that met inclusion criteria. We extracted data on pharmacological intervention, animal and methodological characteristics, and study quality indicators. Meta-analysis showed that the different drug classes in clinical use for the treatment of anxiety disorders, have comparable effects on vocalization behaviour, irrespective of their mechanism of action. Of the experimental drugs, nociception (NOP) receptor agonists proved very effective in this test. Analysis further indicated that the commonly used read-outs total number and total duration of vocalizations are equally valid. With regard to methodological characteristics, repeated testing of pups as well as selecting pups with moderate or high levels of vocalization were associated with larger treatment effects. Finally, reporting of study methodology, randomization and blinding was poor and Egger's test for small study effects showed that publication bias likely occurred. This review illustrates the value of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in improving translational value and methodological aspects of animal models. It further shows the urgent need to implement existing publication guidelines to maximize the output and impact of experimental animal studies.

  17. Utilization of research methodology in designing and developing an interdisciplinary course in ethics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jennie Ann M; Haas, Barbara A; Harmer-Beem, Marji J; Baker, David L

    2004-02-01

    Development research methodology was utilized to design an interdisciplinary ethics course for students from seven disciplines: dental hygiene, nursing, nurse anesthesia, occupational therapy, physician assistant, physical therapy, and social work. Two research questions, 'What content areas should be considered for inclusion in an interdisciplinary course in Ethics?' and 'What design framework, format, or structure would best fit the content chosen?' guided the study. An interdisciplinary faculty design team conducted a comparative analysis of each of the seven discipline's codes of ethics to find common topics of interest. Further analysis then grouped these topics into eight categories of professional responsibility. The result was a fifteen-week course with validated content relevant to all disciplines.

  18. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572

  19. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology.

    PubMed

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-06-13

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572

  20. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, Farah

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  1. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate) characteristic. Results We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate) sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of

  2. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: best practice from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew T; Driver, Amanda; Cowling, Richard M; Maze, Kristal; Desmet, Philip G; Lombard, Amanda T; Rouget, Mathieu; Botha, Mark A; Boshoff, Andre F; Castley, J Guy; Goodman, Peter S; Mackinnon, Kathy; Pierce, Shirley M; Sims-Castley, Rebecca; Stewart, Warrick I; von Hase, Amrei

    2006-06-01

    Systematic conservation assessment and conservation planning are two distinct fields of conservation science often confused as one and the same. Systematic conservation assessment is the technical, often computer-based, identification of priority areas for conservation. Conservation planning is composed of a systematic conservation assessment coupled with processes for development of an implementation strategy and stakeholder collaboration. The peer-reviewed conservation biology literature abounds with studies analyzing the performance of assessments (e.g., area-selection techniques). This information alone, however can never deliver effective conservation action; it informs conservation planning. Examples of how to translate systematic assessment outputs into knowledge and then use them for "doing" conservation are rare. South Africa has received generous international and domestic funding for regional conservation planning since the mid-1990s. We reviewed eight South African conservation planning processes and identified key ingredients of best practice for undertaking systematic conservation assessments in a way that facilitates implementing conservation action. These key ingredients include the design of conservation planning processes, skills for conservation assessment teams, collaboration with stakeholders, and interpretation and mainstreaming of products (e.g., maps) for stakeholders. Social learning institutions are critical to the successful operationalization of assessments within broader conservation planning processes and should include not only conservation planners but also diverse interest groups, including rural landowners, politicians, and government employees.

  3. A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

    2011-05-01

    The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

  4. Community-wide assessment of protein-interface modeling suggests improvements to design methodology.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Sarel J; Whitehead, Timothy A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Corn, Jacob E; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Mitchell, Julie C; Demerdash, Omar N A; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Terashi, Genki; Moal, Iain H; Li, Xiaofan; Bates, Paul A; Zacharias, Martin; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Jun-su; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Bourquard, Thomas; Bernauer, Julie; Poupon, Anne; Azé, Jérôme; Soner, Seren; Ovali, Sefik Kerem; Ozbek, Pemra; Tal, Nir Ben; Haliloglu, Türkan; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G; Weng, Zhiping; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pons, Carles; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Feng; Gong, Xinqi; Cao, Libin; Xu, Xianjin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Panwen; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Cunxin; Robert, Charles H; Guharoy, Mainak; Liu, Shiyong; Huang, Yangyu; Li, Lin; Guo, Dachuan; Chen, Ying; Xiao, Yi; London, Nir; Itzhaki, Zohar; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Inbar, Yuval; Potapov, Vladimir; Cohen, Mati; Schreiber, Gideon; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kanamori, Eiji; Standley, Daron M; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Driggers, Camden M; Hall, Robert G; Morgan, Jessica L; Hsu, Victor L; Zhan, Jian; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Zhang, Weiyi; Camacho, Carlos J; Kilambi, Krishna P; Sircar, Aroop; Gray, Jeffrey J; Ohue, Masahito; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka; Khashan, Raed; Bush, Stephen; Fouches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Stranges, P Benjamin; Jacak, Ron; Kuhlman, Brian; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wodak, Shoshana J; Janin, Joel; Baker, David

    2011-11-25

    The CAPRI (Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions) and CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction) experiments have demonstrated the power of community-wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring the power of community-wide experiments to bear on a very challenging protein design problem that provides a complementary but equally fundamental test of current understanding of protein-binding thermodynamics. We have generated a number of designed protein-protein interfaces with very favorable computed binding energies but which do not appear to be formed in experiments, suggesting that there may be important physical chemistry missing in the energy calculations. A total of 28 research groups took up the challenge of determining what is missing: we provided structures of 87 designed complexes and 120 naturally occurring complexes and asked participants to identify energetic contributions and/or structural features that distinguish between the two sets. The community found that electrostatics and solvation terms partially distinguish the designs from the natural complexes, largely due to the nonpolar character of the designed interactions. Beyond this polarity difference, the community found that the designed binding surfaces were, on average, structurally less embedded in the designed monomers, suggesting that backbone conformational rigidity at the designed surface is important for realization of the designed function. These results can be used to improve computational design strategies, but there is still much to be learned; for example, one designed complex, which does form in experiments, was classified by all metrics as a nonbinder.

  5. Toward a systematic design theory for silicon solar cells using optimization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misiakos, K.; Lindholm, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    This work is a first detailed attempt to systematize the design of silicon solar cells. Design principles follow from three theorems. Although the results hold only under low injection conditions in base and emitter regions, they hold for arbitrary doping profiles and include the effects of drift fields, high/low junctions and heavy doping concentrations of donor or acceptor atoms. Several optimal designs are derived from the theorems, one of which involves a three-dimensional morphology in the emitter region. The theorems are derived from a nonlinear differential equation of the Riccati form, the dependent variable of which is a normalized recombination particle current.

  6. A system-of-systems modeling methodology for strategic general aviation design decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Henry Thome

    General aviation has long been studied as a means of providing an on-demand "personal air vehicle" that bypasses the traffic at major commercial hubs. This thesis continues this research through development of a system of systems modeling methodology applicable to the selection of synergistic product concepts, market segments, and business models. From the perspective of the conceptual design engineer, the design and selection of future general aviation aircraft is complicated by the definition of constraints and requirements, and the tradeoffs among performance and cost aspects. Qualitative problem definition methods have been utilized, although their accuracy in determining specific requirement and metric values is uncertain. In industry, customers are surveyed, and business plans are created through a lengthy, iterative process. In recent years, techniques have developed for predicting the characteristics of US travel demand based on travel mode attributes, such as door-to-door time and ticket price. As of yet, these models treat the contributing systems---aircraft manufacturers and service providers---as independently variable assumptions. In this research, a methodology is developed which seeks to build a strategic design decision making environment through the construction of a system of systems model. The demonstrated implementation brings together models of the aircraft and manufacturer, the service provider, and most importantly the travel demand. Thus represented is the behavior of the consumers and the reactive behavior of the suppliers---the manufacturers and transportation service providers---in a common modeling framework. The results indicate an ability to guide the design process---specifically the selection of design requirements---through the optimization of "capability" metrics. Additionally, results indicate the ability to find synergetic solutions, that is solutions in which two systems might collaborate to achieve a better result than acting

  7. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-01-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  8. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-05-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  9. New Methodology of Designing Inexpensive Hybrid Control-Acquisition Systems for Mechatronic Constructions

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new methodology for designing a hybrid control and acquisition system consisting of a 32-bit SoC microsystem connected via a direct Universal Serial Bus (USB) with a standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) component running the Android operating system. It is proposed to utilize it avoiding the use of an additional converter. An Android-based component was chosen to explore the potential for a mobile, compact and energy efficient solution with easy to build user interfaces and easy wireless integration with other computer systems. This paper presents results of practical implementation and analysis of experimental real-time performance. It covers closed control loop time between the sensor/actuator module and the Android operating system as well as the real-time sensor data stream within such a system. Some optimisations are proposed and their influence on real-time performance was investigated. The proposed methodology is intended for acquisition and control of mechatronic systems, especially mobile robots. It can be used in a wide range of control applications as well as embedded acquisition-recording devices, including energy quality measurements, smart-grids and medicine. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology can be employed without developing specific device drivers. The latency achieved was less than 0.5 ms and the sensor data stream throughput was on the order of 750 KB/s (compared to 3 ms latency and 300 KB/s in traditional solutions). PMID:24351633

  10. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase ( PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each.

  11. Optimization of Electrospray Ionization by Statistical Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology: Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Dissociation Constant Determinations.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Liliana; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding studies between proteins and ligands under native conditions require that instrumental ESI source conditions are optimized if relative solution-phase equilibrium concentrations between the protein-ligand complex and free protein are to be retained. Instrumental ESI source conditions that simultaneously maximize the relative ionization efficiency of the protein-ligand complex over free protein and minimize the protein-ligand complex dissociation during the ESI process and the transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum are generally specific for each protein-ligand system and should be established when an accurate equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) is to be determined via titration. In this paper, a straightforward and systematic approach for ESI source optimization is presented. The method uses statistical design of experiments (DOE) in conjunction with response surface methodology (RSM) and is demonstrated for the complexes between Plasmodium vivax guanylate kinase (PvGK) and two ligands: 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and 5'-guanosine diphosphate (GDP). It was verified that even though the ligands are structurally similar, the most appropriate ESI conditions for KD determination by titration are different for each. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Shape slack: a design-manufacturing co-optimization methodology using tolerance information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shayak; Agarwal, Kanak B.; Nassif, Sani; Orshansky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The move to low-k1 lithography makes it increasingly difficult to print feature sizes that are a small fraction of the wavelength of light. With further delay in the delivery of extreme ultraviolet lithography, these difficulties will motivate the research community to explore increasingly broad solutions. We propose that there is significant research potential in studying the essential premise of the design/manufacturing handoff paradigm. Today this premise revolves around design rules that define what implementations are legal, and raw shapes, which define design intent, and are treated as a fixed requirement for lithography. In reality, layout features may vary within certain tolerances without violating any design constraints. The knowledge of such tolerances can help improve the manufacturability of layout features while still meeting design requirements. We propose a methodology to convert electrical slack in a design to shape slack or tolerances on individual layout shapes. We show how this can be done for two important implementation fabrics: (a) cell-library-based digital logic and (b) static random access memory. We further develop a tolerance-driven optical proximity correction algorithm that utilizes this shape slack information during mask preparation to ensure that all features prints within their shape slacks in presence of lithographic process variations. Experiments on 45 nm silicon on insulator cells using accurate process models show that this approach reduces postlithography delay errors by 50%, and layout hotspots by 47% compared to conventional methods.

  13. Deformable Surface Accommodating Intraocular Lens: Second Generation Prototype Design Methodology and Testing

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, Sean J.; Schwiegerling, Jim T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Present an analysis methodology for developing and evaluating accommodating intraocular lenses incorporating a deformable interface. Methods: The next generation design of extruded gel interface intraocular lens is presented. A prototype based upon similar previously in vivo proven design was tested with measurements of actuation force, lens power, interface contour, optical transfer function, and visual Strehl ratio. Prototype verified mathematical models were used to optimize optical and mechanical design parameters to maximize the image quality and minimize the required force to accommodate. Results: The prototype lens produced adequate image quality with the available physiologic accommodating force. The iterative mathematical modeling based upon the prototype yielded maximized optical and mechanical performance through maximum allowable gel thickness to extrusion diameter ratio, maximum feasible refractive index change at the interface, and minimum gel material properties in Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. Conclusions: The design prototype performed well. It operated within the physiologic constraints of the human eye including the force available for full accommodative amplitude using the eye's natural focusing feedback, while maintaining image quality in the space available. The parameters that optimized optical and mechanical performance were delineated as those, which minimize both asphericity and actuation pressure. The design parameters outlined herein can be used as a template to maximize the performance of a deformable interface intraocular lens. Translational Relevance: The article combines a multidisciplinary basic science approach from biomechanics, optical science, and ophthalmology to optimize an intraocular lens design suitable for preliminary animal trials. PMID:25938005

  14. Proposal of a methodology for the design of offshore wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Dolores; Diez, J. Javier; Santos Lopez, J.; Negro, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    In fact, the wind power installed in the sea is still very scarce, with only 1,500 megawatts in operation in the middle of 2009. Although the first offshore wind farm experiment took place in 1990, the facilities built up to now have been mainly pilot projects. These previous statements confirm the incipient state of offshore wind power, Anyway, in this moment this technology is being strongly pushed, especially by the governments of some countries - like the United Kingdom, Germany, etc. - which is due above all to the general commitments made to reduce the emission of greenhouses gases. All of these factors lead to predict a promising future for offshore wind power. Nevertheless, it has not been still established a general methodology for the design and the management of this kind of installations. This paper includes some of the results of a research project, which consists on the elaboration of a methodology to enable the optimization of the global process of the operations leading to the implantation of offshore wind facilities. The proposed methodology allows the planning of offshore wind projects according to an integral management policy, enabling not only technical and financial feasibility of the offshore wind project to be achieved, but also respect for the environment. For that, it has been necessary to take into account multiple factors, including the territory, the terrain, the physical-chemical properties of the contact area between the atmosphere and the ocean, the dynamics resulting in both as a consequence of the Earth's behaviour as a heat machine, external geodynamics, internal geodynamics, planetary dynamics, biokenosis, the legislative and financial framework, human activities, wind turbines, met masts, electric substations and lines, foundations, logistics and the project's financial profitability. For its validation, this methodology has been applied to different offshore wind farms in operation.

  15. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    Structural failure is rarely a "sudden death" type of event, such sudden failures may occur only under abnormal loadings like bomb or gas explosions and very strong earthquakes. In most cases, structures fail due to damage accumulated under normal loadings such as wind loads, dead and live loads. The consequence of cumulative damage will affect the reliability of surviving components and finally causes collapse of the system. The cumulative damage effects on system reliability under time-invariant loadings are of practical interest in structural design and therefore will be investigated in this study. The scope of this study is, however, restricted to the consideration of damage accumulation as the increase in the number of failed components due to the violation of their strength limits.

  16. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  17. Application of Adjoint Methodology to Supersonic Aircraft Design Using Reversed Equivalent Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to shape an aircraft to equivalent area based objectives using the discrete adjoint approach. Equivalent areas can be obtained either using reversed augmented Burgers equation or direct conversion of off-body pressures into equivalent area. Formal coupling with CFD allows computation of sensitivities of equivalent area objectives with respect to aircraft shape parameters. The exactness of the adjoint sensitivities is verified against derivatives obtained using the complex step approach. This methodology has the benefit of using designer-friendly equivalent areas in the shape design of low-boom aircraft. Shape optimization results with equivalent area cost functionals are discussed and further refined using ground loudness based objectives.

  18. A hybrid design methodology for structuring an Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping business.

    PubMed

    Celik, Metin

    2009-03-01

    The International Safety Management (ISM) Code defines a broad framework for the safe management and operation of merchant ships, maintaining high standards of safety and environmental protection. On the other hand, ISO 14001:2004 provides a generic, worldwide environmental management standard that has been utilized by several industries. Both the ISM Code and ISO 14001:2004 have the practical goal of establishing a sustainable Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping businesses. This paper presents a hybrid design methodology that shows how requirements from both standards can be combined into a single execution scheme. Specifically, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) are used to structure an IEMS for ship management companies. This research provides decision aid to maritime executives in order to enhance the environmental performance in the shipping industry. PMID:19038488

  19. Application of Adjoint Methodology in Various Aspects of Sonic Boom Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the advances in computational design has been the development of adjoint methods allowing efficient calculation of sensitivities in gradient-based shape optimization. This paper discusses two new applications of adjoint methodology that have been developed to aid in sonic boom mitigation exercises. In the first, equivalent area targets are generated using adjoint sensitivities of selected boom metrics. These targets may then be used to drive the vehicle shape during optimization. The second application is the computation of adjoint sensitivities of boom metrics on the ground with respect to parameters such as flight conditions, propagation sampling rate, and selected inputs to the propagation algorithms. These sensitivities enable the designer to make more informed selections of flight conditions at which the chosen cost functionals are less sensitive.

  20. Assessment of current structural design methodology for high-temperature reactors based on failure tests

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    A mature design methodology, consisting of inelastic analysis methods, provided in Department of Energy guidelines, and failure criteria, contained in ASME Code Case N-47, exists in the United States for high-temperature reactor components. The objective of this paper is to assess the adequacy of this overall methodology by comparing predicted inelastic deformations and lifetimes with observed results from structural failure tests and from an actual service failure. Comparisons are presented for three types of structural situations: (1) nozzle-to-spherical shell specimens, where stresses at structural discontinuities lead to cracking, (2) welded structures, where metallurgical discontinuities play a key role in failures, and (3) thermal shock loadings of cylinders and pipes, where thermal discontinuities can lead to failure. The comparison between predicted and measured inelastic responses are generally reasonalbly good; quantities are sometimes overpredicted somewhat, and, sometimes underpredicted. However, even seemingly small discrepancies can have a significant effect on structural life, and lifetimes are not always as closely predicted. For a few cases, the lifetimes are substantially overpredicted, which raises questions regarding the adequacy of existing design margins.

  1. Methodology for Sensitivity Analysis, Approximate Analysis, and Design Optimization in CFD for Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1996-01-01

    An incremental iterative formulation together with the well-known spatially split approximate-factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the large, sparse systems of linear equations that are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. This formulation is also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form. For the smaller two dimensional problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. However, iterative methods are needed for larger two-dimensional and three dimensional applications because direct methods require more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioned coefficient matrix; this problem is overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested using an upwind cell-centered finite-volume formulation applied in two dimensions to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for external flow over an airfoil. In three dimensions this methodology is demonstrated with a marching-solution algorithm for the Euler equations to calculate supersonic flow over the High-Speed Civil Transport configuration (HSCT 24E). The sensitivity derivatives obtained with the incremental iterative method from a marching Euler code are used in a design-improvement study of the HSCT configuration that involves thickness. camber, and planform design variables.

  2. A systematic design approach for two planetary gear split hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinming; Peng, Huei

    2010-11-01

    Multiple power sources in a hybrid vehicle allow for flexible vehicle power-train operations, but also impose kinematic constraints due to component characteristics. This paper presents a design process that enables systematic search and screening through all three major dimensions of hybrid vehicle designs - system configuration, component sizing and control, to achieve optimal performance while satisfying the imposed constraints. An automated dynamic modelling method is first developed which enables the construction of hybrid vehicle model efficiently. A screening process then narrows down to configurations that satisfy drivability and operation constraints. Finally, a design and control optimisation strategy is carried out to obtain the best execution of each configuration. A case study for the design of a power-split hybrid vehicle with optimal fuel economy is used to demonstrate this overall hybrid vehicle design process.

  3. Integrated active and passive control design methodology for the LaRC CSI evolutionary model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voth, Christopher T.; Richards, Kenneth E., Jr.; Schmitz, Eric; Gehling, Russel N.; Morgenthaler, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    A general design methodology to integrate active control with passive damping was demonstrated on the NASA LaRC CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM), a ground testbed for future large, flexible spacecraft. Vibration suppression controllers designed for Line-of Sight (LOS) minimization were successfully implemented on the CEM. A frequency-shaped H2 methodology was developed, allowing the designer to specify the roll-off of the MIMO compensator. A closed loop bandwidth of 4 Hz, including the six rigid body modes and the first three dominant elastic modes of the CEM was achieved. Good agreement was demonstrated between experimental data and analytical predictions for the closed loop frequency response and random tests. Using the Modal Strain Energy (MSE) method, a passive damping treatment consisting of 60 viscoelastically damped struts was designed, fabricated and implemented on the CEM. Damping levels for the targeted modes were more than an order of magnitude larger than for the undamped structure. Using measured loss and stiffness data for the individual damped struts, analytical predictions of the damping levels were very close to the experimental values in the (1-10) Hz frequency range where the open loop model matched the experimental data. An integrated active/passive controller was successfully implemented on the CEM and was evaluated against an active-only controller. A two-fold increase in the effective control bandwidth and further reductions of 30 percent to 50 percent in the LOS RMS outputs were achieved compared to an active-only controller. Superior performance was also obtained compared to a High-Authority/Low-Authority (HAC/LAC) controller.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Update of a Systematic Review on Methodologic Issues in Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Claassens, Lily; van Meerbeeck, Jan; Coens, Corneel; Quinten, Chantal; Ghislain, Irina; Sloan, Elizabeth K.; Wang, Xin Shelly; Velikova, Galina; Bottomley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study is an update of a systematic review of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) methodology reporting in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective was to evaluate HRQOL methodology reporting over the last decade and its benefit for clinical decision making. Methods A MEDLINE systematic literature review was performed. Eligible RCTs implemented patient-reported HRQOL assessments and regular oncology treatments for newly diagnosed adult patients with NSCLC. Included studies were published in English from August 2002 to July 2010. Two independent reviewers evaluated all included RCTs. Results Fifty-three RCTs were assessed. Of the 53 RCTs, 81% reported that there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS). However, 50% of RCTs that were unable to find OS differences reported a significant difference in HRQOL scores. The quality of HRQOL reporting has improved; both reporting of clinically significant differences and statistical testing of HRQOL have improved. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer HRQOL questionnaire was used in 57% of the studies. However, reporting of HRQOL hypotheses and rationales for choosing HRQOL instruments were significantly less than before 2002 (P < .05). Conclusion The number of NSCLC RCTs incorporating HRQOL assessments has considerably increased. HRQOL continues to demonstrate its importance in RCTs, especially in those studies in which no OS difference is found. Despite the improved quality of HRQOL methodology reporting, certain aspects remain underrepresented. Our findings suggest need for an international standardization of HRQOL reporting similar to the CONSORT guidelines for clinical findings. PMID:21464420

  5. Modeling and Design Analysis Methodology for Tailoring of Aircraft Structures with Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials provide design flexibility in that fiber placement and orientation can be specified and a variety of material forms and manufacturing processes are available. It is possible, therefore, to 'tailor' the structure to a high degree in order to meet specific design requirements in an optimum manner. Common industrial practices, however, have limited the choices designers make. One of the reasons for this is that there is a dearth of conceptual/preliminary design analysis tools specifically devoted to identifying structural concepts for composite airframe structures. Large scale finite element simulations are not suitable for such purposes. The present project has been devoted to creating modeling and design analysis methodology for use in the tailoring process of aircraft structures. Emphasis has been given to creating bend-twist elastic coupling in high aspect ratio wings or other lifting surfaces. The direction of our work was in concert with the overall NASA effort Twenty- First Century Aircraft Technology (TCAT). A multi-disciplinary team was assembled by Dr. Damodar Ambur to work on wing technology, which included our project.

  6. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  7. A Methodological Approach for Designating Management Zones in Mount Spil National Park, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hepcan

    2000-09-01

    / This study was undertaken to (1) determine the suitability of ecosystems within Mount Spil National Park (Turkey) to human activities by a systematic zoning procedure, and (2) provide the basis for developing sound management strategies based on natural-cultural resource attributes of the park. After assessing natural-cultural resources and human activity requirements, the suitability of three zones (Strict Protection Zone, SPZ; Restricted Use Zone, RUZ; and Recreation and Administration Zone, RAZ) for proposed human activities/land uses was determined in order to maintain ecological sustainability and integrity through a weighting-ranking methodology, based on a grid cell resolution of 1 km x 1 km. Results showed that out of the three management zones, the RUZ in which the recreational activities that do not require physical developments are allowed constituted 82% of the park area as the first priority management zone. The proposed zoning procedure is believed to be a key step to improve management for both the study area and other national parks with the similar landscape features.

  8. A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

  9. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 2: Methodological Quality and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. Objective To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of

  10. Integrated circuit layout design methodology for deep sub-wavelength processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Robles, Juan Andres

    One of the critical aspects of semiconductor fabrication is the patterning of multiple design layers onto silicon wafers. Since 180nm processes came online, the semiconductor industry has operated under conditions in which the critical features are smaller than the wavelength of light used during the patterning process. Such sub-wavelength conditions present many challenges because topology, rather than feature width and space, defines the yield characteristics of the devices. Pattern variability can contribute as much as 80% of the total timing margins defined by traditional SPICE corner models. Because feature variability is undesirable from electrical considerations, this work proposes a physical design verification methodology that emphasizes pattern robustness to process variations. This new method is based on a framework composed of manufacturability objects, operators and guidelines, which permits the definition of a scoring system ranking the manufacturing process and the manufacturability of the designs. This framework is intended to alleviate circuit design and verification challenges and it based on three new concepts: the first relates to compact process model requirements. The second involves the definition of a new design object, called pv-Band, which reflects layout sensitivity to process variations. The third is the specification of two manufacturability metrics that, when optimized, can improve yield by accounting layout sensitivities across multiple design levels (e.g., Active, polysilicon, contact, metal 1, etc.). By integrating these new concepts (process models, pv-Bands and manufacturability metrics) with existing knowledge, this work moves forward the state-of-the-art of physical design and verification of integrated circuits subject to sub-wavelength effects.

  11. Development of a design methodology for pipelines in ice scoured seabeds

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.I.; Paulin, M.J.; Lach, P.R.; Yang, Q.S.; Poorooshasb, H.

    1994-12-31

    Large areas of the continental shelf of northern oceans are frequently scoured or gouged by moving bodies of ice such as icebergs and sea ice keels associated with pressure ridges. This phenomenon presents a formidable challenge when the route of a submarine pipeline is intersected by the scouring ice. It is generally acknowledged that if a pipeline, laid on the seabed, were hit by an iceberg or a pressure ridge keel, the forces imposed on the pipeline would be much greater than it could practically withstand. The pipeline must therefore be buried to avoid direct contact with ice, but it is very important to determine with some assurance the minimum depth required for safety for both economical and environmental reasons. The safe burial depth of a pipeline, however, cannot be determined directly from the relatively straight forward measurement of maximum scour depth. The major design consideration is the determination of the potential sub-scour deformation of the ice scoured soil. Forces transmitted through the soil and soil displacement around the pipeline could load the pipeline to failure if not taken into account in the design. If the designer can predict the forces transmitted through the soil, the pipeline can be designed to withstand these external forces using conventional design practice. In this paper, the authors outline a design methodology that is based on phenomenological studies of ice scoured terrain, both modern and relict, laboratory tests, centrifuge modeling, and numerical analysis. The implications of these studies, which could assist in the safe and economical design of pipelines in ice scoured terrain, will also be discussed.

  12. A Systematic Review of Early Postpartum Medroxyprogesterone Receipt and Early Breastfeeding Cessation: Evaluating the Methodological Rigor of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, I. Diana; Howard, Cynthia R.; Fisher, Susan G.; Ternullo, Sharon R.; Buckley, Ryan J.J.; Dozier, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding has numerous maternal and infant benefits. Progesterone contraception after birth is frequently recommended, but because a decrease in progesterone is required to initiate lactation, early postpartum progesterone contraception use could inhibit lactation. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the scientific basis for conflicting clinical recommendations related to postpartum medroxyprogesterone use among breastfeeding women. Methods Relevant peer-reviewed literature was identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed through December 2010. The search was restricted to clinical trials, randomized clinical trials, or comparative studies written in English and conducted among humans. The studies included in this review addressed the effect of medroxyprogesterone administration at <6 weeks postpartum on breastfeeding exclusivity and/or duration and measured breastfeeding outcomes at ≥6 weeks postpartum. Results Of the 20 articles identified, only three studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. However, all three studies were of low-quality methodological rigor, and none accounted for potential confounders. Conclusion Current evidence is methodologically weak and provides an inadequate basis for inference about a possible causal relationship between early postpartum medroxyprogesterone use and poor breastfeeding outcomes. However, given the presence of a strong biological model describing the potential deleterious effect of postpartum medroxyprogesterone use on lactation, further research that improves on current literature is warranted. Meanwhile, we recommend that potential breastfeeding risks associated with early (<6 weeks) postpartum medroxyprogesterone use be disclosed to allow for a fully informed consent and decision-making process. PMID:22085201

  13. A Test Methodology for Determining Space-Readiness of Xilinx SRAM-Based FPGA Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Using reconfigurable, static random-access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space-based computation has been an exciting area of research for the past decade. Since both the circuit and the circuit's state is stored in radiation-tolerant memory, both could be alterd by the harsh space radiation environment. Both the circuit and the circuit's state can be prote cted by triple-moduler redundancy (TMR), but applying TMR to FPGA user designs is often an error-prone process. Faulty application of TMR could cause the FPGA user circuit to output incorrect data. This paper will describe a three-tiered methodology for testing FPGA user designs for space-readiness. We will describe the standard approach to testing FPGA user designs using a particle accelerator, as well as two methods using fault injection and a modeling tool. While accelerator testing is the current 'gold standard' for pre-launch testing, we believe the use of fault injection and modeling tools allows for easy, cheap and uniform access for discovering errors early in the design process.

  14. Systematic study of high-frequency ultrasonic transducer design for laser-scanning photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Zhang, Xiangyang; Chiu, Chi Tat; Chen, Ruimin; Kirk Shung, K; Zhou, Qifa; Jiao, Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a high-resolution in vivo imaging modality that is capable of providing specific optical absorption information for the retina. A high-frequency ultrasonic transducer is one of the key components in PAOM, which is in contact with the eyelid through coupling gel during imaging. The ultrasonic transducer plays a crucial role in determining the image quality affected by parameters such as spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and field of view. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic study on a high-frequency ultrasonic transducer design for PAOM. The design includes piezoelectric material selection, frequency selection, and the fabrication process. Transducers of various designs were successfully applied for capturing images of biological samples in vivo. The performances of these designs are compared and evaluated.

  15. A Research Methodology for Green IT Systems Based on WSR and Design Science: The Case of a Chinese Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yinghong; Liu, Hongwei

    Currently green IT has been a hotspot in both practice and research fields. Much progress has been made in the aspect of green technologies. However, researchers and designers could not simply build up a green IT system from technological aspect, which is normally considered as a wicked problem. This paper puts forward a research methodology for green IT systems by introducing WSR and design science. This methodology absorbs essence from soft systems methodology and action research. It considers the research, design and building of green IT systems from a systemic perspective which can be divided into as technological dimension, management dimension and human dimension. This methodology consists of 7 iterated stages. Each stage is presented and followed by a case study from a Chinese company.

  16. Systematic review of effects of current transtibial prosthetic socket designs--Part 2: Quantitative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Meier, Margrit Regula

    2015-01-01

    This review is an attempt to untangle the complexity of transtibial prosthetic socket fit and perhaps find some indication of whether a particular prosthetic socket type might be best for a given situation. In addition, we identified knowledge gaps, thus providing direction for possible future research. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, using medical subject headings and standard key words to search for articles in relevant databases. No restrictions were made on study design and type of outcome measure used. From the obtained search results (n = 1,863), 35 articles were included. The relevant data were entered into a predefined data form that included the Downs and Black risk of bias assessment checklist. This article presents the results from the systematic review of the quantitative outcomes (n = 27 articles). Trends indicate that vacuum-assisted suction sockets improve gait symmetry, volume control, and residual limb health more than other socket designs. Hydrostatic sockets seem to create less inconsistent socket fittings, reducing a problem that greatly influences outcome measures. Knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of clinically meaningful changes in socket fit and its effect on biomechanical outcomes. Further, safe and comfortable pressure thresholds under various conditions should be determined through a systematic approach.

  17. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density.

  18. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density. PMID:26113203

  19. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  20. Methodology to Improve Design of Accelerated Life Tests in Civil Engineering Projects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods. PMID:25111800

  1. Designing multidisciplinary longitudinal studies of human development: analyzing past research to inform methodology.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Morton, Susan; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; O'Loughlin, Claire; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-09-01

    This review identifies key issues associated with the design of future longitudinal studies of human development. Sixteen international studies were compared for initial response and retention rate, sample size, type of data collected, and sampling frames. The studies had little information about the influences of fathers, extended family members, childcare, and educational institutions; the effects of peers; children's use of time; the needs of disabled children; urban versus rural environments; or the influence of genetic factors. A contemporary longitudinal study should include measures of physical and mental health, cognitive capacity, educational attainment, social adjustment, conduct and behavior, resiliency, and risk-taking behaviors. It needs to address genetic and intergenerational factors, cultural identity, and the influences of neighborhood, community, and wider social and political environments and to encompass outcomes at all life stages to systematically determine the role each factor plays in individuals' lives, including interactions within and across variables.

  2. A Systematic Composite Service Design Modeling Method Using Graph-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system. PMID:25928358

  3. A systematic composite service design modeling method using graph-based theory.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system.

  4. Design of roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error for cylindrical components with large radius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao

    2016-02-01

    The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius. PMID:26931894

  5. Assessment of an effective quasirelativistic methodology designed to study astatine chemistry in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Champion, Julie; Seydou, Mahamadou; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Renault, Eric; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    A cost-effective computational methodology designed to study astatine (At) chemistry in aqueous solution has been established. It is based on two-component spin-orbit density functional theory calculations and solvation calculations using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model in conjunction with specific astatine cavities. Theoretical calculations are confronted with experimental data measured for complexation reactions between metallic forms of astatine (At(+) and AtO(+)) and inorganic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-) and SCN(-)). For each reaction, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes are evidenced. The experimental trends regarding the thermodynamic constants (K) can be reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively. The mean signed error on computed Log K values is -0.4, which corresponds to a mean signed error smaller than 1 kcal mol(-1) on free energies of reaction. Theoretical investigations show that the reactivity of cationic species of astatine is highly sensitive to spin-orbit coupling and solvent effects. At the moment, the presented computational methodology appears to be the only tool to gain an insight into astatine chemistry at a molecular level. PMID:21769335

  6. Assessment of an effective quasirelativistic methodology designed to study astatine chemistry in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Champion, Julie; Seydou, Mahamadou; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Renault, Eric; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    A cost-effective computational methodology designed to study astatine (At) chemistry in aqueous solution has been established. It is based on two-component spin-orbit density functional theory calculations and solvation calculations using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model in conjunction with specific astatine cavities. Theoretical calculations are confronted with experimental data measured for complexation reactions between metallic forms of astatine (At(+) and AtO(+)) and inorganic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-) and SCN(-)). For each reaction, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes are evidenced. The experimental trends regarding the thermodynamic constants (K) can be reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively. The mean signed error on computed Log K values is -0.4, which corresponds to a mean signed error smaller than 1 kcal mol(-1) on free energies of reaction. Theoretical investigations show that the reactivity of cationic species of astatine is highly sensitive to spin-orbit coupling and solvent effects. At the moment, the presented computational methodology appears to be the only tool to gain an insight into astatine chemistry at a molecular level.

  7. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment.

  8. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment. PMID:20131973

  9. Design methodology accounting for fabrication errors in manufactured modified Fresnel lenses for controlled LED illumination.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Kim, Joongeok; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Cho, Eikhyun; Kang, Shinill

    2015-07-27

    The increasing demand for lightweight, miniaturized electronic devices has prompted the development of small, high-performance optical components for light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. As such, the Fresnel lens is widely used in applications due to its compact configuration. However, the vertical groove angle between the optical axis and the groove inner facets in a conventional Fresnel lens creates an inherent Fresnel loss, which degrades optical performance. Modified Fresnel lenses (MFLs) have been proposed in which the groove angles along the optical paths are carefully controlled; however, in practice, the optical performance of MFLs is inferior to the theoretical performance due to fabrication errors, as conventional design methods do not account for fabrication errors as part of the design process. In this study, the Fresnel loss and the loss area due to microscopic fabrication errors in the MFL were theoretically derived to determine optical performance. Based on this analysis, a design method for the MFL accounting for the fabrication errors was proposed. MFLs were fabricated using an ultraviolet imprinting process and an injection molding process, two representative processes with differing fabrication errors. The MFL fabrication error associated with each process was examined analytically and experimentally to investigate our methodology. PMID:26367631

  10. Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: A decision-making methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, M.; Cogan, S.

    2010-05-01

    Automotive structures include thousands of spot welds whose design must allow the assembled vehicle to satisfy a wide variety of performance constraints including static, dynamic and crash criteria. The objective of a standard optimization strategy is to reduce the number of spot welds as much as possible while satisfying all the design objectives. However, a classical optimization of the spot weld distribution using an exhaustive search approach is simply not feasible due to the very high order of the design space and the subsequently prohibitive calculation costs. Moreover, even if this calculation could be done, the result would not necessarily be very informative with respect to the design robustness to manufacturing uncertainties (location of welds and defective welds) and to the degradation of spot welds due to fatigue effects over the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper, a decision-making methodology is presented which allows some aspects of the robustness issues to be integrated into the spot weld design process. The starting point is a given distribution of spot welds on the structure, which is based on both engineering know-how and preliminary critical numerical results, in particular criteria such as crash behavior. An over-populated spot weld distribution is then built in order to satisfy the remaining design criteria, such as static torsion angle and modal behavior. Then, an efficient optimization procedure based on energy considerations is used to eliminate redundant spot welds while preserving as far as possible the nominal structural behavior. The resulting sub-optimal solution is then used to provide a decision indicator for defining effective quality control procedures (e.g. visual post-assembly inspection of a small number of critical spot welds) as well as designing redundancy into critical zones. The final part of the paper is related to comparing the robustness of competing designs. Some decision-making indicators are presented to help the

  11. Detailed Methodology for Systematic Reviews of Interventions to Improve the Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this project was to systematically review and compile evidence on interventions in low- and middle-income countries, which targeted three adverse health-related outcomes for young people (ages 10-24): (1) early pregnancy and repeat pregnancy; (2) child marriage; and (3) sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus. We searched the gray and published literature to identify interventions and developed a scoring system to assess whether these interventions and their evaluations were of high quality. The three review articles in this volume focus on behavioral outcomes and provide a summary of interventions and evaluations that were both successful and unsuccessful in their impact on the targeted outcomes. This commentary provides the details of the methodology that are common across all three review articles. PMID:27562451

  12. A systematic methodology for large scale compound screening: A case study on the discovery of novel S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Utku; Ozkirimli, Elif; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) concentration induces migration of pathogenic T cells to the blood stream, disrupts the CNS and it is implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A promising treatment alternative for MS and AD is inhibition of the activity of the microsomal enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL), which degrades intracellular S1P. This report describes an integrated systematic approach comprising virtual screening, molecular docking, substructure search and molecular dynamics simulation to discover novel S1PL inhibitors. Virtual screening of the ZINC database via ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore models yielded 10000 hits. After molecular docking, common substructures of the top ranking hits were identified. The ligand binding poses were optimized by induced fit docking. MD simulations were performed on the complex structures to determine the stability of the S1PL-ligand complex and to calculate the binding free energy. Selectivity of the selected molecules was examined by docking them to hERG and cytochrome P450 receptors. As a final outcome, 15 compounds from different chemotypes were proposed as potential S1PL inhibitors. These molecules may guide future medicinal chemistry efforts in the discovery of new compounds against the destructive action of pathogenic T cells.

  13. Systematic design of output filters for audio class-D amplifiers via Simplified Real Frequency Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintzen, E.; Vennemann, T.; Mathis, W.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a new filter design concept is proposed and implemented which takes into account the complex loudspeaker impedance. By means of techniques of broadband matching, that has been successfully applied in radio technology, we are able to optimize the reconstruction filter to achieve an overall linear frequency response. Here, a passive filter network is inserted between source and load that matches the complex load impedance to the complex source impedance within a desired frequency range. The design and calculation of the filter is usually done using numerical approximation methods which are known as Real Frequency Techniques (RFT). A first approach to systematic design of reconstruction filters for class-D amplifiers is proposed, using the Simplified Real Frequency Technique (SRFT). Some fundamental considerations are introduced as well as the benefits and challenges of impedance matching between class-D amplifiers and loudspeakers. Current simulation data using MATLAB is presented and supports some first conclusions.

  14. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-09-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior. The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior across a wide angular range provides lensing and collimating capabilities.

  15. A game-based decision support methodology for competitive systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Simon Ignacio

    This dissertation describes the development of a game-based methodology that facilitates the exploration and selection of research and development (R&D) projects under uncertain competitive scenarios. The proposed method provides an approach that analyzes competitor positioning and formulates response strategies to forecast the impact of technical design choices on a project's market performance. A critical decision in the conceptual design phase of propulsion systems is the selection of the best architecture, centerline, core size, and technology portfolio. This selection can be challenging when considering evolving requirements from both the airframe manufacturing company and the airlines in the market. Furthermore, the exceedingly high cost of core architecture development and its associated risk makes this strategic architecture decision the most important one for an engine company. Traditional conceptual design processes emphasize performance and affordability as their main objectives. These areas alone however, do not provide decision-makers with enough information as to how successful their engine will be in a competitive market. A key objective of this research is to examine how firm characteristics such as their relative differences in completing R&D projects, differences in the degree of substitutability between different project types, and first/second-mover advantages affect their product development strategies. Several quantitative methods are investigated that analyze business and engineering strategies concurrently. In particular, formulations based on the well-established mathematical field of game theory are introduced to obtain insights into the project selection problem. The use of game theory is explored in this research as a method to assist the selection process of R&D projects in the presence of imperfect market information. The proposed methodology focuses on two influential factors: the schedule uncertainty of project completion times and

  16. On the engineering design for systematic integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyong; Schüller, Andreas; Epple, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In today's automation industry, agent-oriented development of system functionalities appears to have a great potential for increasing autonomy and flexibility of complex operations, while lowering the workload of users. In this paper, we present a reference model for the harmonious and systematical integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation. Considering compatibility with existing automation systems and best practice, this model combines advantages of function block technology, service orientation and native description methods from the automation standard IEC 61131-3. This approach can be applied as a guideline for the engineering design of future agent-oriented automation systems.

  17. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions.

  18. Experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliott, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the first experimental validation of an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures. The Controls-Structures-Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model, a laboratory test bed at Langley, is redesigned based on the integrated design methodology with two different dissipative control strategies. The redesigned structure is fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally compared with the original test structure. Design guides are proposed and used in the integrated design process to ensure that the resulting structure can be fabricated. Experimental results indicate that the integrated design requires greater than 60 percent less average control power (by thruster actuators) than the conventional control-optimized design while maintaining the required line-of-sight performance, thereby confirming the analytical findings about the superiority of the integrated design methodology. Amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is considered and evaluated analytically and experimentally. This work also demonstrates the capabilities of the Langley-developed design tool CSI DESIGN which provides a unified environment for structural and control design.

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode/left prefrontal cathode) reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli. Conclusions: Despite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders. PMID:26500478

  20. Demonstration of a software design and statistical analysis methodology with application to patient outcomes data sets

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426

  1. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  2. Development of designer chicken shred with response surface methodology and evaluation of its quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Jalarama; Jayathilakan, K; Pandey, M C

    2016-01-01

    Meat is considered to be an excellent source of protein, essential minerals, trace elements and vitamins but negative concerns regarding meat consumption and its impact on human health have promoted research into development of novel functional meat products. In the present study Rice bran oil (RBO), and Flaxseed oil (FSO) were used for attaining an ideal lipid profile in the product. The experiment was designed to optimise the RBO and FSO concentration for development of product with ideal lipid profile and maximum acceptability by the application of central composite rotatable design of Response surface methodology (RSM). Levels of RBO and FSO were taken as independent variables and overall acceptability (OAA), n-6 and n-3 fatty acids as responses. Quadratic fit model was found to be suitable for optimising the product. Sample with RBO (20.51 ml) and FSO (2.57 ml) yielded an OAA score of 8.25, 29.54 % of n-6 and 7.70 % of n-3 having n-6/n-3 ratio as 3.8:1. Optimised product was analysed for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial profile during storage at 4 ± 1 °C for 30 days. Increase in the lipid oxidative parameters was observed during storage but it was not significant (p < 0.05). Studies revealed great potential of developing functional poultry products with improved nutritional quality and good shelf stability by incorporating RBO and FSO.

  3. Applications of a damage tolerance analysis methodology in aircraft design and production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, M. R.; Owens, S. D.; Law, G. E.; Mignery, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of customer mandated aircraft structural integrity initiatives in design are to guide material selection, to incorporate fracture resistant concepts in the design, to utilize damage tolerance based allowables and planned inspection procedures necessary to enhance the safety and reliability of manned flight vehicles. However, validated fracture analysis tools for composite structures are needed to accomplish these objectives in a timely and economical manner. This paper briefly describes the development, validation, and application of a damage tolerance methodology for composite airframe structures. A closed-form analysis code, entitled SUBLAM was developed to predict the critical biaxial strain state necessary to cause sublaminate buckling-induced delamination extension in an impact damaged composite laminate. An embedded elliptical delamination separating a thin sublaminate from a thick parent laminate is modelled. Predicted failure strains were correlated against a variety of experimental data that included results from compression after impact coupon and element tests. An integrated analysis package was developed to predict damage tolerance based margin-of-safety (MS) using NASTRAN generated loads and element information. Damage tolerance aspects of new concepts are quickly and cost-effectively determined without the need for excessive testing.

  4. Towards a unified approach to the design of knowledge based agile manufacturing systems: Part 1 - methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.H.; Uzam, M.

    1996-12-31

    To date there are no general techniques available to design Knowledge Based Discrete Event Control Systems. In this paper, a new technique is proposed which solves the problem. The generality of the technique means that the method can be applied to any complex (multi-component) Discrete Event Control problem and can easily accommodate diagnostics and reconfiguration. The technique involves firstly, defining the complex Discrete Event Control system as a colored Petri net controller and then converting colored Petri net controller into a colored Token Passing Logic Controller via Token Passing Logic (TPL) technique and finally, representing the colored Token Passing Logic Controller as rules within a control knowledge base for use within a concurrent inference engine. The technique is described by considering the fundamental structures inherent in colored Petri net control design and shows how to convert these structures into a knowledge base suitable for Discrete Event Control. Moreover, a context sensitive concurrent inference engine is also proposed to ensure the correct processing of the control knowledge base. An illustrative example of how this methodology can be applied to a complex discrete event control problem is described in Part II.

  5. A methodology for system-of-systems design in support of the engineering team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, G.; Mooij, E.; Cardile, D.; Corpino, S.; Ferrari, G.

    2012-04-01

    Space missions have experienced a trend of increasing complexity in the last decades, resulting in the design of very complex systems formed by many elements and sub-elements working together to meet the requirements. In a classical approach, especially in a company environment, the two steps of design-space exploration and optimization are usually performed by experts inferring on major phenomena, making assumptions and doing some trial-and-error runs on the available mathematical models. This is done especially in the very early design phases where most of the costs are locked-in. With the objective of supporting the engineering team and the decision-makers during the design of complex systems, the authors developed a modelling framework for a particular category of complex, coupled space systems called System-of-Systems. Once modelled, the System-of-Systems is solved using a computationally cheap parametric methodology, named the mixed-hypercube approach, based on the utilization of a particular type of fractional factorial design-of-experiments, and analysis of the results via global sensitivity analysis and response surfaces. As an applicative example, a system-of-systems of a hypothetical human space exploration scenario for the support of a manned lunar base is presented. The results demonstrate that using the mixed-hypercube to sample the design space, an optimal solution is reached with a limited computational effort, providing support to the engineering team and decision makers thanks to sensitivity and robustness information. The analysis of the system-of-systems model that was implemented shows that the logistic support of a human outpost on the Moon for 15 years is still feasible with currently available launcher classes. The results presented in this paper have been obtained in cooperation with Thales Alenia Space—Italy, in the framework of a regional programme called STEPS. STEPS—Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale is a research

  6. Perspectives on the design and methodology of periconceptional nutrient supplementation trials.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J; Gies, Sabine; Owens, Stephen; Claeys, Yves; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Tinto, Halidou; Brabin, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional supplementation could extend the period over which maternal and fetal nutrition is improved, but there are many challenges facing early-life intervention studies. Periconceptional trials differ from pregnancy supplementation trials, not only because of the very early or pre-gestational timing of nutrient exposure but also because they generate subsidiary information on participants who remain non-pregnant. The methodological challenges are more complex although, if well designed, they provide opportunities to evaluate concurrent hypotheses related to the health of non-pregnant women, especially nulliparous adolescents. This review examines the framework of published and ongoing randomised trial designs. Four cohorts typically arise from the periconceptional trial design--two of which are non-pregnant and two are pregnant--and this structure provides assessment options related to pre-pregnant, maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Conceptually the initial decision for single or micronutrient intervention is central--as is the choice of dosage and content--in order to establish a comparative framework across trials, improve standardisation, and facilitate interpretation of mechanistic hypotheses. Other trial features considered in the review include: measurement options for baseline and outcome assessments; adherence to long-term supplementation; sample size considerations in relation to duration of nutrient supplementation; cohort size for non-pregnant and pregnant cohorts as the latter is influenced by parity selection; integrating qualitative studies and data management issues. Emphasis is given to low resource settings where high infection rates and the possibility of nutrient-infection interactions may require appropriate safety monitoring. The focus is on pragmatic issues that may help investigators planning a periconceptional trial. PMID:26833080

  7. My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA): Patient-Centered Design Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Adhir; Groo, Vicki; Dickens, Carolyn; Field, Jerry; Baumann, Matthew; Welland, Betty; Gutowski, Gerry; Flores Jr, Jose D; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Bahroos, Neil; Hynes, Denise M; Wilkie, Diana J

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medication regimens is critical in most chronic disease treatment plans. This study uses a patient-centered tablet app, “My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA).” This is an educational program designed to improve patient medication adherence. Objective Our goal is to describe the design, methodology, limitations, and results of the MyIDEA tablet app. We created a mobile technology-based patient education app to improve dual antiplatelet therapy adherence in patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention and received a drug-eluting stent. Methods Patient advisers were involved in the development process of MyIDEA from the initial wireframe to the final launch of the product. The program was restructured and redesigned based on the patient advisers’ suggestions as well as those from multidisciplinary team members. To accommodate those with low health literacy, we modified the language and employed attractive color schemes to improve ease of use. We assumed that the target patient population may have little to no experience with electronic tablets, and therefore, we designed the interface to be as intuitive as possible. Results The MyIDEA app has been successfully deployed to a low-health-literate elderly patient population in the hospital setting. A total of 6 patients have interacted with MyIDEA for an average of 17.6 minutes/session. Conclusions Including patient advisers in the early phases of a mobile patient education development process is critical. A number of changes in text order, language, and color schemes occurred to improve ease of use. The MyIDEA program has been successfully deployed to a low-health-literate elderly patient population. Leveraging patient advisers throughout the development process helps to ensure implementation success. PMID:26139587

  8. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    PubMed

    Tien, Shin-Ming; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  9. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella’s rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the “brake component” in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each “brake component” were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the “brake component”. Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate “brake component” in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains. PMID:27096615

  10. Systematic model researches on the stability limits of the DVL series of float designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W.

    1949-01-01

    To determine the trim range in which a seaplane can take off without porpoising, stability tests were made of a Plexiglas model, composed of float, wing, and tailplane, which corresponded to a full-size research airplane. The model and full-size stability limits are in good agreement. After all structural parts pertaining to the air frame were removed gradually, the aerodynamic forces replaced by weight forces, and the moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity changed, no marked change of limits of the stable zone was noticeable. The latter, therefore, is for practical purposes affected only by hydrodynamic phenomena. The stability limits of the DVL family of floats were determined by a systematic investigation independent of any particular sea-plane design, thus a seaplane may be designed to give a run free from porpoising.

  11. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods.

  12. Online intelligent controllers for an enzyme recovery plant: design methodology and performance.

    PubMed

    Leite, M S; Fujiki, T L; Silva, F V; Fileti, A M F

    2010-12-27

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity.

  13. A methodology for using nonlinear aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems in aeroservoelastic (ASE) analyses and design. The theory is applied to the development of nonlinear aerodynamic response models that can be defined in state-space form and are, therefore, appropriate for use in modern control theory. The theory relies on the identification of nonlinear kernels that can be used to predict the response of a nonlinear system due to an arbitrary input. A numerical kernel identification technique, based on unit impulse responses, is presented and applied to a simple bilinear, single-input single-output (SISO) system. The linear kernel (unit impulse response) and the nonlinear second-order kernel of the system are numerically-identified and compared with the exact, analytically-defined and linear and second-order kernels. This kernel identification technique is then applied to the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance) code for identification of the linear and second-order kernels of a NACA64A010 rectangular wing undergoing pitch at M = 0.5, M = 8.5 (transonic), and M = 0.93 (transonic). Results presented demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for use with nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic responses.

  14. Methodological trends in the design of recent microenvironmental studies of personal CO exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flachsbart, Peter G.

    This paper describes the designs of three recent microenvironmental studies of personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicle exhaust. These studies were conducted sequentially, first in four California cities (Los Angeles, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and San Francisco), then in Honolulu, and, most recently, in metropolitan Washington, D.C. Though study purposes differed, each study faced common methodological issues related to personal exposure monitors (PEMs), quality assurance and data collection procedures, and the selection of microenvironments for study. Two major objectives of the California cities study were to determine the CO concentrations typically found in commercial settings and to define and classify microenvironments applicable to such settings: The Honolulu study measured merchant exposure to CO in shopping centers attached to semienclosed parking garages during business hours and commuter exposure to CO in vehicles (passenger cars and buses) on congested roadways during peak periods. The intent of the Washington study was to develop a model of commuter exposure to motor vehicle exhaust using CO as an indicator pollutant. Certain trends are discernible from reviewing the three studies. There are clearly trends in PEM development that have expanded instrument capabilities and automated data collection and storage. There are also trends towards more rigorous quality assurance procedures and more standardized protocols for collecting exposure data. Further, one can see a trend towards more elaborate indicators for identifying microenvironments for study. Finally, there is a trend towards using personal monitors in public policy review and evaluation.

  15. A methodology for formulating a minimal uncertainty model for robust control system design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert

    1989-01-01

    In the design and analysis of robust control systems for uncertain plants, the technique of formulating what is termed an M-delta model has become widely accepted and applied in the robust control literature. The M represents the transfer function matrix M(s) of the nominal system, and delta represents an uncertainty matrix acting on M(s). The uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as structured uncertainty from parameter variations or multiple unstructured uncertainties from unmodeled dynamics and other neglected phenomena. In general, delta is a block diagonal matrix, and for real parameter variations the diagonal elements are real. As stated in the literature, this structure can always be formed for any linear interconnection of inputs, outputs, transfer functions, parameter variations, and perturbations. However, very little of the literature addresses methods for obtaining this structure, and none of this literature addresses a general methodology for obtaining a minimal M-delta model for a wide class of uncertainty. Since have a delta matrix of minimum order would improve the efficiency of structured singular value (or multivariable stability margin) computations, a method of obtaining a minimal M-delta model would be useful. A generalized method of obtaining a minimal M-delta structure for systems with real parameter variations is given.

  16. Design, Development and Optimization of S (-) Atenolol Floating Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using Surface Response Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, P. T.; Shinde, M. B.; Gharge, V. S.; Pimple, S. V.; Gurjar, M. K.; Shah, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 32 full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171

  17. Application-specific coarse-grained reconfigurable array: architecture and design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Dongpei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2015-06-01

    Coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays (CGRAs) have shown potential for application in embedded systems in recent years. Numerous reconfigurable processing elements (PEs) in CGRAs provide flexibility while maintaining high performance by exploring different levels of parallelism. However, a difference remains between the CGRA and the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Some application domains, such as software-defined radios (SDRs), require flexibility with performance demand increases. More effective CGRA architectures are expected to be developed. Customisation of a CGRA according to its application can improve performance and efficiency. This study proposes an application-specific CGRA architecture template composed of generic PEs (GPEs) and special PEs (SPEs). The hardware of the SPE can be customised to accelerate specific computational patterns. An automatic design methodology that includes pattern identification and application-specific function unit generation is also presented. A mapping algorithm based on ant colony optimisation is provided. Experimental results on the SDR target domain show that compared with other ordinary and application-specific reconfigurable architectures, the CGRA generated by the proposed method performs more efficiently for given applications.

  18. Design, Development and Optimization of S (-) Atenolol Floating Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using Surface Response Methodology.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, P T; Shinde, M B; Gharge, V S; Pimple, S V; Gurjar, M K; Shah, M N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171

  19. Methodological and ethical considerations in designing an Internet study of quality of life: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Use of the Internet in research is a relatively new phenomenon offering a potentially valuable research resource that, although increasingly used, appears largely untapped in nursing and healthcare more generally. This paper discusses methodological and ethical issues that need consideration when designing an Internet-based study concluding that, in general, online research methods are simply adaptations of traditional methods of data collection. Issues such as the representativeness of the data and ethical concerns are discussed. It considers whether the ethical dilemmas faced by online researchers differ from those faced by those seeking to use other, more 'traditional' approaches. Using the example of a study that employed the Internet as a means of distributing questionnaires, this paper shows that this can be an efficient and effective means of gathering data from a geographically dispersed sample. Furthermore, since typewritten data is obtained in the same format from all respondents, the need for transcription and the potential for error are reduced potentially enhancing the quality of any such study.

  20. Online intelligent controllers for an enzyme recovery plant: design methodology and performance.

    PubMed

    Leite, M S; Fujiki, T L; Silva, F V; Fileti, A M F

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:21234106

  1. Online Intelligent Controllers for an Enzyme Recovery Plant: Design Methodology and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Leite, M. S.; Fujiki, T. L.; Silva, F. V.; Fileti, A. M. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:21234106

  2. Validating a new methodology for optical probe design and image registration in fNIRS studies.

    PubMed

    Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Spencer, John P; Bohache, Kevin; Boas, David A; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2015-02-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an imaging technique that relies on the principle of shining near-infrared light through tissue to detect changes in hemodynamic activation. An important methodological issue encountered is the creation of optimized probe geometry for fNIRS recordings. Here, across three experiments, we describe and validate a processing pipeline designed to create an optimized, yet scalable probe geometry based on selected regions of interest (ROIs) from the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. In experiment 1, we created a probe geometry optimized to record changes in activation from target ROIs important for visual working memory. Positions of the sources and detectors of the probe geometry on an adult head were digitized using a motion sensor and projected onto a generic adult atlas and a segmented head obtained from the subject's MRI scan. In experiment 2, the same probe geometry was scaled down to fit a child's head and later digitized and projected onto the generic adult atlas and a segmented volume obtained from the child's MRI scan. Using visualization tools and by quantifying the amount of intersection between target ROIs and channels, we show that out of 21 ROIs, 17 and 19 ROIs intersected with fNIRS channels from the adult and child probe geometries, respectively. Further, both the adult atlas and adult subject-specific MRI approaches yielded similar results and can be used interchangeably. However, results suggest that segmented heads obtained from MRI scans be used for registering children's data. Finally, in experiment 3, we further validated our processing pipeline by creating a different probe geometry designed to record from target ROIs involved in language and motor processing. PMID:25705757

  3. Development of designer chicken shred with response surface methodology and evaluation of its quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Jalarama; Jayathilakan, K; Pandey, M C

    2016-01-01

    Meat is considered to be an excellent source of protein, essential minerals, trace elements and vitamins but negative concerns regarding meat consumption and its impact on human health have promoted research into development of novel functional meat products. In the present study Rice bran oil (RBO), and Flaxseed oil (FSO) were used for attaining an ideal lipid profile in the product. The experiment was designed to optimise the RBO and FSO concentration for development of product with ideal lipid profile and maximum acceptability by the application of central composite rotatable design of Response surface methodology (RSM). Levels of RBO and FSO were taken as independent variables and overall acceptability (OAA), n-6 and n-3 fatty acids as responses. Quadratic fit model was found to be suitable for optimising the product. Sample with RBO (20.51 ml) and FSO (2.57 ml) yielded an OAA score of 8.25, 29.54 % of n-6 and 7.70 % of n-3 having n-6/n-3 ratio as 3.8:1. Optimised product was analysed for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial profile during storage at 4 ± 1 °C for 30 days. Increase in the lipid oxidative parameters was observed during storage but it was not significant (p < 0.05). Studies revealed great potential of developing functional poultry products with improved nutritional quality and good shelf stability by incorporating RBO and FSO. PMID:26787966

  4. A systematic molecular circuit design method for gene networks under biochemical time delays and molecular noises

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Yu-Te

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene networks in nanoscale are of nonlinear stochastic process. Time delays are common and substantial in these biochemical processes due to gene transcription, translation, posttranslation protein modification and diffusion. Molecular noises in gene networks come from intrinsic fluctuations, transmitted noise from upstream genes, and the global noise affecting all genes. Knowledge of molecular noise filtering and biochemical process delay compensation in gene networks is crucial to understand the signal processing in gene networks and the design of noise-tolerant and delay-robust gene circuits for synthetic biology. Results A nonlinear stochastic dynamic model with multiple time delays is proposed for describing a gene network under process delays, intrinsic molecular fluctuations, and extrinsic molecular noises. Then, the stochastic biochemical processing scheme of gene regulatory networks for attenuating these molecular noises and compensating process delays is investigated from the nonlinear signal processing perspective. In order to improve the robust stability for delay toleration and noise filtering, a robust gene circuit for nonlinear stochastic time-delay gene networks is engineered based on the nonlinear robust H∞ stochastic filtering scheme. Further, in order to avoid solving these complicated noise-tolerant and delay-robust design problems, based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy time-delay model and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique, a systematic gene circuit design method is proposed to simplify the design procedure. Conclusion The proposed gene circuit design method has much potential for application to systems biology, synthetic biology and drug design when a gene regulatory network has to be designed for improving its robust stability and filtering ability of disease-perturbed gene network or when a synthetic gene network needs to perform robustly under process delays and molecular noises. PMID:19038029

  5. Methodological, Theoretical, Infrastructural, and Design Issues in Conducting Good Outcome Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael P.; Moore, Tessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a set of methodological, theoretical, and other issues relating to the conduct of good outcome studies. The article begins by considering the contribution of evidence-based medicine to the methodology of outcome research. The lessons which can be applied in outcome studies in nonmedical settings are described. The article…

  6. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  7. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  8. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 1: Executive summary and technical narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    During the past three decades, an enormous amount of resources were expended in the design and development of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrocarbon and Hydrogen (LOX/HC and LOX/H2) rocket engines. A significant portion of these resources were used to develop and demonstrate the performance and combustion stability for each new engine. During these efforts, many analytical and empirical models were developed that characterize design parameters and combustion processes that influence performance and stability. Many of these models are suitable as design tools, but they have not been assembled into an industry-wide usable analytical design methodology. The objective of this program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable methodology capable of producing high performing and stable LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen propellant booster engines.

  9. Revised Design-Based Research Methodology for College Course Improvement and Application to Education Courses in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akahori, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    The author describes a research methodology for college course improvement, and applies the results to education courses. In Japan, it is usually difficult to carry out research on college course improvement, because faculty cannot introduce experimental design approaches based on control and treatment groupings of students in actual classroom…

  10. Introduction to the Design and Optimization of Experiments Using Response Surface Methodology. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for the Instrumentation Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patricia L.; Miller, Benjamin I.; Nowak, Abigail Tuttle

    2006-01-01

    The study describes how to design and optimize an experiment with multiple factors and multiple responses. The experiment uses fractional factorial analysis as a screening experiment only to identify important instrumental factors and does not use response surface methodology to find the optimal set of conditions.

  11. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions. PMID:17487063

  12. A computer modeling methodology and tool for assessing design concepts for the Space Station Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer modeling tool is being developed to assess candidate designs for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is to be a complex distributed computer system including the processor, storage devices, local area networks, and software that will support all processing functions onboard the Space Station. The modeling tool will allow a candidate design for the DMS, or for other subsystems that use the DMS, to be evaluated in terms of parameters. The tool and its associated modeling methodology are intended for use by DMS and subsystem designers to perform tradeoff analyses between design concepts using varied architectures and technologies.

  13. Using Economic Evidence to Set Healthcare Priorities in Low-Income and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Methodological Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Virginia; Mitton, Craig; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Drake, Tom; Conteh, Lesong; Newall, Anthony T; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Jan, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Policy makers in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are increasingly looking to develop 'evidence-based' frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. This paper synthesises and appraises the literature on methodological frameworks--which incorporate economic evaluation evidence--for the purpose of setting healthcare priorities in LMICs. A systematic search of Embase, MEDLINE, Econlit and PubMed identified 3968 articles with a further 21 articles identified through manual searching. A total of 36 papers were eligible for inclusion. These covered a wide range of health interventions with only two studies including health systems strengthening interventions related to financing, governance and human resources. A little under half of the studies (39%) included multiple criteria for priority setting, most commonly equity, feasibility and disease severity. Most studies (91%) specified a measure of 'efficiency' defined as cost per disability-adjusted life year averted. Ranking of health interventions using multi-criteria decision analysis and generalised cost-effectiveness were the most common frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. Approximately a third of studies discussed the affordability of priority interventions. Only one study identified priority areas for the release or redeployment of resources. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for local capacity to conduct evaluations (including economic analysis) and empowerment of local decision-makers to act on this evidence.

  14. Using Economic Evidence to Set Healthcare Priorities in Low‐Income and Lower‐Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Methodological Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, Craig; Doyle‐Waters, Mary M.; Drake, Tom; Conteh, Lesong; Newall, Anthony T.; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Jan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policy makers in low‐income and lower‐middle‐income countries (LMICs) are increasingly looking to develop ‘evidence‐based’ frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. This paper synthesises and appraises the literature on methodological frameworks – which incorporate economic evaluation evidence – for the purpose of setting healthcare priorities in LMICs. A systematic search of Embase, MEDLINE, Econlit and PubMed identified 3968 articles with a further 21 articles identified through manual searching. A total of 36 papers were eligible for inclusion. These covered a wide range of health interventions with only two studies including health systems strengthening interventions related to financing, governance and human resources. A little under half of the studies (39%) included multiple criteria for priority setting, most commonly equity, feasibility and disease severity. Most studies (91%) specified a measure of ‘efficiency’ defined as cost per disability‐adjusted life year averted. Ranking of health interventions using multi‐criteria decision analysis and generalised cost‐effectiveness were the most common frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. Approximately a third of studies discussed the affordability of priority interventions. Only one study identified priority areas for the release or redeployment of resources. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for local capacity to conduct evaluations (including economic analysis) and empowerment of local decision‐makers to act on this evidence. PMID:26804361

  15. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 2: model verification and data base updates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments.

  16. Multiplexed actuation using ultra dielectrophoresis for proteomics applications: a comprehensive electrical and electrothermal design methodology.

    PubMed

    Emaminejad, Sam; Dutton, Robert W; Davis, Ronald W; Javanmard, Mehdi

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we present a methodological approach to analyze an enhanced dielectrophoresis (DEP) system from both a circuit analysis and electrothermal view points. In our developed model, we have taken into account various phenomena and constraints such as voltage degradation (due to the presence of the protecting oxide layer), oxide breakdown, instrumentation limitations, and thermal effects. The results from this analysis are applicable generally to a wide variety of geometries and high voltage microsystems. Here, these design guidelines were applied to develop a robust electronic actuation system to perform a multiplexed bead-based protein assay. To carry out the multiplexed functionality, along a single microfluidic channel, an array of proteins is patterned, where each element is targeting a specific secondary protein coated on micron-sized beads in the subsequently introduced sample solution. Below each element of the array, we have a pair of addressable interdigitated electrodes. By selectively applying voltage at the terminals of each interdigitated electrode pair, the enhanced DEP, or equivalently 'ultra'-DEP (uDEP) force detaches protein-bound beads from each element of the array, one by one, without disturbing the bound beads in the neighboring regions. The detached beads can be quantified optically or electrically downstream. For proof of concept, we illustrated 16-plex actuation capability of our device to elute micron-sized beads that are bound to the surface through anti-IgG and IgG interaction which is on the same order of magnitude in strength as typical antibody-antigen interactions. In addition to its application in multiplexed protein analysis, our platform can be potentially utilized to statistically characterize the strength profile of biological bonds, since the multiplexed format allows for high throughput force spectroscopy using the array of uDEP devices, under the same buffer and assay preparation conditions. PMID:24801800

  17. Rationale, Design, Methodology and Hospital Characteristics of the First Gulf Acute Heart Failure Registry (Gulf CARE)

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Kadhim J.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Al-Habib, Khalid; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Faleh, Husam; El-Asfar, Abdelfatah; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Ridha, Mustafa; Bulbanat, Bassam; Al-Jarallah, Mohammed; Bazargani, Nooshin; Asaad, Nidal; Amin, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF) in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE). Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF). The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain) participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47) followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%). Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47) with 59% (28/47) having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47) had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71%) were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden of HF in

  18. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  19. Design, implementation and reporting strategies to reduce the instance and impact of missing patient-reported outcome (PRO) data: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Palmer, Michael J; Brundage, Michael; Stockler, Martin R; King, Madeleine T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide important information about the impact of treatment from the patients' perspective. However, missing PRO data may compromise the interpretability and value of the findings. We aimed to report: (1) a non-technical summary of problems caused by missing PRO data; and (2) a systematic review by collating strategies to: (A) minimise rates of missing PRO data, and (B) facilitate transparent interpretation and reporting of missing PRO data in clinical research. Our systematic review does not address statistical handling of missing PRO data. Data sources MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases (inception to 31 March 2015), and citing articles and reference lists from relevant sources. Eligibility criteria English articles providing recommendations for reducing missing PRO data rates, or strategies to facilitate transparent interpretation and reporting of missing PRO data were included. Methods 2 reviewers independently screened articles against eligibility criteria. Discrepancies were resolved with the research team. Recommendations were extracted and coded according to framework synthesis. Results 117 sources (55% discussion papers, 26% original research) met the eligibility criteria. Design and methodological strategies for reducing rates of missing PRO data included: incorporating PRO-specific information into the protocol; carefully designing PRO assessment schedules and defining termination rules; minimising patient burden; appointing a PRO coordinator; PRO-specific training for staff; ensuring PRO studies are adequately resourced; and continuous quality assurance. Strategies for transparent interpretation and reporting of missing PRO data include utilising auxiliary data to inform analysis; transparently reporting baseline PRO scores, rates and reasons for missing data; and methods for handling missing PRO data. Conclusions The instance of missing PRO data and its

  20. A systematic approach for designing a HBM pilot study for Europe.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kerstin; Seiwert, Margarete; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2014-03-01

    The objective of COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was to develop a harmonised approach to conduct human biomonitoring on a European scale. COPHES developed a systematic approach for designing and conducting a pilot study for an EU-wide cross-sectional human biomonitoring (HBM) study and for the implementation of the fieldwork procedures. The approach gave the basis for discussion of the main aspects of study design and conduct, and provided a decision making tool which can be applied to many other studies. Each decision that had to be taken was listed in a table of options with their advantages and disadvantages. Based on this the rationale of the decisions could be explained and be transparent. This was important because an EU-wide HBM study demands openness of all decisions taken to encourage as many countries as possible to participate and accept the initiative undertaken. Based on this approach the following study design was suggested: a cross-sectional study including 120 children aged 6-11 years and their mothers aged up to 45 years from each participating country. For the pilot study the children should be sampled in equal shares in an urban and a rural location. Only healthy children and mothers (no metabolic disturbances) should be included, who have a sufficient knowledge of the local language and have been living at least for 5 years at the sampling location. Occupational exposure should not be an exclusion criterion. Recruitment should be performed via inhabitant registries or schools as an alternative option. Measures suitable to increase the response rate should be applied. Preferably, the families should be visited at home and interviewed face-to-face. Various quality control measures to guarantee a good fieldwork performance were recommended. This comprehensive overview aims to provide scientists, EU officials, partners and stakeholders involved in the EU implementation process full transparency of the work

  1. A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Pucinotti, Raffaele; Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S.

    2008-07-08

    A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

  2. Systematic review of effects of current transtibial prosthetic socket designs-Part 1: Qualitative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Meier, Margrit Regula

    2015-01-01

    This review is an attempt to untangle the complexity of transtibial prosthetic socket fit, determine the most important characteristic for a successful fitting, and perhaps find some indication of whether a particular prosthetic socket type might be best for a given situation. Further, it is intended to provide directions for future research. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and used medical subject headings and standard key words to search for articles in relevant databases. No restrictions were made on study design or type of outcome measure. From the obtained search results (n = 1,863), 35 articles were included. The relevant data were entered into a predefined data form that incorporated the Downs and Black risk of bias assessment checklist. Results for the qualitative outcomes (n = 19 articles) are synthesized. Total surface bearing sockets lead to greater activity levels and satisfaction in active persons with amputation, those with a traumatic cause of amputation, and younger persons with amputation than patellar tendon bearing sockets. Evidence on vacuum-assisted suction and hydrostatic sockets is inadequate, and further studies are much needed. To improve the scientific basis for prescription, comparison of and correlation between mechanical properties of interface material, socket designs, user characteristics, and outcome measures should be conducted and reported in future studies.

  3. A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo

    An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

  4. Review of the probabilistic failure analysis methodology and other probabilistic approaches for application in aerospace structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J.; Meyers, C.; Ortega, R.; Peck, J.; Rheinfurth, M.; Weinstock, B.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analyses and design methods are steadily gaining acceptance within the aerospace industry. The safety factor approach to design has long been the industry standard, and it is believed by many to be overly conservative and thus, costly. A probabilistic approach to design may offer substantial cost savings. This report summarizes several probabilistic approaches: the probabilistic failure analysis (PFA) methodology developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, fast probability integration (FPI) methods, the NESSUS finite element code, and response surface methods. Example problems are provided to help identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  5. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  6. Systematic review: Effects, design choices, and context of pay-for-performance in health care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pay-for-performance (P4P) is one of the primary tools used to support healthcare delivery reform. Substantial heterogeneity exists in the development and implementation of P4P in health care and its effects. This paper summarizes evidence, obtained from studies published between January 1990 and July 2009, concerning P4P effects, as well as evidence on the impact of design choices and contextual mediators on these effects. Effect domains include clinical effectiveness, access and equity, coordination and continuity, patient-centeredness, and cost-effectiveness. Methods The systematic review made use of electronic database searching, reference screening, forward citation tracking and expert consultation. The following databases were searched: Cochrane Library, EconLit, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that evaluate P4P effects in primary care or acute hospital care medicine were included. Papers concerning other target groups or settings, having no empirical evaluation design or not complying with the P4P definition were excluded. According to study design nine validated quality appraisal tools and reporting statements were applied. Data were extracted and summarized into evidence tables independently by two reviewers. Results One hundred twenty-eight evaluation studies provide a large body of evidence -to be interpreted with caution- concerning the effects of P4P on clinical effectiveness and equity of care. However, less evidence on the impact on coordination, continuity, patient-centeredness and cost-effectiveness was found. P4P effects can be judged to be encouraging or disappointing, depending on the primary mission of the P4P program: supporting minimal quality standards and/or boosting quality improvement. Moreover, the effects of P4P interventions varied according to design choices and characteristics of the context in which it was introduced. Future P4P programs should (1) select and define P4P targets on the basis of

  7. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  8. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  9. Grounded Theory as a Methodology to Design Teaching Strategies for Historically Informed Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateos-Moreno, Daniel; Alcaraz-Iborra, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Our work highlights the necessity of revising the materials employed in instrumental education, which are systematically based on a progressive development of technical abilities and, though only transversely, without a structured sequence of contents, on issues referring to the interpretation of different periods and styles. In order to elaborate…

  10. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  11. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects' disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  12. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  13. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  14. Design of integrated autopilot/autothrottle for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology. [transport systems research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle control system has been developed for the NASA transport system research vehicle using a two-degree-of-freedom approach. Based on this approach, the feedback regulator was designed using an integral linear quadratic regulator design technique, which offers a systematic approach to satisfy desired feedback performance requirements and guarantees stability margins in both control and sensor loops. The resulting feedback controller was discretized and implemented using a delta coordinate concept, which allows for transient free controller switching by initializing all controller states to zero and provides a simple solution for dealing with throttle limiting cases.

  15. Impact Evaluation of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Methodology and Causal Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiber, Theodor; Stensaker, Bjørn; Harvey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical perspectives and general methodological elements of impact evaluation of quality assurance in higher education institutions are discussed, which should be a cornerstone of quality development in higher education and contribute to improving the knowledge about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of quality…

  16. Methodological Complications of Matching Designs under Real World Constraints: Lessons from a Study of Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, Kristina; Rickles, Jordan; Garet, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    To help researchers understand potential issues one can encounter when conducting propensity matching studies in complex settings, this paper describes methodological complications faced when studying schools using deeper learning practices to improve college and career readiness. The study uses data from high schools located in six districts…

  17. An Investigation of the Shortcomings of the CONSORT 2010 Statement for the Reporting of Group Sequential Randomised Controlled Trials: A Methodological Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stevely, Abigail; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Todd, Susan; Julious, Steven A.; Nicholl, Jonathan; Hind, Daniel; Cooper, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background It can be argued that adaptive designs are underused in clinical research. We have explored concerns related to inadequate reporting of such trials, which may influence their uptake. Through a careful examination of the literature, we evaluated the standards of reporting of group sequential (GS) randomised controlled trials, one form of a confirmatory adaptive design. Methods We undertook a systematic review, by searching Ovid MEDLINE from the 1st January 2001 to 23rd September 2014, supplemented with trials from an audit study. We included parallel group, confirmatory, GS trials that were prospectively designed using a Frequentist approach. Eligible trials were examined for compliance in their reporting against the CONSORT 2010 checklist. In addition, as part of our evaluation, we developed a supplementary checklist to explicitly capture group sequential specific reporting aspects, and investigated how these are currently being reported. Results Of the 284 screened trials, 68(24%) were eligible. Most trials were published in “high impact” peer-reviewed journals. Examination of trials established that 46(68%) were stopped early, predominantly either for futility or efficacy. Suboptimal reporting compliance was found in general items relating to: access to full trials protocols; methods to generate randomisation list(s); details of randomisation concealment, and its implementation. Benchmarking against the supplementary checklist, GS aspects were largely inadequately reported. Only 3(7%) trials which stopped early reported use of statistical bias correction. Moreover, 52(76%) trials failed to disclose methods used to minimise the risk of operational bias, due to the knowledge or leakage of interim results. Occurrence of changes to trial methods and outcomes could not be determined in most trials, due to inaccessible protocols and amendments. Discussion and Conclusions There are issues with the reporting of GS trials, particularly those specific to the

  18. Compact sieve-tray distillation column for ammonia-water absorption heat pump: Part 1 -- Design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, G.; Erickson, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    The distillation column is a key component of ammonia-water absorption units including advanced generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle heat pumps. The design of the distillation column is critical to unit performance, size, and cost. The distillation column can be designed with random packing, structured packing, or various tray configurations. A sieve-tray distillation column is the least complicated tray design and is less costly than high-efficiency packing. Substantial literature is available on sieve tray design and performance. However, most of the correlations and design recommendations were developed for large industrial hydrocarbon systems and are generally not directly applicable to the compact ammonia-water column discussed here. The correlations were reviewed and modified as appropriate for this application, and a sieve-tray design model was developed. This paper presents the sieve-tray design methodology for highly compact ammonia-water columns. A conceptual design of the distillation column for an 8 ton vapor exchange (VX) GAX heat pump is presented, illustrating relevant design parameters and trends. The design process revealed several issues that have to be investigated experimentally to design the final optimized rectifier. Validation of flooding and weeping limits and tray/point efficiencies are of primary importance.

  19. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm. PMID:27615370

  20. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm.

  1. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm. PMID:27615370

  2. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-09-12

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm.

  3. Design methodology for compact photonic-crystal-based wavelength division multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Victor; Jiao, Yang; Miller, David A B; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-02-15

    We present an extremely compact wavelength division multiplexer design, as well as a general framework for designing and optimizing frequency selective devices embedded in photonic crystals satisfying arbitrary design constraints. Our method is based on the Dirichlet-to-Neumman simulation method and uses low rank updates to the system to efficiently scan through many device designs.

  4. Systematic optimization of human pluripotent stem cells media using Design of Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Paulo A.; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2015-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) are used to study the early stages of human development in vitro and, increasingly due to somatic cell reprogramming, cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. Cell culture medium is a critical factor for hPSC to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal. Numerous defined culture media have been empirically developed but never systematically optimized for culturing hPSC. We applied design of experiments (DOE), a powerful statistical tool, to improve the medium formulation for hPSC. Using pluripotency and cell growth as read-outs, we determined the optimal concentration of both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and neuregulin-1 beta 1 (NRG1β1). The resulting formulation, named iDEAL, improved the maintenance and passage of hPSC in both normal and stressful conditions, and affected trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) epigenetic status after genetic reprogramming. It also enhances efficient hPSC plating as single cells. Altogether, iDEAL potentially allows scalable and controllable hPSC culture routine in translational research. Our DOE strategy could also be applied to hPSC differentiation protocols, which often require numerous and complex cell culture media.

  5. Systematic optimization of human pluripotent stem cells media using Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Paulo A; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Muotri, Alysson R

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) are used to study the early stages of human development in vitro and, increasingly due to somatic cell reprogramming, cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. Cell culture medium is a critical factor for hPSC to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal. Numerous defined culture media have been empirically developed but never systematically optimized for culturing hPSC. We applied design of experiments (DOE), a powerful statistical tool, to improve the medium formulation for hPSC. Using pluripotency and cell growth as read-outs, we determined the optimal concentration of both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and neuregulin-1 beta 1 (NRG1β1). The resulting formulation, named iDEAL, improved the maintenance and passage of hPSC in both normal and stressful conditions, and affected trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) epigenetic status after genetic reprogramming. It also enhances efficient hPSC plating as single cells. Altogether, iDEAL potentially allows scalable and controllable hPSC culture routine in translational research. Our DOE strategy could also be applied to hPSC differentiation protocols, which often require numerous and complex cell culture media.

  6. Systematic Design of Pore Size and Functionality in Isoreticular MOFs and Their Application in Methane Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel; Vodak, David; Wachter, Joseph; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality could be varied systematically. Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups -Br, -NH2, -OC3H7, -OC5H11, -C2H4, and -C4H4 and that its pore size can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. We synthesized an isoreticular series (one that has the same framework topology) of 16 highly crystalline materials whose open space represented up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, as well as homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. One member of this series exhibited a high capacity for methane storage (240 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram at 36 atmospheres and ambient temperature), and others the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 gram per cubic centimeter) for a crystalline material at room temperature.

  7. Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

  8. An optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Armstrong, Ernest S.

    1993-01-01

    An approach for an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design is presented for a class of flexible spacecraft that require fine attitude pointing and vibration suppression. The integrated design problem is posed in the form of simultaneous optimization of both structural and control design variables. The approach is demonstrated by application to the integrated design of a generic space platform and to a model of a ground-based flexible structure. The numerical results obtained indicate that the integrated design approach can yield spacecraft designs that have substantially superior performance over a conventional design wherein the structural and control designs are performed sequentially. For example, a 40-percent reduction in the pointing error is observed along with a slight reduction in mass, or an almost twofold increase in the controlled performance is indicated with more than a 5-percent reduction in the overall mass of the spacecraft (a reduction of hundreds of kilograms).

  9. Discovering Actionable Knowledge about Community Telecommunications Systems: Concepts and Case Applications of Design Studio Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kimberly; Horan, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Explores the potential utility of design principles and the design studio for enacting information infrastructures essential for individuals and communities to thrive in the knowledge economy. The proposed approach, Digital Places Design, furnishes those engaged in planning and managing telecommunications infrastructure with a tool to realize…

  10. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-01

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source.

  11. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-01

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source. PMID:27505823

  12. A Sizing Methodology for the Conceptual Design of Blended-Wing-Body Transports. Degree awarded by George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M. (Technical Monitor); Bradley, Kevin R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for sizing Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transports and how the capabilities of the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) have been expanded using that methodology. In this approach, BWB transports are sized based on the number of passengers in each class that must fit inside the centerbody or pressurized vessel. Weight estimation equations for this centerbody structure were developed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This paper shows how the sizing methodology has been incorporated into FLOPS to enable the design and analysis of BWB transports. Previous versions of FLOPS did not have the ability to accurately represent or analyze BWB configurations in any reliable, logical way. The expanded capabilities allow the design and analysis of a 200 to 450-passenger BWB transport or the analysis of a BWB transport for which the geometry is already known. The modifications to FLOPS resulted in differences of less than 4 percent for the ramp weight of a BWB transport in this range when compared to previous studies performed by NASA and Boeing.

  13. A methodology for hypersonic transport technology planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repic, E. M.; Olson, G. A.; Milliken, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic procedure by which the relative economic value of technology factors affecting design, configuration, and operation of a hypersonic cruise transport can be evaluated is discussed. Use of the methodology results in identification of first-order economic gains potentially achievable by projected advances in each of the definable, hypersonic technologies. Starting with a baseline vehicle, the formulas, procedures and forms which are integral parts of this methodology are developed. A demonstration of the methodology is presented for one specific hypersonic vehicle system.

  14. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  15. Systematic reviews need systematic searchers

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Sampson, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will provide a description of the methods, skills, and knowledge of expert searchers working on systematic review teams. Brief Description: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are very important to health care practitioners, who need to keep abreast of the medical literature and make informed decisions. Searching is a critical part of conducting these systematic reviews, as errors made in the search process potentially result in a biased or otherwise incomplete evidence base for the review. Searches for systematic reviews need to be constructed to maximize recall and deal effectively with a number of potentially biasing factors. Librarians who conduct the searches for systematic reviews must be experts. Discussion/Conclusion: Expert searchers need to understand the specifics about data structure and functions of bibliographic and specialized databases, as well as the technical and methodological issues of searching. Search methodology must be based on research about retrieval practices, and it is vital that expert searchers keep informed about, advocate for, and, moreover, conduct research in information retrieval. Expert searchers are an important part of the systematic review team, crucial throughout the review process—from the development of the proposal and research question to publication. PMID:15685278

  16. Methodology for the conceptual design of a robust and opportunistic system-of-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Diana Noonan

    Systems are becoming more complicated, complex, and interrelated. Designers have recognized the need to develop systems from a holistic perspective and design them as Systems-of-Systems (SoS). The design of the SoS, especially in the conceptual design phase, is generally characterized by significant uncertainty. As a result, it is possible for all three types of uncertainty (aleatory, epistemic, and error) and the associated factors of uncertainty (randomness, sampling, confusion, conflict, inaccuracy, ambiguity, vagueness, coarseness, and simplification) to affect the design process. While there are a number of existing SoS design methods, several gaps have been identified: the ability to modeling all of the factors of uncertainty at varying levels of knowledge; the ability to consider both the pernicious and propitious aspects of uncertainty; and, the ability to determine the value of reducing the uncertainty in the design process. While there are numerous uncertainty modeling theories, no one theory can effectively model every kind of uncertainty. This research presents a Hybrid Uncertainty Modeling Method (HUMM) that integrates techniques from the following theories: Probability Theory, Evidence Theory, Fuzzy Set Theory, and Info-Gap theory. The HUMM is capable of modeling all of the different factors of uncertainty and can model the uncertainty for multiple levels of knowledge. In the design process, there are both pernicious and propitious characteristics associated with the uncertainty. Existing design methods typically focus on developing robust designs that are insensitive to the associated uncertainty. These methods do not capitalize on the possibility of maximizing the potential benefit associated with the uncertainty. This research demonstrates how these deficiencies can be overcome by identifying the most robust and opportunistic design. In a design process it is possible that the most robust and opportunistic design will not be selected from the set

  17. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  18. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required.

  19. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2016-03-01

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. PMID:26337753

  20. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  1. A systematic framework for computer-aided design of engineering rubber formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Prasenjeet

    This thesis considers the design of engineering rubber formulations, whose unique properties of elasticity and resilience enable diverse applications. Engineering rubber formulations are a complex mixture of different materials called curatives that includes elastomers, fillers, crosslinking agents, accelerators, activators, retarders, anti-oxidants and processing aids, where the amount of curatives must be adjusted for each application. The characterization of the final properties of the rubber in application is complex and depends on the chemical interplay between the different curatives in formulation via vulcanization chemistry. The details of the processing conditions and the thermal, deformational, and chemical environment encountered in application also have a pronounced effect on the performance of the rubber. Consequently, for much of the history of rubber as an engineering material, its recipe formulations have been developed largely by trial-and-error, rather than by a fundamental understanding. A computer-aided, systematic and automated framework for the design of such materials is proposed in this thesis. The framework requires the solution to two sub-problems: (a) the forward problem, which involves prediction of the desired properties when the formulation is known and (b) the inverse problem that requires identification of the appropriate formulation, given the desired target properties. As part of the forward model, the chemistry of accelerated sulfur vulcanization is reviewed that permits integration of the knowledge of the past five decades in the literature to answer some old questions, reconcile some of the contradicting mechanisms and present a holistic description of the governing chemistry. Based on this mechanistic chemistry, a fundamental kinetic model is derived using population balance equations. The model quantitatively describes, for the first time, the different aspects of vulcanization chemistry. Subsequently, a novel three

  2. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  3. Design and application of complementary educational resources for self-learning methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Gilarranz Casado, Carlos; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is enhanced the student`s self-learning in subjects regarding irrigation and its technology. Thus, the use of visual media (video recording) during the lectures (master classes and practicum) will help the students in understanding the scope of the course since they can watch the recorded material at any time and as many times they wish. The study comprised two parts. In the first, lectures were video filmed inside the classroom during one semester (16 weeks and four hours per week) in the course "Irrigation Systems and Technology" which is taught at the Technical University of Madrid. In total, 200 videos, approximated 12 min long, were recorded. Since the You tube platform is a worldwide platform and since it is commonly used by students and professors, the videos were uploaded in it. Then, the URL was inserted in the Moodle platform which contains the materials for the course. In the second part, the videos were edited and formatted. Special care was taking to maintain image and audio quality. Finally, thirty videos were developed which focused on the different main areas of the course and containing a clear and brief explanation of their basis. Each video lasted between 30 and 45 min Finally, a survey was handled at the end of the semester in order to assess the students' opinion about the methodology. In the questionnaire, the students highlighted the key aspects during the learning process and in general, they were very satisfied with the methodology.

  4. Optical binary de Bruijn networks for massively parallel computing: design methodology and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Sung, Hongki

    1995-10-01

    The interconnection network structure can be the deciding and limiting factor in the cost and the performance of parallel computers. One of the most popular point-to-point interconnection networks for parallel computers today is the hypercube. The regularity, logarithmic diameter, symmetry, high connectivity, fault tolerance, simple routing, and reconfigurability (easy embedding of other network topologies) of the hypercube make it a very attractive choice for parallel computers. Unfortunately the hypercube possesses a major drawback, which is the links per node increases as the network grows in size. As an alternative to the hypercube, the binary de Bruijn (BdB) network has recently received much attention. The BdB not only provides a logarithmic diameter, fault tolerance, and simple routing but also requires fewer links than the hypercube for the same network size. Additionally, a major advantage of the BdB edges per node is independent of the network size. This makes it very desirable for large-scale parallel systems. However, because of its asymmetrical nature and global connectivity, it poses a major challenge for VLSI technology. Optics, owing to its three-dimensional and global-connectivity nature, seems to be very suitable for implementing BdB networks. We present an implementation methodology for optical BdB networks. The distinctive feature of the proposed implementation methodology is partitionability of the network into a few primitive operations that can be implemented efficiently. We further show feasibility of the

  5. Application of the MIAS methodology in design of the data acquisition system for wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwikła, G.; Krenczyk, D.; Kampa, A.; Gołda, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of MIAS (Manufacturing Information Acquisition System) methodology to develop customized data acquisition system supporting management of the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (CWWTP) in Gliwice, Poland, being example of production systems leading continuous flow, automated production processes. Access to current data on the state of production system is a key to efficient management of a company, allowing fast reaction or even anticipation of future problems with equipment and reduction of waste. Overview of both analysis and synthesis of organisational solutions, data sources, data pre-processing and communication interfaces, realised according to proposed MIAS methodology, had been presented. The stage of analysis covered i.e.: organisational structure of the company, IT systems used in the company, specifics of technological processes, machines and equipment, structure of control systems, assignments of crew members, materials used in the technological processes. This paper also presents results of the stage of synthesis of technical and organisational solutions of MIAS for CWWTP, including proposed solutions covering MIAS architecture and connections with other IT systems, data sources in production system that are currently available and newly created, data preprocessing procedures, and necessary communication interfaces.

  6. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  7. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  8. Partnerships for the design, conduct, and analysis of effectiveness, and implementation research: experiences of the prevention science and methodology group.

    PubMed

    Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W

    2012-07-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.

  9. MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…

  10. Experimental validation of optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Joshi, Suresh M.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    An optimization-based integrated design approach for flexible space structures is experimentally validated using three types of dissipative controllers, including static, dynamic, and LQG dissipative controllers. The nominal phase-0 of the controls structure interaction evolutional model (CEM) structure is redesigned to minimize the average control power required to maintain specified root-mean-square line-of-sight pointing error under persistent disturbances. The redesign structure, phase-1 CEM, was assembled and tested against phase-0 CEM. It is analytically and experimentally demonstrated that integrated controls-structures design is substantially superior to that obtained through the traditional sequential approach. The capability of a software design tool based on an automated design procedure in a unified environment for structural and control designs is demonstrated.

  11. The conceptual development of a methodology for solving multi-objective hierarchical thermal design problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bascaran, E.; Bannerot, R.; Mistree, F.

    1987-01-01

    The design of thermal systems is complicated by changing operating conditions, the large number of alternatives, the strong dependance of thermal properties on temperature and pressure and sometimes the lack of a good understanding of the basic phenomena involved. A conceptual development is presented for organizing multi-objective hierarchical thermal design problems into a series of decision support problems which are compatible and solvable with DSIDES, a software system that is under development in the Systems Design Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Houston. The software is currently being used to support the design of a variety of mechanical design problems including ships and airplanes. In this paper, a hierarchical coupled thermal problem is presented and solved by way of example.

  12. Challenges in designing, conducting, and reporting oral health behavioral intervention studies in primary school age children: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Anna Mary; Coffey, Margaret; Dugdill, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Often within oral health, clinical outcome measures dominate trial design rather than behavioral outcome measures, and often there is a reliance on proxy self-reporting of children’s behavior with no corroboration through triangulation of measures. The complexity of the interventions involved in oral health intervention is often overlooked in trial design, and more flexible pragmatic designs that take account of the research context may be more appropriate. Some of the limitations in oral health behavioral intervention studies (trials) in primary school age children were reported in a recently published Cochrane review. This paper aims to critically discuss the findings of a recent Cochrane review in terms of the methodological implications that arise for future design, development, measurement, and reporting of oral health trials in primary school age children. Key components of the UK Medical Research Council’s framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions are discussed in relation to using taxonomies of behavior change. This paper is not designed to be a definitive guide but aims to bring learning from other areas of public health and health promotion into dental public health. Ultimately, the aim is to aid the design of more successful interventions that produce long-term behavioral changes in children in relation to toothbrushing and nighttime sugar snacking. PMID:27774028

  13. Mixing design for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: methodology for selection of impeller configuration.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    One of the major process bottlenecks for viable industrial production of second generation ethanol is related with technical-economic difficulties in the hydrolysis step. The development of a methodology to choose the best configuration of impellers towards improving mass transfer and hydrolysis yield together with a low power consumption is important to make the process cost-effective. In this work, four dual impeller configurations (DICs) were evaluated during hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) experiments in a stirred tank reactor (3 L). The systems tested were dual Rushton turbine impellers (DIC1), Rushton and elephant ear (down-pumping) turbines (DIC2), Rushton and elephant ear (up-pumping) turbines (DIC3), and down-pumping and up-pumping elephant ear turbines (DIC4). The experiments were conducted during 96 h, using 10 % (m/v) SCB, pH 4.8, 50 °C, 10 FPU/g biomass, 470 rpm. The mixing time was successfully used as the characteristic parameter to select the best impeller configuration. Rheological parameters were determined using a rotational rheometer, and the power consumptions of the four DICs were on-line measured with a dynamometer. The values obtained for the energetic efficiency (the ratio between the cellulose to glucose conversion and the total energy) showed that the proposed methodology was successful in choosing a suitable configuration of impellers, wherein the DIC4 obtained approximately three times higher energetic efficiency than DIC1. Furthermore a scale-up protocol (factor scale-up 1000) for the enzymatic hydrolysis reactor was proposed. PMID:26650719

  14. Mixing design for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: methodology for selection of impeller configuration.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    One of the major process bottlenecks for viable industrial production of second generation ethanol is related with technical-economic difficulties in the hydrolysis step. The development of a methodology to choose the best configuration of impellers towards improving mass transfer and hydrolysis yield together with a low power consumption is important to make the process cost-effective. In this work, four dual impeller configurations (DICs) were evaluated during hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) experiments in a stirred tank reactor (3 L). The systems tested were dual Rushton turbine impellers (DIC1), Rushton and elephant ear (down-pumping) turbines (DIC2), Rushton and elephant ear (up-pumping) turbines (DIC3), and down-pumping and up-pumping elephant ear turbines (DIC4). The experiments were conducted during 96 h, using 10 % (m/v) SCB, pH 4.8, 50 °C, 10 FPU/g biomass, 470 rpm. The mixing time was successfully used as the characteristic parameter to select the best impeller configuration. Rheological parameters were determined using a rotational rheometer, and the power consumptions of the four DICs were on-line measured with a dynamometer. The values obtained for the energetic efficiency (the ratio between the cellulose to glucose conversion and the total energy) showed that the proposed methodology was successful in choosing a suitable configuration of impellers, wherein the DIC4 obtained approximately three times higher energetic efficiency than DIC1. Furthermore a scale-up protocol (factor scale-up 1000) for the enzymatic hydrolysis reactor was proposed.

  15. Methodology for the structural design of single spoke accelerating cavities at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Donato; Wands, Robert H.; Merio, Margherita; Ristori, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Fermilab is planning to upgrade its accelerator complex to deliver a more powerful and intense proton-beam for neutrino experiments. In the framework of the so-called Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), we are designing and developing a cryomodule containing superconducting accelerating cavities, the Single Spoke Resonators of type 1 (SSR1). In this paper, we present the sequence of analysis and calculations performed for the structural design of these cavities, using the rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). The lack of an accepted procedure for addressing the design, fabrication, and inspection of such unique pressure vessels makes the task demanding and challenging every time. Several factors such as exotic materials, unqualified brazing procedures, limited nondestructive examination, and the general R&D nature of these early generations of cavity design, conspire to make it impractical to obtain full compliance with all ASME BPVC requirements. However, the presented approach allowed us to validate the design of this new generation of single spoke cavities with values of maximum allowable working pressure that exceeds the safety requirements. This set of rules could be used as a starting point for the structural design and development of similar objects.

  16. Optimizing an experimental design for a CSEM experiment: methodology and synthetic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, E.; Garcia, X.

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing an experimental design is a compromise between maximizing information we get about the target and limiting the cost of the experiment, providing a wide range of constraints. We present a statistical algorithm for experiment design that combines the use of linearized inverse theory and stochastic optimization technique. Linearized inverse theory is used to quantify the quality of one given experiment design while genetic algorithm (GA) enables us to examine a wide range of possible surveys. The particularity of our algorithm is the use of the multi-objective GA NSGA II that searches designs that fit several objective functions (OFs) simultaneously. This ability of NSGA II is helping us in defining an experiment design that focuses on a specified target area. We present a test of our algorithm using a 1-D electrical subsurface structure. The model we use represents a simple but realistic scenario in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study. Our first synthetic test using a single OF shows that a limited number of well-distributed observations from a chosen design have the potential to resolve the given model. This synthetic test also points out the importance of a well-chosen OF, depending on our target. In order to improve these results, we show how the combination of two OFs using a multi-objective GA enables us to determine an experimental design that maximizes information about the reservoir layer. Finally, we present several tests of our statistical algorithm in more challenging environments by exploring the influence of noise, specific site characteristics or its potential for reservoir monitoring.

  17. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  18. Methodology for the structural design of single spoke accelerating cavities at Fermilab

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Passarelli, Donato; Wands, Robert H.; Merio, Margherita; Ristori, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Fermilab is planning to upgrade its accelerator complex to deliver a more powerful and intense proton-beam for neutrino experiments. In the framework of the so-called Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), we are designing and developing a cryomodule containing superconducting accelerating cavities, the Single Spoke Resonators of type 1 (SSR1). In this paper, we present the sequence of analysis and calculations performed for the structural de- sign of these cavities, using the rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). The lack of an accepted procedure for addressing the design, fabrication, and inspection of suchmore » unique pressure vessels makes the task demanding and challenging every time. Several factors such as exotic materials, unqualified brazing procedures, limited nondestructive examination, and the general R&D nature of these early generations of cavity design, conspire to make it impractical to obtain full compliance with all ASME BPVC requirements. However, the presented approach allowed us to validate the design of these new generation of single spoke cavities with values of maximum allowable working pressure that exceed the safety requirements. This set of rules could be used as a starting point for the structural design and development of similar objects.« less

  19. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  20. Modeling Methodologies for Design and Control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell APUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianese, C.; Sorrentino, M.

    2009-08-01

    Among the existing fuel cell technologies, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are particularly suitable for both stationary and mobile applications, due to their high energy conversion efficiencies, modularity, high fuel flexibility, low emissions and noise. Moreover, the high working temperatures enable their use for efficient cogeneration applications. SOFCs are entering in a pre-industrial era and a strong interest for designing tools has growth in the last years. Optimal system configuration, components sizing, control and diagnostic system design require computational tools that meet the conflicting needs of accuracy, affordable computational time, limited experimental efforts and flexibility. The paper gives an overview on control-oriented modeling of SOFC at both single cell and stack level. Such an approach provides useful simulation tools for designing and controlling SOFC-APUs destined to a wide application area, ranging from automotive to marine and airplane APUs.