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Sample records for systematic development evaluation

  1. Development of an integrated surface stimulation device for systematic evaluation of wound electrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Howe, D S; Dunning, J; Zorman, C; Garverick, S L; Bogie, K M

    2015-02-01

    Ideally, all chronic wounds would be prevented as they can become life threatening complications. The concept that a wound produces a 'current of injury' due to the discontinuity in the electrical field of intact skin provides the basis for the concept that electrical stimulation (ES) may provide an effective treatment for chronic wounds. The optimal stimulation waveform parameters are unknown, limiting the reliability of achieving a successful clinical therapeutic outcome. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of ES for chronic wound therapy, systematic evaluation using a valid in vivo model is required. The focus of the current paper is development of the flexible modular surface stimulation (MSS) device by our group. This device can be programed to deliver a variety of clinically relevant stimulation paradigms and is essential to facilitate systematic in vivo studies. The MSS version 2.0 for small animal use provides all components of a single-channel, programmable current-controlled ES system within a lightweight, flexible, independently-powered portable device. Benchtop testing and validation indicates that custom electronics and control algorithms support the generation of high-voltage, low duty-cycle current pulses in a power-efficient manner, extending battery life and allowing ES therapy to be delivered for up to 7 days without needing to replace or disturb the wound dressing.

  2. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  3. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobin; Mao, Fanzhen; Zhou, Zi; Zhao, Qinjian; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness.

  4. A systematic development and evaluation of an undergraduate course in zoo biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Patrick Mullen

    The biology curricula offered by most institutions of higher education follow a classic pattern of basic taxonomy, phylogeny, physiology, genetics, molecular biology and biometry. This course regimen certainly provides a knowledge structure within the discipline, but is somewhat lacking in information that is directly applicable within the field of zoo biology. The zoo biology curriculum set forth in this dissertation was designed to offer students immersion into the rapidly evolving field of zoo biology. It also offers insight and perspectives into the zoo profession, encompassing 185 accredited zoological parks and aquariums, which employ numerous biologists. There is not a degree granting college or university in Texas that currently offers coursework in this specialization. In order to determine the merit and worth of a course in zoo biology, a field trial and a revised course were presented and subjected to a systematic evaluation. Four evaluative categories were utilized following Benton's (1992) design: (a) consistency between terminal performance objectives, activities and test instrument items, (b) effect on scientific knowledge, (c) activity usefulness as perceived by course participants and the instructor, (d) course worth. Student (N = 49) and component data were measured using a pre-post-test design, a questionnaire, and other informal instruments during the antecedent, transaction and outcome phases. Data from the pre-post-tests were analyzed using t-tests for correlated means. The analysis of activities and test items indicated that they were consistent with the terminal performance objectives. The pre-post-test results indicated that the course had a positive effect on knowledge gain within the field of study. A significant statistical difference was found between the test means at a probability of p ≤ 0.001. A post course attitudinal questionnaire elicited a rating of 4.65 on a Likert scale of 5.0 on perceived usefulness to the participants. A

  5. Systematic evaluation of buffer influences on the development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Márquez López, Johanna; Sulzmann, Anja; Thewes, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Development and cell differentiation are key features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Already at early developmental stages, the gene expression profile changes in the amoebae to make the cells aggregation competent. In the laboratory, development starts when the cells are washed free of nutrients. For this purpose, various non-nutrient buffers are used in different laboratories. However, to date, it is not clear if different buffers have different influences on the development of D. discoideum. Therefore, we investigated systematically the influence of six widely used buffers on the development of D. discoideum. Investigation was done at the phenotypical, biochemical, and molecular level. The results show that some of the investigated buffers show clear differences in the phenotypical outcome of the developmental cycle, at a biochemical level as measured in the response to cAMP, and/or at a molecular level as measured in the expression of early developmental marker genes. According to our results buffer compositions should be considered carefully for all developmental experiments with D. discoideum, especially when gene expression will be investigated. PMID:26791868

  6. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  7. Unique Approach to Systematic Instruction: The Development, Evaluation, and Improvement of a Hierarchy of University Courses in Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingham, Carol; Harper, William

    1978-01-01

    Describes the instructional development of two related courses: Managerial Finance, a personalized system of instruction; and Finance, Learning Theories, and Practices, a practicum. Student evaluations of both courses were conducted, focusing on student tutors and the systems of instruction. (VT)

  8. Systematic Reading Training in the Family: Development, Implementation, and Initial Evaluation of the Berlin Parent-Child Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvany, Nele; Artelt, Cordula

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on knowledge about the development of reading comprehension, and empirical insights into the effects of training on students' learning strategies and reading-related metacognition, we developed a parent-child reading program for implementation in the home environment. The results of this first quasi-experimental evaluation study indicate…

  9. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  10. Evaluation, Not Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carden, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Much has been said in literature about the changing face of development and the changing face of the aid industry. However, the focus of this article is the effect that this could have on evaluation and what might be done to move evaluation into the most useful space possible. Herein, the author makes the case that the evaluation community needs…

  11. Staff Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Breyer, Norman L.

    An ongoing behavioral model for implementing staff development and evaluation procedures is proposed, which systematically focuses on assessing and facilitating behavioral change in the classroom and enables the educational executive to assess what is actually happening there. The administrator is thus provided with the necessary information to…

  12. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  13. Systematic safety evaluation on photoluminescent carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Gao, Zhongcai; Gao, Guo; Wo, Yan; Wang, Yuxia; Shen, Guangxia; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) were prepared using the improved nitric acid oxidation method. The C-dots were characterized by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The C-dots were subjected to systematic safety evaluation via acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, and genotoxicity experiments (including mouse bone marrow micronuclear test and Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test). The results showed that the C-dots were successfully prepared with good stability, high dispersibility, and water solubility. At all studied C-dot dosages, no significant toxic effect, i.e., no abnormality or lesion, was observed in the organs of the animals. Therefore, the C-dots are non-toxic to mice under any dose and have potential use in fluorescence imaging in vivo, tumor cell tracking, and others.

  14. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  15. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration☆

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological

  16. Development and Evaluation of ‘Briefing Notes’ as a Novel Knowledge Translation Tool to Aid the Implementation of Sex/Gender Analysis in Systematic Reviews: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Doull, Marion; Welch, Vivian; Puil, Lorri; Runnels, Vivien; Coen, Stephanie E.; Shea, Beverley; O’Neill, Jennifer; Borkhoff, Cornelia; Tudiver, Sari; Boscoe, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of sex/gender differences in health and the importance of identifying differential effects of interventions for men and women. Yet, to whom the research evidence does or does not apply, with regard to sex/gender, is often insufficiently answered. This is also true for systematic reviews which synthesize results of primary studies. A lack of analysis and reporting of evidence on sex/gender raises concerns about the applicability of systematic reviews. To bridge this gap, this pilot study aimed to translate knowledge about sex/gender analysis (SGA) into a user-friendly ‘briefing note’ format and evaluate its potential in aiding the implementation of SGA in systematic reviews. Methods Our Sex/Gender Methods Group used an interactive process to translate knowledge about sex/gender into briefing notes, a concise communication tool used by policy and decision makers. The briefing notes were developed in collaboration with three Cochrane Collaboration review groups (HIV/AIDS, Hypertension, and Musculoskeletal) who were also the target knowledge users of the briefing notes. Briefing note development was informed by existing systematic review checklists, literature on sex/gender, in-person and virtual meetings, and consultation with topic experts. Finally, we held a workshop for potential users to evaluate the notes. Results Each briefing note provides tailored guidance on considering sex/gender to reviewers who are planning or conducting systematic reviews and includes the rationale for considering sex/gender, with examples specific to each review group’s focus. Review authors found that the briefing notes provided welcome guidance on implementing SGA that was clear and concise, but also identified conceptual and implementation challenges. Conclusions Sex/gender briefing notes are a promising knowledge translation tool. By encouraging sex/gender analysis and equity considerations in systematic reviews, the briefing notes can

  17. Systematic evaluation of skeletal mechanical function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren; Bigelow, Erin M.R.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Many genetic and environmental perturbations lead to measurable changes in bone morphology, matrix composition, and matrix organization. The skeletal system is highly adaptive, such that genetic and environmental perturbations affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. This adaptation should be considered when attempting to draw meaningful conclusions about the role of a gene, for example. The challenge is to figure out which alterations can be attributed to the perturbation and which result from adaptive changes associated with establishing mechanical function. The goal of this chapter is to describe straight-forward biomechanical methods that can be used to determine whether a genetic or environmental perturbation affected bone strength. We introduce a systematic method for evaluating how bone strength was altered in the context of morphology and tissue-level mechanical properties, which are determined in large part from matrix composition, matrix organization, and porosity. We present this work as a first step toward screening mice for a phenotypic effect and for establishing the associated biomechanical mechanism by which function was altered. The outcome of these analyses generally provides insight into the next set of experiments required to further connect the cellular perturbation with the functional changes. The protocols were written to enable researchers without a background in engineering to conduct the assays or to enable researchers to better understand the outcomes of similar assays conducted by colleagues knowledgeable in engineering. PMID:24634803

  18. Systematic evaluation of personal genome services for Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Kido, Takashi; Kawashima, Minae; Nishino, Seiji; Swan, Melanie; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Butte, Atul J

    2013-11-01

    Disease risk prediction (DRP) is one of the most important challenges in personal genome research. Although many direct-to-consumer genetic test (DTC) companies have begun to offer personal genome services for DRP, there is still no consensus on what constitutes a gold-standard service. Here, we systematically evaluated the distributions of DRPs from three DTC companies, that is, 23andMe, Navigenics and deCODEme, for 22 diseases using three Japanese samples. We systematically quantified and analyzed the differences between each DTC company's DRPs. Our independency test showed that the overall prediction results were correlated with each other, but not perfectly matched; less than onethird mismatching of the opposite direction occurred in eight diseases. Moreover, we found that the differences could mainly be attributed to four factors: (1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection, (2) average risk estimation, (3) the disease risk calculation algorithm and (4) ethnicity adjustment. In particular, only 7.1% of SNPs over 22 diseases were reviewed by all three companies. Therefore, development of a universal core SNPs list for non-Caucasian samples will be important for achieving better prediction capacity for Japanese samples. This systematic methodology provides useful insights for improving the capacity of DRPs in future personal genome services. PMID:24067293

  19. Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

  20. How to systematically evaluate immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins - regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Eva-Maria; Schneider, Christian K

    2009-06-01

    Antibody formation as an immune reaction to a 'foreign' protein antigen is an expected physiological reaction that is in many cases intentionally triggered, for example in the case of vaccinations. However, an unwanted immune response to a therapeutic protein may lead to a loss of efficacy and/or to severe side effects. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) issued a multidisciplinary guideline providing general recommendations from a marketing authorisation perspective on how to assess an unwanted immune response following the administration of a biological drug. In this article, we provide an in-depth regulatory discussion on key principles of systematic evaluation of immunogenicity during development of biotechnological medicinal products, including examples.

  1. The Vital@Work Study. The systematic development of a lifestyle intervention to improve older workers' vitality and the design of a randomised controlled trial evaluating this intervention

    PubMed Central

    Strijk, Jorien E; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background A major contributor of early exit from work is a decline in health with increasing age. As healthy lifestyle choices contribute to better health outcomes, an intervention aimed at an improved lifestyle is considered a potentially effective tool to keep older workers healthy and vital, and thereby to prolong labour participation. Methods Using the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, a lifestyle intervention was developed based on information obtained from 1) literature, 2) a short lifestyle questionnaire aimed at indentifying the lifestyle behaviours among the target group, and 3) focusgroup (FG) interviews among 36 older workers (aged 45+ years) aimed at identifying: a) key determinants of lifestyle behaviour, b) a definition of vitality, and c) ideas about how vitality can be improved by lifestyle. The main lifestyle problems identified were: insufficient levels of physical activity and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables. Using information from both literature and FG interviews, vitality consists of a mental and a physical component. The interviewees suggested to improve the mental component of vitality by means of relaxation exercises (e.g. yoga); physical vitality could be improved by aerobic endurance exercise and strength training. The lifestyle intervention (6 months) consists of three visits to a Personal Vitality Coach (PVC) combined with a Vitality Exercise Programme (VEP). The VEP consists of: 1) once a week a guided yoga group session aimed at relaxation exercises, 2) once a week a guided aerobic workout group session aimed at improving aerobic fitness and increasing muscle strength, and 3) older workers will be asked to perform once a week for at least 45 minutes vigorous physical activity without face-to-face instructions (e.g. fitness). Moreover, free fruit will be offered at the group sessions of the VEP. The lifestyle intervention will be evaluated in a RCT among older workers of two major academic hospitals in the Netherlands

  2. Evaluating Instructional Development Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    The effectiveness of instructional development evaluation programs is assessed. It is suggested that although it is a basic tenet in instructional development that teaching improvement is closely linked to effective evaluation, it is ironical that most instructional development programs have themselves been evaluated only superficially, if at all.…

  3. A Systematic Review on Interventions Supporting Preceptor Development.

    PubMed

    Windey, Maryann; Lawrence, Carol; Guthrie, Kimberly; Weeks, Debra; Sullo, Elaine; Chapa, Deborah W

    2015-01-01

    Increases in newly licensed nurses and experienced nurses changing specialties create a challenge for nursing professional development specialists (NPDS). The NPDS must use the best available evidence in designing programs. A systematic review of interventions for developing preceptors is needed to inform the NPDS in best practice. A search was conducted for full-text, quantitative, and mixed-methods articles published after the year 2000. Over 4000 titles were initially identified, which yielded 12 research studies for evaluation and syntheses. Results identified a limited body of evidence reflecting a need for NPDS to increase efforts in measuring the effectiveness of preceptor development initiatives.(See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9). PMID:26580462

  4. Update of Diagnostic Evaluation of Craniosynostosis with a Focus on Pediatric Systematic Evaluation and Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Su-Kyeong; Park, Ki-Su; Park, Seong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Most craniosynostoses are sporadic, but may have an underlying genetic basis. Secondary and syndromic craniosynostosis accompanies various systemic diseases or associated anomalies. Early detection of an associated disease may facilitate the interdisciplinary management of patients and improve outcomes. For that reason, systematic evaluation of craniosynostosis is mandatory. The authors reviewed systematic evaluation of craniosynostosis with an emphasis on genetic analysis. PMID:27226851

  5. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW, were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystem. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base, and to assess the cooperation between the rule-bases. Each AUTOCREW subsystem is composed of several expert systems that perform specific tasks. AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR was analyzed in detail to understand the difficulties involved in designing the system and to identify tools and methodologies that ease development. The NAVIGATOR determines optimal navigation strategies from a set of available sensors. A Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) expert system was systematically designed from Kalman filter covariance data; four ground-based, a satellite-based, and two on-board INS-aiding sensors were modeled and simulated to aid an INS. The NSM Expert was developed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. Navigation strategy selection is based on an RSS position error decision metric, which is computed from the covariance data. Results show that the NSM Expert predicts position error correctly between 45 and 100 percent of the time for a specified navaid configuration and aircraft trajectory. The NSM Expert adapts to new situations, and provides reasonable estimates of hybrid performance. The systematic nature of the ANOVA/ID3 method makes it broadly applicable to expert system design when experimental or simulation data is available.

  6. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  7. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future. PMID:26390672

  8. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  9. Strengthening Evaluation for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofir, Zenda

    2013-01-01

    Although some argue that distinctions between "evaluation" and "development evaluation" are increasingly superfluous, it is important to recognize that some distinctions still matter. The severe vulnerabilities and power asymmetries inherent in most developing country systems and societies make the task of evaluation…

  10. A systematic development process for patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including

  11. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: I. Theory and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a project that proposes and tests a comprehensive and systematic model of user evaluation of Web search engines. This article describes the model, including a set of criteria and measures and a method for implementation. A literature review portrays settings for developing the model and places applications of the model in contemporary…

  12. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K. H.; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. Objective: We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Methods: Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms “vaccine,” “economics” and “Canada.” Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Results: 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. Conclusions: We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public

  13. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Turri, Jose Antonio; Leandro, Roseli; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. METHODS: We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: We identified 535 health economic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23 (57.5%) and 17 (42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four cost-consequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25 (62.5%) evaluated medications; 7 (17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3 (7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most (55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most (63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible. PMID:26855823

  14. Making Economic Development Work: A Systematic Approach to Contract Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Cary A.; Custer, Harriet H.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the activities of Des Moines Area Community College's Economic Development Group (EDG), a division created to develop and coordinate a systematic approach to providing contract training for business and industry. Highlights the Project File System as the core of the EDG's delivery system. (AYC)

  15. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  16. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  17. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  18. "Learning to Play with New Friends": Systematic Quality Development Work in a Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the recontextualisation of systematic quality development work (Sqdw) in a leisure-time centre. Two teachers' processes of planning, organisation, documentation and evaluation were investigated, the aim being to explore the recontextualisation of Sqdw in practice. The study is thus a case study of these teachers' practice…

  19. [SR/PS-method for using data of primary studies from systematic reviews in the evaluation of health technologies].

    PubMed

    Gorenoi, Vitali; Hagen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In general, the evaluation of health technologies is a time-consuming process being performed on the basis of systematic reviews of clinical (primary) studies. In order to save time, health technologies may be assessed based on previously published systematic reviews. However, this assessment method can be associated with a high risk of bias of the obtained results. We developed, therefore, the "Systematic Reviews for assessment based on Primary Studies" (SR/PS) method to enable a transparent, valid and time-saving evaluation of the technologies. Using the SR/PS method the evaluation of the hits that were identified through the literature search for systematic reviews and, if appropriate, through additional search for primary studies is being performed in three stages, namely identification, quality assessment and information synthesis. This process results in the ascertainment of the three most important sets of information: the pool of identified studies, the pool of methodologically sound studies and the results of the information synthesis. Each stage of the evaluation comprises the comprehensive use of relevant data on primary studies from the systematic reviews. At each stage, the corresponding systematic reviews will be selected from the identified hits using certain quality criteria. If information obtained from the systematic reviews is insufficient it will be completed by additionally incorporating the primary studies. The SR/PS method can be especially helpful in performing projects with many primary studies (e. g., guidelines development).

  20. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  1. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Ruifang; Du, Yuanping; Hong, Xueyu; Cao, Hongzhi; Su, Zheng; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Nie, Chao; Xu, Xun; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs) among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR) and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR). Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation.

  2. Financial evaluations of antibiotic stewardship programs—a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Vemer, Pepijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; Hendrix, Ron; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; Sinha, Bhanu; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing awareness to counteract problems due to incorrect antimicrobial use. Interventions that are implemented are often part of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). Studies publishing results from these interventions are increasing, including reports on the economical effects of ASPs. This review will look at the economical sections of these studies and the methods that were used. Methods: A systematic review was performed of articles found in the PubMed and EMBASE databases published from 2000 until November 2014. Included studies found were scored for various aspects and the quality of the papers was assessed following an appropriate check list (CHEC criteria list). Results: 1233 studies were found, of which 149 were read completely. Ninety-nine were included in the final review. Of these studies, 57 only mentioned the costs associated with the antimicrobial medication. Others also included operational costs (n = 23), costs for hospital stay (n = 18), and/or other costs (n = 19). Nine studies were further assessed for their quality. These studies scored between 2 and 14 out of a potential total score of 19. Conclusions: This review gives an extensive overview of the current financial evaluation of ASPs and the quality of these economical studies. We show that there is still major potential to improve financial evaluations of ASPs. Studies do not use similar nor consistent methods or outcome measures, making it impossible draw sound conclusions and compare different studies. Finally, we make some recommendations for the future. PMID:25932024

  3. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Ruifang; Du, Yuanping; Hong, Xueyu; Cao, Hongzhi; Su, Zheng; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Nie, Chao; Xu, Xun; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs) among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR) and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR). Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation. PMID:27019362

  4. PRAMS: a systematic method for evaluating penal institutions under litigation.

    PubMed

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2007-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists serve as expert witnesses in litigation involving the impact of conditions of confinement, including mental health care delivery, on the emotional well-being of institutionalized persons. Experts review volumes of data before formulating opinions and preparing reports. The author has developed PRAMS, a method for systematically reviewing and presenting data during mental health litigation involving detention and corrections facilities. The PRAMS method divides the examination process into five stages: paper review, real-world view, aggravating circumstances, mitigating circumstances, and supplemental information. PRAMS provides the scaffolding on which a compelling picture of an institution's system of care may be constructed and disseminated in reports and during courtroom testimony. Also, PRAMS enhances the organization, analysis, publication, and presentation of salient findings, thereby coordinating the forensic psychiatrist's efforts to provide expert opinions regarding complex systems of mental health care.

  5. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. PMID:25448812

  6. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  7. Communication for Development Interventions in Fragile States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Andrew; Rodger, Dianne; Power, Gerry; Mbus, Domenic Friguglietti; Brimacombe, Tait

    2013-01-01

    Executive summary Background A wide range of contextual and programmatic factors frame, affect and constrain communication for development (C4D) interventions undertaken in fragile or conflict affected states. For the purposes of this review, contextual factors include culture, poverty, different stages of conflict (such as latent, open or post-conflict scenarios), policy, legislation and so on, while programmatic factors include the type of intervention, formative and summative evaluation, project design and management, human and financial resources and so on. Understanding the various factors that influence C4D interventions in fragile states is important to improving practice, implementation and evaluation, as well as to the future development of methodologies and frameworks that can be utilised in conflict or crisis situations. Objective The objective of this review is to assess the contextual and programmatic factors that influence communication for development interventions in fragile states. Types of participants Persons regardless of age, gender and ethnicity – living in fragile states. Phenomena of interest The contextual and programmatic factors that influence communication for development (C4D) interventions in fragile states. Types of studies Qualitative peer reviewed studies, expert opinion, discussion papers, project reports, policy papers, position papers and other text. Search strategy Searches were conducted for published and unpublished material (between January 2001 – September 2011), including grey literature, in the English language. Databases searched were: Academic Search Premier; African Women's Bibliographic Database; Anthropology Plus; Bibliography of Asian Studies; Educational Resources Information Centre; Ingenta Connect; JSTOR; Scopus; and Sociological Abstracts; Communication for Social Change Consortium; DevComm (World Bank); Eldis; Search for Common Ground; The Communication Initiative; United Nations Development Programme

  8. Consumer evaluation of food with nutritional benefits: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-06-01

    As a consequence of the growing interest in, and development of, various types of food with nutritional benefits, the modern consumer views their kitchen cabinet more and more as a medicine cabinet. Given that consumer evaluation of food is considered key to the successful production, marketing and finally consumption of food, a procedure commonly used in medical fields was employed to systematically review and summarize evidence of consumer evaluation studies on nutritious foods. The focus is primarily on consumer understanding of nutritious food and the underlying determinants of consumer evaluation. Our results highlight four groups of key determinants: (1) nutrition knowledge and information; (2) attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and behavioural determinants; (3) price, process and product characteristics; and (4) socio-demographics. The findings also point to the importance of understanding consumer acceptance as one many concepts in the consumer evaluation process, and provide support for developing appropriate strategies for improving health and well-being of consumers.

  9. Consumer evaluation of food with nutritional benefits: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-06-01

    As a consequence of the growing interest in, and development of, various types of food with nutritional benefits, the modern consumer views their kitchen cabinet more and more as a medicine cabinet. Given that consumer evaluation of food is considered key to the successful production, marketing and finally consumption of food, a procedure commonly used in medical fields was employed to systematically review and summarize evidence of consumer evaluation studies on nutritious foods. The focus is primarily on consumer understanding of nutritious food and the underlying determinants of consumer evaluation. Our results highlight four groups of key determinants: (1) nutrition knowledge and information; (2) attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and behavioural determinants; (3) price, process and product characteristics; and (4) socio-demographics. The findings also point to the importance of understanding consumer acceptance as one many concepts in the consumer evaluation process, and provide support for developing appropriate strategies for improving health and well-being of consumers. PMID:27074699

  10. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  11. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  12. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  13. Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Lunn, Ruth M; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Glenn, Barbara S; Kraft, Andrew D; Luke, April M; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as "sensitivity", is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect. Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and

  14. Evaluating faculty performance: a systematically designed and assessed approach.

    PubMed

    Bland, Carole J; Wersal, Lisa; VanLoy, Wendy; Jacott, William

    2002-01-01

    The authors explain how the Department of Family Practice and Community Health (DFPCH) at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine has responded to the need to create for its faculty an evaluation system that provides information for both feedback and merit-pay decisions. The development process, begun in 1996, is described, and its present format detailed. Also presented are the results of a 1999 assessment of the system, which found high satisfaction among the faculty and the department head. In particular, this system has allowed the department head to have a more objective basis for making salary decisions, to increase his role as coach, and to commit more time to career correction and/or development. Other observed outcomes include an enhanced ability to track faculty productivity, increased clarity in organizational structure and goals, increased research productivity, and early retirement of senior faculty receiving low evaluations. The key components of the DFPCH system mirror recommended elements for the design of faculty evaluation systems offered by evaluation professionals. Specific elements that the DFPCH found critical to success were stable and supportive departmental and project leadership, supportive faculty, skilled staff, a willingness to weather resistance to change, tailoring of the system to the department's specific needs and culture, and a willingness to allow the process to evolve. A key question that the evaluation system has evoked at the DFPCH is whether "merit" equals "worth"; that is, does the collective meritorious work of faculty members effectively address program and departmental goals? PMID:11788318

  15. Consensus Recommendations for Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Evidence for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Scheife, Richard T.; Hines, Lisa E.; Boyce, Richard D.; Chung, Sophie P.; Momper, Jeremiah; Sommer, Christine D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.; Horn, John; Sklar, Stephen J.; Wong, Samantha K.; Jones, Gretchen; Brown, Mary; Grizzle, Amy J.; Comes, Susan; Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Borst, Clarissa; Wittie, Michael A.; Rich, Alissa; Malone, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations, compendia, and drug knowledgebase vendors use varying methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This situation has a negative effect on electronic prescribing and medication information systems that warn clinicians of potentially harmful medication combinations. Objective To provide recommendations for systematic evaluation of evidence from the scientific literature, drug product labeling, and regulatory documents with respect to DDIs for clinical decision support. Methods A conference series was conducted to develop a structured process to improve the quality of DDI alerting systems. Three expert workgroups were assembled to address the goals of the conference. The Evidence Workgroup consisted of 15 individuals with expertise in pharmacology, drug information, biomedical informatics, and clinical decision support. Workgroup members met via webinar from January 2013 to February 2014. Two in-person meetings were conducted in May and September 2013 to reach consensus on recommendations. Results We developed expert-consensus answers to three key questions: 1) What is the best approach to evaluate DDI evidence?; 2) What evidence is required for a DDI to be applicable to an entire class of drugs?; and 3) How should a structured evaluation process be vetted and validated? Conclusion Evidence-based decision support for DDIs requires consistent application of transparent and systematic methods to evaluate the evidence. Drug information systems that implement these recommendations should be able to provide higher quality information about DDIs in drug compendia and clinical decision support tools. PMID:25556085

  16. Communication for Development Interventions in Fragile States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Andrew; Rodger, Dianne; Power, Gerry; Mbus, Domenic Friguglietti; Brimacombe, Tait

    2013-01-01

    factors that affect C4D implementation is critical to effective practice, this systematic review also highlights a need for early, more thorough and longer-term C4D interventions within fragile states (especially those that can be characterised by latent conflict and chronic instability). Early communication intervention can help reduce tension and promote reconciliation, but also enable development and humanitarian agencies to be better placed to address situations that may escalate into open conflict. Implications for policy and practice A wide range of contextual and programmatic factors combine to both constrain and provide opportunities for C4D initiatives in fragile states. Such factors need to be recognised, negotiated and addressed by practitioners in design, implementation and evaluation in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of C4D initiatives. Implications for research The quality of the evidence base relating to C4D interventions in fragile states is relatively weak. The difficultly of conducting rigorous evaluation and research in conflict-affected contexts should not be underestimated. This highlights a need to improve our understanding of communications environments within fragile states and the related need to develop appropriate methodological frameworks and tools that enable effective mapping and the identification of appropriate communication interventions to occur.

  17. The Evaluation of Hospital Performance in Iran: A Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; IZADI, Ahmad Reza; GHARDASHI, Fatemeh; RAVANGARD, Ramin; HOSSEINI, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: This research aimed to systematically study and outline the methods of hospital performance evaluation used in Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, all Persian and English-language articles published in the Iranian and non-Iranian scientific journals indexed from Sep 2004 to Sep 2014 were studied. For finding the related articles, the researchers searched the Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, as well as the non-Iranian electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar. For reviewing the selected articles, a data extraction form, developed by the researchers was used. Results: The entire review process led to the selection of 51 articles. The publication of articles on the hospital performance evaluation in Iran has increased considerably in the recent years. Besides, among these 51 articles, 38 articles (74.51%) had been published in Persian language and 13 articles (25.49%) in English language. Eight models were recognized as evaluation model for Iranian hospitals. Totally, in 15 studies, the data envelopment analysis model had been used to evaluate the hospital performance. Conclusion: Using a combination of model to integrate indicators in the hospital evaluation process is inevitable. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education should use a set of indicators such as the balanced scorecard in the process of hospital evaluation and accreditation and encourage the hospital managers to use them. PMID:27516991

  18. Energy interventions that facilitate sustainable development and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-04-01

    Objective To inform policy by providing an overview of systematic reviews on interventions that facilitate sustainable energy use and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 13 databases and nine websites based on a pre-defined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during the 17 years from January 1997 - January 2014 was included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Five systematic reviews and one economic evaluation met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions that impacted health were electricity for lighting and other uses (developing countries); improved stoves for cooking and health and/or cleaner fuels for cooking (developing countries); and household energy efficiency measures (developed countries). These interventions also had potential environmental and economic impacts. Their cost-effectiveness is not known, nor is their impact on health inequalities. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions where the impacts are likely to be positive but their implementation needs to be rigorously evaluated, including possible adverse impacts. Care needs to be taken not to exacerbate health inequalities and to consider context, human behavior and cultural factors so that the potential health benefits are realized in real-life implementation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured in future primary studies and systematic reviews.

  19. Energy interventions that facilitate sustainable development and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-04-01

    Objective To inform policy by providing an overview of systematic reviews on interventions that facilitate sustainable energy use and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 13 databases and nine websites based on a pre-defined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during the 17 years from January 1997 - January 2014 was included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Five systematic reviews and one economic evaluation met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions that impacted health were electricity for lighting and other uses (developing countries); improved stoves for cooking and health and/or cleaner fuels for cooking (developing countries); and household energy efficiency measures (developed countries). These interventions also had potential environmental and economic impacts. Their cost-effectiveness is not known, nor is their impact on health inequalities. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions where the impacts are likely to be positive but their implementation needs to be rigorously evaluated, including possible adverse impacts. Care needs to be taken not to exacerbate health inequalities and to consider context, human behavior and cultural factors so that the potential health benefits are realized in real-life implementation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured in future primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:27657185

  20. Defining "innovativeness" in drug development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, A S; Wang, B; Avorn, J

    2013-09-01

    Some observers of drug development argue that the pace of pharmaceutical innovation is declining, but others deny that contention. This controversy may be due to different methods of defining and assessing innovation. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to develop a taxonomy of methods for measuring innovation in drug development. The 42 studies fell into four main categories: counts of new drugs approved, assessments of therapeutic value, economic outcomes, and patents issued. The definition determined whether a study found a positive or negative trend in innovative drug development. Of 21 studies that relied on counts, 9 (43%) concluded that the trend for drug discovery was favorable, 11 (52%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 1 reached no conclusion. By contrast, of 21 studies that used other measures of innovation, 0 concluded that the trend was favorable, 8 (47%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 13 reached no conclusion (P = 0.03).

  1. Systematic evaluation of neutron shielding effects for materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, K.; Ohashi, A.; Nariyama, N.; Nagayama, S.; Fujita, T.; Hattori, K.; Anayama, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Three types of experiments with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source are proposed to evaluate systematically the neutron shielding effects of a material. The type 1 experiment deals with each shielding material alone, the type 2 experiment combines a shielding material and a structural material, and the type 3 experiment constructs the optimization with the materials used in the type 2 experiment. In the stainless steel (SS) + polyethylene shielding system, because of the location of the SS slabs at the source side, the tenth layer of the polyethylene becomes approximately one-half the value as when the polyethylene is employed alone. This is the enhancement effect of the SS. In the type 3 experiment, the total thickness of the SS + polyethylene shielding system is 40 cm, and the total thicknesses of the SS and the polyethylene slabs are fixed at 25 and 15 cm thick, respectively. The minimum total dose-equivalent rate (neutron + secondary gamma rays) is observed when the polyethylene slabs are located at a 20-cm depth from the source side, with an arrangement of 20-cm-thick SS + 15-cm-thick polyethylene + 5-cm-thick and SS, and with a ratio of the maximum to the minimum dose-equivalent rate of 2.5. The shielding optimization can be constructed by combining the materials having different shielding characteristics. The experimental results of the three types of experiments are reproduced fairly well by using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP 4A with a next-event surface crossing estimator.

  2. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study.

  3. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study. PMID:25323413

  4. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are

  5. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Etxeandia, Itziar; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem; Ventresca, Matthew; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Kowalski, Sérgio; Baldeh, Tejan; Zhang, Yuan; Raid, Ulla; Neumann, Ignacio; Norris, Susan L.; Thornton, Judith; Harbour, Robin; Treweek, Shaun; Guyatt, Gordon; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Reinap, Marge; Brožek, Jan; Oxman, Andrew; Akl, Elie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although several tools to evaluate the credibility of health care guidelines exist, guidance on practical steps for developing guidelines is lacking. We systematically compiled a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers could consider, without the expectation that every guideline would address each item. Methods: We searched data sources, including manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines (with a focus on methodology reports from international and national agencies, and professional societies) and recent articles providing systematic guidance. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items for the checklist using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions and suggestions for items to be added. Results: We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers. The topics and included items cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from the planning and formulation of guidelines, to their implementation and evaluation. The final checklist includes links to training materials as well as resources with suggested methodology for applying the items. Interpretation: The checklist will serve as a resource for guideline developers. Consideration of items on the checklist will support the development, implementation and evaluation of guidelines. We will use crowdsourcing to revise the checklist and keep it up to date. PMID:24344144

  6. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  7. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  8. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  9. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  10. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Systematic Approach for the Evaluation of Career Planning and Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Covert, Robert W.

    The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1966 by Malcolm Provus, provides information for program assessment and program improvement. Under the DEM, evaluation is defined as the comparison of an actual performance to a desired standard. The DEM embodies five stages of evaluation based upon a program's natural development: program…

  11. Systematic evaluation of bundled SPC water for biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Srinivasa M; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V

    2015-04-01

    In bundled SPC water models, the relative motion of groups of four water molecules is restrained by distance-dependent potentials. Bundled SPC models have been used in hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) multiscale simulations, since they enable to couple atomistic SPC water with supra-molecular CG water models that effectively represent more than a single water molecule. In the present work, we systematically validated and critically tested bundled SPC water models as solvent for biomolecular simulations. To that aim, we investigated both thermodynamic and structural properties of various biomolecular systems through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Potentials of mean force of dimerization of pairs of amino acid side chains as well as hydration free energies of single side chains obtained with bundled SPC and standard (unrestrained) SPC water agree closely with each other and with experimental data. Decomposition of the hydration free energies into enthalpic and entropic contributions reveals that in bundled SPC, this favorable agreement of the free energies is due to a larger degree of error compensation between hydration enthalpy and entropy. The Ramachandran maps of Ala3, Ala5, and Ala7 peptides are similar in bundled and unrestrained SPC, whereas for the (GS)2 peptide, bundled water leads to a slight overpopulation of extended conformations. Analysis of the end-to-end distance autocorrelation times of the Ala5 and (GS)2 peptides shows that sampling in more viscous bundled SPC water is about two times slower. Pronounced differences between the water models were found for the structure of a coiled-coil dimer, which is instable in bundled SPC but not in standard SPC. In addition, the hydration of the active site of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin depends on the water model. Bundled SPC leads to an increased hydration of the active site region, more hydrogen bonds between water and catalytic triad residues, and a significantly slower exchange of water

  12. The Status of Faculty Development Programmes in Iran after the Medical Education Reform: A Systematic and Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmady, Soleiman; Changiz, Tahereh; Brommels, Mats; Gaffney, Andrew F.; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    Modern universities achieve institutional goals when faculty members are able to fulfil diverse roles. Faculty development must therefore employ pedagogical principles while guided by institutional needs. Systematic evaluation of such programmes has not been done in developing countries. This paper examines faculty development in Iran, where…

  13. Review of tandem repeat search tools: a systematic approach to evaluating algorithmic performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian Guan; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hsu, Li Yang; Wirawan, Adrianto

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes and their association with a number of genetic diseases has raised considerable interest in locating these repeats. Over the last 10-15 years, numerous tools have been developed for searching tandem repeats, but differences in the search algorithms adopted and difficulties with parameter settings have confounded many users resulting in widely varying results. In this review, we have systematically separated the algorithmic aspect of the search tools from the influence of the parameter settings. We hope that this will give a better understanding of how the tools differ in algorithmic performance, their inherent constraints and how one should approach in evaluating and selecting them.

  14. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  15. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  16. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  17. A systematic evaluation of the resource consumption of active pharmaceutical ingredient production at three different levels.

    PubMed

    Van der Vorst, Geert; Dewulf, Jo; Aelterman, Wim; De Witte, Bruno; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the development and the advantages of a methodology which allows the systematic assessment of the environmental impact on the resource side of specific pharmaceutical production processes with limited data entry is presented. The quantification of the process-specific mass and energy balances over three different system boundaries (process, gate-to-gate, and cradle-to-gate) is based on the methodology explained in Van der Vorst et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.2009, 48(11), 5344-5350). These mass and energy balances are now coupled with the thermodynamic term exergy allowing the quantification of the resource efficiency at the process and gate-to-gate level and the environmental impact at the cradle-to-gate level. The advantages of such a calculation tool for the resource evaluation are illustrated with five consecutive pharmaceutical production steps which are part of the galantamine (anti-Alzheimer medication) pathway. It is shown that such a quantitative and systematic evaluation tool allows a detailed and relatively fast evaluation of the resource efficiency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production processes at the three different levels. Combining thermodynamics and the systematic data inventory methodology for the quantification of the resource efficiency first allows results to be merged into a single impact value (exergy loss/mol API or CEENE/mol API) for fast benchmarking and evaluation of different API production processes. Second, it also allows results to be divided over different categories depending on the users' interest and make thorough analysis of processes in order to pinpoint process improvements and quantitatively justify the introduction of second generation production processes or production techniques. PMID:21391625

  18. Evaluating single-case research data for systematic review: a commentary for the special issue.

    PubMed

    Maggin, Daniel M; Odom, Samuel L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to provide observation on the statistical procedures described throughout this special section from the perspective of researchers with experience in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of single-case research to address issues of evidence-based practice. It is our position that both visual and statistical analyses are complimentary methods for evaluating single-case research data for these purposes. Given the recent developments regarding the use of single-case research to inform evidence-based practice and policy, the developments described in the present issue will be contextualized within the need for a widely accepted process for data evaluation to assist with extending the impact of single-case research. The commentary will, therefore, begin with providing an overview of the conceptual underpinnings of a systematic review of single-case research and will be followed by a discussion of several features that are essential to the development of a conceptually sound and widely used statistical procedure for single-case research. The commentary will conclude with recommendations and guidelines for the use of both visual and statistical analyses within primary research reports and recommendations for future research.

  19. Evaluation in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on evaluation in human resource development (HRD). "Assessing Organizational Readiness for Learning through Evaluative Inquiry" (Hallie Preskill, Rosalie T. Torres) reviews how evaluative inquiry can facilitate organizational learning; argues HRD evaluation should be reconceptualized as a process for…

  20. Drug Repurposing: A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Candidate Oral Neuroprotective Interventions for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Cadi M. J.; Sena, Emily S.; Egan, Kieren J.; Carmichael, Gary G.; Tariq, Afiyah; Pavitt, Sue; Chataway, Jeremy; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Chandran, Siddharthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement an evidence based framework to select, from drugs already licenced, candidate oral neuroprotective drugs to be tested in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Design Systematic review of clinical studies of oral putative neuroprotective therapies in MS and four other neurodegenerative diseases with shared pathological features, followed by systematic review and meta-analyses of the in vivo experimental data for those interventions. We presented summary data to an international multi-disciplinary committee, which assessed each drug in turn using pre-specified criteria including consideration of mechanism of action. Results We identified a short list of fifty-two candidate interventions. After review of all clinical and pre-clinical evidence we identified ibudilast, riluzole, amiloride, pirfenidone, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine, and the polyunsaturated fatty-acid class (Linoleic Acid, Lipoic acid; Omega-3 fatty acid, Max EPA oil) as lead candidates for clinical evaluation. Conclusions We demonstrate a standardised and systematic approach to candidate identification for drug rescue and repurposing trials that can be applied widely to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25856304

  1. Safety analyses performed in the Systematic Evaluation Program at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, F.M.; Persinko, D.; Haga, P.B.

    1994-06-01

    Structures, systems, and components (SSC) at Rocky Flats were designed and put into operation before current standards and criteria applicable to these SSCs were developed. The purpose of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats (RF) is to systematically compare the design of SSCs to current design requirements and assess the differences to assure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved to support long-term operation of the facilities. The SEP is being performed in three phases. Phase 1, selection of technical subjects (topics) and development of evaluation plans is complete. Phase 2, comparison of the design of structures, systems and components to current design requirements (CDR), is in progress. It is being performed in two parts, Phase 2A and Phase 2B. An Integrated Assessment of the recommendations from Phase 2 will be performed in Phase 3. The RF SEP is not necessarily used to bring the RF facilities into compliance with newer standards, but to ensure that the safety issues addressed by current requirements either do not exist, are acceptably addressed by existing designs, or are addressed by backfit of existing standards into older facilities to the extent appropriate to the concern. For example, administrative controls may provide adequate resolution of issues addressed by design features in more modern facilities.

  2. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1) reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2) reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3) decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4) increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation). The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes), and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes). We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure), as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures). Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background. PMID:17173701

  3. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The borderline personality disorder is a common mental disorder. It is frequently associated with various mental co-morbidities and a fundamental loss of functioning. The borderline personality disorder causes high costs to society. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of existing economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and NHSEED for partial and full economic evaluations regarding borderline personality disorder. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2012 and converted into US-$ using purchasing power parities to allow for comparability. Quality assessment of the studies was performed by means of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist, a checklist developed by a Delphi method in cooperation with 23 international experts. Results We identified 6 partial and 9 full economic evaluations. The methodical quality was moderate (fulfilled quality criteria: 79.2% [SD: 15.4%] in partial economic evaluations, 77.3% [SD: 8.5%] in full economic evaluations). Most evaluations analysed psychotherapeutic interventions. Although ambiguous, most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused therapy are cost-saving. Evidence on other interventions is scarce. Conclusion The economic evidence is not sufficient to draw robust conclusions for all treatments. It is possible that some treatments are cost-effective. Most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Yet, it is ambiguous. Further research concerning the cost-effectiveness of treatments is necessary as well as the identification of relevant cost categories and the validation of effect measures. PMID:25265185

  4. Influencing Practices through Videotape. A Systematic Evaluation of Communications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Merrill, William G.

    1990-01-01

    Effectiveness of a videotape on milking procedures was evaluated by showing it to 218 dairy farmers, with previewing evaluation, 2 viewings with discussion between, and postviewing evaluation. Tape quality and information content were rated highly, but an immediate second viewing was considered less effective than providing tapes for subsequent…

  5. A Systematic Evaluation of Learning Objects for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research evaluating the effectiveness of learning objects is noticeably absent. No formal research has been done on the use of learning objects in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of learning objects by high school students. The evaluation metric used to assess benefits and quality of learning objects…

  6. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  7. Drug development from natural resource: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Gupta, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Modern research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multidimensional approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biochemical combinatorial chemistry and bioassay-guided fractionation approaches. Natural sources continue to provide an alternative as pharmacological leads against various devastating diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer etc. Nowadays, there is enormous requirement of safe and effective drugs in the world. This has prompted scientists to revert back towards natural resources as a potential source of therapeutics for treatment and management of such chronic and fatal diseases. However, there are certain serious challenges and limitations in this field including scale up and commercialization of active compounds which allow only one in thousand lead molecules to be developed as drug. A systematic and scientific approach is an essential requirement for drug development from natural resource. This mini review provides an overview of the methods involved in natural product research starting from crude plant extract to bioactive pharmacological lead. Moreover, it also discusses the limitations of working concerning the bioactivity of medicinal plants.

  8. A Systematic Procedure for Assigning Uncertainties to Data Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2007-02-20

    In this report, an algorithm that automatically constructs an uncertainty band around any evaluation curve is described. Given an evaluation curve and a corresponding set of experimental data points with x and y error bars, the algorithm expands a symmetric region around the evaluation curve until 68.3% of a set of points, randomly sampled from the experimental data, fall within the region. For a given evaluation curve, the region expanded in this way represents, by definition, a one-standard-deviation interval about the evaluation that accounts for the experimental data. The algorithm is tested against several benchmarks, and is shown to be well-behaved, even when there are large gaps in the available experimental data. The performance of the algorithm is assessed quantitatively using the tools of statistical-inference theory.

  9. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  10. Systematic development of reduced reaction mechanisms for dynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Kailasanath, K.; Oran, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for systematically developing a reduced chemical reaction mechanism for dynamic modeling of chemically reactive flows is presented. The method is based on the postulate that if a reduced reaction mechanism faithfully describes the time evolution of both thermal and chain reaction processes characteristic of a more complete mechanism, then the reduced mechanism will describe the chemical processes in a chemically reacting flow with approximately the same degree of accuracy. Here this postulate is tested by producing a series of mechanisms of reduced accuracy, which are derived from a full detailed mechanism for methane-oxygen combustion. These mechanisms were then tested in a series of reactive flow calculations in which a large-amplitude sinusoidal perturbation is applied to a system that is initially quiescent and whose temperature is high enough to start ignition processes. Comparison of the results for systems with and without convective flow show that this approach produces reduced mechanisms that are useful for calculations of explosions and detonations. Extensions and applicability to flames are discussed.

  11. Systematically evaluating interfaces for RNA-seq analysis from a life scientist perspective.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Alicia; Marini, Federico; Hess, Moritz; Zeller, Tanja; Mazur, Johanna; Binder, Harald

    2016-03-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an established way for measuring gene expression in model organisms and humans. While methods development for refining the corresponding data processing and analysis pipeline is ongoing, protocols for typical steps have been proposed and are widely used. Several user interfaces have been developed for making such analysis steps accessible to life scientists without extensive knowledge of command line tools. We performed a systematic search and evaluation of such interfaces to investigate to what extent these can indeed facilitate RNA-seq data analysis. We found a total of 29 open source interfaces, and six of the more widely used interfaces were evaluated in detail. Central criteria for evaluation were ease of configuration, documentation, usability, computational demand and reporting. No interface scored best in all of these criteria, indicating that the final choice will depend on the specific perspective of users and the corresponding weighting of criteria. Considerable technical hurdles had to be overcome in our evaluation. For many users, this will diminish potential benefits compared with command line tools, leaving room for future improvement of interfaces.

  12. Evaluation of the systematic shifts of a single-{sup 40}Ca{sup +}-ion frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yao; Liu, Qu; Cao, Jian; Liu, Peiliang; Ou, Baoquan; Guan, Hua; Huang, Xueren; Gao, Kelin

    2011-11-15

    Progress on the evaluation of systematic frequency shifts is described in the development of the optical frequency standard based on single-trapped {sup 40}Ca{sup +} with a ''clock'' transition at 729 nm. The overall systematic uncertainty of the 4s {sup 2} S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2} D{sub 5/2} clock resonance has been characterized to be 7.8 x 10{sup -16}. This uncertainty is at a level similar to the Cs fountain primary standard, while the potential stability for the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} clock exceeds that of Cs.

  13. Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. PMID:25412151

  14. Evaluation of the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed.

  15. Evaluating clinical ethics support in mental healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar; Norvoll, Reidun; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review on evaluation of clinical ethics support services in mental healthcare is presented and discussed. The focus was on (a) forms of clinical ethics support services, (b) evaluation of clinical ethics support services, (c) contexts and participants and (d) results. Five studies were included. The ethics support activities described were moral case deliberations and ethics rounds. Different qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized. The results show that (a) participants felt that they gained an increased insight into moral issues through systematic reflection; (b) there was improved cooperation among multidisciplinary team members; (c) it was uncertain whether clinical ethics support services led to better patient care; (d) the issue of patient and client participation is complex; and (e) the implementation process is challenging. Clinical ethics support services have mainly been studied through the experiences of the participating facilitators and healthcare professionals. Hence, there is limited knowledge of whether and how various types of clinical ethics support services influence the quality of care and how patients and relatives may evaluate clinical ethics support services. Based on the six excluded 'grey zone articles', in which there was an implicit focus on ethics reflection, other ways of working with ethical reflection in practice are discussed. Implementing and evaluating clinical ethics support services as approaches to clinical ethics support that are more integrated into the development of good practice are in focus. In order to meet some of the shortcomings of the field of clinical ethics support services, a research project that aims to strengthen ethics support in the mental health services, including patients' and caregivers' views on ethical challenges, is presented.

  16. A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis. (EV)

  17. A systematic review on how to conduct evaluations in community-based rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Michèle; Thibeault, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) must prove that it is making a significant difference for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, evaluation is not a common practice and the evidence for its effectiveness is fragmented and largely insufficient. The objective of this article was to review the literature on best practices in program evaluation in CBR in relation to the evaluative process, the frameworks, and the methods of data collection. Method A systematic search was conducted on five rehabilitation databases and the World Health Organization website with keywords associated with CBR and program evaluation. Two independent researchers selected the articles. Results Twenty-two documents were included. The results suggest that (1) the evaluative process needs to be conducted in close collaboration with the local community, including people with disabilities, and to be followed by sharing the findings and taking actions, (2) many frameworks have been proposed to evaluate CBR but no agreement has been reached, and (3) qualitative methodologies have dominated the scene in CBR so far, but their combination with quantitative methods has a lot of potential to better capture the effectiveness of this strategy. Conclusions In order to facilitate and improve evaluations in CBR, there is an urgent need to agree on a common framework, such as the CBR matrix, and to develop best practice guidelines based on the literature available and consensus among a group of experts. These will need to demonstrate a good balance between community development and standards for effective evaluations. Implications for Rehabilitation In the quest for evidence of the effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation (CBR), a shared program evaluation framework would better enable the combination of findings from different studies. The evaluation of CBR programs should always include sharing findings and taking action for the sake of the local community

  18. Systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing students' and nurses' writing skills.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Leonardelli, Adrianne K; Turner, Kathleen M; Hawks, Sharon J; Derouin, Anne L; Hueckel, Rémi M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing the writing skills of nursing students and nurses. Of 728 screened citations, 80 articles were included in the review. Writing assignments in nursing courses were the most common, followed by strategies for writing across the curriculum and specific courses to improve the writing skills of nursing students. To improve nurses' writing skills, workshops were used most frequently. Only 28 (35%) of the articles were data based, and most articles described the writing program, strategy, or assignment but did not evaluate its effectiveness.

  19. Low Health Literacy and Evaluation of Online Health Information: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    van den Putte, Bas; Giani, Stefano; van Weert, Julia CM

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumer online health information seeking. The quality of online health information, however, remains questionable. The issue of information evaluation has become a hot topic, leading to the development of guidelines and checklists to design high-quality online health information. However, little attention has been devoted to how consumers, in particular people with low health literacy, evaluate online health information. Objective The main aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the association between low health literacy and (1) people’s ability to evaluate online health information, (2) perceived quality of online health information, (3) trust in online health information, and (4) use of evaluation criteria for online health information. Methods Five academic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete) were systematically searched. We included peer-reviewed publications investigating differences in the evaluation of online information between people with different health literacy levels. Results After abstract and full-text screening, 38 articles were included in the review. Only four studies investigated the specific role of low health literacy in the evaluation of online health information. The other studies examined the association between educational level or other skills-based proxies for health literacy, such as general literacy, and outcomes. Results indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) are negatively related to the ability to evaluate online health information and trust in online health information. Evidence on the association with perceived quality of online health information and use of evaluation criteria is inconclusive. Conclusions The findings indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) play a role in the evaluation of online health information. This topic is therefore worth more scholarly

  20. Active Support: A Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Practice Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Jeffery P.; Sturmey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have evaluated active support in agencies for persons with developmental disabilities to increase staff assistance and service user engagement. A systematic review identified two studies in which researchers reported three experimental evaluations of active support. Only one experiment showed a clear functional relationship between…

  1. Economic Evaluation alongside Multinational Studies: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Jowett, Sue; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study This study seeks to explore methods for conducting economic evaluations alongside multinational trials by conducting a systematic review of the methods used in practice and the challenges that are typically faced by the researchers who conducted the economic evaluations. Methods A review was conducted for the period 2002 to 2012, with potentially relevant articles identified by searching the Medline, Embase and NHS EED databases. Studies were included if they were full economic evaluations conducted alongside a multinational trial. Results A total of 44 studies out of a possible 2667 met the inclusion criteria. Methods used for the analyses varied between studies, indicating a lack of consensus on how economic evaluation alongside multinational studies should be carried out. The most common challenge appeared to be related to addressing differences between countries, which potentially hinders the generalisability and transferability of results. Other challenges reported included inadequate sample sizes and choosing cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions It is recommended that additional guidelines be developed to aid researchers in this area and that these be based on an understanding of the challenges associated with multinational trials and the strengths and limitations of alternative approaches. Guidelines should focus on ensuring that results will aid decision makers in their individual countries. PMID:26121465

  2. Review of tandem repeat search tools: a systematic approach to evaluating algorithmic performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian Guan; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hsu, Li Yang; Wirawan, Adrianto

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes and their association with a number of genetic diseases has raised considerable interest in locating these repeats. Over the last 10-15 years, numerous tools have been developed for searching tandem repeats, but differences in the search algorithms adopted and difficulties with parameter settings have confounded many users resulting in widely varying results. In this review, we have systematically separated the algorithmic aspect of the search tools from the influence of the parameter settings. We hope that this will give a better understanding of how the tools differ in algorithmic performance, their inherent constraints and how one should approach in evaluating and selecting them. PMID:22648964

  3. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  4. Systematic evaluation of photodetector performance for plastic scintillation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Boivin, Jonathan Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam; Guillemette, Maxime

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to systematically assess the performance of seven photodetectors used in plastic scintillation dosimetry. The authors also propose some guidelines for selecting an appropriate detector for a specific application. Methods: The plastic scintillation detector (PSD) consisted of a 1-mm diameter, 10-mm long plastic scintillation fiber (BCF-60), which was optically coupled to a clear 10-m long optical fiber of the same diameter. A light-tight plastic sheath covered both fibers and the scintillator end was sealed. The clear fiber end was connected to one of the following photodetectors: two polychromatic cameras (one with an optical lens and one with a fiber optic taper replacing the lens), a monochromatic camera with an optical lens, a PIN photodiode, an avalanche photodiode (APD), or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A commercially available W1 PSD was also included in the study, but it relied on its own fiber and scintillator. Each PSD was exposed to both low-energy beams (120, 180, and 220 kVp) from an orthovoltage unit and high-energy beams (6 and 23 MV) from a linear accelerator. Various dose rates were tested to identify the operating range and accuracy of each photodetector. Results: For all photodetectors, the relative uncertainty was less than 5% for dose rates higher than 3 mGy/s. The cameras allowed multiple probes to be used simultaneously, but they are less sensitive to low-light signals. The PIN, APD, and PMT had higher sensitivity, making them more suitable for low dose rate and out-of-field dose monitoring. The relative uncertainty of the PMT was less than 1% at the lowest dose rate achieved (0.10 mGy/s), suggesting that it was optimal for use in live dosimetry. Conclusions: For dose rates higher than 3 mGy/s, the PIN diode is the most effective photodetector in terms of performance/cost ratio. For lower dose rates, such as those seen in interventional radiology or high-gradient radiotherapy, PMTs are the optimal choice.

  5. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  6. A Systematic Approach for Developing Conceptual Models of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. J.; Last, G. V.; Rohay, V. J.; Schelling, F. J.; Hildebrand, R. D.; Morse, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faces many decisions regarding future remedial actions and waste disposal at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. To support these decisions, DOE recognized the need for a comprehensive and systematic approach to developing and documenting complete, consistent, and defensible conceptual models of contaminant release and migration. After reviewing existing conceptual model development methodologies that might be applicable to environmental assessments at the Hanford Site, DOE initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) methodology developed for use in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal systems by NIREX. In adapting this methodology for use in the environmental assessments at Hanford, the international list of FEPs, compiled from nuclear waste disposal programs, was evaluated to develop a list of potentially relevant Hanford-specific FEPs. The international nuclear waste programs focus on deep geologic disposal while waste disposal at the Hanford Site involves burial in shallow unconsolidated geologic deposits. Thus, a graphical tool called the Process Relationship Diagram (PRD) was created to assist in identifying the international FEPs and additional factors that are relevant to Hanford, and to illustrate the relationships among these factors. The PRD is similar in form and function to the Master Directed Diagram used by NIREX to provide a visual and systematic structure for the FEP methodology. Adaptation of this approach is showing promise in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of relevant factors to be incorporated into environmental uncertainty assessments for the Hanford Site.

  7. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  8. Systematically Retrieving Research: A Case Study Evaluating Seven Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brian; Wylie, Emma; Dempster, Martin; Donnelly, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Developing the scientific underpinnings of social welfare requires effective and efficient methods of retrieving relevant items from the increasing volume of research. Method: We compared seven databases by running the nearest equivalent search on each. The search topic was chosen for relevance to social work practice with older people.…

  9. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Pathogens In Developed and Developing Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Ellis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal illness is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are no precise or current estimates of the types and prevalence of pathogens associated with diarrheal illnesses in developed and developing settings. This systematic review assessed data from 60 studies published in the English language from five developing regions and developed countries worldwide to provide regional estimates of enteric pathogens affecting children. The random-effect method was used to establish the weighted average prevalence of pathogens in adults and children for each region. Significantly more pathogens were reported by studies from developing regions compared with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (P<0.016). The identification rates of pathogens from community based and hospital based studies were similar (58.5% and 58.1% respectively, P<0.619). The overall detection of enteric pathogens in developing countries was higher in adults (74.8%; 95% CI 63.1-83.8%) compared with children (56.7%; 95% CI 53.0-60.4%) (P<0.001). Rotavirus was the most frequently detected pathogen in all regions with the highest rate, 24.8% (95% CI 18.0-33.1%), detected in the developed countries. This systematic review is the first to provide an estimate of the prevalence of enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in adults and children in developed and developing settings. While pathogen detection rate is greater in developing regions the consistently high prevalence of rotavirus in both developed and developing settings underscores the urgent need for access to rotavirus vaccines. Increased travel between developing and developed countries increases disease risk, and hence developed countries have a vested interest in supporting vaccine accessibility in developing settings. PMID:25170480

  10. Validation of Ultrafilter Performance Model Based on Systematic Simulant Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Billing, Justin M.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-11-18

    Because of limited availability of test data with actual Hanford tank waste samples, a method was developed to estimate expected filtration performance based on physical characterization data for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A test with simulated waste was analyzed to demonstrate that filtration of this class of waste is consistent with a concentration polarization model. Subsequently, filtration data from actual waste samples were analyzed to demonstrate that centrifuged solids concentrations provide a reasonable estimate of the limiting concentration for filtration.

  11. Systematic Land-Surface-Model Performance Evaluation on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahecha, M. D.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Beer, C.; Braakhekke, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Lange, H.; Lasslop, G.; Le Maire, G.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Vetter, M.

    2008-12-01

    Keeping track of the space--time evolution of CO2--, and H2O--fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere is essential to our understanding of current climate. Monitoring fluxes at site level is one option to characterize the temporal development of ecosystem--atmosphere interactions. Nevertheless, many aspects of ecosystem--atmosphere fluxes become meaningful only when interpreted in time over larger geographical regions. Empirical and process based models play a key role in spatial and temporal upscaling exercises. In this context, comparative model performance evaluations at site level are indispensable. We present a model evaluation scheme which investigates the model-data agreement separately on different time scales. Observed and modeled time series were decomposed by essentially non parametric techniques into subsignals (time scales) of characteristic fluctuations. By evaluating the extracted subsignals of observed and modeled C--fluxes (gross and net ecosystem exchange, GEE and NEE, and terrestrial ecosystem respiration, TER) separately, we obtain scale--dependent performances for the different evaluation measures. Our diagnostic model comparison allows uncovering time scales of model-data agreement and fundamental mismatch. We focus on the systematic evaluation of three land--surface models: Biome--BGC, ORCHIDEE, and LPJ. For the first time all models were driven by consistent site meteorology and compared to respective Eddy-Covariance flux observations. The results show that correct net C--fluxes may result from systematic (simultaneous) biases in TER and GEE on specific time scales of variation. We localize significant model-data mismatches of the annual-seasonal cycles in time and illustrate the recurrence characteristics of such problems. For example LPJ underestimates GEE during winter months and over estimates it in early summer at specific sites. Contrary, ORCHIDEE over-estimates the flux from July to September at these sites. Finally

  12. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, F.M.; Herring, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion.

  13. A Systematic Evaluation of Collagen Crosslinks in the Human Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Zork, Noelia M; Myers, Kristin Marie; Yoshida, Ms. Kyoko; Cremers, Serge; Jiang, Hongfeng; Ananth, Cande V; Wapner, Ronald; Kitajewski, Jan; Vink, Joy

    2014-01-01

    and crosslink densities across zones and quadrants. The external os exhibited heterogeneity only across zones. Conclusion Collagen crosslinks (PYD, DPD, DHLNL, and PEN) are detectable by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the human cervix. The internal os exhibits significant collagen crosslink heterogeneity compared to the external os. Further studies are needed to evaluate how collagen crosslink heterogeneity correlates to the mechanical strength and function of the human cervix. PMID:25281365

  14. Cost-effectiveness of screening for hepatitis C virus: a systematic review of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Coward, Stephanie; Leggett, Laura; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Clement, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With the developments of near-cures for hepatitis C virus (HCV), who to screen has become a high-priority policy issue in many western countries. Cost-effectiveness of screening programmes should be one consideration when developing policy. The objective of this work is to synthesise the cost-effectiveness of HCV screening programmes. Setting A systematic review was completed. 5 databases were searched until May 2016 (NHSEED, MEDLINE, the HTA Health Technology Assessment Database, EMBASE, EconLit). Participants Any study reporting an economic evaluation (any type) of screening compared with opportunistic or no screening for HCV was included. Exclusion criteria were: (1) abstracts or commentaries, (2) economic evaluations of other interventions for HCV, including blood donors screening, diagnosis tests for HCV, screening for concurrent disease or medications for treatment. Primary and secondary outcome measures Data extraction included type of model, target population, perspective, comparators, time horizon, discount rate, clinical inputs, cost inputs and outcome. Quality was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. Data are summarised using narrative synthesis by population. Results 2305 abstracts were identified with 52 undergoing full-text review. 30 papers met inclusion criteria addressing 7 populations: drug users (n=6), high risk (n=5), pregnant (n=4), prison (n=3), birth cohort (n=8), general population (n=5) and other (n=6). The majority (77%) of the studies were high quality. Drug users, birth cohort and high-risk populations were associated with cost-effectiveness ratios of under £30 000 per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY). The remaining populations were associated with cost-effectiveness ratios that exceeded £30 000 per QALY. Conclusions Economic evidence for screening populations is robust. If a cost per QALY of £30 000 is considered reasonable value for money, then screening birth

  15. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW which were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystems, are discussed. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base and to assess the cooperation between the rule bases. Simulation and comparative workload results for two mission scenarios are given. The scenarios are inbound surface-to-air-missile attack on the aircraft and pilot incapacitation. The methodology used to develop the AUTOCREW knowledge bases is summarized. Issues involved in designing the navigation sensor selection expert in AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR knowledge base are discussed in detail. The performance of seven navigation systems aiding a medium-accuracy INS was investigated using Kalman filter covariance analyses. A navigation sensor management (NSM) expert system was formulated from covariance simulation data using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and the ID3 algorithm. ANOVA results show that statistically different position accuracies are obtained when different navaids are used, the number of navaids aiding the INS is varied, the aircraft's trajectory is varied, and the performance history is varied. The ID3 algorithm determines the NSM expert's classification rules in the form of decision trees. The performance of these decision trees was assessed on two arbitrary trajectories, and the results demonstrate that the NSM expert adapts to new situations and provides reasonable estimates of the expected hybrid performance.

  16. An overview of systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included.

  17. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  18. Rigorous Evaluations of Faculty Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucsera, John V.; Svinicki, Marilla

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has called for rigorous evaluations of programs designed to improve college teaching, mostly in response to the missing literature supporting its practice. The purpose of this review was to explore whether such evaluations have taken place since the last examination in 1991. From a systematic review of nine leading publication…

  19. Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-11-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a

  20. The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Online Credit Nutrition Courses: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy L.; Carbone, Elena T.; Beffa-Negrini, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how postsecondary online nutrition education courses (ONEC) are delivered, determine ONEC effectiveness, identify theoretical models used, and identify future research needs. Design: Systematic search of database literature. Setting: Postsecondary education. Participants: Nine research articles evaluating postsecondary ONEC.…

  1. Measuring Health Literacy in Individuals with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Evaluation of Available Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Williams, Beverly; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify instruments used to measure health literacy and numeracy in people with diabetes; evaluate their use, measurement scope, and properties; discuss their strengths and weaknesses; and propose the most useful, reliable, and applicable measure for use in research and practice settings. Methods" A systematic literature review was…

  2. A Systematic Evaluation of Token Economies as a Classroom Management Tool for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Goddard, Katelyn M.; Johnson, Austin H.

    2011-01-01

    A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to…

  3. Evaluating the Validity of Systematic Reviews to Identify Empirically Supported Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Spencer, Trina D.

    2012-01-01

    The "best available evidence" is one of the three basic inputs into evidence-based practice. This paper sets out a framework for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews that are intended to identify empirically supported interventions as a way of summarizing the best available evidence. The premise of this paper is that the process of…

  4. Evaluating communities of practice and knowledge networks: a systematic scoping review of evaluation frameworks.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Kaileah A; Pitzul, Kristen B; Yi, Juliana Y; Cole, Donald C

    2014-09-01

    Communities of Practice (CoPs) are increasingly considered a part of ecohealth and other sectors such as health care, education, and business. However, there is little agreement on approaches to evaluate the influence and effectiveness of CoPs. The purpose of this review was to understand what frameworks and methods have been proposed or used to evaluate CoPs and/or knowledge networks. The review searched electronic databases in interdisciplinary, health, education, and business fields, and further collected references and forward citations from relevant articles. Nineteen articles with 16 frameworks were included in the synthesis. The purposes of the evaluation frameworks varied; while some focused on assessing the performance of CoPs, several frameworks sought to learn about CoPs and their critical success factors. Nine of the frameworks had been applied or tested in some way, most frequently to guide a case study. With limited applications of the frameworks, strong claims about generalizability could not be made. The review results can inform the development of tailored frameworks. However, there is a need for more detailed and targeted CoP evaluation frameworks, as many imperative CoP evaluation needs would be unmet by the available frameworks.

  5. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Results Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development. PMID:25996151

  6. Algorithms for network-based identification of differential regulators from transcriptome data: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Yang, Jing; Li, YuanYuan; Zhao, ZhongMing

    2014-11-01

    Identification of differential regulators is critical to understand the dynamics of cellular systems and molecular mechanisms of diseases. Several computational algorithms have recently been developed for this purpose by using transcriptome and network data. However, it remains largely unclear which algorithm performs better under a specific condition. Such knowledge is important for both appropriate application and future enhancement of these algorithms. Here, we systematically evaluated seven main algorithms (TED, TDD, TFactS, RIF1, RIF2, dCSA_t2t, and dCSA_r2t), using both simulated and real datasets. In our simulation evaluation, we artificially inactivated either a single regulator or multiple regulators and examined how well each algorithm detected known gold standard regulators. We found that all these algorithms could effectively discern signals arising from regulatory network differences, indicating the validity of our simulation schema. Among the seven tested algorithms, TED and TFactS were placed first and second when both discrimination accuracy and robustness against data variation were considered. When applied to two independent lung cancer datasets, both TED and TFactS replicated a substantial fraction of their respective differential regulators. Since TED and TFactS rely on two distinct features of transcriptome data, namely differential co-expression and differential expression, both may be applied as mutual references during practical application.

  7. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  8. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  9. A systematic evaluation of a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Victoria M; Burnes, David; Chalfy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a conceptually based, systematic evaluation process employing multivariate techniques to evaluate a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer intervention model (JASA-LEAP). Logistic regression analyses were used with a random sample of case records (n = 250) from three intervention sites. Client retention, program fidelity, and exposure to multidisciplinary services were significantly related to reduction in mistreatment risk at case closure. Female gender, married status, and living with perpetrator significantly predicted unfavorable outcomes. This study extends the elder mistreatment program evaluation literature beyond descriptive/bivariate evaluation strategies. Findings suggest that a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model is a successful approach.

  10. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, George

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  11. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  12. Standardizing the evaluation criteria on treatment outcomes of mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Young; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this review was to analyze the evaluation criteria on mandibular implant overdentures through a systematic review and suggest standardized evaluation criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted by PubMed search strategy and hand-searching of relevant journals from included studies considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) and clinical trial studies comparing attachment systems on mandibular implant overdentures until December, 2011 were selected. Twenty nine studies were finally selected and the data about evaluation methods were collected. RESULTS Evaluation criteria could be classified into 4 groups (implant survival, peri-implant tissue evaluation, prosthetic evaluation, and patient satisfaction). Among 29 studies, 21 studies presented implant survival rate, while any studies reporting implant failure did not present cumulative implant survival rate. Seventeen studies evaluating peri-implant tissue status presented following items as evaluation criteria; marginal bone level (14), plaque Index (13), probing depth (8), bleeding index (8), attachment gingiva level (8), gingival index (6), amount of keratinized gingiva (1). Eighteen studies evaluating prosthetic maintenance and complication also presented following items as evaluation criteria; loose matrix (17), female detachment (15), denture fracture (15), denture relining (14), abutment fracture (14), abutment screw loosening (11), and occlusal adjustment (9). Atypical questionnaire (9), Visual analog scales (VAS) (4), and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) (1) were used as the format of criteria to evaluate patients satisfaction in 14 studies. CONCLUSION For evaluation of implant overdenture, it is necessary to include cumulative survival rate for implant evaluation. It is suggested that peri-implant tissue evaluation criteria include marginal bone level, plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth, and attached gingiva

  13. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  14. The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Mulrow, Cynthia; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Clarke, Mike; Devereaux, P. J.; Kleijnen, Jos; Moher, David

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:19621070

  15. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Mulrow, Cynthia; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Ioannidis, John P A; Clarke, Mike; Devereaux, P J; Kleijnen, Jos; Moher, David

    2009-10-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  16. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Mulrow, Cynthia; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Ioannidis, John P A; Clarke, Mike; Devereaux, P J; Kleijnen, Jos; Moher, David

    2009-07-21

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users.Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions.The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  17. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Mulrow, Cynthia; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Ioannidis, John P A; Clarke, Mike; Devereaux, P J; Kleijnen, Jos; Moher, David

    2009-08-18

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement-a reporting guideline published in 1999-there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (www.prisma-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  18. Development of a systematic procedure for analyzing bus service cutback programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tadi, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this era of shrinking public resources and mounting operating costs, it is becoming increasingly important to operate public transit as efficiently as possible. The primary purpose of this thesis is to develop a systematic procedure (planning tool) that will enable transit operators to quickly and efficiently evaluate transit routes in order to minimize the total operating deficit while responding to service cutbacks or modifications. As a part of this research, a computer model called Transit Route Evaluation Model (TREM) is developed that can evaluate each transit route both at the system level and at the route level based upon a set of pre-specified criteria such as revenue/operating cost ratio, transit demand, population density, subsidy, and income. The unproductive routes, thus identified, are reviewed to analyze if service cutbacks or service modifications can be considered along those routes so that total operating deficit can be minimized. The alternative which yields the minimum operating deficit is considered as the optimal alternative. A case study example (Flint, Michigan) consisting of 12 routes is used to demonstrate the applicability of the research methodology. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted by changing the various input parameters in order to judge the viability of the methodology.

  19. A systematic evaluation of laboratory testing for drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    ARNOLD, D. M.; KUKASWADIA, S.; NAZI, I.; ESMAIL, A.; DEWAR, L.; SMITH, J. W.; WARKENTIN, T. E.; KELTON, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) can be confirmed by the demonstration of drug-dependent platelet antibodies in vitro; however, laboratory testing is not readily accessible and test methods are not standardized. Objective To identify drugs with the strongest evidence for causing DITP based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Patients/Methods We developed a grading system to evaluate the quality of DITP laboratory testing. The ‘DITP criteria’ were: (i) Drug (or metabolite) was required for the reaction in vitro; (ii) Immunoglobulin binding was demonstrated; (iii) Two or more laboratories obtained positive results; and (iv) Platelets were the target of immunoglobulin binding. Laboratory diagnosis of DITP was considered definite when all criteria were met and probable when positive results were reported by only one laboratory. Two authors applied the DITP criteria to published reports of each drug identified by systematic review. Discrepancies were independently adjudicated. Results Of 153 drugs that were clinically implicated in thrombocytopenic reactions, 72 (47%) were associated with positive laboratory testing. Of those, 16 drugs met criteria for a definite laboratory diagnosis of DITP and thus had the highest probability of causing DITP. Definite drugs were: quinine, quinidine, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, penicillin, rifampin, carbamazepine, ceftriaxone, ibuprofen, mirtazapine, oxaliplatin and suramin; the glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors abciximab, tirofiban and eptifibatide; and heparin. Conclusions We identified drugs with the strongest evidence for an association with immune thrombocytopenia. This list may be helpful for ranking potential causes of thrombocytopenia in a given patient. PMID:23121994

  20. A Systematic Review of Psychometric Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Integrity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lloyd; Turner, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) has been developed to measure motivational interviewing skill, but a need has been identified for more economical instruments. This study expands on a previous systematic review by Madson and Campbell (2006) and examines the extent to which motivational interviewing integrity measures other than the…

  1. Integration of Medical Images to the Teaching of Systematic Pathology: An Evaluation of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    A sound knowledge of pathological disease processes is required for professional practice within health professions. The project described in this paper reviewed the resources currently available for the delivery of systematic pathology tutorials. Additional complementary resources were developed and the inclusion of these additional learning…

  2. Systematic monitoring and evaluation of M7 scanner performance and data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S.; Christenson, D.; Larsen, L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide the information required to maintain data quality of the Michigan M7 Multispectral scanner by systematic checks on specific system performance characteristics. Data processing techniques which use calibration data gathered routinely every mission have been developed to assess current data quality. Significant changes from past data quality are thus identified and attempts made to discover their causes. Procedures for systematic monitoring of scanner data quality are discussed. In the solar reflective region, calculations of Noise Equivalent Change in Radiance on a permission basis are compared to theoretical tape-recorder limits to provide an estimate of overall scanner performance. M7 signal/noise characteristics are examined.

  3. A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior.

    PubMed

    Maggin, Daniel M; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Goddard, Katelyn M; Johnson, Austin H

    2011-10-01

    A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to determine the extent to which eligible studies demonstrated sufficient evidence to classify the token economy as an evidence-based practice. The second part of the review employed meta-analytic techniques across four different types of effect sizes to evaluate the quantitative strength of the findings. Methodological strengths and weaknesses across the studies were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the extant research on token economies does not provide sufficient evidence to be deemed best-practice based on the WWC criteria. PMID:21930008

  4. A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior.

    PubMed

    Maggin, Daniel M; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Goddard, Katelyn M; Johnson, Austin H

    2011-10-01

    A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to determine the extent to which eligible studies demonstrated sufficient evidence to classify the token economy as an evidence-based practice. The second part of the review employed meta-analytic techniques across four different types of effect sizes to evaluate the quantitative strength of the findings. Methodological strengths and weaknesses across the studies were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the extant research on token economies does not provide sufficient evidence to be deemed best-practice based on the WWC criteria.

  5. Estimating the Horizon of articles to decide when to stop searching in systematic reviews: an example using a systematic review of RCTs evaluating osteoporosis clinical decision support tools.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Monika; Straus, Sharon; Goldsmith, Charlie H

    2007-10-11

    Researchers conducting systematic reviews need to search multiple bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. However, researchers have no rational search stopping rule when looking for potentially-relevant articles. We empirically tested a stopping rule based on the concept of capture-mark-recapture (CMR), which was first pioneered in ecology. The principles of CMR can be adapted to systematic reviews and meta-analyses to estimate the Horizon of articles in the literature with its confidence interval. We retrospectively tested this Horizon Estimation using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated clinical decision support tools for osteoporosis disease management. The Horizon Estimation was calculated based on 4 bibliographic databases that were included as the main data sources for the review in the following order: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews. The systematic review captured 68% of known articles from the 4 data sources, which represented 592 articles that were estimated as missing from the Horizon.

  6. Systematic Development of Special Educators as Facilitators of Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peryon, Charleen Dolphin

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the knowledge and skills helpful to special educators in their role as consulting teachers in mainstreaming. A parallel is drawn between adult development phases and career development. Sources of resistance to mainstreaming are cited. Three modes of consulting (provision, prescriptive, and mediation) are described.…

  7. A scalable biomimetic synthesis of resveratrol dimers and systematic evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Bryan S; Keylor, Mitchell H; Li, Bo; Lin, YuXuan; Allison, Shelby; Pratt, Derek A; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2015-03-16

    An efficient synthetic route to the resveratrol oligomers quadrangularin A and pallidol is reported. It features a scalable biomimetic oxidative dimerization that proceeds in excellent yield and with complete regioselectivity. A systematic evaluation of the natural products and their synthetic precursors as radical-trapping antioxidants has revealed that, contrary to popular belief, this mode of action is unlikely to account for their observed biological activity.

  8. Cochrane methods--twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally

    2013-09-20

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews.

  9. The International Endometriosis Evaluation Program (IEEP Study) – A Systematic Study for Physicians, Researchers and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burghaus, S.; Fehm, T.; Fasching, P. A.; Blum, S.; Renner, S. K.; Baier, F.; Brodkorb, T.; Fahlbusch, C.; Findeklee, S.; Häberle, L.; Heusinger, K.; Hildebrandt, T.; Lermann, J.; Strahl, O.; Tchartchian, G.; Bojahr, B.; Porn, A.; Fleisch, M.; Reicke, S.; Füger, T.; Hartung, C.-P.; Hackl, J.; Beckmann, M. W.; Renner, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a range of different presentations. It is usually diagnosed when patients present with pain and/or infertility, but it has also been diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. Because of the different diagnostic approaches and diverse therapies, time to diagnosis can vary considerably and the definitive diagnosis may be delayed, with some cases not being diagnosed for several years. Endometriosis patients have many unmet needs. A systematic registration and follow-up of endometriosis patients could be useful to obtain an insight into the course of the disease. The validation of biomarkers could contribute to the development of diagnostic and predictive tests which could help select patients for surgical assessment earlier and offer better predictions about patients who might benefit from medical, surgical or other interventions. The aim is also to obtain a better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Material and Methods: To do this, an online multicenter documentation system was introduced to facilitate the establishment of a prospective multicenter case-control study, the IEEP (International Endometriosis Evaluation Program) study. We report here on the first 696 patients with endometriosis included in the program between June 2013 and June 2015. Results: A documentation system was created, and the structure and course of the study were mapped out with regard to data collection and the collection of biomaterials. Conclusion: The documentation system permits the history and clinical data of patients with endometriosis to be recorded. The IEEP combines this information with biomaterials and uses it for scientific studies. The recorded data can also be used to evaluate clinical quality control measures such as the certification parameters used by the EEL (European Endometriosis League) to assess certified endometriosis centers. PMID:27582581

  10. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  11. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  12. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  13. Toward a Systematic Computerized Career Development Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Jack R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Suggests a conceptual framework for development of career programs in college, describes the need for such programs, and identifies some of the relevant research. The computer as a possible delivery vehicle for college-level career guidance is discussed and specific conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  14. Development of a Systematic Automotive Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Peter B.; And Others

    As part of a project to provide techniques for developing and implementing realistic vocational training and placement programs for prisoner rehabilitation, an Automotive Trades Council (ATC) was established to test the concept of using a citizens' council to function as a bridge between correctional and training personnel and the using society.…

  15. A systematic molecular genetic approach to study mammalian germline development

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kuniya; Ko, Minoru S. H.; MacGregor, Grant R.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to study gene expression in mammalian embryonic germ cells as PGCs constitute only a minor proportion of the mouse embryo. We have overcome this problem by using a novel combination of established molecular and transgenic approaches. A line of mice has been generated in which the cells of the germ lineage express the β-galactosidase reporter gene during embryogenesis. Using this line, germ cells have been purified to near homogeneity from embryos at discrete stages during germline development by use of a stain for β-gal activity and a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Subsequently, cDNA libraries have been constructed from each germ cell population using a modified lone-linker PCR strategy. These combined cDNA libraries represent genes expressed in PGCs during mammalian germline development. To facilitate a molecular genetic approach to studying mammalian germline development, these cDNA libraries will be pooled to form an arrayed, addressed reference embryonic germ cell cDNA library. In parallel with large-scale cDNA sequencing efforts, genes that are differentially expressed in germ cells will be identified by screening the reference library with probes generated by subtractive hybridization. Complementary DNAs identified using this approach will be analyzed by sequencing, database comparison, genomic mapping and in situ hybridization to ascertain the potential functional importance of each gene to germline development. In addition to providing a wealth of novel information regarding patterns of gene expression during mammalian germline development, these results will form the basis for future experiments to determine the function of these genes in this process. PMID:9853837

  16. Towards the systematic development of medical networking technology.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Shetty, Ravindra; Sree, S Vinitha; Acharya, Sripathi; Acharya U, Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Poo, Chua Kok; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-12-01

    Currently, there is a disparity in the availability of doctors between urban and rural areas of developing countries. Most experienced doctors and specialists, as well as advanced diagnostic technologies, are available in urban areas. People living in rural areas have less or sometimes even no access to affordable healthcare facilities. Increasing the number of doctors and charitable medical hospitals or deploying advanced medical technologies in these areas might not be economically feasible, especially in developing countries. We need to mobilize science and technology to master this complex, large scale problem in an objective, logical, and professional way. This can only be achieved with a collaborative effort where a team of experts works on both technical and non-technical aspects of this health care divide. In this paper we use a systems engineering framework to discuss hospital networks which might be solution for the problem. We argue that with the advancement in communication and networking technologies, economically middle class people and even some rural poor have access to internet and mobile communication systems. Thus, Hospital Digital Networking Technologies (HDNT), such as telemedicine, can be developed to utilize internet, mobile and satellite communication systems to connect primitive rural healthcare centers to well advanced modern urban setups and thereby provide better consultation and diagnostic care to the needy people. This paper describes requirements and limitations of the HDNTs. It also presents the features of telemedicine, the implementation issues and the application of wireless technologies in the field of medical networking.

  17. Photogrammetry as a tool for the postural evaluation of the spine: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Tássia Silveira; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of photogrammetry and identify the mathematical procedures applied when evaluating spinal posture. METHODS: A systematic search using keywords was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Science and Medicine® databases. The following inclusion criteria adopted were: (1) the use of photogrammetry as a method to evaluate spinal posture; (2) evaluations of spinal curvature in the sagittal and/or frontal plane; (3) studies published within the last three decades; and (4) written entirely in English. The exclusion criteria were: (1) studies which objective involved the verification of some aspect of validation of instruments; (2) studies published as abstracts and those published in scientific events; and (3) studies using evaluation of the anteriorization of the head to determine the angular positioning of the cervical spine. The articles in this review were included and evaluated for their methodological quality, based on the Downs and Black scale, by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Initially, 1758 articles were found, 76 of which were included upon reading the full texts and 29 were included in accordance with the predetermined criteria. In addition, after analyzing the references in those articles, a further six articles were selected, so that 35 articles were included in this review. This systematic review revealed that the photogrammetry has been using in observational studies. Furthermore, it was also found that, although the data collection methodologies are similar across the studies, in relation to aspects of data analysis, the methodologies are very different, especially regarding the mathematical routines employed to support different postural evaluation software. CONCLUSION: With photogrammetry, the aim of the assessment, whether it is for clinical, research or collective health purposes, must be considered when choosing which protocol to use to evaluate spinal posture. PMID:26925386

  18. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten; Dekker, Joost; Steultjens, Martijn; Lund, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. Methods and analysis Cohort, cross-sectional and case–control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical factor with (the development of) KOA will be included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus will be searched from their inception until August 2015. 2 reviewers will independently screen articles obtained by the search for eligibility, extract data and score risk of bias. Quality of evidence will be evaluated. Meta-analysis using random effects model will be applied in each of the biomechanical factors, if possible. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis does not require ethical approval. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at (inter)national conferences. Trial registration number CRD42015025092. PMID:27311908

  19. Development of Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Doulabi, Mahbobeh ahmadi; Vameghi, Roshanak; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Mahmodi, Zohreh; Ghasemi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to gain a better perspective of the developmental status of children in different regions of Iran, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the factors impacting child development in Iranian studies. Materials and Methods: Articles published in Iranian and international journals indexed in the SID, PubMed, Scopus and Magiran databases from 2001-2015 were systematically reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords. After evaluating the quality of 155 articles in the initial search, 26 articles were analyzed according to the inclusion criteria. After investigations, meta-analysis was done for six studies and the results were combined using Random Effects model, and the heterogeneity of studies was evaluated using the I2 index. Data analysis was performed using STATA version 11.2. Results: Eagger & Beggs tests, respectively with 0/273 & 0/260 did not confirm the probability of publication bias in the data, but heterogeneity in studies was confirmed (p<0/001). On such basis, the pooled prevalence of developmental disorder based on Random Effect model was calculated to be 0.146, CI (0/107-0/184). The prevalence of developmental disorders in children in the studies reviewed was reported between 7 to 22.4%. The most important risk factors were in SES (Socio Economic Status) and Prenatal, Perinatal, Neonatal &Child groups. Conclusion: More extensive studies and early intervention with respect to causes of developmental delay in children seems necessary.

  20. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews

  1. The New Environment for Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciotto, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The millennium development goals have created new challenges for development evaluation. The main unit of account has shifted to the country level. Evaluation ownership must move from donor agencies to developing countries. The recognition that rich countries have development obligations is opening up evaluation frontiers beyond aid. A…

  2. Using a Systematic Approach to Develop a Chemistry Course Introducing Students to Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Shen, Bo; Hardacre, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach to develop the teaching of instrumental analytical chemistry is discussed, as well as a conceptual framework for organizing and executing lectures and a laboratory course. Three main components are used in this course: theoretical knowledge developed in the classroom, simulations via a virtual laboratory, and practical…

  3. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  4. Globalization of Continuing Professional Development by Journal Clubs via Microblogging: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Marlon; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Romanic, Diana; Papa, Nathan; Bolton, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background Journal clubs are an essential tool in promoting clinical evidence-based medical education to all medical and allied health professionals. Twitter represents a public, microblogging forum that can facilitate traditional journal club requirements, while also reaching a global audience, and participation for discussion with study authors and colleagues. Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the current state of social media–facilitated journal clubs, specifically Twitter, as an example of continuing professional development. Methods A systematic review of literature databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC via ProQuest) was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search of Twitter, the followers of identified journal clubs, and Symplur was also performed. Demographic and monthly tweet data were extracted from Twitter and Symplur. All manuscripts related to Twitter-based journal clubs were included. Statistical analyses were performed in MS Excel and STATA. Results From a total of 469 citations, 11 manuscripts were included and referred to five Twitter-based journal clubs (#ALiEMJC, #BlueJC, #ebnjc, #urojc, #meded). A Twitter-based journal club search yielded 34 potential hashtags/accounts, of which 24 were included in the final analysis. The median duration of activity was 11.75 (interquartile range [IQR] 19.9, SD 10.9) months, with 7 now inactive. The median number of followers and participants was 374 (IQR 574) and 157 (IQR 272), respectively. An overall increasing establishment of active Twitter-based journal clubs was observed, resulting in an exponential increase in total cumulative tweets (R 2=.98), and tweets per month (R 2=.72). Cumulative tweets for specific journal clubs increased linearly, with @ADC_JC, @EBNursingBMJ, @igsjc, @iurojc, and @NephJC, and showing greatest rate of change, as well as total impressions per month since

  5. School-based counseling using systematic feedback: a cohort study evaluating outcomes and predictors of change.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Mick; Stewart, Dave; Sparks, Jacqueline; Bunting, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of school-based counseling incorporating the Partners for Change Outcome Monitoring System (PCOMS) were evaluated using a cohort design, with multilevel modeling to identify predictors of change. Participants were 288 7-11 year olds experiencing social, emotional or behavioral difficulties. The intervention was associated with significant reductions in psychological distress, with a pre-post effect size (d) of 1.49 on the primary outcome measure and 88.7% clinical improvement. Greater improvements were found for disabled children, older children, and where CBT methods were used. The findings provide support for the use of systematic feedback in therapy with children.

  6. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation — 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD). PMID:26837602

  7. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD. PMID:19367150

  8. A systematic framework for evaluating standard cell middle-of-line (MOL) robustness for multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2015-03-01

    Multiple patterning (triple and quadruple patterning) is being considered for use on the Middle-Of-Line (MOL) layers at the 10nm technology node and beyond.1 For robust standard cell design, designers need to improve the inter-cell compatibility for all combinations of cells and cell placements. Multiple patterning colorability checks break the locality of traditional rule checking and N-wise checks are strongly needed to verify the multiple patterning colorability for layout interaction across cell boundaries. In this work, a systematic framework is proposed to evaluate the library-level robustness over multiple patterning from two perpectives, including illegal cell combinations and full chip interactions. With efficient N-wise checks, the vertical and horizontal boundary checks are explored to predict illegal cell combinations. For full chip interactions, random benchmarks are generated by cell shifting and tested to evaluate the placement-level efforts needed to reduce the quadruple patterning to triple patterning for the MOL layer.

  9. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  10. Toward a Systematic and Intentional Approach to Leadership Development for the Early Childhood Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the literature indicated that the field of early childhood would benefit from a more systematic and intentional approach to developing leadership for professionals at all levels, including those with a range of training/education across a diversity of program types and professional positions. The intent of the present study was…

  11. Systematic Quality Development Work in a Swedish Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin; Sheridan, Sonja; Gustafsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing activity in the area of quality issues in education in Europe. Diverse discourses of policy for quality are encountered in daily practice. This article explores systematic quality development work in a Swedish educational setting: the leisure-time centre. By following 2 teachers' enactments of policy in planning, organising,…

  12. Discovering a Gold Mine of Strategies for At-Risk Students through Systematic Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Jesse R.; Villarreal, Diana

    This paper discusses an effective model of systematic staff development focusing on prevention and intervention strategies used with at-risk students. The following are key elements: (1) matching of the purposes of training to the goals of the school districts; (2) multiple and integrated activities; (3) participants' thorough orientation to the…

  13. A Systematic Review of the Economic Evaluation of Telemedicine in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is no systematic review on economic evaluations of telemedicine in Japan, despite over 1000 trials implemented. Our systematic review aims to examine whether Japan’s telemedicine is cost-saving or cost-effective, examine the methodological rigorousness of the economic evaluations, and discuss future studies needed to improve telemedicine’s financial sustainability. Methods: We searched five databases, including two Japanese databases, to find peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 in English and Japanese that performed economic evaluations of Japan’s telemedicine programs. The methodological rigorousness of the economic analyses was assessed with a well-established checklist. We calculated the benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) when a reviewed study reported related data but did not report the BCR. All cost values were adjusted to 2014 US dollars. Results: Among the 17 articles identified, six studies reported on settings connecting physicians for specialist consultations, and eleven studies on settings connecting healthcare providers and patients at home. There are three cost-benefit analyses and three cost-minimization analyses. The remaining studies measured the benefit of telemedicine only, using medical expenditure saved or users’ willingness-to-pay. There was substantial diversity in the methodological rigorousness. Studies on teledermatology and teleradiology indicated a favorable level of economic efficiency. Studies on telehomecare gave mixed results. One cost-benefit analysis on telehomecare indicated a low economic efficiency, partly due to public subsidy rules, e.g., a too short budget period. Conclusions: Overall, telemedicine programs in Japan were indicated to have a favorable level of economic efficiency. However, the scarcity of the economic literature indicates the need for further rigorous economic evaluation studies. PMID:27499161

  14. Economic Evaluation of Interventions for Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwetkat, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review sought to assess the costs and benefits of interventions preventing hospital-acquired infections and to evaluate methodological and reporting quality. Methods We systematically searched Medline via PubMed and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database from 2009 to 2014. We included quasi-experimental and randomized trails published in English or German evaluating the economic impact of interventions preventing the four most frequent hospital-acquired infections (urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, pneumonia, and primary bloodstream infections). Characteristics and results of the included articles were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Study and reporting quality were evaluated using SIGN and CHEERS checklists. All costs were adjusted to 2013 US$. Savings-to-cost ratios and difference values with interquartile ranges (IQRs) per month were calculated, and the effects of study characteristics on the cost-benefit results were analyzed. Results Our search returned 2067 articles, of which 27 met the inclusion criteria. The median savings-to-cost ratio across all studies reporting both costs and savings values was US $7.0 (IQR 4.2–30.9), and the median net global saving was US $13,179 (IQR 5,106–65,850) per month. The studies’ reporting quality was low. Only 14 articles reported more than half of CHEERS items appropriately. Similarly, an assessment of methodological quality found that only four studies (14.8%) were considered high quality. Conclusions Prevention programs for hospital acquired infections have very positive cost-benefit ratios. Improved reporting quality in health economics publications is required. PMID:26731736

  15. Economic evaluations on centralisation of specialised healthcare services: a systematic review of methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nawaraj; McMeekin, Peter; Price, Christopher; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and appraise the quality of economic evaluations assessing centralisation of specialised healthcare services. Methods A systematic review to identify economic evaluations on centralisation of any specialised healthcare service. Full economic evaluations comparing costs and consequences of centralisation of any specialised healthcare service were eligible for inclusion. Methodological characteristics of included studies were appraised using checklists adapted from recommended guidelines. Results A total of 64 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were conducted in the UK. Most of the studies used volume of activity as a proxy measure of centralisation. The methods used to assess centralisation were heterogeneous. Studies differed in terms of study design used and aspect of centralisation they considered. There were major limitations in studies. Only 12 studies reported the study perspective. Charges which are not true representation of costs were used by 17 studies to assess cost outcomes. Only 10 reported the detailed breakdown of the cost components used in their analysis. Discounting was necessary in 14 studies but was reported only in 7 studies. Sensitivity analyses were included by less than one-third of the studies. The applicability of the identified studies to a setting other than the one they were conducted in is questionable, given variations in the organisation of services and healthcare costs. Centralisation as a concept has also been variably and narrowly defined as activity of specific services which may not reflect the wider aspects of centralisation. Conclusions Confounded and biased information coming from studies without standardised methods may mislead decision-makers towards making wrong decisions on centralisation. It is important to improve the methodology and reporting of economic evaluations in order to provide more robust and transferable evidence. Wider aspects of healthcare

  16. The Impact of Mobile Health Interventions on Chronic Disease Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allison G.; Willner, Jonathan M.; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Materials and Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient–provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. Conclusions: M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries. PMID:24205809

  17. Can Economic Development Programs Be Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Bingham, Richard D.

    The question of whether economic development programs can be evaluated seems simple, but the answer is not simple because of the nature of evaluation. Determining a program's effectiveness requires the evaluator to distinguish changes due to the program from changes due to nonprogram factors. The evaluator must focus on outcomes caused by the…

  18. Developing and Implementing a Counselor Evaluation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Priscilla J.; Acker, Kathleen E.

    In the past several years, Tacoma Community College (TCC) has devoted increasing attention to evaluating faculty and staff performance. In recognition of the benefits of a growth-oriented evaluation process over a summative evaluation, the counselors and the Dean for Student Services at TCC developed a comprehensive evaluation system for…

  19. Telehealth success: evaluation framework development.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M

    2001-01-01

    Implementing telehealth applications represents a substantial investment of resources, which is one reason why success is of great interest. Many research and evaluation studies have investigated measures of successful telehealth systems. However, the term "telehealth" represents a wide range of variables including clinical application, characteristics of the information being transmitted, temporal relationships of data transfer and the organizational context. These sources of variability pose many challenges for evaluation as well as for building a cumulative history of research. A conceptual framework is required that assists in categorizing results and drawing conclusions based on an accumulation of findings. One measure of "success" in health care is quality patient care and this reflects a primary reason for ICT investments. For this reason, Donabedian's work in evaluating quality provides the basis for the proposed framework. DeLone and McLean's definitions of IS success assist in conceptualizing Donabedian's structure-outcome-process variables in a telehealth context. Multiple evaluation approaches have been used to address different types of questions. Prior to the technologies being introduced to clinical care, there are usually many studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. Health Technology Assessment examines a broader context than the technology alone, including costs and comparing alternatives that would exist in the absence of telehealth. It considers performance measures; outcomes; summary measures, operational considerations, and other issues. Program Evaluation examines use of the technology to provide a service or deliver a program. Evaluation questions often address whether the program goals have been met and if it is operating as expected. Perhaps of greater concern than the evaluation approach taken is generalizability of findings. Recent studies have given inadequate attention to defining what is done (i.e. comparison of telehealth to most

  20. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2015-07-01

    Petrogenetic models for convergent margins should be consistent with the global systematics of convergent margin volcanic compositions. A newly developed tool for compiling and screening data from the GEOROC database was used to generate a global dataset of whole rock chemical analyses from arc front stratovolcano samples. Data from 227 volcanoes within 31 volcanic arc segments were first averaged by volcano and then by arc to explore global systematics. Three different methods of data normalization produce consistent results that persist across a wide range of Mg# [Mg# =Mg / (Mg +Fe) ]. Remarkably coherent systematics are present among major and trace element concentrations and ratios, with the exception of three arcs influenced by mantle plumes and Peru/N. Chile, which is built on exceptionally thick crust. Chemical parameters also correlate with the thickness of the overlying arc crust. In addition to previously established correlations of Na6.0 with Ca6.0 and crustal thickness, correlations are observed among major elements, trace elements, and trace element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Dy/Yb, Zr/Sm, Zr/Ti). Positive correlations include "fluid mobile," "high field strength," and "large ion lithophile" element groups, with concentrations that vary by a factor of five in all groups. Incompatible element enrichments also correlate well with crustal thickness, with the greatest enrichment found at arcs with the thickest crust. Intra-crustal processes, however, do not reproduce the global variations. High pressure fractionation produces intermediate magmas enriched in aluminum, but such magmas are rare. Furthermore, differences among magma compositions at various volcanic arcs persist from primitive to evolved compositions, which is inconsistent with the possibility that global variations are produced by crystal fractionation at any pressure. Linear relationships among elements appear to be consistent with mixing between depleted primary magma and an enriched contaminant

  1. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Moazzam; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Tran, Nhan; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete and accurate reporting of programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is essential to understand the impact of SRH programmes, as well as to guide their replication and scale-up. Objectives To provide an overview of existing reporting tools and identify core items used in programme reporting with a focus on programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes. Methods A systematic review was completed for the period 2000–2014. Reporting guidelines, checklists and tools, irrespective of study design, applicable for reporting on programmes targeting SRH outcomes, were included. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract of all records. Full texts were assessed in duplicate, followed by data extraction on the focus, content area, year of publication, validation and description of reporting items. Data was synthesized using an iterative thematic approach, where items related to programme preparation, implementation and evaluation in each tool were extracted and aggregated into a consolidated list. Results Out of the 3,656 records screened for title and abstracts, full texts were retrieved for 182 articles, out of which 108 were excluded. Seventy-four full text articles corresponding to 45 reporting tools were retained for synthesis. The majority of tools were developed for reporting on intervention research (n = 15), randomized controlled trials (n = 8) and systematic reviews (n = 7). We identified a total of 50 reporting items, across three main domains and corresponding sub-domains: programme preparation (objective/focus, design, piloting); programme implementation (content, timing/duration/location, providers/staff, participants, delivery, implementation outcomes), and programme evaluation (process evaluation, implementation barriers/facilitators, outcome/impact evaluation). Conclusions Over the past decade a wide range of tools have been developed

  2. A Patient-Centered Framework for Evaluating Digital Maturity of Health Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara; Mayer, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital maturity is the extent to which digital technologies are used as enablers to deliver a high-quality health service. Extensive literature exists about how to assess the components of digital maturity, but it has not been used to design a comprehensive framework for evaluation. Consequently, the measurement systems that do exist are limited to evaluating digital programs within one service or care setting, meaning that digital maturity evaluation is not accounting for the needs of patients across their care pathways. Objective The objective of our study was to identify the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity and to create a novel, evidence-based tool for evaluating digital maturity across patient care pathways. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature to find the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity. We searched the PubMed database for all papers relevant to digital maturity evaluation. Papers were selected if they provided insight into how to appraise digital systems within the health service and if they indicated the factors that constitute or facilitate digital maturity. Papers were analyzed to identify methodology for evaluating digital maturity and indicators of digitally mature systems. We then used the resulting information about methodology to design an evaluation framework. Following that, the indicators of digital maturity were extracted and grouped into increasing levels of maturity and operationalized as metrics within the evaluation framework. Results We identified 28 papers as relevant to evaluating digital maturity, from which we derived 5 themes. The first theme concerned general evaluation methodology for constructing the framework (7 papers). The following 4 themes were the increasing levels of digital maturity: resources and ability (6 papers), usage (7 papers), interoperability (3 papers), and impact (5 papers). The framework includes metrics for each of these levels at each

  3. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors. PMID:23889287

  4. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  5. The Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Evaluative Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Lisa R.

    This paper discusses evaluation design considerations for a computer based evaluation simulation developed at the University of Iowa College of Medicine in Cardiology to assess the diagnostic skills of primary care physicians and medical students. The simulation developed allows for the assessment of diagnostic skills of physicians in the…

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of the clinical feeding evaluation in detecting aspiration in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Irene; Conway, Aifric; Henriques, Filipa; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical feeding evaluation (CFE) compared to instrumental assessments in detecting oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) in children. This is important to support clinical decision-making and to provide safe, cost-effective, higher quality care. All published and unpublished studies in all languages assessing the diagnostic accuracy of CFE compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and/or fibre-optic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) in detecting OPA in paediatric populations were sought. Databases were searched from inception to April 2015. Grey literature, citations, and references were also searched. Two independent reviewers extracted and analysed data. Accuracy estimates were calculated. Research reports were translated into English as required. Six studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of CFE using VFSS and/or FEES were eligible for inclusion. Sample sizes, populations studied, and CFE characteristics varied widely. The overall methodological quality of the studies, assessed with QUADAS-2, was considered 'low'. Results suggested that CFEs trialling liquid consistencies might provide better accuracy estimates than CFEs trialling solids exclusively. This systematic review highlights the critical lack of evidence on the accuracy of CFE in detecting OPA in children. Larger well-designed primary diagnostic test accuracy studies in this area are needed to inform dysphagia assessment in paediatrics. PMID:26862075

  7. QbD-enabled systematic development of gastroretentive multiple-unit microballoons of itopride hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sanjay; Beg, Sarwar; Asthana, Abhay; Garg, Babita; Asthana, Gyati Shilakari; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present studies were to develop the systematically optimized multiple-unit gastroretentive microballoons, i.e. hollow microspheres of itopride hydrochloride (ITH) employing quality by design (QbD)-based approach. Initially, the patient-centric QTPP and CQAs were earmarked, and preliminary studies were conducted to screen the suitable polymer, solvent, solvent ratio, pH and temperature conditions. Microspheres were prepared by non-aqueous solvent evaporation method employing Eudragit S-100. Risk assessment studies carried out by constructing Ishikawa cause-effect fish-bone diagram, and techniques like risk estimation matrix (REM) and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) facilitated the selection of plausible factors affecting the drug product CQAs, i.e. percent yield, entrapment efficiency (EE) and percent buoyancy. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for optimizing CMAs and CPPs selected during factor screening studies employing Taguchi design, i.e. drug-polymer ratio (X1), stirring temperature (X2) and stirring speed (X3). The hollow microspheres, as per BBD, were evaluated for EE, particle size and drug release characteristics. The optimum formulation was embarked upon using numerical desirability function yielding excellent floatation characteristics along with adequate drug release control. Drug-excipient compatibility studies employing FT-IR, DSC and powder XRD revealed absence of significant interaction among the formulation excipients. The SEM studies on the optimized formulation showed hollow and spherical nature of the prepared microspheres. In vivo X-ray imaging studies in rabbits confirmed the buoyant nature of the hollow microspheres for 8 h in the upper GI tract. In a nutshell, the current investigations report the successful development of gastroretentive floating microspheres for once-a-day administration of ITH.

  8. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  9. Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in children and adolescents: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Haasova, Marcela; Snowsill, Tristan; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Crathorne, Louise; Cooper, Chris; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Coelho, Helen; Huxley, Nicola; Lowe, Jenny; Dudley, Jan; Marks, Stephen; Hyde, Chris; Bond, Mary; Anderson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), NHS Economic Evaluation Databases (via Wiley Online Library), Web of Science (via ISI), Health Economic Evaluations Database (via Wiley Online Library) and EconLit (via EBSCOhost). REVIEW METHODS Titles and abstracts were screened according to predefined inclusion criteria, as were full texts of identified studies. Included studies were extracted and quality appraised. Data were meta-analysed when appropriate. A new discrete time state transition economic model (semi-Markov) was developed; graft function, and incidences of acute rejection and new-onset diabetes mellitus were used to extrapolate graft survival. Recipients were assumed to be in one of three health states: functioning graft, graft loss or death. RESULTS Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four non-RCTs were included. The RCTs only evaluated BAS and tacrolimus (TAC). No statistically significant differences in key outcomes were found between BAS and placebo/no induction. Statistically significantly higher graft function (p < 0.01) and less biopsy-proven acute rejection (odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.57) was found between TAC and ciclosporin (CSA). Only one cost-effectiveness study was identified, which informed NICE guidance TA99. BAS [with TAC and azathioprine (AZA)] was predicted to be cost-effective at £20,000-30,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) versus no induction (BAS was dominant). BAS (with CSA and MMF) was not predicted to be cost-effective at £20,000-30,000 per QALY versus no induction (BAS was dominated). TAC (with AZA) was predicted to be cost-effective at £20,000-30,000 per QALY versus CSA (TAC was dominant). A model based on adult evidence suggests that at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000-30,000 per QALY, BAS and TAC are cost-effective in all considered combinations; MMF was also cost-effective with CSA but not TAC. LIMITATIONS The RCT evidence is very limited; analyses comparing all interventions need to

  10. Developing an English Language Textbook Evaluation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Hajimohammadi, Reza; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the considerations that were taken into account in the development of a tentative English language textbook evaluation checklist. A brief review of the related literature precedes the crucial issues that should be considered in developing checklists. In the light of the previous evaluation checklists the developers created a…

  11. A Hybrid Evaluation Model for Evaluating Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Fiedler, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Online professional development is multidimensional. It encompasses: a) an online, web-based format; b) professional development; and most likely c) specific objectives tailored to and created for the respective online professional development course. Evaluating online professional development is therefore also multidimensional and as such both…

  12. Systematic Reconstruction of Molecular Cascades Regulating GP Development Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxiang; Luo, Haofei; Wang, Rui; Lang, Jidong; Zhu, Siyu; Zhang, Zhenming; Fang, Jianhuo; Qu, Keke; Lin, Yuting; Long, Haizhou; Yao, Yi; Tian, Geng; Wu, Qiong

    2016-05-17

    The growth plate (GP) comprising sequentially differentiated cell layers is a critical structure for bone elongation and regeneration. Although several key regulators in GP development have been identified using genetic perturbation, systematic understanding is still limited. Here, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the gene expression profiles of 217 single cells from GPs and developed a bioinformatics pipeline named Sinova to de novo reconstruct physiological GP development in both temporal and spatial high resolution. Our unsupervised model not only confirmed prior knowledge, but also enabled the systematic discovery of genes, potential signal pathways, and surface markers CD9/CD200 to precisely depict development. Sinova further identified the effective combination of transcriptional factors (TFs) that regulates GP maturation, and the result was validated using an in vitro EGFP-Col10a screening system. Our case systematically reconstructed molecular cascades in GP development through single-cell profiling, and the bioinformatics pipeline is applicable to other developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27160914

  13. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  14. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J.; Staton, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  15. Assessing clinical trials of Internet addiction treatment: a systematic review and CONSORT evaluation.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Although there is ongoing debate concerning the clinical status of Internet addiction, and the quality of the extant literature in this emerging field is not optimal, several clinical trials of both pharmacological and psychological treatments for Internet addiction have been published in recent years. A systematic review investigating the reporting quality of eight treatment studies is presented. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. An evaluation of the reviewed studies highlighted several key limitations, including (a) inconsistencies in the definition and diagnosis of Internet addiction, (b) a lack of randomization and blinding techniques, (c) a lack of adequate controls or other comparison groups, and (d) insufficient information concerning recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and treatment effect sizes. It is concluded that improvements in future studies' design and reporting would be of significant benefit to both researchers and clinicians, and to the overall positioning of Internet addiction in the behavioral addiction field.

  16. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362

  18. Evidence synthesis in international development: a critique of systematic reviews and a pragmatist alternative

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an instrument of Evidence-Based Policy designed to produce comprehensive, unbiased, transparent and clear assessments of interventions’ effectiveness. From their origins in medical fields, systematic reviews have recently been promoted as offering important advances in a range of applied social science fields, including international development. Drawing on a case study of a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilisation as an intervention to tackle HIV/AIDS, this article problematises the use of systematic reviews to summarise complex and context-specific bodies of evidence. Social development interventions, such as ‘community mobilisation’ often take different forms in different interventions; are made successful by their situation in particular contexts, rather than being successful or unsuccessful universally; and have a rhetorical value that leads to the over-application of positively valued terms (e.g. ‘community mobilisation’), invalidating the keyword search process of a systematic review. The article suggests that the policy interest in definitive summary statements of ‘the evidence’ is at odds with academic assessments that evidence takes multiple, contradictory and complex forms, and with practitioner experience of the variability of practice in context. A pragmatist philosophy of evidence is explored as an alternative. Taking this approach implies expanding the definition of forms of research considered to be ‘useful evidence’ for evidence-based policy-making; decentralising decisions about ‘what works’ to allow for the use of local practical wisdom; and prioritising the establishment of good processes for the critical use of evidence, rather than producing context-insensitive summaries of ‘the evidence’. PMID:26426502

  19. Evaluating the success of a marine protected area: A systematic review approach.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, J; Simmonds, N; Fellowes, H; Brown, N; Gill, N; Clark, W; Biggs, C; Rodwell, L D

    2016-12-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), marine areas in which human activities are restricted, are implemented worldwide to protect the marine environment. However, with a large proportion of these MPAs being no more than paper parks, it is important to be able to evaluate MPA success, determined by improvements to biophysical, socio-economic and governance conditions. In this study a systematic literature review was conducted to determine the most frequently used indicators of MPA success. These were then applied to a case study to demonstrate how success can be evaluated. The fifteen most frequently used indicators included species abundance, level of stakeholder participation and the existence of a decision-making and management body. Using the indicator framework with a traffic light system, we demonstrate how an MPA can be evaluated in terms of how well it performs against the indicators using secondary data from the literature. The framework can be used flexibly. For example, where no MPA data currently exist, the framework can be populated by qualitative data provided by local stakeholder knowledge. This system provides a cost-effective and straightforward method for managers and decision-makers to determine the level of success of any MPA and identify areas of weakness. However, given the variety of motivations for MPA establishment, this success needs to be determined in the context of the original management objectives of the MPA with greater weighting being placed on those objectives where appropriate. PMID:27600332

  20. Developing Peer Mentoring through Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ralph; Jaugietis, Zarni

    2011-01-01

    Peer mentoring programs are an important component in the strategy to enhance the first year undergraduate experience. The operation of these programs needs to be informed by evidence as to their effectiveness. In this article we report on a six-year study of the development of a peer mentoring program in which feedback is used to improve program…

  1. A Systematic Literature Search on Psychological First Aid: Lack of Evidence to Develop Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dieltjens, Tessa; Moonens, Inge; Van Praet, Koen; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing psychological first aid (PFA) is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. Objective To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. Methods Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N) were conducted from inception to July 2013. Results Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20–53%) and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Conclusion The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims. PMID:25503520

  2. Methods Used in Economic Evaluations of Chronic Kidney Disease Testing — A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Andrew J.; Breheny, Katie; Deeks, Jon; Khunti, Kamlesh; Sharpe, Claire; Ottridge, Ryan S.; Stevens, Paul E.; Cockwell, Paul; Kalra, Philp A.; Lamb, Edmund J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in general populations around the world. Targeted testing and screening for CKD are often conducted to help identify individuals that may benefit from treatment to ameliorate or prevent their disease progression. Aims This systematic review examines the methods used in economic evaluations of testing and screening in CKD, with a particular focus on whether test accuracy has been considered, and how analysis has incorporated issues that may be important to the patient, such as the impact of testing on quality of life and the costs they incur. Methods Articles that described model-based economic evaluations of patient testing interventions focused on CKD were identified through the searching of electronic databases and the hand searching of the bibliographies of the included studies. Results The initial electronic searches identified 2,671 papers of which 21 were included in the final review. Eighteen studies focused on proteinuria, three evaluated glomerular filtration rate testing and one included both tests. The full impact of inaccurate test results was frequently not considered in economic evaluations in this setting as a societal perspective was rarely adopted. The impact of false positive tests on patients in terms of the costs incurred in re-attending for repeat testing, and the anxiety associated with a positive test was almost always overlooked. In one study where the impact of a false positive test on patient quality of life was examined in sensitivity analysis, it had a significant impact on the conclusions drawn from the model. Conclusion Future economic evaluations of kidney function testing should examine testing and monitoring pathways from the perspective of patients, to ensure that issues that are important to patients, such as the possibility of inaccurate test results, are properly considered in the analysis. PMID:26465773

  3. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Evaluation Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    The role of evaluation in the development of evolutionary procedures is briefly described and highlighted. Four aspects of evaluation technique which distinguish efficient from inefficient CAI programs are identified. Evaluation of products is also characterized. Findings of a continuing survey of students via questionnaire as to the value of…

  4. ROBIS: A new tool to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews was developed

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny; Savović, Jelena; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Caldwell, Deborah M.; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Davies, Philippa; Kleijnen, Jos; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). Study Design and Setting We used four-stage approach to develop ROBIS: define the scope, review the evidence base, hold a face-to-face meeting, and refine the tool through piloting. Results ROBIS is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within health care settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews (“reviews of reviews”), and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in three phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process, and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the phase 2 domains. Signaling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results, and conclusions. Conclusions ROBIS is the first rigorously developed tool designed specifically to assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews. PMID:26092286

  5. Evaluation of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project in Putnam County, West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    An evaluation is presented of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project, designed to increase student achievement in basic skills through the use of research-based, systematic change in teachers' classroom management and organizational techniques. One objective of the evaluation was to utilize techniques and to…

  6. Flipping the classroom to teach systematic reviews: the development of a continuing education course for librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Marisa L.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Mani, Nandita S.; Townsend, Whitney A.; Smith, Judith E.; Masters, Chase; Kelley, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The researchers used the flipped classroom model to develop and conduct a systematic review course for librarians. Setting: The research took place at an academic health sciences library. Method: A team of informationists developed and conducted a pilot course. Assessment informed changes to both course components; a second course addressed gaps in the pilot. Main Results: Both the pilot and subsequent course received positive reviews. Changes based on assessment data will inform future iterations. Conclusion: The flipped classroom model can be successful in developing and implementing a course that is well rated by students. PMID:25918484

  7. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment.

  8. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment. PMID:12755272

  9. Usability Evaluation Methods for Gesture-Based Games: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Fernando Winckler; Brum, Manoela Rogofski; Schmidt, Jaison Dairon Ebertz; De Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestural interaction systems are increasingly being used, mainly in games, expanding the idea of entertainment and providing experiences with the purpose of promoting better physical and/or mental health. Therefore, it is necessary to establish mechanisms for evaluating the usability of these interfaces, which make gestures the basis of interaction, to achieve a balance between functionality and ease of use. Objective This study aims to present the results of a systematic review focused on usability evaluation methods for gesture-based games, considering devices with motion-sensing capability. We considered the usability methods used, the common interface issues, and the strategies adopted to build good gesture-based games. Methods The research was centered on four electronic databases: IEEE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Springer, and Science Direct from September 4 to 21, 2015. Within 1427 studies evaluated, 10 matched the eligibility criteria. As a requirement, we considered studies about gesture-based games, Kinect and/or Wii as devices, and the use of a usability method to evaluate the user interface. Results In the 10 studies found, there was no standardization in the methods because they considered diverse analysis variables. Heterogeneously, authors used different instruments to evaluate gesture-based interfaces and no default approach was proposed. Questionnaires were the most used instruments (70%, 7/10), followed by interviews (30%, 3/10), and observation and video recording (20%, 2/10). Moreover, 60% (6/10) of the studies used gesture-based serious games to evaluate the performance of elderly participants in rehabilitation tasks. This highlights the need for creating an evaluation protocol for older adults to provide a user-friendly interface according to the user’s age and limitations. Conclusions Through this study, we conclude this field is in need of a usability evaluation method for serious games, especially games for

  10. Development of a School Leadership Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Nik

    2014-01-01

    This action research study examined the effectiveness of the process implemented by Partnerships to Uplift Communities (PUC) Schools Charter Management Organization to develop their school leader evaluation system in collaboration with current PUC school leaders. The development of the leadership evaluation system included the collective voices of…

  11. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  12. The reliability of WorkWell Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) determines a person’s ability to perform work-related tasks and is a major component of the rehabilitation process. The WorkWell Systems (WWS) FCE (formerly known as Isernhagen Work Systems FCE) is currently the most commonly used FCE tool in German rehabilitation centres. Our systematic review investigated the inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability of the WWS FCE. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies on the reliability of the WWS FCE and extracted item-specific measures of inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability from the identified studies. Intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.75, percentages of agreement ≥ 80%, and kappa coefficients ≥ 0.60 were categorised as acceptable, otherwise they were considered non-acceptable. The extracted values were summarised for the five performance categories of the WWS FCE, and the results were classified as either consistent or inconsistent. Results From 11 identified studies, 150 item-specific reliability measures were extracted. 89% of the extracted inter-rater reliability measures, all of the intra-rater reliability measures and 96% of the test-retest reliability measures of the weight handling and strength tests had an acceptable level of reliability, compared to only 67% of the test-retest reliability measures of the posture/mobility tests and 56% of the test-retest reliability measures of the locomotion tests. Both of the extracted test-retest reliability measures of the balance test were acceptable. Conclusions Weight handling and strength tests were found to have consistently acceptable reliability. Further research is needed to explore the reliability of the other tests as inconsistent findings or a lack of data prevented definitive conclusions. PMID:24674029

  13. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies.

    PubMed

    Alouki, Koffi; Delisle, Hélène; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Johri, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes. PMID:26885527

  14. Systematic framework for evaluating standard cell middle-of-line robustness for multiple patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2016-04-01

    For robust standard cell design, designers need to improve the intercell compatibility for all combinations of cells and cell placements. Multiple patterning lithography colorability check breaks the locality of traditional rule check, and N-wise checks are strongly needed to verify the colorability for layout interactions across cell boundaries. A systematic framework is proposed to evaluate the library-level robustness over multiple patterning lithography from two perspectives, including complete checks on two-row combinations of cells and long-range interactions. With complete checks on two-row combinations of cells, the vertical and horizontal boundary checks are explored to predict illegal cell combinations. For long-range interactions, random benchmarks are generated by cell shifting and tested to evaluate the placement-level efforts needed to reduce the manufacturing complexity from quadruple patterning lithography to triple patterning lithography for the middle-of-line (MOL) layers. Our framework is tested on the MOL layers but can be easily adapted to other critical layers with multiple patterning lithography constraints.

  15. Load Index Metrics for an Optimized Management of Web Services: A Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paulo S. L.; Santana, Regina H. C.; Santana, Marcos J.; Zaluska, Ed; Faical, Bruno S.; Estrella, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of precision to predict service performance through load indices may lead to wrong decisions regarding the use of web services, compromising service performance and raising platform cost unnecessarily. This paper presents experimental studies to qualify the behaviour of load indices in the web service context. The experiments consider three services that generate controlled and significant server demands, four levels of workload for each service and six distinct execution scenarios. The evaluation considers three relevant perspectives: the capability for representing recent workloads, the capability for predicting near-future performance and finally stability. Eight different load indices were analysed, including the JMX Average Time index (proposed in this paper) specifically designed to address the limitations of the other indices. A systematic approach is applied to evaluate the different load indices, considering a multiple linear regression model based on the stepwise-AIC method. The results show that the load indices studied represent the workload to some extent; however, in contrast to expectations, most of them do not exhibit a coherent correlation with service performance and this can result in stability problems. The JMX Average Time index is an exception, showing a stable behaviour which is tightly-coupled to the service runtime for all executions. Load indices are used to predict the service runtime and therefore their inappropriate use can lead to decisions that will impact negatively on both service performance and execution cost. PMID:23874776

  16. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alouki, Koffi; Delisle, Hélène; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes. PMID:26885527

  17. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  18. The Evaluation of Curative Effect of Acupuncture: A Review of Systematic and Meta-Analysis Studies.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-07-01

    The present study attempts to critically evaluate previously published research articles on the efficiency of acupuncture in the treatment of diseases. First, 35 systematic reviews or meta-analysis were found in the Cochrane database. Second, 54 related articles were selected by searching important scientific databases. Based on the results obtained regarding the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of various diseases, the articles were divided into 3 groups. The first group of articles confirmed the efficacy of treatment by acupuncture. In the second group of articles, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture was shown; however, further research is required to verify the results. In the third group of articles there is no evidence regarding the therapeutic effect of acupuncture till now. There is an urgent need to design and conduct double-blinded randomized clinical trials with high-quality methodologies. This provides a more careful evaluation of acupuncture efficiency in relation to the treatment of a vast array of diseases, based on scientific evidence. PMID:26260046

  19. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. PMID:25083263

  20. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  1. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula.

  2. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27303124

  3. Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

    2012-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost

  4. Development of a multiport test bench and systematic measurements of cable bundles for automotive EMC tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonser, M.; Keller, C.; Hansen, J.; Weigel, R.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the development of a cable bundle test bench is described and exemplary results of the systematic measurement of cable bundles for automotive EMC tests are presented. The test bench consists of particularly developed adapter boxes and switch matrices, which allow together with a network analyzer to perform a network analysis with up to 32 ports and up to 1 GHz. Calibration and deembedding procedures are described and validated. Cable bundles that are characteristic to automotive EMC tests are investigated with respect to the number of wires within the cable bundle, the class of the cable bundle and the type of wires.

  5. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  6. Priority setting for evaluation: developing a strategic evaluation portfolio.

    PubMed

    Spilsbury, M J; Norgbey, S; Battaglino, C

    2014-10-01

    Resources for evaluation are frequently scarce and best use should be made of them to deliver against the typical purposes of an evaluation function to (i) enhance accountability and (ii) promote operational improvement and learning. This paper presents a method for analyzing and prioritizing potential evaluations to improve the selection of a portfolio of activities that give the greatest pay-off. The method establishes the relative priority of 'evaluation opportunities' against criteria that relate to the usual primary purposes of an evaluation function. The method was developed in the context of a multilateral organization but is of general utility to the wider evaluation community and, with suitable adaptation can be applied to help ensure that scarce evaluation resources are used to their best advantage. A range of benefits are expected to accrue to an organization from adopting a more thorough, analytical priority setting process. These include: The paper describes a priority setting method, including the key criteria that are used to assess 'evaluation opportunities', and presents different analyses of an evaluation portfolio. Examples from a practical application of the approach to the preparation of an evaluation work plan in a multilateral environmental agency are given.

  7. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  8. Psychological Evaluation and Prescription Development Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.

    Developed to aid children with learning difficulties, from mental retardation or brain injury to maladjustment or physical or environmental handicaps, the joint school services program provides psychological evaluation and prescription development. The handbook reviews theories of child development and surveys behavior modification and…

  9. Calcium Isotope Systematics During Development of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    Calcium isotope distributions have been recognized as showing systematic and predictable fractionation in nature. However, most of the observed calcium isotope fractionation to date is due to biological processes. The presence of abundant amounts of calcium in mineralized tissues makes the isotopic system of calcium particularly valuable in biological and paleobiological questions involving biomineralization. In order to apply calcium isotope systematics to paleobiological questions the changes in the calcium isotope signatures of mineralized tissue in modern animals should be studied. My study observed the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) through embryologic ontogeny. This was accomplished by obtaining fertilized eggs staged in a growth series from day 12 to day 20. The eggs were dissected and shell, embryonic bone, albumen, and yolk were analyzed in order to characterize the calcium isotopic composition of the individual components over the course of the growth series. Several systematic changes in the isotopic signatures of various tissues were observed during the course of the development of the embryos. In general, mineralization in biological systems preferentially partitions the lighter isotopes of calcium into hard parts. As a result of this fractionation during mineralization, partitioning of light isotopes of calcium into the mineralized tissues may result in residual tissues being enriched in the heavier isotopes as ontogeny progresses. Better understanding of the behavior of calcium in modern biological systems will improve its application to fossils and expand the number of paleobiological and evolutionary questions that can be addressed using calcium isotopic data.

  10. [Priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Hainan Island: evaluation and systematic conservation planning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Xiao, Yi; Wu, Wei-hua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2011-08-01

    A total of 140 endangered species in Hainan Island were selected as indicator species, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by using mechanism habitat model. Based on the iterative operation with systematic conservation planning tool MARXAN, the priority areas of these species were identified and evaluated. The priority areas had an area of 5383.7 km2, accounting for 15.6% of the total land area of the Island, and mainly distributed in some forest regions (Yinggeling, Jianfengling and Wuzhishan) and in northern part water source regions. In the priority areas, the conservation proportion of 11 1st grade indicator species habitats occupied at least 65% of all the habitats. Through the gap analysis of priority areas and current nature reserves, it was suggested that an expansion of Jianfengling, Yinggeling-Limushan, and Wuzhishan-Diaoluoshan nature reserves and the establishment of Baolonglinchang-Linbiling-Fuwanling protection system should be made, and the protection areas for water source conservation and endangered species should be established in the northern part of the Island.

  11. A systematic evaluation of protocols for a proteomics analysis of (lyophilized) fruit tissues.

    PubMed

    Amoako-Andoh, Francis O; Daniëls, Bruno; Keulemans, Wannes; Davey, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    This study represents a systematic evaluation of protocols for protein extraction and cleanup for fruit proteomic analysis. Procedures were optimized using pooled lyophilized banana fruit pulp, which is known to be particularly tricky due to high concentrations of soluble polysaccharides, phenolics, and other substances that interfere with protein extraction and purification. A total of 18 combinations of three protein extraction procedures (SDS-based, Triton X-100-based, and phenol-based), three protein precipitating agents (ammonium acetate/methanol, TCA/acetone, and acetone), and two resolubilization buffers (classical Rabilloud and the so-called R2D2) were compared for total protein yields and efficiency of recovery. The results demonstrate that while losses in total recovered protein are unavoidable, the degree of these losses depends on the method combinations used. Combinations based on buffer-saturated phenol always gave the highest yields, and overall recovery and purity was highest when acetone was combined with the R2D2 buffer for protein purification and concentration. Comparative 2D-PAGE analysis confirmed that this method combination produced high-quality and reproducible gels and the largest numbers of spots per gel. The usefulness of this methodology was demonstrated on ripe fruits from several other species and shown to give excellent results. PMID:24921068

  12. Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10(-18) total uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T L; Campbell, S L; Hutson, R B; Marti, G E; Bloom, B J; McNally, R L; Zhang, W; Barrett, M D; Safronova, M S; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Ye, J

    2015-04-21

    The pursuit of better atomic clocks has advanced many research areas, providing better quantum state control, new insights in quantum science, tighter limits on fundamental constant variation and improved tests of relativity. The record for the best stability and accuracy is currently held by optical lattice clocks. Here we take an important step towards realizing the full potential of a many-particle clock with a state-of-the-art stable laser. Our (87)Sr optical lattice clock now achieves fractional stability of 2.2 × 10(-16) at 1 s. With this improved stability, we perform a new accuracy evaluation of our clock, reducing many systematic uncertainties that limited our previous measurements, such as those in the lattice ac Stark shift, the atoms' thermal environment and the atomic response to room-temperature blackbody radiation. Our combined measurements have reduced the total uncertainty of the JILA Sr clock to 2.1 × 10(-18) in fractional frequency units.

  13. Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10(-18) total uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T L; Campbell, S L; Hutson, R B; Marti, G E; Bloom, B J; McNally, R L; Zhang, W; Barrett, M D; Safronova, M S; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Ye, J

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of better atomic clocks has advanced many research areas, providing better quantum state control, new insights in quantum science, tighter limits on fundamental constant variation and improved tests of relativity. The record for the best stability and accuracy is currently held by optical lattice clocks. Here we take an important step towards realizing the full potential of a many-particle clock with a state-of-the-art stable laser. Our (87)Sr optical lattice clock now achieves fractional stability of 2.2 × 10(-16) at 1 s. With this improved stability, we perform a new accuracy evaluation of our clock, reducing many systematic uncertainties that limited our previous measurements, such as those in the lattice ac Stark shift, the atoms' thermal environment and the atomic response to room-temperature blackbody radiation. Our combined measurements have reduced the total uncertainty of the JILA Sr clock to 2.1 × 10(-18) in fractional frequency units. PMID:25898253

  14. A systematic evaluation of hybridization-based mouse exome capture system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exome sequencing is increasingly used to search for phenotypically-relevant sequence variants in the mouse genome. All of the current hybridization-based mouse exome capture systems are designed based on the genome reference sequences of the C57BL/6 J strain. Given that the substantial sequence divergence exists between C57BL/6 J and other distantly-related strains, the impact of sequence divergence on the efficiency of such capture systems needs to be systematically evaluated before they can be widely applied to the study of those strains. Results Using the Agilent SureSelect mouse exome capture system, we performed exome sequencing on F1 generation hybrid mice that were derived by crossing two divergent strains, C57BL/6 J and SPRET/EiJ. Our results showed that the C57BL/6 J-based probes captured the sequences derived from C57BL/6 J alleles more efficiently and that the bias was higher for the target regions with greater sequence divergence. At low sequencing depths, the bias also affected the efficiency of variant detection. However, the effects became negligible when sufficient sequencing depth was achieved. Conclusion Sufficient sequence depth needs to be planned to match the sequence divergence between C57BL/6 J and the strain to be studied, when the C57BL/6 J–based Agilent SureSelect exome capture system is to be used. PMID:23870319

  15. Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, T.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Hutson, R.B.; Marti, G.E.; Bloom, B.J.; McNally, R.L.; Zhang, W.; Barrett, M.D.; Safronova, M.S.; Strouse, G.F.; Tew, W.L.; Ye, J.

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of better atomic clocks has advanced many research areas, providing better quantum state control, new insights in quantum science, tighter limits on fundamental constant variation and improved tests of relativity. The record for the best stability and accuracy is currently held by optical lattice clocks. Here we take an important step towards realizing the full potential of a many-particle clock with a state-of-the-art stable laser. Our 87Sr optical lattice clock now achieves fractional stability of 2.2 × 10−16 at 1 s. With this improved stability, we perform a new accuracy evaluation of our clock, reducing many systematic uncertainties that limited our previous measurements, such as those in the lattice ac Stark shift, the atoms' thermal environment and the atomic response to room-temperature blackbody radiation. Our combined measurements have reduced the total uncertainty of the JILA Sr clock to 2.1 × 10−18 in fractional frequency units. PMID:25898253

  16. CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT: A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Amy; Anderson, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions are implemented similarly across students and thus serve as an efficient and cost-effective method of behavior support in school settings. Check-in/check-out is a Tier 2 intervention with documented effectiveness (e.g., Hawken & Horner, 2003; Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner, 2008). Key features of the intervention include brief morning and afternoon meetings with the intervention coordinator, use of a point card on which the teacher monitors student behavior, and teacher feedback at predetermined times. The present study sought to add to the literature by examining the relative contributions of the teacher-feedback components of check-in/check-out via the use of a component analysis. Working with 4 children in a general education setting, we first evaluated the effectiveness of the procedure using reversal designs. Next, we systematically removed teacher-feedback components to assess effects on problem behavior and academic engagement. For 3 of 4 participants, we were able to remove all teacher-feedback sessions and the point card; for the 4th participant, we removed only 2 of 3 teacher-feedback sessions due to time constraints. PMID:21709787

  17. Check-in/check-out: a systematic evaluation and component analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amy; Anderson, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions are implemented similarly across students and thus serve as an efficient and cost-effective method of behavior support in school settings. Check-in/check-out is a Tier 2 intervention with documented effectiveness (e.g., Hawken & Horner, 2003; Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner, 2008). Key features of the intervention include brief morning and afternoon meetings with the intervention coordinator, use of a point card on which the teacher monitors student behavior, and teacher feedback at predetermined times. The present study sought to add to the literature by examining the relative contributions of the teacher-feedback components of check-in/check-out via the use of a component analysis. Working with 4 children in a general education setting, we first evaluated the effectiveness of the procedure using reversal designs. Next, we systematically removed teacher-feedback components to assess effects on problem behavior and academic engagement. For 3 of 4 participants, we were able to remove all teacher-feedback sessions and the point card; for the 4th participant, we removed only 2 of 3 teacher-feedback sessions due to time constraints.

  18. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  19. The Handbook of Leadership Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum, Kelly M., Ed.; Martineau, Jennifer W., Ed.; Reinelt, Claire, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase in the number of organizational leadership development programs, there is a pressing need for evaluation to answer important questions, improve practice, and inform decisions. The Handbook is a comprehensive resource filled with examples, tools, and the most innovative models and approaches designed to evaluate leadership…

  20. A Systematic Approach to Evaluating Career Education Materials at the Local Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Washington, DC.

    The document contains an assessment instrument, developed by three teams of educators, designed to assist career education practitioners in identifying, classifying, and evaluating career education instructional materials to determine the usefulness of a particular unit of material in a specific local situation. It also contains suggestions of…

  1. Spinel compounds as multivalent battery cathodes: A systematic evaluation based on ab initio calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Miao; Rong, Ziqin; Malik, Rahul; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Jain, Anubhav; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.

    2014-12-16

    In this study, batteries that shuttle multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions are promising candidates for achieving higher energy density than available with current Li-ion technology. Finding electrode materials that reversibly store and release these multivalent cations is considered a major challenge for enabling such multivalent battery technology. In this paper, we use recent advances in high-throughput first-principles calculations to systematically evaluate the performance of compounds with the spinel structure as multivalent intercalation cathode materials, spanning a matrix of five different intercalating ions and seven transition metal redox active cations. We estimate the insertion voltage, capacity, thermodynamic stabilitymore » of charged and discharged states, as well as the intercalating ion mobility and use these properties to evaluate promising directions. Our calculations indicate that the Mn2O4 spinel phase based on Mg and Ca are feasible cathode materials. In general, we find that multivalent cathodes exhibit lower voltages compared to Li cathodes; the voltages of Ca spinels are ~0.2 V higher than those of Mg compounds (versus their corresponding metals), and the voltages of Mg compounds are ~1.4 V higher than Zn compounds; consequently, Ca and Mg spinels exhibit the highest energy densities amongst all the multivalent cation species. The activation barrier for the Al³⁺ ion migration in the Mn₂O₄ spinel is very high (~1400 meV for Al3+ in the dilute limit); thus, the use of an Al based Mn spinel intercalation cathode is unlikely. Amongst the choice of transition metals, Mn-based spinel structures rank highest when balancing all the considered properties.« less

  2. A Systematic Review of Outcome Measurements and Quality of Studies Evaluating Fixed Tooth-Supported Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Devangkumar Rajnikant; O'Brien, Tim; Petrie, Aviva; Petridis, Haralampos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to review clinical studies of fixed tooth-supported prostheses, and to assess the quality of evidence with an emphasis on the assessment of the reporting of outcome measurements. Multiple hypotheses were generated to compare the effect of study type on different outcome modifiers and to compare the quality of publications before and after January 2005. Materials and Methods An electronic search was conducted using specific databases (MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE via Ovid, Cochrane Library) through July 2012. This was complemented by hand searching the past 10 years of issues of the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Prosthodontics, and the International Journal of Prosthodontics. All experimental and observational clinical studies evaluating survival, success, failure, and complications of tooth-supported extracoronal fixed partial dentures, crowns, and onlays were included. No restrictions on age or follow-up time were placed. Results The electronic search generated 14,869 papers, of which 206 papers were included for full-text review. Hand-searching added 23 papers. Inclusion criteria were met by 182 papers and were included for the review. The majority were retrospective studies. Only 8 (4.4%) were randomized controlled trials. The majority of the studies measured survival and failure, and few studies recorded data on success; however, more than 60% of the studies failed to define survival, success, and failure. Many studies did not use any standardized criteria for assessment of the quality of the restorations and, when standardized criteria were used, they were modified, thereby not allowing for comparisons with other studies. There was an increase of 21.8% in the number of studies evaluating outcome measurements of all-ceramic restorations in past 8 years. Conclusions Prosthodontic literature presents with a reduced percentage of RCTs compared to other disciplines in

  3. Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Evaluation of Research Capacity in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Molyneux, David H.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria carries the highest burden and diversity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa and is preparing to scale up its efforts to control/eliminate these diseases. To achieve this it will require a range of internal technical support and expertise for mapping, monitoring and evaluating, operational research and documenting its success. In order to begin to evaluate this potential in Nigeria, this study collated and analysed information for lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH), which are currently being targeted with preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings Information from 299 scientific articles published on the selected NTDs in 179 journals between January 2008 and September 2013 was extracted and systematically compiled into a geo-referenced database for analysis and mapping. The highest number of articles was from the southern geo-political zones of the country. The majority of articles focused on one specific disease, and schistosomiasis and STH were found to have the highest and most wide ranging research output. The main type of study was parasitological, and the least was biotechnological. Nigerian authors were mostly affiliated with universities, and there was a wide range of international co-authors from Africa and other regions, especially the USA and UK. The majority of articles were published in journals with no known impact factor. Conclusions/Significance The extensive database and series of maps on the research capacity within Nigeria produced in this study highlights the current potential that exists, and needs to be fully maximized for the control/elimination of NTDs in the country. This study provides an important model approach that can be applied to other low and middle income countries where NTDs are endemic, and NTD programmes require support from the expertise within their own country, as well as

  4. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  5. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  6. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  7. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  8. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies. Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory’ and 'highly desirable’ standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard

  9. Necessity of Systematic HIV Disclosure in HIV-infected Families: Committed Communities Development Trusts Approach and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pavitri; Patkar, Poonam; Beard, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Due to greater access to antiretroviral therapy, telling adolescents that they are HIV-infected and/or affected has become an integral and intricate part of the treatment protocol. Despite growing treatment resources from public and private sectors, there is a lack of systematic disclosure for children and adolescents affected and living with HIV/AIDS. Committed Communities Development Trust, a non-government organization working with children and adults infected with and/or affected by HIV, conducted a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study with 33 families in their home-based care program to evaluate their current disclosure protocol. The findings indicate that these experiences implementing and fine-tuning this protocol provide useful lessons for other Indian non-government organizations working with HIV-positive families. PMID:26061919

  10. Passive Smoking and the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-01-01

    Passive smoking may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children because of their partially developed physiological systems. The aim of the present systematic paper is to investigate whether passive smoking is associated with factors that influence the development of CVD in children. Data sources included Medline, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health (CINAHL) research database, Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), the 2006 Office of the Surgeon General's report, and the 2005 report from the California Environmental Protection Agency. We identified a total of 42 relevant articles (i.e., 30 reviews and 12 observational). Results revealed that passive smoking may be implicated in deteriorating cardiovascular status in children in terms of unfavorable high-density lipoprotein levels and deteriorated vascular function. PMID:20886056

  11. A systematic review of model-based economic evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for lower extremity artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anil; Joore, Manuela A; ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; ten Cate, Hugo; Severens, Johan L

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is a sign of wide spread atherosclerosis also affecting coronary, cerebral and renal arteries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Many economic evaluations have been published for LEAD due to its clinical, social and economic importance. The aim of this systematic review was to assess modelling methods used in published economic evaluations in the field of LEAD. Our review appraised and compared the general characteristics, model structure and methodological quality of published models. Electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until February 2013 via OVID interface. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Health Technology Assessment database hosted by National Institute for Health research and National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED) were also searched. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by using the Philips' checklist. Sixteen model-based economic evaluations were identified and included. Eleven models compared therapeutic health technologies; three models compared diagnostic tests and two models compared a combination of diagnostic and therapeutic options for LEAD. Results of this systematic review revealed an acceptable to low methodological quality of the included studies. Methodological diversity and insufficient information posed a challenge for valid comparison of the included studies. In conclusion, there is a need for transparent, methodologically comparable and scientifically credible model-based economic evaluations in the field of LEAD. Future modelling studies should include clinically and economically important cardiovascular outcomes to reflect the wider impact of LEAD on individual patients and on the society.

  12. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  13. Enterprise Professional Development--Evaluating Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gerald A.; Calway, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Whilst professional development (PD) is an activity required by many regulatory authorities, the value that enterprises obtain from PD is often unknown, particularly when it involves development of knowledge. This paper discusses measurement techniques and processes and provides a review of established evaluation techniques, highlighting…

  14. Developing and evaluating patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Diane; Reynolds, Audree

    2003-01-01

    Nurses should be involved in all aspects of patient education, including the development of print and web resources, but most nurses have not been educated in how to develop these resources. This article discusses the rationale for nurse involvement, describes guidelines for evaluating existing material for credibility and readability, and provides recommendations for rewriting material at an easier-to-read level.

  15. The Impact of Official Development Aid on Maternal and Reproductive Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emma Michelle; Hayman, Rachel; Crawford, Fay; Jeffery, Patricia; Smith, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate) and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning). Discussion This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid. PMID:23468860

  16. EVALUATING SYSTEMATIC DEPENDENCIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE INFLUENCE OF CENTRAL DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Brendan K.; Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, Francis X.

    2012-10-01

    We present a study exploring a systematic effect on the brightness of Type Ia supernovae using numerical models that assume the single-degenerate paradigm. Our investigation varied the central density of the progenitor white dwarf at flame ignition, and considered its impact on the explosion yield, particularly the production and distribution of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which powers the light curve. We performed a suite of two-dimensional simulations with randomized initial conditions, allowing us to characterize the statistical trends that we present. The simulations indicate that the production of Fe-group material is statistically independent of progenitor central density, but the mass of stable Fe-group isotopes is tightly correlated with central density, with a decrease in the production of {sup 56}Ni at higher central densities. These results imply that progenitors with higher central densities produce dimmer events. We provide details of the post-explosion distribution of {sup 56}Ni in the models, including the lack of a consistent centrally located deficit of {sup 56}Ni, which may be compared to observed remnants. By performing a self-consistent extrapolation of our model yields and considering the main-sequence lifetime of the progenitor star and the elapsed time between the formation of the white dwarf and the onset of accretion, we develop a brightness-age relation that improves our prediction of the expected trend for single degenerates and we compare this relation with observations.

  17. Evaluating the impact of immigration policies on health status among undocumented immigrants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D; Rhodes, Scott; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations.

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Immigration Policies on Health Status Among Undocumented Immigrants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D.; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations. PMID:24375382

  19. Developing Rapport with Children in Forensic Interviews: Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

    PubMed

    Saywitz, Karen J; Larson, Rakel P; Hobbs, Sue D; Wells, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of guidelines recommend that developing rapport with children is essential for successful forensic child interviewing; however, the question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to generate evidence-based guidelines for developing rapport with children in legal contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify experimental studies of the effects of rapport-building methods on the reliability of children's reports. Independent raters applied 12 exclusion criteria to the 2,761 potentially relevant articles located by electronic and hand searches of the literature. Experimental studies were few. Although studies to date are a beginning, the overall scientific base is weak regarding even basic issues such as how to best define rapport and the efficacy of common rapport-building techniques. This systematic review highlights what we know, what we do not know, and how much more we need to know to create evidence-based best practice. Recommendations for reshaping the research agenda are discussed.

  20. Measurement, Classification and Evaluation of Sleep Disturbance in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Alasdair L.; Kyle, Simon D.; Bhandari, Sahil; Chisholm, Anna; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Bundy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a long-term immune-mediated inflammatory disorder mainly, but not only, affecting skin, and is associated with significant medical and psychological morbidity. Evidence suggests that sleep is disrupted in psoriasis, however high quality empirical evidence is lacking. Given the importance of sleep for health, characterisation of sleep disruption in psoriasis is an important goal. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the sleep-psoriasis literature. Methods Searches were conducted in Pubmed, SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception to May 2016. Studies were compared against inclusion/exclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation. Given the heterogeneity of studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of the findings. Results Searches revealed 32 studies which met our predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Whilst 93.7% of studies reported sleep disruption in this population, ranging from 0.05% to 85.4%, many had important methodological shortcomings. Over half of all quantitative studies (54.8%; 17/31) relied on non-validated measures, contributing to heterogeneity in study findings. In those that employed valid measures, assessing sleep was often not the primary objective. We frequently found the absence of adequate sample size calculations and poor statistical reporting. Conclusion This review showed that in psoriasis, reported sleep rates of sleep disturbance varied substantially. Most studies lacked a hypothesis driven research question and/or failed to use validated measures of sleep. We were unable to draw firm conclusions about the precise prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance within the psoriasis population. We offer suggestions to help advance understanding of sleep disturbance in psoriasis. PMID:27327082

  1. Antibiotic Treatment of Infections Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Systematic Evaluation of the Available Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Panagiota; Poulikakos, Panagiotis; Rafailidis, Petros I.; Tansarli, Giannoula S.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the antibiotic treatment administered for infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Articles reporting the clinical outcomes of patients infected with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae according to the antibiotic treatment administered were eligible. Twenty nonrandomized studies comprising 692 patients who received definitive treatment were included. Almost all studies reported on Klebsiella spp. In 8 studies, the majority of infections were bacteremia, while pneumonia and urinary tract infections were the most common infections in 12 studies. In 10 studies, the majority of patients were critically ill. There are methodological issues, including clinical heterogeneity, that preclude the synthesis of the available evidence using statistical analyses, including meta-analysis. From the descriptive point of view, among patients who received combination treatment, mortality was up to 50% for the tigecycline-gentamicin combination, up to 64% for tigecycline-colistin, and up to 67% for carbapenem-colistin. Among the monotherapy-treated patients, mortality was up to 57% for colistin and up to 80% for tigecycline. Certain regimens were administered to a small number of patients in certain studies. Three studies reporting on 194 critically ill patients with bacteremia showed individually significantly lower mortality in the combination arm than in the monotherapy arm. In the other studies, no significant difference in mortality was recorded between the compared groups. Combination antibiotic treatment may be considered the optimal option for severely ill patients with severe infections. However, well-designed randomized studies of specific patient populations are needed to further clarify this issue. PMID:24080646

  2. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  3. Quality and Quantity of Published Studies Evaluating Lumbar Fusion during the Past 10 Years: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.; Sethi, Rajiv K.; Norvell, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) Has the proportion and number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an indicator of quality of evidence regarding lumbar fusion increased over the past 10 years? (2) Is there a difference in the proportion of RCTs among the four primary fusion diagnoses (degenerative disk disease, spondylolisthesis, deformity, and adjacent segment disease) over the past 10 years? (3) Is there a difference in the type and quality of clinical outcomes measures reported among RCTs over time? (4) Is there a difference in the type and quality of adverse events measures reported among RCTs over time? (5) Are there changes in fusion surgical approach and techniques over time by diagnosis over the past 10 years? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, to identify lumbar fusion RCTs. Fusion studies designed specifically to evaluate recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or other bone substitutes, revision surgery studies, nonrandomized comparison studies, case reports, case series, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results Forty-two RCTs between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, met the inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. There were 35 RCTs identified evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative disk disease, 4 RCTs evaluating patients diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 3 RCTs evaluating patients with a combination of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. No RCTs were identified evaluating patients with deformity or adjacent segment disease. Conclusions This structured review demonstrates that there has been an increase in the available clinical database of RCTs using patient-reported outcomes evaluating the benefit of lumbar spinal fusion for the diagnoses of degenerative disk disease and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Gaps remain in the

  4. Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

  5. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 41 studies were included in the review. Results. In response to acutely painful procedures, most infants had an increase in mean heart rate (HR) that varied in magnitude both across and within gestational and postnatal ages. Research in the area of HR variability has been inconsistent, limiting conclusions. Conclusions. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand the inherent variability of cardiovascular pain responses across and within gestational and postnatal ages and the causes for the variability. PMID:27445630

  6. Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Srivastava, Rani; Craig, Dianna; Tucker, Donna; Grinspun, Doris; Bajnok, Irmajean; Griffin, Pat; Long, Leslye; Porritt, Kylie; Han, Thuzar; Gi, Aye A

    2007-03-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence on the structures and processes that support development of effective culturally competent practices and a healthy work environment. Culturally competent practices are a congruent set of workforce behaviours, management practices and institutional policies within a practice setting resulting in an organisational environment that is inclusive of cultural and other forms of diversity. Inclusion criteria  This review included quantitative and qualitative evidence, with a particular emphasis on identifying systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. For quantitative evidence, other controlled, and descriptive designs were also included. For qualitative evidence, all methodologies were considered. Participants were staff, patients, and systems or policies that were involved or affected by concepts of cultural competence in the nursing workforce in a healthcare environment. Types of interventions included any strategy that had a cultural competence component, which influenced the work environment, and/or patient and nursing staff in the environment. The types of outcomes of interest to this review included nursing staff outcomes, patient outcomes, organisational outcomes and systems level outcomes. Search strategy  The search sought both published and unpublished literature written in the English language. A comprehensive three-step search strategy was used, first to identify appropriate key words, second to combine all optimal key words into a comprehensive search strategy for each database and finally to review the reference lists of all included reviews and research reports. The databases searched were CINAHL, Medline, Current Contents, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Econ lit, ABI/Inform, ERIC and PubMed. The search for unpublished literature used Dissertation Abstracts International. Methodological

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Drosophila CRISPR Tools Reveals Safe and Robust Alternatives to Autonomous Gene Drives in Basic Research.

    PubMed

    Port, Fillip; Muschalik, Nadine; Bullock, Simon L

    2015-07-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas) technology allows rapid, site-specific genome modification in a wide variety of organisms . Proof-of-principle studies in Drosophila melanogaster have used various CRISPR/Cas tools and experimental designs, leading to significant uncertainty in the community about how to put this technology into practice. Moreover, it is unclear what proportion of genomic target sites can be modified with high efficiency. Here, we address these issues by systematically evaluating available CRISPR/Cas reagents and methods in Drosophila. Our findings allow evidence-based choices of Cas9 sources and strategies for generating knock-in alleles. We perform gene editing at a large number of target sites using a highly active Cas9 line and a collection of transgenic gRNA strains. The vast majority of target sites can be mutated with remarkable efficiency using these tools. We contrast our method to recently developed autonomous gene drive technology for somatic and germline genome engineering and conclude that optimized CRISPR with independent transgenes is as efficient, more versatile, and does not represent a biosafety risk. PMID:25999583

  8. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation.

  9. Systematic Evaluation of Drosophila CRISPR Tools Reveals Safe and Robust Alternatives to Autonomous Gene Drives in Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Port, Fillip; Muschalik, Nadine; Bullock, Simon L.

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas) technology allows rapid, site-specific genome modification in a wide variety of organisms . Proof-of-principle studies in Drosophila melanogaster have used various CRISPR/Cas tools and experimental designs, leading to significant uncertainty in the community about how to put this technology into practice. Moreover, it is unclear what proportion of genomic target sites can be modified with high efficiency. Here, we address these issues by systematically evaluating available CRISPR/Cas reagents and methods in Drosophila. Our findings allow evidence-based choices of Cas9 sources and strategies for generating knock-in alleles. We perform gene editing at a large number of target sites using a highly active Cas9 line and a collection of transgenic gRNA strains. The vast majority of target sites can be mutated with remarkable efficiency using these tools. We contrast our method to recently developed autonomous gene drive technology for somatic and germline genome engineering and conclude that optimized CRISPR with independent transgenes is as efficient, more versatile, and does not represent a biosafety risk. PMID:25999583

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Drosophila CRISPR Tools Reveals Safe and Robust Alternatives to Autonomous Gene Drives in Basic Research.

    PubMed

    Port, Fillip; Muschalik, Nadine; Bullock, Simon L

    2015-05-20

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas) technology allows rapid, site-specific genome modification in a wide variety of organisms . Proof-of-principle studies in Drosophila melanogaster have used various CRISPR/Cas tools and experimental designs, leading to significant uncertainty in the community about how to put this technology into practice. Moreover, it is unclear what proportion of genomic target sites can be modified with high efficiency. Here, we address these issues by systematically evaluating available CRISPR/Cas reagents and methods in Drosophila. Our findings allow evidence-based choices of Cas9 sources and strategies for generating knock-in alleles. We perform gene editing at a large number of target sites using a highly active Cas9 line and a collection of transgenic gRNA strains. The vast majority of target sites can be mutated with remarkable efficiency using these tools. We contrast our method to recently developed autonomous gene drive technology for somatic and germline genome engineering and conclude that optimized CRISPR with independent transgenes is as efficient, more versatile, and does not represent a biosafety risk.

  11. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. PMID:25576362

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Doctoral-Level Public Health Pedagogy Course for Graduate Student Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Kearns, Katherine D.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and systematic evaluation of a public health pedagogy course for first-time graduate student instructors in a Health Behavior doctoral program at a Midwestern School of Public Health. The pedagogy course focused on intensive pedagogical training in the first 8 weeks of a 16-week semester and…

  13. Building Better Communities for Children: Community Implementation and Evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayers, Mary; Coutts, Melissa; Goldfeld, Sharon; Oberklaid, Frank; Brinkman, Sally; Silburn, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Since 2004 the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) has been completed in 54 Australian communities over seven states and territories on more than 30,000 children. A concurrent systematic evaluation of community implementation and use of the AEDI was undertaken that included both a process and impact component. The purpose of this paper is to…

  14. A systematic review of economic evaluation studies of tuberculosis control in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Verdier, J E; de Vlas, S J; Baltussen, R; Richardus, J H

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death in developing countries and an important health threat in the industrialised world. Ideally, interventions in TB control are effective, acceptable and economically attractive. This review summarises all economic evaluation studies of TB control in high-income countries over the last 20 years. We provide indications on the relative economic attractiveness of TB interventions based on the reported conclusions. A total of 118 studies using different economic evaluation methodologies on a wide range of TB interventions are included. Most studies (70%) were from North America, and about half (47%) concerned interventions among the general population. Even though the large majority of studies (85%) aimed at preventing active TB disease, 44% of these ignored the prevention of secondary infections, thereby under- estimating the benefits of the intervention. Choosing a health care instead of a societal perspective (92% vs. 8%) further underestimated the benefits. Moreover, 74 studies (62%) disregarded discounting, and for 9 of them this led to overestimated future costs. In all, 66% of the studies reported conclusions favouring the evaluated intervention, which is modest given that a publishing bias towards favourable results is to be expected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that many studies in this review have put the evaluated TB intervention at a disadvantage by the choice of methodology, i. e., underestimating benefits and overestimating costs. This may have led to an overly conservative approach to the introduction of new interventions in TB control.

  15. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Results Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. Conclusions We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents. PMID:21955914

  16. Online communities of practice and their role in educational development: a systematic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Swift, Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Practice teachers and academics have a role in developing knowledge and promoting evidence-based practice with their students in a supportive and creative learning environment. Recent advances in technology are enabling communities of practice' (CoPs) to be developed online and may present a valuable opportunity to form greater connections between educators. To explore this idea, the author conducted a systematic appraisal of published evidence relating to the impact of using an online CoP (OCoP) to develop knowledge among healthcare educators. Three academic databases were targeted for articles and the search retrieved nine articles that were analysed for quality. The findings identified that an OCoP offers a 'polycontextual' environment that can enhance knowledge development, strengthen social ties and build social capital. Communities that support tacit knowledge development, information sharing and problem solving are most valued and existing information and communication technology (ICT) tools can be used to promote usability and accessibility. Recognising the value of tacit knowledge and using ICT for educational development within workload hours will require a shift in cultural thinking at both an individual and organisational level. PMID:24791455

  17. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship

  18. Systematic, theoretically-grounded development and feasibility testing of an innovative, preventive web-based game for children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; March, Sonja; Kenardy, Justin; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children are affected by acute medical events annually, creating need for resources to promote recovery. While web-based interventions promise wide reach and low cost for users, development can be time- and cost-intensive. A systematic approach to intervention development can help to minimize costs and increase likelihood of effectiveness. Using a systematic approach, our team integrated evidence on the etiology of traumatic stress, an explicit program theory, and a user-centered design process to intervention development. Objective To describe evidence and the program theory model applied to the Coping Coach intervention and present pilot data evaluating intervention feasibility and acceptability. Method Informed by empirical evidence on traumatic stress prevention, an overarching program theory model was articulated to delineate pathways from a) specific intervention content to b) program targets and proximal outcomes to c) key longer-term health outcomes. Systematic user-testing with children ages 8–12 (N = 42) exposed to an acute medical event and their parents was conducted throughout intervention development. Results Functionality challenges in early prototypes necessitated revisions. Child engagement was positive throughout revisions to the Coping Coach intervention. Final pilot-testing demonstrated promising feasibility and high user-engagement and satisfaction. Conclusion Applying a systematic approach to the development of Coping Coach led to the creation of a functional intervention that is accepted by children and parents. Development of new e-health interventions may benefit from a similar approach. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of Coping Coach in achieving targeted outcomes of reduced trauma symptoms and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:25844276

  19. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-06-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES. Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prospective studies supported etiological roles for relationship stress, perceived stress, and distress, while the studies on work-related stress (WS) showed conflicting results; ii) dyslipidemi: too few studies on psychosocial stress as a risk factor for dyslipidemia were available to draw a conclusion; however, a trend toward a positive association was present; iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): prospective studies supported perceived stress and distress as risk factors for the development of DM2 among men, but not among women, while WS was generally not supported as a risk factor among neither men nor women; iv) hypertension: marital stress and perceived stress might have an influence on blood pressure (BP), while no association was found regarding distress. Evaluating WS the results were equivocal and indicated that different types of WS affected the BP differently between men and women. In conclusion, a longitudinal association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES seems present. However, the number of studies with sufficient quality is limited and the design of the studies is substantially heterogeneous.

  20. Evaluation of patient involvement in a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data in cervical cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2005, researchers based at the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, set out to involve women affected by cervical cancer in a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data to evaluate treatments for this disease. Each of the women had previously been treated for cervical cancer. Following completion of the meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the process of involvement from the researcher and research partner perspective. Methods An advisory group was first established to give advice on recruiting, supporting and involving women and led to efforts to recruit women to take part in the systematic review using different approaches. Evaluation of the process and outcomes of the partnership between the systematic reviewers and the patients, in respect to what the partnership achieved; what worked well and what were the difficulties; what was learned and the resource requirements, took place during the conduct of the meta-analysis and again after completion of the project. Results Six women, each of whom had received treatments for cervical cancer, were recruited as Patient Research Partners and five of these women subsequently took part in a variety of activities around the systematic review. They attended progress meetings and all but one attended a meeting at which the first results of the review were presented to all collaborators and gave feedback. Three of the women also became involved in a further related research project which led to an editorial publication from the patient perspective and also participated, along with two lead researchers, in the evaluation of the process and outcomes. While they were generally positive about the experience, one Patient Research Partner questioned the extent of the impact patients could make to the systematic review process. Conclusions In general, researchers and patient research partners felt that they had learned a lot from the process and considered it to have been a positive

  1. Development of a Web-based repository for sharing biomedical terminology from systematic review searches: a case study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Ladue, John

    2014-01-01

    Requests for comprehensive searches, such as searches to support systematic reviews, seem to be evolving into routine practice in the health sciences library environment. Collecting terminology for these searches is often a time-consuming process. This case study reports on the development of a searchable Web-based repository, MedTerm Search Assist, as a means for librarians to share biomedical terminology from systematic review searches. PMID:24735266

  2. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  3. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training. PMID:22361800

  4. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training.

  5. Development of ocular hypertension secondary to tamponade with light versus heavy silicone oil: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Cruciani, Mario; Semeraro, Francesco; Costagliola, Ciro; Romano, Mario R

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The intraocular silicone oil (SO) tamponades used in the treatment of retinal detachment (RD) have been associated with a difference ocular hypertension (OH) rate. To clarify, if this complication was associated to use of standard SO (SSO) versus heavy SO (HSO), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative study between two kind of SO (standard or light vs. heavy) for the treatment of RD and macular hole, without restriction to study design. Materials and Methods: The methodological quality of two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were evaluated using the criteria given in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention, while three non-RCTs were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The primary outcome was the rate of patients with OH treated with SSO compared to HSO. Results: There were a higher number of rates of OH in HSO compared to SSO. This difference was statistically significant with the fixed effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06–2.28; P = 0.02) while there was not significative difference with the random effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.51; 95% CI, 0.98–2.33; P = 0.06). Conclusion: We noted a trend that points out a higher OH rate in HSO group compared to SSO, but this finding, due to the small size and variable design of studies, needs to be confirmed in well-designed and large size RCTs. PMID:25971167

  6. Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

    The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture.

  7. Faculty Development for Educators: A Realist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorinola, Olanrewaju O.; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Davies, David; Peile, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities for educators in UK medical schools remains underexplored. This study used a realist approach to evaluate FD and to test the hypothesis that motivation, engagement and perception are key mechanisms of effective FD activities. The authors observed and interviewed 33 course participants at one…

  8. Developing and Evaluating Patient Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsivais, Diane; Reynolds, Audree

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for nurse involvement in the development of patient education materials. Presents guidelines for evaluating existing material, including print and web resources, for credibility and readability. Makes recommendations for rewriting material at an easier-to-read level. (SK)

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

  10. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line. PMID:26654767

  11. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs. PMID:26464014

  12. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs.

  13. Longitudinal Evaluation of Segmental Arterial Mediolysis in Splanchnic Arteries: Case Series and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Min, Sang-il; Han, Ahram; Choi, Chanjoong; Min, Seung-Kee; Ha, Jongwon

    2016-01-01

    Background Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disorder varying widely in clinical course. The purpose of this study is to analyze detailing clinical and imaging manifestations over time in patients with SAM through a literature review and to suggest an optimal management strategy. Methods A retrospective review of eight consecutive patients diagnosed with SAM between January, 2000 and January, 2012 was conducted. All presented with acute-onset abdominal or flank pain. Clinical features, imaging studies, and laboratory findings served as grounds for diagnosis, having excluded more common conditions (ie, fibromuscular dysplasia, collagen vascular disorders, or arteritis). CT angiography was done initially and repeated periodically (Week 1, Month 3, then yearly). Treatment was conservative, utilizing endovascular intervention as warranted by CT diagnostics. In a related systematic review, all English literature from 1976 to 2015 was screened via the PubMed database, assessing patient demographics, affected arteries, clinical presentations, and treatment methods. Findings Ultimately, 25 arterial lesions identified in eight patients (median age, 62.8 years; range, 40–84 years) were monitored for a median period of 26 months (range, 15–57 months). At baseline, celiac axis (3/8, 37.5%), superior mesenteric (4/8, 50%), and common hepatic (2/8, 25%) arteries were involved, in addition to isolated lesions of right renal, splenic, right colic, middle colic, gastroduodenal, left gastric, right gastroepiploic, proper hepatic, right hepatic, and left hepatic arteries. Compared with prior publications, celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery were more commonly affected in cohort. Arterial dissections (n = 8), aneurysms (n = 5), stenoses or occlusions (n = 4), and a single pseudoaneurysm were documented. Despite careful conservative management, new splanchnic arterial lesions (n = 4) arose during follow

  14. Income and child mortality in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, Bernadette; Makuta, Innocent; Chiwaula, Levison; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to quantify the relationship between national income and infant and under-five mortality in developing countries. Design We conducted a systematic literature search of studies that examined the relationship between income and child mortality (infant and/or under-five mortality) and meta-analysed their results. Setting Developing countries. Main outcome measures Child mortality (infant and /or under-five mortality). Results The systematic literature search identified 24 studies, which produced 38 estimates that examined the impact of income on the mortality rates. Using meta-analysis, we produced pooled estimates of the relationship between income and mortality. The pooled estimate of the relationship between income and infant mortality before adjusting for covariates is −0.95 (95% CI −1.34 to −0.57) and that for under-five mortality is −0.45 (95% CI −0.79 to −0.11). After adjusting for covariates, pooled estimate of the relationship between income and infant mortality is −0.33 (−0.39 to −0.26) while the estimate for under-five mortality is −0.28 (−0.37 to −0.19). If a country has an infant mortality of 50 per 1000 live births and the gross domestic product per capita purchasing power parity increases by 10%, the infant mortality will decrease to 45 per 1000 live births. Conclusion Income is an important determinant of child survival and this work provides a pooled estimate for the relationship. PMID:23824332

  15. A Systematic Review of the Level of Evidence in Economic Evaluations of Medical Devices: The Example of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, Hélène; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Context Economic evaluations are far less frequently reported for medical devices than for drugs. In addition, little is known about the quality of existing economic evaluations, particularly for innovative devices, such as those used in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Objective To assess the level of evidence provided by the available economic evaluations for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Data Sources A systematic review of articles in English or French listed in the MEDLINE, PASCAL, COCHRANE and National Health Service Economic Evaluation databases, with limits on publication date (up to the date of the review, March 2014). Study Selection We included only economic evaluations of vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Editorial and methodological articles were excluded. Data Extraction Data were extracted from articles by two authors working independently and using two analysis grids to measure the quality of economic evaluations. Data Synthesis Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. All were published between 2008 and 2014. Eighteen (86%) were full economic evaluations. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was the most frequent type of economic evaluation, and was present in 11 (52%) studies. Only three CEAs complied fully with the British Medical Journal checklist. The quality of the data sources used in the 21 studies was high, but the CEAs conforming to methodological guidelines did not use high-quality data sources for all components of the analysis. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the level of evidence in economic evaluations of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty is low, despite the recent publication of a large number of studies. This finding highlights the challenges to be faced to improve the quality of economic evaluations of medical devices. PMID:26661078

  16. Taking stock of four decades of quantitative research on stakeholder participation and evaluation use: a systematic map.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc

    2014-08-01

    Stakeholder participation and evaluation use have attracted a lot of attention from practitioners, theorists and researchers. A common hypothesis is that participation is positively associated with evaluation use. Whereas the number of empirical studies conducted on this topic is impressive, quantitative research has held a minority position within this scientific production. This study mobilizes systematic review methods to 'map' the empirical literature that has quantitatively studied participation and use. The goal is to take stock and assess the strength of evidence of this literature (but not to synthesize the findings) and, based on this assessment, to provide directions for future research.

  17. Development and evaluation of polybenzoxazole fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    1995-01-01

    Woven and braided polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures have been developed for aerospace applications. The properties of PBO fibers are compared to those of other high performance fibers. PBO is unique for combining excellent flammability properties with the highest tensile strength and modulus of all synthetic organic fibers. The PBO structures are specifically developed to be compared to similar Kevlar structures. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and oxidative properties of the PBO woven and braided structures are determined. The resistance to various chemicals and to UV light is evaluated. Recommendations for specific aerospace applications are given with comments for further development and industrial applications.

  18. Environmental evaluation of subdivision site developments.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Martin M; Wigston, David L; Perlman, Ellis B

    2002-06-01

    An environmental evaluation was performed at 16 subdivision sites within four communities in east-central Michigan. The primary objective was to evaluate the fit between environmental ordinances and the physical/environmental conditions to which they were applied. An environmental response index was developed with indicators to assess water, soil, slope, development density, roads, vegetation, and ecology. Water-related indicators achieved the highest scores, while soil-related indicators scored the poorest, with generally poor performance across all indicators. The poor performance indicates there are problems in the ability of environmental ordinances developed at broader jurisdictional scales (e.g., the state) to address the existing environmental conditions at smaller geographic scales (subdivisions within communities). Two key problems include the lack of scientific specificity in the broader state-level ordinances and the lack of local expertise and/or resources to monitor the environment. PMID:11992172

  19. Measurement and evaluation of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kondyli, Julia

    2010-11-15

    This paper develops a methodology to analyse, measure and evaluate sustainable development (SD). A holistic approach (systems analysis) is applied to operationalise the SD concept and an integrated approach (composite indicator construction) is adopted for the measurement of SD. The operationalisation of the SD concept is based on an in-depth systems analysis of issues associated with economic, social and environmental problems in a policy context. The composite indicator (overall sustainability index) is developed based on the three composite sub-indicators of the SD dimensions. The valuation of the SD is based both on the aggregated sub-indicators and the overall composite indicator. The methodology is used to evaluate the SD of the North Aegean islands between different temporal points. The assessment of the change in the islands' SD is based on a quartile grading scale of the overall SD composite scores.

  20. Environmental evaluation of subdivision site developments.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Martin M; Wigston, David L; Perlman, Ellis B

    2002-06-01

    An environmental evaluation was performed at 16 subdivision sites within four communities in east-central Michigan. The primary objective was to evaluate the fit between environmental ordinances and the physical/environmental conditions to which they were applied. An environmental response index was developed with indicators to assess water, soil, slope, development density, roads, vegetation, and ecology. Water-related indicators achieved the highest scores, while soil-related indicators scored the poorest, with generally poor performance across all indicators. The poor performance indicates there are problems in the ability of environmental ordinances developed at broader jurisdictional scales (e.g., the state) to address the existing environmental conditions at smaller geographic scales (subdivisions within communities). Two key problems include the lack of scientific specificity in the broader state-level ordinances and the lack of local expertise and/or resources to monitor the environment.

  1. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    PubMed

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.

  2. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    PubMed

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely. PMID:21839562

  3. Toward a Systematic Evaluation of Vowel Target Events across Speech Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The core objective of this study was to examine whether acoustic variability of vowel production in American English, across speaking tasks, is systematic. Ten male speakers who spoke a relatively homogeneous Wisconsin dialect produced eight monophthong vowels (in hVd and CVC contexts) in four speaking tasks, including clear-speech, citation form,…

  4. A Systematic Approach for Evaluation of Capture Zones at Pump and Treat Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a systematic approach for performing capture zone analysis associated with ground water pump and treat systems. A “capture zone” refers to the three-dimensional region that contributes the ground water extracted by one or more wells or drains. A capture ...

  5. Systematic drug safety evaluation based on public genomic expression (Connectivity Map) data: Myocardial and infectious adverse reactions as application cases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kejian; Weng, Zuquan; Sun, Liya; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; He, Lin

    2015-02-13

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is of great importance to both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Various techniques, such as quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and animal toxicology, are widely used to identify potential risks during the preclinical stage of drug development. Despite these efforts, drugs with safety liabilities can still pass through safety checkpoints and enter the market. This situation raises the concern that conventional chemical structure analysis and phenotypic screening are not sufficient to avoid all clinical adverse events. Genomic expression data following in vitro drug treatments characterize drug actions and thus have become widely used in drug repositioning. In the present study, we explored prediction of ADRs based on the drug-induced gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells in the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. The results showed that drugs inducing comparable ADRs generally lead to similar CMap expression profiles. Based on such ADR-gene expression association, we established prediction models for various ADRs, including severe myocardial and infectious events. Drugs with FDA boxed warnings of safety liability were effectively identified. We therefore suggest that drug-induced gene expression change, in combination with effective computational methods, may provide a new dimension of information to facilitate systematic drug safety evaluation. - Highlights: • Drugs causing common toxicity lead to similar in vitro gene expression changes. • We built a model to predict drug toxicity with drug-specific expression profiles. • Drugs with FDA black box warnings were effectively identified by our model. • In vitro assay can detect severe toxicity in the early stage of drug development.

  6. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  7. Antiretroviral Therapy and Pregnancy Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Ashu, Eta Ebasi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite significant efforts to understand adverse pregnancy outcome in women receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), ART-related adverse birth outcomes are still poorly understood. We systematically review ART-related adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women; we also review the covariates associated with adverse birth outcomes in the aforementioned group. Methods: The main source for our systematic review was electronic bibliographic databases. Databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and AIDSLINE were searched. Furthermore, search engines such as Google and Google Scholar were specifically searched for gray literature. Methodological quality of available literature was assessed using the Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale & M. Hewitt guideline. We examined a total of 1,124 papers and reviewed the studies using the PICOT criteria which stands for Patient (population), Intervention (or “Exposure”), Comparison, Outcome and Type of study. Finally, 32 methodologically fit studies were retained and included in our review. Results: Frequently observed adverse birth outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), Preterm Birth (PB), Small for Gestational Age (SGA), while still birth and congenital anomalies were infrequent. Type of regimen such as Protease Inhibitor (PI) based regimens and timing of initiation of ART are some of the factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Covariates principally included malnutrition and other co-morbidities such as malaria and HIV. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: There is growing evidence in published literature suggesting that ART might be causing adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in developing countries. There is a need to consider regimen types for HIV-infected pregnant women. There is need to design large cohort studies.

  8. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  9. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring.

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes. PMID:27387287

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes.

  12. Systematic review of health state utility values for economic evaluation of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kim; Cairns, John

    2016-12-01

    Cost-utility analyses undertaken to inform decision making regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) require a set of health state utility values (HSUVs) so that the time CRC patients spend in different health states can be aggregated into quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). This study reviews CRC-related HSUVs that could be used in economic evaluation and assesses their advantages and disadvantages with respect to valuation methods used and CRC clinical pathways. Fifty-seven potentially relevant studies were identified which collectively report 321 CRC-related HSUVs. HSUVs (even for similar health states) vary markedly and this adds to the uncertainty regarding estimates of cost-effectiveness. There are relatively few methodologically robust HSUVs that can be directly used in economic evaluations concerned with CRC. There is considerable scope to develop new HSUVs which improve on those currently available either by expanded collection of generic measures or by making greater use of condition-specific data, for example, using mapping algorithms. PMID:27541298

  13. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  14. Infusing Diversity Constructs in Preservice Teacher Preparation: The Impact of a Systematic Faculty Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Susan P.; Catlett, Camille; Moore, Susan; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorp, Eva K.; Corso, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview and the results of the Crosswalks Intervention, which was developed, implemented, and evaluated to support inclusive early childhood preservice programs to be more reflective of, and responsive to, cultural and linguistic diversity. The Crosswalks Intervention, funded by the US Department of Education, was a…

  15. The systematic profiling of false identity documents: method validation and performance evaluation using seizures known to originate from common and different sources.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Terrasse, Vincent; Pujol, Jean-Philippe; Fritz, Thibaud; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2013-10-10

    False identity documents constitute a potential powerful source of forensic intelligence because they are essential elements of transnational crime and provide cover for organized crime. In previous work, a systematic profiling method using false documents' visual features has been built within a forensic intelligence model. In the current study, the comparison process and metrics lying at the heart of this profiling method are described and evaluated. This evaluation takes advantage of 347 false identity documents of four different types seized in two countries whose sources were known to be common or different (following police investigations and dismantling of counterfeit factories). Intra-source and inter-sources variations were evaluated through the computation of more than 7500 similarity scores. The profiling method could thus be validated and its performance assessed using two complementary approaches to measuring type I and type II error rates: a binary classification and the computation of likelihood ratios. Very low error rates were measured across the four document types, demonstrating the validity and robustness of the method to link documents to a common source or to differentiate them. These results pave the way for an operational implementation of a systematic profiling process integrated in a developed forensic intelligence model. PMID:24053879

  16. The systematic profiling of false identity documents: method validation and performance evaluation using seizures known to originate from common and different sources.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Terrasse, Vincent; Pujol, Jean-Philippe; Fritz, Thibaud; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2013-10-10

    False identity documents constitute a potential powerful source of forensic intelligence because they are essential elements of transnational crime and provide cover for organized crime. In previous work, a systematic profiling method using false documents' visual features has been built within a forensic intelligence model. In the current study, the comparison process and metrics lying at the heart of this profiling method are described and evaluated. This evaluation takes advantage of 347 false identity documents of four different types seized in two countries whose sources were known to be common or different (following police investigations and dismantling of counterfeit factories). Intra-source and inter-sources variations were evaluated through the computation of more than 7500 similarity scores. The profiling method could thus be validated and its performance assessed using two complementary approaches to measuring type I and type II error rates: a binary classification and the computation of likelihood ratios. Very low error rates were measured across the four document types, demonstrating the validity and robustness of the method to link documents to a common source or to differentiate them. These results pave the way for an operational implementation of a systematic profiling process integrated in a developed forensic intelligence model.

  17. A systematic review of calcium channel antagonists in bipolar disorder and some considerations for their future development

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, A; Saunders, K; Attenburrow, M-J; Stefaniak, J; Panchal, P; Stockton, S; Lane, T A; Tunbridge, E M; Geddes, J R; Harrison, P J

    2016-01-01

    l-type calcium channel (LTCC) antagonists have been used in bipolar disorder for over 30 years, without becoming an established therapeutic approach. Interest in this class of drugs has been rekindled by the discovery that LTCC genes are part of the genetic aetiology of bipolar disorder and related phenotypes. We have therefore conducted a systematic review of LTCC antagonists in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. We identified 23 eligible studies, with six randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trials, all of which investigated verapamil in acute mania, and finding no evidence that it is effective. Data for other LTCC antagonists (diltiazem, nimodipine, nifedipine, methyoxyverapamil and isradipine) and for other phases of the illness are limited to observational studies, and therefore no robust conclusions can be drawn. Given the increasingly strong evidence for calcium signalling dysfunction in bipolar disorder, the therapeutic candidacy of this class of drugs has become stronger, and hence we also discuss issues relevant to their future development and evaluation. In particular, we consider how genetic, molecular and pharmacological data can be used to improve the selectivity, efficacy and tolerability of LTCC antagonists. We suggest that a renewed focus on LTCCs as targets, and the development of ‘brain-selective' LTCC ligands, could be one fruitful approach to innovative pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and related phenotypes. PMID:27240535

  18. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  19. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved. PMID:27262567

  20. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  1. Systematic approach to development of pressure sensors using dielectric electro-active polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, A.; Dunn, J.; Seelecke, S.

    2013-09-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs) have become attractive materials for various actuation and sensing applications due to their high energy and power density, high efficiency, light weight, and fast response speed. However, commercial development has been hindered due to a variety of constraints such as reliability, non-linear behavior, cost of driving electronics, and form factor requirements. This paper presents the systematic development from laboratory concept to commercial readiness of a novel pressure sensing system using a DEAP membrane. The pressure sensing system was designed for in-line pressure measurements for low pressure applications such as health systems monitoring. A first generation sensor was designed, built and tested with a focus on the qualitative capabilities of EAP membranes as sensors. Experimental measurements were conducted that demonstrated the capability of the sensor to output a voltage signal proportional to a changing pressure. Several undesirable characteristics were observed during these initial tests such as strong hysteresis, non-linearity, very limited pressure range, and low fatigue life. A second generation prototype was then designed to remove or compensate for these undesirable characteristics. This prototype was then built and tested. The new design showed an almost complete removal of hysteretic non-linear effects and was capable of operating at 10 × the pressure range of the initial generation. This new design is the framework for a novel DEAP based pressure sensor ready for commercial applications.

  2. Systematic review, network meta-analysis and economic evaluation of biological therapy for the management of active psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An updated economic evaluation was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of the four tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab in active, progressive psoriatic arthritis (PsA) where response to standard treatment has been inadequate. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant, recently published studies and the new trial data were synthesised, via a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), to estimate the relative efficacy of the TNF-α inhibitors in terms of Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) response, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). A previously developed economic model was updated with the new meta-analysis results and current cost data. The model was adapted to delineate patients by PASI 50%, 75% and 90% response rates to differentiate between psoriasis outcomes. Results All four licensed TNF-α inhibitors were significantly more effective than placebo in achieving PsARC response in patients with active PsA. Adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab were significantly more effective than placebo in improving HAQ scores in patients who had achieved a PsARC response and in improving HAQ scores in PsARC non-responders. In an analysis using 1,000 model simulations, on average etanercept was the most cost-effective treatment and, at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence willingness-to-pay threshold of between £20,000 to £30,000, etanercept is the preferred option. Conclusions The economic analysis agrees with the conclusions from the previous models, in that biologics are shown to be cost-effective for treating patients with active PsA compared with the conventional management strategy. In particular, etanercept is cost-effective compared with the other biologic treatments. PMID:24444034

  3. Provider payment in community-based health insurance schemes in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Sauerborn, Rainer; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Community-based health insurance (CBI) is a common mechanism to generate financial resources for health care in developing countries. We review for the first time provider payment methods used in CBI in developing countries and their impact on CBI performance. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on provider payment methods used by CBI in developing countries published up to January 2010. Results Information on provider payment was available for a total of 32 CBI schemes in 34 reviewed publications: 17 schemes in South Asia, 10 in sub-Saharan Africa, 4 in East Asia and 1 in Latin America. Various types of provider payment were applied by the CBI schemes: 17 used fee-for-service, 12 used salaries, 9 applied a coverage ceiling, 7 used capitation and 6 applied a co-insurance. The evidence suggests that provider payment impacts CBI performance through provider participation and support for CBI, population enrolment and patient satisfaction with CBI, quantity and quality of services provided and provider and patient retention. Lack of provider participation in designing and choosing a CBI payment method can lead to reduced provider support for the scheme. Conclusion CBI schemes in developing countries have used a wide range of provider payment methods. The existing evidence suggests that payment methods are a key determinant of CBI performance and sustainability, but the strength of this evidence is limited since it is largely based on observational studies rather than on trials or on quasi-experimental research. According to the evidence, provider payment can affect provider participation, satisfaction and retention in CBI; the quantity and quality of services provided to CBI patients; patient demand of CBI services; and population enrollment, risk pooling and financial sustainability of CBI. CBI schemes should carefully consider how their current payment methods influence their performance, how changes in the methods could improve

  4. Developing a Novel, Sustainable and Beneficial System for the Systematic Management of Hospital Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Hinduja, Indira N.; Ahuja, Harish S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is the 2nd most populated country in the world. Population of India is increasing at a tremendous rate. Proportionately, the numbers of people seeking health care are increasing. In that ratio the quantities of hospital wastes, in wider terms, healthcare wastes that are getting generated is also increasing. Current methods for the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are not able to cope up with the rate of generation of healthcare wastes and moreover are not eco-friendly at all. Due to this, the current rules and regulations regarding the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are getting violated, ultimately leading to improper management of healthcare wastes, posing a serious threat to the environment and to the community. Aim To develop a novel, sustainable and beneficial system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes utilizing the strategies of waste reduction, waste segregation and recycling of Non Hazardous Hospital Wastes (NHHWs). Materials and Methods Firstly a detailed study of the Healthcare Waste Management System (HCWMS) operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was done. A pilot study was then performed. After that, data regarding the generation and management of healthcare wastes in the other healthcare settings was collected and analyzed. Considering all this, a novel, sustainable and beneficial template system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes was proposed. Lastly the possible positive impacts from the implementation of HCWMSs designed using proposed template HCWMS in significant numbers of healthcare establishments was gauged. Results The healthcare waste management system operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was found to be very efficient and provided vital inputs about developing the novel HCWMS. The pilot study was successfully completed generating significant revenue from the hospital’s own NHHWs while managing them in an eco-friendly way. The total healthcare waste

  5. Evaluation of exposure-response relationships for health effects of microbial bioaerosols - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Bünger, Jürgen; Eikmann, Thomas; Janssen, Barbara; Kolb, Stefanie; Kolk, Annette; Nowak, Dennis; Raulf, Monika; Sagunski, Helmut; Sedlmaier, Nadja; Suchenwirth, Roland; Wiesmüller, Gerhard; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Tesseraux, Irene; Herr, Caroline E W

    2015-10-01

    Studies suggest adverse health effects following exposure to bioaerosols in the environment and in particular at workplaces. However, there is still a lack of health-related exposure limits based on toxicological or epidemiological studies from environmental health or from the working environment. The aim of this study was to derive health-based exposure limits for bioaerosols that can protect the general population as group "at risk" via environmental exposure using analysis of peer-reviewed studies related to occupational medicine, indoor air and environmental health. The derivation of exposure limits should be conducted by the members of a bioaerosol expert panel according to established toxicological criteria. A systematic review was performed in Medline (PubMed) including studies containing both data on exposure measurements and observed health outcomes. In addition, literature recommended by the experts was considered. A comprehensive search strategy was generated and resulted in a total of n=1569 studies in combination with the literature recommendations. Subsequently, abstracts were screened using defined exclusion criteria yielding a final number of n=44 studies. A standardized extraction sheet was used to combine data on health effects and exposure to different bioaerosols. After full-text screening and extraction according to the defined exclusion criteria n=20 studies were selected all related to occupational exposures comprising the working areas wood processing, farming, waste processing and others. These studies were analyzed in collaboration with the bioaerosol expert network in terms of suitability for derivation of health-related exposure limits. The bioaerosol expert network concluded that none of the analyzed studies provided suitable dose-response relationships for derivation of exposure limits. The main reasons were: (1) lack of studies with valid dose-response data; (2) diversity of employed measuring methods for microorganisms and bioaerosol

  6. Evaluation of exposure-response relationships for health effects of microbial bioaerosols - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Bünger, Jürgen; Eikmann, Thomas; Janssen, Barbara; Kolb, Stefanie; Kolk, Annette; Nowak, Dennis; Raulf, Monika; Sagunski, Helmut; Sedlmaier, Nadja; Suchenwirth, Roland; Wiesmüller, Gerhard; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Tesseraux, Irene; Herr, Caroline E W

    2015-10-01

    Studies suggest adverse health effects following exposure to bioaerosols in the environment and in particular at workplaces. However, there is still a lack of health-related exposure limits based on toxicological or epidemiological studies from environmental health or from the working environment. The aim of this study was to derive health-based exposure limits for bioaerosols that can protect the general population as group "at risk" via environmental exposure using analysis of peer-reviewed studies related to occupational medicine, indoor air and environmental health. The derivation of exposure limits should be conducted by the members of a bioaerosol expert panel according to established toxicological criteria. A systematic review was performed in Medline (PubMed) including studies containing both data on exposure measurements and observed health outcomes. In addition, literature recommended by the experts was considered. A comprehensive search strategy was generated and resulted in a total of n=1569 studies in combination with the literature recommendations. Subsequently, abstracts were screened using defined exclusion criteria yielding a final number of n=44 studies. A standardized extraction sheet was used to combine data on health effects and exposure to different bioaerosols. After full-text screening and extraction according to the defined exclusion criteria n=20 studies were selected all related to occupational exposures comprising the working areas wood processing, farming, waste processing and others. These studies were analyzed in collaboration with the bioaerosol expert network in terms of suitability for derivation of health-related exposure limits. The bioaerosol expert network concluded that none of the analyzed studies provided suitable dose-response relationships for derivation of exposure limits. The main reasons were: (1) lack of studies with valid dose-response data; (2) diversity of employed measuring methods for microorganisms and bioaerosol

  7. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26927790

  8. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

  9. Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Economic Evaluation Publications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M

    2015-10-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting.

  10. Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Economic Evaluation Publications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M

    2015-10-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting. PMID:26082388

  11. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—convened meeting

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cheryl S.; Frey, Meghan T.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy. PMID:24881821

  12. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--convened meeting.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F; Chambers, Christina D; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy.

  13. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--convened meeting.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F; Chambers, Christina D; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy. PMID:24881821

  14. Passive microwave algorithm development and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific objectives of this grant are: (1) thoroughly evaluate, both theoretically and empirically, all available Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) retrieval algorithms for column water vapor, column liquid water, and surface wind speed; (2) where both appropriate and feasible, develop, validate, and document satellite passive microwave retrieval algorithms that offer significantly improved performance compared with currently available algorithms; and (3) refine and validate a novel physical inversion scheme for retrieving rain rate over the ocean. This report summarizes work accomplished or in progress during the first year of a three year grant. The emphasis during the first year has been on the validation and refinement of the rain rate algorithm published by Petty and on the analysis of independent data sets that can be used to help evaluate the performance of rain rate algorithms over remote areas of the ocean. Two articles in the area of global oceanic precipitation are attached.

  15. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: II. An Evaluation by Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an application of a model of user evaluation of four major Web search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, Infoseek, and Lycos) by undergraduates. Evaluation was based on 16 performance measures representing five evaluation criteria-relevance, efficiency, utility, user satisfaction, and connectivity. Content analysis of verbal data identified a…

  16. Restructuring school: Improving K--8 science teaching and learning in schools through systematic professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliezar, Diana Catalina

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness that a systematic, content specific professional development program has on K--8 teachers' attitudes, content preparedness, pedagogy preparedness, teacher efficacy, and their knowledge of standards and classroom practice. The Northeastern LSC program in this study is a project that uses inquiry-based, hands-on science kits that have been designed to help K--8 students comprehend science content and processes that are outlined by the various science standards such as the National Science Education Standards (NSES, 2001). Teachers were stratified according to the number of professional development hours they encountered and the types of science courses that they took in order to make comparisons between teachers with few hours of professional development and those with many hours of professional development. The study utilized archival teacher data that was collected using teacher questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations. The content of a secondary analysis of teacher surveys, teacher interviews and classroom observation was acquired from a study of 196 teachers in 1998--1999, 267 teachers in 1999--2000 and 243 teachers in 2002--2003 from seven school districts. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compute group differences in teachers' attitudes toward teaching, content preparedness, pedagogy preparedness, beliefs, rating on quality of professional development, traditional teaching practices, investigative culture, investigative practices, teachers' efficacy, and teachers' knowledge of national science standards. Qualitative analysis was also conducted using the teacher interview and classroom observation data. Quantitative findings suggested that there was no predictive relationship between the dependent variables of teachers' years in teaching, the number of hours focused on the Northeastern LSC professional development and the types of science courses taken during college and

  17. Infant feeding and risk of developing celiac disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silano, Marco; Agostoni, Carlo; Sanz, Yolanda; Guandalini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for the association of breast feeding, breastfeeding duration or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of celiac disease (CD). Design Systematic review. Methods We searched MEDLINE, via PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, for studies published up to 31 August 2015 investigating the association of breastfeeding duration, breast feeding at the moment of gluten introduction or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of CD. Prospective studies had to enrol infants/children at high risk of CD. For retrospective studies, participants had to be children or adults with CD. The paper quality was assessed by means of a GRADE score and the bias risk was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (for observational cohort studies) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool (for randomised trials). Results Out of 149 retrieved papers, 48 were considered in depth and 16 were included in this review (9 were prospective and 2 were interventional). We found that neither duration of breastfeeding nor breastfeeding at time of gluten introduction nor the delayed introduction of gluten during weaning were effective in preventing later development of CD. Conclusions Currently, there is no evidence on the optimal breastfeeding duration or the effects of avoiding early (<4 months of age) or late (≥6 or even at 12 months) gluten introduction in children at risk of CD. Accordingly, no specific general recommendations about gluten introduction or optimal breastfeeding duration can be presently provided on evidence-based criteria in order to prevent CD. PMID:26810996

  18. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Shattuck, Mischa; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Wyness, Laura; Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2008-01-01

    Background A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Methods Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. Results Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. Conclusion While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly. PMID:19055827

  19. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. PMID:25676921

  20. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water.

  1. Devices for In situ Development of Non-disturbed Oral Biofilm. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prada-López, Isabel; Quintas, Víctor; Vilaboa, Carlos; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to assess the types of devices used for in situ development of oral biofilm analyzed microbiologically. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all in situ studies of oral biofilm which used an oral device; the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases complemented with manual search were used. Specific devices used to microbiologically analyze oral biofilm in adults were included. After reading of the selected full texts, devices were identified and classified according to the oral cavity zone and manufacturing material. The “ideal” characteristics were analyzed in every group. Results: The search provided 787 abstracts, of which 111 papers were included. The devices used in these studies were classified as palatal, lingual or buccal. The last group was sub-classified in six groups based on the material of the device. Considering the analyzed characteristics, the thermoplastic devices and the Intraoral Device of Overlaid Disk-holding Splints (IDODS) presented more advantages than limitations. Conclusions: Buccal devices were the most commonly used for the study of in situ biofilm. The majority of buccal devices seemed to slightly affect the volunteer's comfort, the IDODS being the closest to the “ideal” model. Clinical Relevance: New devices for in situ oral biofilm microbiological studies should take into account the possible effect of their design on the volunteer's comfort and biofilm formation. PMID:27486437

  2. Development of a systematic studies apparatus at NC State for the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K.; Golub, R.; Haase, D.; Hawari, A.; Huffman, P.; Korobkina, E.; Reid, A.; Swank, C.; Young, A. R.; Alarcon, R.; Dipert, R.; Chu, P.-H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bartoszek, L.; Crawford, C.; Korsch, W.

    2013-10-01

    An apparatus is being developed for use at the UCN source at the 1 MW NCSU PULSTAR reactor. The goal is to study several critical aspects of the SNS neutron EDM experiment without the electric field. Detailed studies of the interactions between the 3He and UCNs, measurements of the correlation functions determining the geometric phase systematic effect, optimization of the parameters for critical dressing, and the pseudomagnetic field caused by neutron scattering from polarized 3He will be made. Because of the extremely long turn around times, these would be almost impossible with the SNS apparatus. In this setup, polarized UCNs and 3He will be repeatedly loaded into an acrylic cell coated with deuterated TPB and polystyrene on the inner walls. Scintillation light produced in the superfluid 4He also in the cell after spin-dependent capture of UCNs on 3He will be used to measure the Larmor precession frequency difference between the two species in an external magnetic field. An overview of the experiment will be presented.

  3. Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Krämer, H

    2010-06-01

    Skin cancer is caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indoor tanning is a totally avoidable risk behaviour. This review addresses the specific characteristics of sunbed users and the differences in motivation and risk perception compared with non-users. This review is based solely on empirical original articles. Based on literature searches with widely used reference databases ('PubMed', 'OVID', 'Social Citation Index', 'ERIC--Educational Resources Information Center', 'Web of Science' and the 'International Bibliography of the Social Sciences'), we included studies from developed nations with a publication date between 1 January 2000 and 12 August 2008. All studies were selected, classified and coded simultaneously by both authors on a blinded basis. All searches were performed on 13 and 14 August 2008. In accordance with the QUOROM and the MOOSE Statements, we identified 16 original studies. The typical sunbed user is female, between 17 and 30 years old, and tends to live a comparatively unhealthy lifestyle: Users smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol more frequently and eat less healthy food than non-users. Users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UVR, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family members and the experience of positive emotions and relaxation by indoor tanning. This review is the first systematic review on risk groups among sunbed users that has been published in a scientific journal. There is still a lack of information among users, particularly among young people regarding the safety of solariums. PMID:20015180

  4. Is it worth investing in mental health promotion and prevention of mental illness? A systematic review of the evidence from economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zechmeister, Ingrid; Kilian, Reinhold; McDaid, David

    2008-01-01

    Background While evidence on the cost of mental illness is growing, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of programmes in the areas of mental health promotion (MHP) and mental disorder prevention (MDP). The paper aims at identifying and assessing economic evaluations in both these areas to support evidence based prioritisation of resource allocation. Methods A systematic review of health and non health related bibliographic databases, complemented by a hand search of key journals and analysis of grey literature has been carried out. Study characteristics and results were qualitatively summarised. Economic evaluations of programmes that address mental health outcome parameters directly, those that address relevant risk factors of mental illness, as well as suicide prevention interventions were included, while evaluations of drug therapies were excluded. Results 14 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They varied in terms of topic addressed, intervention used and study quality. Robust evidence on cost-effectiveness is still limited to a very small number of interventions with restricted scope for generalisability and transferability. The most favourable results are related to early childhood development programmes. Conclusion Prioritisation between MHP and MDP interventions requires more country and population-specific economic evaluations. There is also scope to retrospectively add economic analyses to existing effectiveness studies. The nature of promotion and prevention suggests that innovative approaches to economic evaluation that augment this with information on the challenges of implementation and uptake of interventions need further development. PMID:18211677

  5. Systematic process development towards high performance transferred thin silicon solar cells based on epitaxially grown absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia Salazar, Clara Paola

    ). First principles modeling, however, predicts that efficiencies of 20+% are achievable with less than 20 mum of c-Si. In addition to a high voltage design, this work reports state of the art epitaxial c-Si solar cell performance and a path towards 20+%-efficient transferred epitaxial solar cells. The design and fabrication approach is based on high open circuit voltage first, high short circuit current second. A first design is a thin solar cell grown on a conductive silicon wafer. This structure allows developing processes to increase bulk lifetime and reduce surface recombination. Important processes that can be used for a transferred solar cell such as increased fill factor (FF) are developed at this stage. A second design is based on the use of a separation layer prior to the solar cell growth. We achieve a comparable performance with the second design. A third design includes the transfer of the solar cell to a secondary substrate. Initial processing development is reported for the transferred solar cells. Improvements in solar cell critical parameters have been characterized with a combination of predictive modeling and solar cell diagnostic tools such as quantum efficiency and voltage measurements. Fabrication processes have been developed to improve solar cell performance. The combination of process development, test structures, systematic fabrication, testing and analysis concludes with a path to high voltage, transferred thin c-Si solar cells towards 20+% efficiencies.

  6. Evaluating innovation. Part 2: Development in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Patients, practitioners, payers, and regulators are advocating for reform in how medical advances are evaluated. Because surgery does not adhere to a standardized developmental pathway, how the medical community accepts a procedure remains unclear. The authors developed a new model, using publication data and patterns, that quantifies this process. Using this technique, the authors identified common archetypes and influences on neurosurgical progress from idea inception to acceptance. METHODS Seven neurosurgical procedures developed in the past 15-25 years were used as developmental case studies (endovascular coil, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea wafer, and 3 radiosurgery procedures), and the literature on each topic was evaluated. A new metric the authors termed "progressive scholarly acceptance" (PSA) was used as an end point for community acceptance. PSA was reached when the number of investigations that refine or improve a procedure eclipsed the total number of reports assessing initial efficacy. Report characteristics, including the number of patients studied, study design, and number of authoring groups from the first report to the point of PSA, were assessed. RESULTS Publication data implicated factors that had an outsized influence on acceptance. First, procedural accessibility to investigators was found to influence the number of reports, number of patients studied, and number of authoring groups contributing. Barriers to accessibility included target disease rarity, regulatory restrictions, and cost. Second, the ease or difficulty in applying a randomized controlled trial had an impact on study design. Based on these 2 factors, 3 developmental archetypes were characterized to generally describe the development of surgery. CONCLUSIONS Common surgical development archetypes can be described based on factors that impact investigative methods, data accumulation, and ultimate acceptance by society

  7. Evaluating innovation. Part 2: Development in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Patients, practitioners, payers, and regulators are advocating for reform in how medical advances are evaluated. Because surgery does not adhere to a standardized developmental pathway, how the medical community accepts a procedure remains unclear. The authors developed a new model, using publication data and patterns, that quantifies this process. Using this technique, the authors identified common archetypes and influences on neurosurgical progress from idea inception to acceptance. METHODS Seven neurosurgical procedures developed in the past 15-25 years were used as developmental case studies (endovascular coil, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea wafer, and 3 radiosurgery procedures), and the literature on each topic was evaluated. A new metric the authors termed "progressive scholarly acceptance" (PSA) was used as an end point for community acceptance. PSA was reached when the number of investigations that refine or improve a procedure eclipsed the total number of reports assessing initial efficacy. Report characteristics, including the number of patients studied, study design, and number of authoring groups from the first report to the point of PSA, were assessed. RESULTS Publication data implicated factors that had an outsized influence on acceptance. First, procedural accessibility to investigators was found to influence the number of reports, number of patients studied, and number of authoring groups contributing. Barriers to accessibility included target disease rarity, regulatory restrictions, and cost. Second, the ease or difficulty in applying a randomized controlled trial had an impact on study design. Based on these 2 factors, 3 developmental archetypes were characterized to generally describe the development of surgery. CONCLUSIONS Common surgical development archetypes can be described based on factors that impact investigative methods, data accumulation, and ultimate acceptance by society

  8. NASA RECON: Course Development, Administration, and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, W. D.; Roquemore, L.

    1984-01-01

    The R and D activities addressing the development, administration, and evaluation of a set of transportable, college-level courses to educate science and engineering students in the effective use of automated scientific and technical information storage and retrieval systems, and, in particular, in the use of the NASA RECON system, are discussed. The long-range scope and objectives of these contracted activities are overviewed and the progress which has been made toward these objectives during FY 1983-1984 is highlighted. In addition, the results of a survey of 237 colleges and universities addressing course needs are presented.

  9. Evaluation of systematic breeding programs for lactating dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Nebel, R L; Jobst, S M

    1998-04-01

    Observing cows in estrus and inseminating them at the optimum time are necessary steps for effective reproductive management of a dairy herd. However, larger herd sizes can lead to reproductive inefficiency and decreased profits on dairy farms. Synchronization of estrus behavior through pharmacological control has been used to improve reproductive efficiency. Methods of synchronizing estrus were originally devised to decrease the time spent detecting estrus; however, systematic breeding programs are now being used for convenience and efficiency in reproductive management. Systematic breeding programs provide an organized approach for administering artificial insemination (AI) at first service. Moreover, reproductive management is based on a methodical approach for the entire herd rather than for the individual cow. Targeted Breeding (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) consists of a series of three PGF2 alpha injections at 14-d intervals. For convenience, injections are usually given one day a week to all cows that surpass the specified target date. The PGF2 alpha injections may be continued until detection of estrus and AI or fixed-time AI. Ovsynch consists of a GnRH injection at a random stage of the estrous cycle, followed by PGF2 alpha 7 d later, a second GnRH injection 36 to 48 h after PGF2 alpha, and timed AI. Research has shown that both Ovsynch and Targeted Breeding can improve reproductive performance over that of traditional programs. PMID:9594406

  10. Systematic validation of disease models for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sendi, P P; Craig, B A; Pfluger, D; Gafni, A; Bucher, H C

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluations are often based on computer models which simulate the course of disease with and without medical interventions. The purpose of this study is to propose and illustrate a rigorous approach for validating such disease models. For illustrative purposes, we applied this approach to a computer-based model we developed to mimic the history of HIV-infected subjects at the greatest risk for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in Switzerland. The drugs included as a prophylactic intervention against MAC infection were azithromycin and clarithromycin. We used a homogenous Markov chain to describe the progression of an HIV-infected patient through six MAC-free states, one MAC state, and death. Probability estimates were extracted from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study database (1993-95) and randomized controlled trials. The model was validated testing for (1) technical validity (2) predictive validity (3) face validity and (4) modelling process validity. Sensitivity analysis and independent model implementation in DATA (PPS) and self-written Fortran 90 code (BAC) assured technical validity. Agreement between modelled and observed MAC incidence confirmed predictive validity. Modelled MAC prophylaxis at different starting conditions affirmed face validity. Published articles by other authors supported modelling process validity. The proposed validation procedure is a useful approach to improve the validity of the model. PMID:10461580

  11. FOCAL: an experimental design tool for systematizing metabolic discoveries and model development.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Christopher J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-12-13

    Current computational tools can generate and improve genome-scale models based on existing data; however, for many organisms, the data needed to test and refine such models are not available. To facilitate model development, we created the forced coupling algorithm, FOCAL, to identify genetic and environmental conditions such that a reaction becomes essential for an experimentally measurable phenotype. This reaction's conditional essentiality can then be tested experimentally to evaluate whether network connections occur or to create strains with desirable phenotypes. FOCAL allows network connections to be queried, which improves our understanding of metabolism and accuracy of developed models.

  12. Using QALYs in telehealth evaluations: a systematic review of methodology and transparency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a recognised outcome measure in health economic evaluations. QALY incorporates individual preferences and identifies health gains by combining mortality and morbidity into one single index number. A literature review was conducted to examine and discuss the use of QALYs to measure outcomes in telehealth evaluations. Methods Evaluations were identified via a literature search in all relevant databases. Only economic evaluations measuring both costs and QALYs using primary patient level data of two or more alternatives were included. Results A total of 17 economic evaluations estimating QALYs were identified. All evaluations used validated generic health related-quality of life (HRQoL) instruments to describe health states. They used accepted methods for transforming the quality scores into utility values. The methodology used varied between the evaluations. The evaluations used four different preference measures (EQ-5D, SF-6D, QWB and HUI3), and utility scores were elicited from the general population. Most studies reported the methodology used in calculating QALYs. The evaluations were less transparent in reporting utility weights at different time points and variability around utilities and QALYs. Few made adjustments for differences in baseline utilities. The QALYs gained in the reviewed evaluations varied from 0.001 to 0.118 in implying a small but positive effect of telehealth intervention on patient’s health. The evaluations reported mixed cost-effectiveness results. Conclusion The use of QALYs in telehealth evaluations has increased over the last few years. Different methodologies and utility measures have been used to calculate QALYs. A more harmonised methodology and utility measure is needed to ensure comparability across telehealth evaluations. PMID:25086443

  13. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  14. Familial Risk Factors for the Development of Somatoform Symptoms and Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ilva Elena; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether familial risk factors for the development of somatoform symptoms and somatoform disorders in children and adolescents can be deduced from studies which investigated the intergenerational transmission of functional abdominal pain and somatoform disorders. A systematic review of articles published in…

  15. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  16. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Communication Programs to Change HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii)…

  17. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. P300 Development across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The P300 component of the event-related potential is a large positive waveform that can be extracted from the ongoing electroencephalogram using a two-stimuli oddball paradigm, and has been associated with cognitive information processing (e.g. memory, attention, executive function). This paper reviews the development of the auditory P300 across the lifespan. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review and meta-analysis on the P300 was performed including 75 studies (n = 2,811). Scopus was searched for studies using healthy subjects and that reported means of P300 latency and amplitude measured at Pz and mean age. These findings were validated in an independent, existing cross-sectional dataset including 1,572 participants from ages 6–87. Curve-fitting procedures were applied to obtain a model of P300 development across the lifespan. In both studies logarithmic Gaussian models fitted the latency and amplitude data best. The P300 latency and amplitude follow a maturational path from childhood to adolescence, resulting in a period that marks a plateau, after which degenerative effects begin. We were able to determine ages that mark a maximum (in P300 amplitude) or trough (in P300 latency) segregating maturational from degenerative stages. We found these points of deflection occurred at different ages. Conclusions/Significance It is hypothesized that latency and amplitude index different aspects of brain maturation. The P300 latency possibly indexes neural speed or brain efficiency. The P300 amplitude might index neural power or cognitive resources, which increase with maturation. PMID:24551055

  19. Use of a monitoring tool for growth and development in Brazilian children – systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Larissa da Costa; Sad, Izabela Rocha; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. Data source: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were “growth and development”, “child development”, “child health record”, “child health handbook”, “health record and child” and “child handbook”, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Data synthesis: Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. Conclusions: The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document. PMID:26705605

  20. Adherence to HAART: A Systematic Review of Developed and Developing Nation Patient-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Nachega, Jean B; Bangsberg, David R; Singh, Sonal; Rachlis, Beth; Wu, Ping; Wilson, Kumanan; Buchan, Iain; Gill, Christopher J; Cooper, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Background Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. Methods and Findings We examined both developed and developing nations. We searched the following databases: AMED (inception to June 2005), Campbell Collaboration (inception to June 2005), CinAhl (inception to June 2005), Cochrane Library (inception to June 2005), Embase (inception to June 2005), ERIC (inception to June 2005), MedLine (inception to June 2005), and NHS EED (inception to June 2005). We retrieved studies conducted in both developed and developing nation settings that examined barriers and facilitators addressing adherence. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. We independently, in duplicate, extracted data reported in qualitative studies addressing adherence. We then examined all quantitative studies addressing barriers and facilitators noted from the qualitative studies. In order to place the findings of the qualitative studies in a generalizable context, we meta-analyzed the surveys to determine a best estimate of the overall prevalence of issues. We included 37 qualitative studies and 47 studies using a quantitative methodology (surveys). Seventy-two studies (35 qualitative) were conducted in developed nations, while the remaining 12 (two qualitative) were conducted in developing nations. Important barriers reported in both economic settings included fear of disclosure, concomitant substance abuse, forgetfulness, suspicions of treatment, regimens that are too complicated, number of pills required, decreased quality of life, work and family responsibilities, falling asleep, and access to medication. Important facilitators reported by patients in developed nation settings included having a sense of self

  1. Evaluation of developing inertial stabilization unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masaki; Kodeki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Seiichi; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Takahara, Osamu; Ando, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Jiro; Haraguchi, Eisuke

    2015-03-01

    Micro vibrations generated from some internal disturbance sources such as a reaction wheel degrades the pointing stability of an observation satellite. To suppress the pointing error, we have been developing an inertial stabilization unit. A prototype mechanism is designed based on concepts that it has non-contact actuators and sensors, and rotational leaf springs are applied to support a stabilized platform in order to meet two requirements which are precise drive and tolerance for launch load. Two kind of inertial sensors are installed on the platform to measure the attitude directly. Each of these two inertial sensors covers low or high bandwidth signal respectively. These signals will be able to be combined as one wideband signal to stabilize the platform in inertial space. In this paper, the developing prototype mechanism and control equipment are described and the basic evaluation results are reported. Less than 0.3urad as a drive precision and more than 100Hz as a local sensor control bandwidth are verified. The development of the system has not completely finished yet, but the basic performance is certified to meet the design specification. From now on, we continue to develop the unit. These future results can be applied to inter-satellite laser communication system.

  2. Using halogen bonds to address the protein backbone: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wilcken, Rainer; Zimmermann, Markus O; Lange, Andreas; Zahn, Stefan; Boeckler, Frank M

    2012-08-01

    Halogen bonds are specific embodiments of the sigma hole bonding paradigm. They represent directional interactions between the halogens chlorine, bromine, or iodine and an electron donor as binding partner. Using quantum chemical calculations at the MP2 level, we systematically explore how they can be used in molecular design to address the omnipresent carbonyls of the protein backbone. We characterize energetics and directionality and elucidate their spatial variability in sub-optimal geometries that are expected to occur in protein-ligand complexes featuring a multitude of concomitant interactions. By deriving simple rules, we aid medicinal chemists and chemical biologists in easily exploiting them for scaffold decoration and design. Our work shows that carbonyl-halogen bonds may be used to expand the patentable medicinal chemistry space, redefining halogens as key features. Furthermore, this data will be useful for implementing halogen bonds into pharmacophore models or scoring functions making the QM information available for automatic molecular recognition in virtual high throughput screening.

  3. A Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention to Increase Healthy Behavior Through General Practice: Protocol and Systematic Development

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general

  4. A systematic method for using 3D echocardiography to evaluate tricuspid valve insufficiency in hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mart, Christopher Robin; Eckhauser, Aaron Wesley; Murri, Michael; Su, Jason Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), the tricuspid valve (TV) becomes the systemic atrioventricular valve and moderate/severe TV insufficiency (TVI), an adverse risk factor for survival to Fontan, has been reported in up to 35% of patients prior to stage I palliation. Precise echocardiographic identification of the mechanism of TVI cannot be determined by two-dimensional echocardiography. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) can provide significant insight into the mechanisms of TVI. It is the intent of this report to propose a systematic method on how to evaluate and display 3DE images of the TV in HLHS which has not been done previously. TV anatomy, function, and the known mechanisms of insufficiency are reviewed. We defined three regions of the TV (anterior, posterior, septal) that can help define valve “leaflets” that incorporates the many variations of TV anatomy. To determine how the surgeon views the TV, a picture of a pathologic specimen of the TV was placed on a computer screen and rotated until it was oriented as it appears during surgery, the “surgeons view.” We have proposed a systematic method for evaluating and displaying the TV using 3DE which can provide significant insight into the mechanisms causing TVI in HLHS. This has the potential to improve both the surgical approach to repairing the valve and, ultimately, patient outcomes. PMID:25298694

  5. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight change--a systematic review and critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neville, C E; McKinley, M C; Holmes, V A; Spence, D; Woodside, J V

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a time of increased vulnerability for retention of excess body fat in women. Breastfeeding (BF) has been shown to have many health benefits for both mother and baby; however, its role in postpartum weight management is unclear. Our aim was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature published to date in relation to the impact of BF on postpartum weight change, weight retention and maternal body composition. Electronic literature searches were carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS, CINAHL and British Nursing Index. The search covered publications up to 12 June 2012 and included observational studies (prospective and retrospective) carried out in BF mothers (either exclusively or as a subgroup), who were ≤ 2 years postpartum and with a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg m(-2), with an outcome measure of change in weight (including weight retention) and/or body composition. Thirty-seven prospective studies and eight retrospective studies were identified that met the selection criteria; studies were stratified according to study design and outcome measure. Overall, studies were heterogeneous, particularly in relation to sample size, measurement time points and in the classification of BF and postpartum weight change. The majority of studies reported little or no association between BF and weight change (n=27, 63%) or change in body composition (n=16, 89%), although this seemed to depend on the measurement time points and BF intensity. However, of the five studies that were considered to be of high methodological quality, four studies demonstrated a positive association between BF and weight change. This systematic review highlights the difficulties of examining the association between BF and weight management in observational research. Although the available evidence challenges the widely held belief that BF promotes weight loss, more robust studies are needed to reliably assess the

  6. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, LiLi; Li, JiTao; Zhao, YanJie; Su, Yun’Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2016-01-01

    Background Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER) formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP), which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53), nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP was also an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The findings were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. Conclusion Both paliperidone ER and PP were effective and well-tolerated agents for the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population according to the data we reviewed. No new safety signals specific for the Chinese population were raised for paliperidone. Further studies may be needed to collect

  7. USDA Nutrition Evidence Library: methodology used to identify topics and develop systematic review questions for the birth-to-24-mo population.

    PubMed

    Obbagy, Julie E; Blum-Kemelor, Donna M; Essery, Eve V; Lyon, Joan M G; Spahn, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    The USDA's Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) specializes in conducting food- and nutrition-related systematic reviews that are used to inform federal government decision making. To ensure the utility of NEL systematic reviews, the most relevant topics must be addressed, questions must be clearly focused and appropriate in scope, and review frameworks must reflect the state of the science. Identifying the optimal topics and questions requires input from a variety of stakeholders, including scientists with technical expertise, as well as government policy and program leaders. The objective of this article is to describe the rationale and NEL methodology for identifying topics and developing systematic review questions implemented as part of the "Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 months of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans--the B-24 Project." This is the first phase of a larger project designed to develop dietary guidance for the birth to 24-mo population in the United States.

  8. Interventions to evaluate fitness to drive among people with chronic conditions: Systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Marino, Marta; de Belvis, Antonio; Basso, Danila; Avolio, Maria; Pelone, Ferruccio; Tanzariello, Maria; Ricciardi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    When an health condition has been identified, the question of whether to continue driving depends not on a medical diagnosis, but on the functional consequences of the illness. The complex nature of physical and mental impairments and their relationship with safe driving make the availability of evidence based tools necessary for health professionals. The review aims at identifying and summarizing scientific findings concerning the relationship between neuropsychological and clinical screening tests and fitness to drive among people with chronic conditions. Studies were searched for driving ability evaluation by road test or simulator, clinical/neuropsychological examinations of participants with chronic diseases or permanent disablement impairing driving performance, primary outcomes as fatal/non-fatal traffic injuries and secondary outcomes as fitness to drive assessment. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Some studies included more than one clinical condition. The illness investigated were Alzheimer Disease (n=6), Parkinson Disease (n=8), Cardiovascular Accident (n=4), Traumatic Brain Injuries (n=3), Sleep Apnea Syndrome (n=2), Narcolepsy (n=1), Multiple Sclerosis (n=1) and Hepatic Encephalopathy (n=1), comorbidities (n=3). No studies match inclusion criteria about Myasthenia Gravis, Diabetes Mellitus, Renal Diseases, Hearing Disorders and Sight Diseases. No studies referred to primary outcomes. The selected studies provided opposite evidences. It would be reasonable to argue that some clinical and neuropsychological tests are effective in predicting fitness to drive even if contrasting results support that driving performance decreases as a function of clinical and neuropsychological decline in some chronic diseases. Nevertheless we found no evidence that clinical and neuropsychological screening tests would lead to a reduction in motor vehicle crashes involving chronic disabled drivers. It seems necessary to develop tests with proven

  9. A Systematic Review of Scope and Quality of Health Economic Evaluation Studies in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Rachel Marie; Nguyen, Phuong Khanh; Luu, Hoat Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The application of health economic evaluation (HEE) evidence can play an important role in strategic planning and policy making. This study aimed to assess the scope and quality of existing research, with the goal of elucidating implications for improving the use of HEE evidence in Vietnam. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search medical online databases (Medline, Google Scholar, and Vietnam Medical Databases) to select all types of HEE studies except cost-only analyses. Two researchers assessed the quality of selected studies using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We selected 26 studies, including 6 published in Vietnam. The majority of these studies focused on infectious diseases (14 studies), with HIV being the most common topic (5 studies). Most papers were cost-effectiveness studies that measured health outcomes using DALY units. Using QHES, we found that the overall quality of HEE studies published internationally was much higher (mean score 88.7+13.3) than that of those published in Vietnam (mean score 67.3+22.9). Lack of costing perspectives, reliable data sources and sensitivity analysis were the main shortcomings of the reviewed studies. Conclusion This review indicates that HEE studies published in Vietnam are limited in scope and number, as well as by several important technical errors or omissions. It is necessary to formalize the process of health economic research in Vietnam and to institutionalize the links between researchers and policy-makers. Additionally, the quality of HEE should be enhanced through education about research techniques, and the implementation of standard HEE guidelines. PMID:25122180

  10. Interventions to evaluate fitness to drive among people with chronic conditions: Systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Marino, Marta; de Belvis, Antonio; Basso, Danila; Avolio, Maria; Pelone, Ferruccio; Tanzariello, Maria; Ricciardi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    When an health condition has been identified, the question of whether to continue driving depends not on a medical diagnosis, but on the functional consequences of the illness. The complex nature of physical and mental impairments and their relationship with safe driving make the availability of evidence based tools necessary for health professionals. The review aims at identifying and summarizing scientific findings concerning the relationship between neuropsychological and clinical screening tests and fitness to drive among people with chronic conditions. Studies were searched for driving ability evaluation by road test or simulator, clinical/neuropsychological examinations of participants with chronic diseases or permanent disablement impairing driving performance, primary outcomes as fatal/non-fatal traffic injuries and secondary outcomes as fitness to drive assessment. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Some studies included more than one clinical condition. The illness investigated were Alzheimer Disease (n=6), Parkinson Disease (n=8), Cardiovascular Accident (n=4), Traumatic Brain Injuries (n=3), Sleep Apnea Syndrome (n=2), Narcolepsy (n=1), Multiple Sclerosis (n=1) and Hepatic Encephalopathy (n=1), comorbidities (n=3). No studies match inclusion criteria about Myasthenia Gravis, Diabetes Mellitus, Renal Diseases, Hearing Disorders and Sight Diseases. No studies referred to primary outcomes. The selected studies provided opposite evidences. It would be reasonable to argue that some clinical and neuropsychological tests are effective in predicting fitness to drive even if contrasting results support that driving performance decreases as a function of clinical and neuropsychological decline in some chronic diseases. Nevertheless we found no evidence that clinical and neuropsychological screening tests would lead to a reduction in motor vehicle crashes involving chronic disabled drivers. It seems necessary to develop tests with proven

  11. Effectiveness and Economic Evaluation of Chiropractic Care for the Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of Pragmatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Borges Da Silva, Roxane; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela; Bussières, André

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and among the most common reasons for seeking primary sector care. Chiropractors, physical therapists and general practitioners are among those providers that treat LBP patients, but there is only limited evidence regarding the effectiveness and economic evaluation of care offered by these provider groups. Purpose To estimate the clinical effectiveness and to systematically review the literature of full economic evaluation of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Study Design Systematic reviews of interventions and economic evaluations. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify 1) pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care delivered by other healthcare providers. Studies published between 1990 and 4th June 2015 were considered. Primary outcomes included pain, functional status and global improvement. Study selection, critical quality appraisal and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Data from RCTs with low risk of bias were included in a meta-analysis to determine effect estimates. Cost estimates of full economic evaluations were converted to 2015 USD and results summarized using Slavin’s qualitative best-evidence synthesis. Results Six RCTs and three full economic evaluations were scientifically admissible. Five RCTs with low risk of bias compared chiropractic care to exercise therapy (n = 1), physical therapy (n = 3) and medical care (n = 1). Overall, we found similar effects for chiropractic care and the other types of care and no reports of serious adverse events. Three low to high quality full economic evaluations studies (one cost-effectiveness, one cost-minimization and one cost-benefit) compared chiropractic to medical care. Given the divergent

  12. Systematic reviews need systematic searchers

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Sampson, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will provide a description of the methods, skills, and knowledge of expert searchers working on systematic review teams. Brief Description: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are very important to health care practitioners, who need to keep abreast of the medical literature and make informed decisions. Searching is a critical part of conducting these systematic reviews, as errors made in the search process potentially result in a biased or otherwise incomplete evidence base for the review. Searches for systematic reviews need to be constructed to maximize recall and deal effectively with a number of potentially biasing factors. Librarians who conduct the searches for systematic reviews must be experts. Discussion/Conclusion: Expert searchers need to understand the specifics about data structure and functions of bibliographic and specialized databases, as well as the technical and methodological issues of searching. Search methodology must be based on research about retrieval practices, and it is vital that expert searchers keep informed about, advocate for, and, moreover, conduct research in information retrieval. Expert searchers are an important part of the systematic review team, crucial throughout the review process—from the development of the proposal and research question to publication. PMID:15685278

  13. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  14. Developing Behavioral Theory With the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl R Dennison

    2014-08-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory. Fifty-three studies tested associations between community social capital concepts and physical activity (38 studies), smoking (19 studies), and diet (2 studies). Trustworthiness of community members was consistently associated with more health-promoting and less disease-promoting behaviors in 19 studies. Neighborly reciprocity showed mixed results in 10 studies. Reporting a good sense of community was associated with more physical activity in only 5 of 16 studies. Neighborhood collective efficacy, which includes social cohesion and informal social control, was inconsistently associated with behaviors in 22 studies. Behavioral social norms were associated with smoking and physical activity in 2 of 6 studies, and neighborhood modeling of physical activity was associated with increased activity in 12 of 17 studies, with 1 opposing result. This review identifies several community social capital-related concepts that are, at times, associated with both health-promoting and disease-promoting behaviors and often have no associations. Theory explains these findings by describing the relationships and interactions among these concepts. Using these findings, this article proposes a conceptual framework that integrates community social capital concepts into existing behavioral theory. Iterative empirically based theory development is needed to address these concepts, which affect behaviors. These results can also inform theoretically based community-based and socially tailored interventions.

  15. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  16. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  17. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  18. The methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in the field of obstetrics and gynecology published in the last decade. A MEDLINE search was performed to find economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology from the years 1997 through 2009. We included full economic evaluation studies concerning tests or interventions in the field of obstetrics or gynecology. Each included study was evaluated by two reviewers using a quality checklist that was based on international guidelines for medical economic evaluation studies and a checklist used in a previous review. The mean number of quality criteria adhered to was 23 of 30 items, whereas five articles (3%) met all 30 criteria. Compliance was low for the description of the perspective (40%), the completeness of costs looking at the perspective (48%) or time horizon (48%), and reporting of quantities of resources (47%). Furthermore, if no discounting was applied, an explanation was infrequently given (14%). A comparison of study quality to that reported by Smith and Blackmore showed a considerable improvement in the following criteria: presentation perspective (from 19 to 40%), statement of primary outcome measure (from 72 to 81%), completeness costs looking at the time horizon (from 14 to 48%), the presentation of discount rates (from 10 to 54%), details of sensitivity analyses (from 21 to 61%), reporting incremental results (from 17 to 70%), and reporting a summary measure (from 57 to 74%). The quality of economic studies in obstetrics and gynecology has considerably improved in the last decade, but room for further improvement is present.

  19. Evaluation of population health short courses: implications for developing and evaluating population health professional development initiatives.

    PubMed

    Naccarella, Lucio; Greenstock, Louise; Butterworth, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Population health as an approach to planning is key to improving the health and well-being of whole populations and to reduce inequities within and between population groups. The Victorian Department of Health North and West Metropolitan Region, in collaboration with The University of Melbourne (School of Population Health), have delivered four annual population health short courses. The short courses were designed to equip participants with knowledge and skills to implement population health approaches upon their return to their workplaces. For three consecutive years, online surveys (n=41) and semi-structured interviews (n=35), underpinned by participatory and realist evaluation approaches, were conducted to obtain the perceptions and experiences of the population health short course participants. Evaluation findings indicate that participants' understanding of population health concepts increased; however, there were mixed outcomes in assisting participants' implementation of population health approaches upon their return to their workplaces. A core list of perceived requirements, enablers and barriers emerged at an individual, organisational and system level as influencing the capability of participants to implement population health approaches. Evaluation recommendations and actions taken to revise short course iterations are presented, providing evidence that the evaluation approaches were appropriate and increased the use of evaluation learnings. Implications of evaluation findings for professional development practice (i.e. shift from a 'Course' as a one-off event to a Population Health 'Program' of inter-dependent components) and evaluation (i.e. participatory realist evaluation approaches) are presented.

  20. Developing Evaluation Capacity through Process Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to make process use an independent variable in evaluation practice: the purposeful means of building an organization's capacity to conduct and use evaluations in the long run. The goal of evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to strengthen and sustain effective program evaluation practices through a number of activities:…

  1. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  2. Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculumvulgare Mill. from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Heleno, Sandrina A; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2009-10-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a widespread perennial umbeliferous (Apiaceae) herb, traditionally used for medicinal purposes and human consumption. It is highly recommended for diabetes, bronchitis and chronic coughs, and for the treatment of kidney stones; some of those chronic diseases are related to the production of radical species involved in the oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of this herb might explain some of their empirical uses in folk medicine. This is the first time that a systematic study on different parts of fennel is performed, in order to understand differences in the antioxidant potential of shoots, leaves, steams, and inflorescences, particularly related to their composition in antioxidant compounds such as vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) and phenolics. The shoots seems to have the highest radical-scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (EC(50) values<1.4 mg/ml), which is in agreement with the highest content in phenolics (65.85+/-0.74 mg/g) and ascorbic acid (570.89+/-0.01 microg/g) found in this part. The shoots also revealed high concentration of tocopherols (34.54+/-1.28 microg/g) and were the only part with flavonoids. PMID:19596397

  3. Evaluation of Systematic Differences Between the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and Release 5 GOCE Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) serves as the primary vertical reference control for the conterminous United States and Alaska. Implemented in 1991, this datum has been shown to disagree at over a meter with global gravity models (GGM's) based on GRACE products. However, the resolution of such models was limited to about 600 km and larger scales for comparisons with GPS-derived ellipsoid heights on leveled benchmarks. In this study, GGM's based on GOCE Release 5 are assessed. Given the increased resolution of these models, scales down to 150 km, an improved estimate of the systematic differences with NAVD 88 is possible. Such a model would serve as an a priori estimate of errors and greatly aid in development of hybrid geoid height models used to transform GPS observations into estimates of orthometric heights above NAVD 88. The National Geodetic Survey develops hybrid models using least squares collocation, which presupposes that the data are centered and stochastic and not systematic. In 2022, NGS will develop a replacement for NAVD 88 and future error models, such as the one presented here, will serve as a mechanism for datum transformation for backward compatibility to NAVD 88.

  4. Economic evaluation of manual therapy for musculoskeletal diseases: a protocol for a systematic review and narrative synthesis of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Gon; Mun, Su-Jeong; Kim, Ka-Na; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Kim, Nam-Kwen; Lee, Dong-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Manual therapy is the non-surgical conservative management of musculoskeletal disorders using the practitioner's hands on the patient's body for diagnosing and treating disease. The aim of this study is to systematically review trial-based economic evaluations of manual therapy relative to other interventions used for the management of musculoskeletal diseases. Methods and analysis Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) on the economic evaluation of manual therapy for musculoskeletal diseases will be included in the review. The following databases will be searched from their inception: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Econlit, Mantis, Index to Chiropractic Literature, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), National Health Service Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (NHS DARE), National Health Service Health Technology Assessment Database (NHS HTA), National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), CENTRAL, five Korean medical databases (Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), Research Information Service System (RISS), DBPIA, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal (KTKP) and KoreaMed) and three Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP and Wanfang). The evidence for the cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and cost-benefit of manual therapy for musculoskeletal diseases will be assessed as the primary outcome. Health-related quality of life and adverse effects will be assessed as secondary outcomes. We will critically appraise the included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Drummond checklist. Results will be summarised using Slavin's qualitative best-evidence synthesis approach. Ethics and dissemination The results of the study will be disseminated via

  5. Establishing biomechanical mechanisms in mouse models: practical guidelines for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in the diaphyses of long bones.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Silva, Matthew J; Vashishth, Deepak; Guo, X Edward; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-06-01

    Mice are widely used in studies of skeletal biology, and assessment of their bones by mechanical testing is a critical step when evaluating the functional effects of an experimental perturbation. For example, a gene knockout may target a pathway important in bone formation and result in a "low bone mass" phenotype. But how well does the skeleton bear functional loads; eg, how much do bones deform during loading and how resistant are bones to fracture? By systematic evaluation of bone morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties, investigators can establish the "biomechanical mechanisms" whereby an experimental perturbation alters whole-bone mechanical function. The goal of this review is to clarify these biomechanical mechanisms and to make recommendations for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in mouse bones, with a focus on long-bone diaphyses and cortical bone. Further, minimum reportable standards for testing conditions and outcome variables are suggested that will improve the comparison of data across studies. Basic biomechanical principles are reviewed, followed by a description of the cross-sectional morphological properties that best inform the net cellular effects of a given experimental perturbation and are most relevant to biomechanical function. Although morphology is critical, whole-bone mechanical properties can only be determined accurately by a mechanical test. The functional importance of stiffness, maximum load, postyield displacement, and work-to-fracture are reviewed. Because bone and body size are often strongly related, strategies to adjust whole-bone properties for body mass are detailed. Finally, a comprehensive framework is presented using real data, and several examples from the literature are reviewed to illustrate how to synthesize morphological, tissue-level, and whole-bone mechanical properties of mouse long bones. PMID:25917136

  6. Establishing Biomechanical Mechanisms in Mouse Models: Practical Guidelines for Systematically Evaluating Phenotypic Changes in the Diaphyses of Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J; Silva, Matthew J; Vashishth, Deepak; Guo, X Edward; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH

    2016-01-01

    Mice are widely used in studies of skeletal biology, and assessment of their bones by mechanical testing is a critical step when evaluating the functional effects of an experimental perturbation. For example, a gene knockout may target a pathway important in bone formation and result in a “low bone mass” phenotype. But how well does the skeleton bear functional loads; eg, how much do bones deform during loading and how resistant are bones to fracture? By systematic evaluation of bone morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties, investigators can establish the “biomechanical mechanisms” whereby an experimental perturbation alters whole-bone mechanical function. The goal of this review is to clarify these biomechanical mechanisms and to make recommendations for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in mouse bones, with a focus on long-bone diaphyses and cortical bone. Further, minimum reportable standards for testing conditions and outcome variables are suggested that will improve the comparison of data across studies. Basic biomechanical principles are reviewed, followed by a description of the cross-sectional morphological properties that best inform the net cellular effects of a given experimental perturbation and are most relevant to biomechanical function. Although morphology is critical, whole-bone mechanical properties can only be determined accurately by a mechanical test. The functional importance of stiffness, maximum load, postyield displacement, and work-to-fracture are reviewed. Because bone and body size are often strongly related, strategies to adjust whole-bone properties for body mass are detailed. Finally, a comprehensive framework is presented using real data, and several examples from the literature are reviewed to illustrate how to synthesize morphological, tissue-level, and whole-bone mechanical properties of mouse long bones. PMID:25917136

  7. A systematic review of Markov models evaluating multicomponent disease management programs in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most expensive chronic disease; therefore, disease management programs (DMPs) were introduced. The aim of this review is to determine whether Markov models are adequate to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex interventions such as DMPs. Additionally, the quality of the models was evaluated using Philips and Caro quality appraisals. The five reviewed models incorporated the DMP into the model differently: two models integrated effectiveness rates derived from one clinical trial/meta-analysis and three models combined interventions from different sources into a DMP. The results range from cost savings and a QALY gain to costs of US$85,087 per QALY. The Spearman's rank coefficient assesses no correlation between the quality appraisals. With restrictions to the data selection process, Markov models are adequate to determine the cost-effectiveness of DMPs; however, to allow prioritization of medical services, more flexibility in the models is necessary to enable the evaluation of single additional interventions. PMID:26535605

  8. A systematic review of Markov models evaluating multicomponent disease management programs in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most expensive chronic disease; therefore, disease management programs (DMPs) were introduced. The aim of this review is to determine whether Markov models are adequate to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex interventions such as DMPs. Additionally, the quality of the models was evaluated using Philips and Caro quality appraisals. The five reviewed models incorporated the DMP into the model differently: two models integrated effectiveness rates derived from one clinical trial/meta-analysis and three models combined interventions from different sources into a DMP. The results range from cost savings and a QALY gain to costs of US$85,087 per QALY. The Spearman's rank coefficient assesses no correlation between the quality appraisals. With restrictions to the data selection process, Markov models are adequate to determine the cost-effectiveness of DMPs; however, to allow prioritization of medical services, more flexibility in the models is necessary to enable the evaluation of single additional interventions.

  9. A Systematic Review on methods of evaluate sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia patients: Validity and Reliability issues

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Azar; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The grammar assessment in aphasia has been done by few standard tests, but today these tests cannot precise evaluate the sentence production in agrammatic patients. In this study, we review structures and contents of tests or tasks designed to find more frequent methods for sentence production ability in aphasia patients. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane library, Medline by PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1980 to October 1, 2013 and evaluated all of exist tests or tasks included in the articles and systematic reviews. The sentence production has been studied in three methods. It contains the use of sentence production in spontaneous speech, tasks designed and both methods. The quality of studies was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Results: The 160 articles were reviewed and 38 articles were studied according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were classified into three categories based on assessment methods of sentence production. In 39.5% studies, researchers have used tasks designed, 7.9% articles have applied spontaneous speech and 52.6% articles have used both methods for evaluation production. Inter-rater reliability was between 90% and 100% and intra-rater reliability was between 96% and 98% in studied. Conclusion: Agrammatic aphasia has syntax disorders, especially in sentence production. Most researchers and clinicians used both methods for evaluation production. PMID:25535505

  10. Dynamic Transmission Economic Evaluation of Infectious Disease Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tom L; Devine, Angela; Yeung, Shunmay; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-02-01

    Economic evaluation using dynamic transmission models is important for capturing the indirect effects of infectious disease interventions. We examine the use of these methods in low- and middle-income countries, where infectious diseases constitute a major burden. This review is comprised of two parts: (1) a summary of dynamic transmission economic evaluations across all disease areas published between 2011 and mid-2014 and (2) an in-depth review of mosquito-borne disease studies focusing on health economic methods and reporting. Studies were identified through a systematic search of the MEDLINE database and supplemented by reference list screening. Fifty-seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the all-disease review. The most common subject disease was HIV/AIDS, followed by malaria. A diverse range of modelling methods, outcome metrics and sensitivity analyses were used, indicating little standardisation. Seventeen studies were included in the mosquito-borne disease review. With notable exceptions, most studies did not employ economic evaluation methods beyond calculating a cost-effectiveness ratio or net benefit. Many did not adhere to health care economic evaluations reporting guidelines, particularly with respect to full model reporting and uncertainty analysis. We present a summary of the state-of-the-art and offer recommendations for improved implementation and reporting of health economic methods in this crossover discipline.

  11. Storytelling to Enhance Teaching and Learning: The Systematic Design, Development, and Testing of Two Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Sivo, Stephen; Pounds, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Storytelling may be a powerful instructional approach for engaging learners and facilitating e-learning. However, relatively little is known about how to apply story within the context of systematic instructional design processes and claims for the effectiveness of storytelling in training and education have been primarily anecdotal and…

  12. Developing Behavioral Theory with the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…

  13. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Practical Review for Clinical Researchers-Part I. General Guidance and Tips

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Juneyoung; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA), the use of systematic review and meta-analyses is steadily increasing. By means of objective evaluation of all available primary studies, these two processes generate an evidence-based systematic summary regarding a specific research topic. The methodology for systematic review and meta-analysis in DTA studies differs from that in therapeutic/interventional studies, and its content is still evolving. Here we review the overall process from a practical standpoint, which may serve as a reference for those who implement these methods. PMID:26576106

  14. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Practical Review for Clinical Researchers-Part I. General Guidance and Tips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Juneyoung; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA), the use of systematic review and meta-analyses is steadily increasing. By means of objective evaluation of all available primary studies, these two processes generate an evidence-based systematic summary regarding a specific research topic. The methodology for systematic review and meta-analysis in DTA studies differs from that in therapeutic/interventional studies, and its content is still evolving. Here we review the overall process from a practical standpoint, which may serve as a reference for those who implement these methods. PMID:26576106

  15. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  16. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  17. Integrated Psychosocial and Opioid-Antagonist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Review of Controlled Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological characteristics and outcomes of 14 controlled clinical investigations of integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist alcohol dependence treatment were evaluated. The 14 studies were identified through computerized bibliographic and manual literature searches. Clients receiving integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist…

  18. Determination of volatile organic compounds for a systematic evaluation of third-hand smoking.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Saito, Yoshihiro; Teraoka, Kenta; Miura, Tomoya; Jinno, Kiyokatsu

    2010-01-01

    Third-hand smoking was quantitatively evaluated with a polymer-packed sample preparation needle and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The extraction needle was prepared with polymeric particles as the extraction medium, and successful extraction of typical gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was accomplished with the extraction needle. For an evaluation of this new cigarette hazard, several types of clothing fabrics were exposed to sidestream smoke, and the smoking-related VOCs evaporated from the fabrics to the environmental air were preconcentrated with the extraction needle. Smoking-related VOCs in smokers' breath were also measured using the extraction needle, and the effect of the breath VOCs on third-hand smoking pollution was evaluated. The results demonstrated that a trace amount of smoking-related VOCs was successfully determined by the proposed method. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of smoking-related VOCs were clearly different for each fabric material, and the time variations of these VOCs concentrations were quantitatively evaluated. The VOCs in the smokers' breath were clearly higher than that of nonsmokers'; however, the results suggested that no significant effect of the smokers' breath on the potential pollution occurred in the typical life space. The method was further applied to the determination of the actual third-hand smoking pollution in an automobile, and a future possibility of the proposed method to the analysis of trace amounts of VOCs in environmental air samples was suggested. PMID:20467132

  19. Systematic Evaluation of Variables that Contribute to Noncompliance: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKerchar, Paige M.; Abby, Layla

    2012-01-01

    The effects of time-out and escape extinction were examined with 2 preschoolers after we identified variables that may have resulted in noncompliance. Results of a functional analysis showed that noncompliance was highest in the escape condition for both participants. During the treatment evaluation, escape extinction resulted in greater…

  20. Updating RIGs: Including the Systematic Influence of Online Study on Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart; Smith, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Based on student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings from 1,432 units of study over a period of a year, representing 74,490 individual sets of ratings, and including a significant number of units offered in wholly online mode, we confirm the significant influence of class size, year level, and discipline area on at least some SET ratings. We also…

  1. Using Eye Trackers for Usability Evaluation of Health Information Technology: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye-tracking technology has been used to measure human cognitive processes and has the potential to improve the usability of health information technology (HIT). However, it is still unclear how the eye-tracking method can be integrated with other traditional usability methodologies to achieve its full potential. Objective The objective of this study was to report on HIT evaluation studies that have used eye-tracker technology, and to envision the potential use of eye-tracking technology in future research. Methods We used four reference databases to initially identify 5248 related papers, which resulted in only 9 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Results Eye-tracking technology was useful in finding usability problems in many ways, but is still in its infancy for HIT usability evaluation. Limited types of HITs have been evaluated by eye trackers, and there has been a lack of evaluation research in natural settings. Conclusions More research should be done in natural settings to discover the real contextual-based usability problems of clinical and mobile HITs using eye-tracking technology with more standardized methodologies and guidance. PMID:27026079

  2. SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF VARIABLES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO NONCOMPLIANCE: A REPLICATION AND EXTENSION

    PubMed Central

    McKerchar, Paige M; Abby, Layla

    2012-01-01

    The effects of time-out and escape extinction were examined with 2 preschoolers after we identified variables that may have resulted in noncompliance. Results of a functional analysis showed that noncompliance was highest in the escape condition for both participants. During the treatment evaluation, escape extinction resulted in greater reductions in noncompliance relative to time-out. PMID:23060674

  3. Grade Inflation and Student Individual Differences as Systematic Bias in Faculty Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Scandura, Terri A.

    2005-01-01

    The media has recently exposed that grade inflation is a concern for higher education in North America. Grade inflation may be due to consumerism by universities that now compete for students. Keeping students happy (and paying) may have been emphasized more than learning. We review the literature on faculty evaluation and present a model that…

  4. Towards systematic evaluation of crop model outputs for global land-use models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclere, David; Azevedo, Ligia B.; Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovič, Juraj; Havlík, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Land provides vital socioeconomic resources to the society, however at the cost of large environmental degradations. Global integrated models combining high resolution global gridded crop models (GGCMs) and global economic models (GEMs) are increasingly being used to inform sustainable solution for agricultural land-use. However, little effort has yet been done to evaluate and compare the accuracy of GGCM outputs. In addition, GGCM datasets require a large amount of parameters whose values and their variability across space are weakly constrained: increasing the accuracy of such dataset has a very high computing cost. Innovative evaluation methods are required both to ground credibility to the global integrated models, and to allow efficient parameter specification of GGCMs. We propose an evaluation strategy for GGCM datasets in the perspective of use in GEMs, illustrated with preliminary results from a novel dataset (the Hypercube) generated by the EPIC GGCM and used in the GLOBIOM land use GEM to inform on present-day crop yield, water and nutrient input needs for 16 crops x 15 management intensities, at a spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes. We adopt the following principle: evaluation should provide a transparent diagnosis of model adequacy for its intended use. We briefly describe how the Hypercube data is generated and how it articulates with GLOBIOM in order to transparently identify the performances to be evaluated, as well as the main assumptions and data processing involved. Expected performances include adequately representing the sub-national heterogeneity in crop yield and input needs: i) in space, ii) across crop species, and iii) across management intensities. We will present and discuss measures of these expected performances and weight the relative contribution of crop model, input data and data processing steps in performances. We will also compare obtained yield gaps and main yield-limiting factors against the M3 dataset. Next steps include

  5. Systematic critical review of previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew; Lewis, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and critically assess previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions delivered during pregnancy. Design Qualitative review of studies with primary data collection or hypothetical modelling. Quality assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies checklist. Data sources Electronic search of 13 databases including Medline, Econlit, Embase, and PubMed, and manual search of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines and US Surgeon General. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies All study designs considered if they were published in English, evaluated a cessation intervention delivered to pregnant women during pregnancy, and reported any relevant economic evaluation metric (eg, cost per quitter, incremental cost per quality adjusted life year). Results 18 studies were included. 18 evaluations were conducted alongside clinical trials, four were part of observational studies, five were hypothetical decision-analytic models and one combined modelling with within-trial analysis. Analyses conducted were cost-offset (nine studies), cost-effectiveness (five studies), cost-utility (two studies), and combined cost-effectiveness and cost-utility (two studies). Six studies each were identified as high, fair and poor quality, respectively. All interventions were demonstrated to be cost-effective except motivational interviewing which was dominated by usual care (one study). Areas where the current literature was limited were the robust investigation of uncertainty, including time horizons that included outcomes beyond the end of pregnancy, including major morbidities for the mother and her infant, and incorporating better estimates of postpartum relapse. Conclusions There are relatively few high quality economic evaluations of cessation interventions during pregnancy. The majority of the literature suggests that such interventions offer value for money; however, there are methodological issues that require

  6. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: "Choice, Control & Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, "Choice, Control & Change", designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design: A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting: Five…

  7. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  8. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  9. Determining of Factors Influencing the Success and Failure of Hospital Information System and Their Evaluation Methods: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Kimiafar, Khalil; Ahmadi, Maryam; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, using new information technology (IT) has provided remarkable opportunities to decrease medical errors, support health care specialist, increase the efficiency and even the quality of patient’s care and safety. Objectives: The purpose of this study was the identification of Hospital Information System (HIS) success and failure factors and the evaluation methods of these factors. This research emphasizes the need to a comprehensive evaluation of HISs which considers a wide range of success and failure factors in these systems. Materials and Methods: We searched for relevant English language studies based on keywords in title and abstract, using PubMed, Ovid Medline (by applying MeSH terms), Scopus, ScienceDirect and Embase (earliest entry to march 17, 2012). Studies which considered success models and success or failure factors, or studied the evaluation models of HISs and the related ones were chosen. Since the studies used in this systematic review were heterogeneous, the combination of extracted data was carried out by using narrative synthesis method. Results: We found 16 articles which required detailed analysis. Finally, the suggested framework includes 12 main factors (functional, organizational, behavioral, cultural, management, technical, strategy, economy, education, legal, ethical and political factors), 67 sub factors, and 33 suggested methods for the evaluation of these sub factors. Conclusions: The results of the present research indicates that the emphasis of the HIS evaluation moves from technical subjects to human and organizational subjects, and from objective to subjective issues. Therefore, this issue entails more familiarity with more qualitative evaluation methods. In most of the reviewed studies, the main focus has been laid on the necessity of using multi-method approaches and combining methods to obtain more comprehensive and useful results. PMID:24693386

  10. The Process of Evaluation in Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherill, G. Richard

    Program evaluation can be used for both program improvement and program justification, and it can aid in program planning and policy making. In evaluation, we must be concerned with the components which not only make up the program but also the evaluation such as program objectives or goals, program personnel interaction, program processes,…

  11. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant as part of the systematic evaluation program. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    A limited seismic reassessment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safely and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented.

  12. Evaluating Intervention Programs Targeting Parents to Manage Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review Using the RE-AIM Framework.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoungock; Chao, Ariana; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Intervention programs targeting parents to manage childhood overweight and obesity have emerged based on parents influence on the health behaviors of their children. The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate intervention programs targeting parents to manage childhood overweight and obesity using the Reach, Efficacy, Adopt, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. There was a moderate risk of bias across all studies. The overall proportion of studies (n=7) reporting on each dimension of the RE-AIM framework ranged from 78.6% (reach) to 23.8% (maintenance). The majority of intervention programs demonstrated improvement in child BMI. However intervention programs did not reach families of diverse race/ethnicity, were provided by highly trained professionals, and demonstrated high attrition, thus limiting generalizability.

  13. Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

  14. Measures used for the evaluation of balance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Lameira de Melo, Gileno Edu; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Santos, Cibele Almeida; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Braun, Luiz Alfredo Ferreirra; Duarte, Natalia Almeida Carvalho; Pareira, Rodolfo Borges; Miziara, Isabela Marques; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The present literature review was conducted on the use of different measures for the evaluation of balance in patients with Parkinson's disease. [Materials and Methods] The PubMed, Bireme, SciELO, Lilacs, and PEDro electronic databases were searched for relevant studies. [Results] The searches initially led to the retrieval of 3,623 articles, 540 of which were potentially eligible after limiting the search to clinical trials published in the last five years. A total of 264 duplicates were removed, and 276 articles were excluded based on their titles and abstracts. The full texts of 84 articles were analyzed, and only those with a PEDro score higher than four points (n=25) were included in the review. [Conclusion] Different methods, such as scales, tests, and equipment, are used for the evaluation of balance in patients with Parkinson's disease. More than one measure has been employed in most studies, and there is no consensus on a single precise measure for the evaluation of balance in this population. PMID:27390451

  15. Evidence-Based Skin Care: A Systematic Literature Review and the Development of a Basic Skin Care Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lichterfeld, Andrea; Hauss, Armin; Surber, Christian; Peters, Tina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Patients in acute and long-term care settings receive daily routine skin care, including washing, bathing, and showering, often followed by application of lotions, creams, and/or ointments. These personal hygiene and skin care activities are integral parts of nursing practice, but little is known about their benefits or clinical efficacy. The aim of this article was to summarize the empirical evidence supporting basic skin care procedures and interventions and to develop a clinical algorithm for basic skin care. Electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched and afterward a forward search was conducted using Scopus and Web of Science. In order to evaluate a broad range of basic skin care interventions systematic reviews, intervention studies, and guidelines, consensus statements and best practice standards also were included in the analysis. One hundred twenty-one articles were read in full text; 41documents were included in this report about skin care for prevention of dry skin, prevention of incontinence-associated dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries. The methodological quality of the included publications was variable. Review results and expert input were used to create a clinical algorithm for basic skin care. A 2-step approach is proposed including general and special skin care. Interventions focus primarily on skin that is either too dry or too moist. The target groups for the algorithm are adult patients or residents with intact or preclinical damaged skin in care settings. The goal of the skin care algorithm is a first attempt to provide guidance for practitioners to improve basic skin care in clinical settings in order to maintain or increase skin health.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Larry E.; Adams, Daniel O.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potential benefits provided by the addition of through-the-thickness reinforcement to sandwich structures. Through-the-thickness stitching is proposed to increase the interlaminar strength and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. A low-cost, out-of-autoclave processing method was developed to produce composite sandwich panels with carbon fiber face sheets, a closed-cell foam core, and through-the-thickness Kevlar stitching. The sandwich panels were stitched in a dry preform state, vacuum bagged, and infiltrated using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processing. For comparison purposes, unstitched sandwich panels were produced using the same materials and manufacturing methodology. Test panels were produced initially at the University of Utah and later at NASA Langley Research Center. Four types of mechanical tests were performed: flexural testing, flatwise tensile testing, core shear testing, and edgewise compression testing. Drop-weight impact testing followed by specimen sectioning was performed to characterize the damage resistance of stitched sandwich panels. Compression after impact (CAI) testing was performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the sandwich panels. Results show significant increases in the flexural stiffness and strength, out-of-plane tensile strength, core shear strength, edgewise compression strength, and compression-after-impact strength of stitched sandwich structures.

  17. How far can systematic reviews inform policy development for "wicked" rural health service problems?

    PubMed

    Humphreys, John S; Kuipers, Pim; Wakerman, John; Wells, Robert; Jones, Judith A; Kinsman, Leigh D

    2009-11-01

    Policy makers and researchers increasingly look to systematic reviews as a means of connecting research and evidence more effectively with policy. Based on Australian research into rural and remote primary health care services, we note some concerns regarding the suitability of systematic review methods when applied to such settings. It suggests that rural and other health services are highly complex and researching them is akin to dealing with "wicked" problems. It proposes that the notion of "wicked" problems may inform our understanding of the issues and our choice of appropriate methods to inform health service policy. Key issues including the complexity of health services, methodological limitations of traditional reviews, the nature of materials under review, and the importance of the service context are highlighted. These indicate the need for broader approaches to capturing relevant evidence. Sustained, collaborative synthesis in which complexity, ambiguity and context is acknowledged is proposed as a way of addressing the wicked nature of these issues.

  18. A systematic review of how studies describe educational interventions for evidence-based practice: stage 1 of the development of a reporting guideline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this systematic review was to identify which information is included when reporting educational interventions used to facilitate foundational skills and knowledge of evidence-based practice (EBP) training for health professionals. This systematic review comprised the first stage in the three stage development process for a reporting guideline for educational interventions for EBP. Methods The review question was ‘What information has been reported when describing educational interventions targeting foundational evidence-based practice knowledge and skills?’ MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Informit health, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were searched from inception until October - December 2011. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials reporting original data on educational interventions specific to developing foundational knowledge and skills of evidence-based practice were included. Studies were not appraised for methodological bias, however, reporting frequency and item commonality were compared between a random selection of studies included in the systematic review and a random selection of studies excluded as they were not controlled trials. Twenty-five data items were extracted by two independent reviewers (consistency > 90%). Results Sixty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 29 randomised, n = 32 non-randomised). The most consistently reported items were the learner’s stage of training, professional discipline and the evaluation methods used (100%). The least consistently reported items were the instructor(s) previous teaching experience (n = 8, 13%), and student effort outside face to face contact (n = 1, 2%). Conclusion This systematic review demonstrates inconsistencies in describing educational interventions for EBP in randomised and non-randomised trials. To enable educational interventions to be replicable and comparable, improvements in the

  19. Economic evaluations of interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in adult haemodialysis patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Evers, Silvia Maa

    2016-03-01

    Managing hyperphosphataemia in haemodialysis patients is resource-intensive. A search for cost-effective interventions in this field is needed to inform decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources. NHSEED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for full economic evaluations of hyperphosphataemia-managing interventions in adult haemodialysis patients, published between 2004 and 2014, in English, French, Dutch or German. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the interventions were up-rated to 2013US$ using Purchasing Power Parity conversion rates and Consumer Price Indices. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Extended Consensus on Health Economic Criteria List. Twelve out of the 1681 retrieved records fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They reported only on one aspect of hyperphosphataemia management, which is the use of phosphate binders (calcium-based and calcium-free, in first-line and sequential use). No economic evaluations of other phosphorus-lowering interventions were found. The included articles derived from five countries and most of them were funded by pharmaceutical companies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of phosphate binders ranged between US$11 461 and US$157 760 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Calcium-based binders (especially calcium acetate) appear to be the optimal cost-effective first- and second-line therapy in prevalent patients, while the calcium-free binder, lanthanum carbonate, might provide good value for money, as second-line therapy, in incident patients. The studies' overall quality was suboptimal. Drawing firm conclusions was not possible due to the quality heterogeneity and inconsistent results. Future high-quality economic evaluations are needed to confirm the findings of this review and to address other interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in this population. PMID:26246269

  20. Economic evaluations of interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in adult haemodialysis patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Evers, Silvia Maa

    2016-03-01

    Managing hyperphosphataemia in haemodialysis patients is resource-intensive. A search for cost-effective interventions in this field is needed to inform decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources. NHSEED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for full economic evaluations of hyperphosphataemia-managing interventions in adult haemodialysis patients, published between 2004 and 2014, in English, French, Dutch or German. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the interventions were up-rated to 2013US$ using Purchasing Power Parity conversion rates and Consumer Price Indices. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Extended Consensus on Health Economic Criteria List. Twelve out of the 1681 retrieved records fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They reported only on one aspect of hyperphosphataemia management, which is the use of phosphate binders (calcium-based and calcium-free, in first-line and sequential use). No economic evaluations of other phosphorus-lowering interventions were found. The included articles derived from five countries and most of them were funded by pharmaceutical companies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of phosphate binders ranged between US$11 461 and US$157 760 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Calcium-based binders (especially calcium acetate) appear to be the optimal cost-effective first- and second-line therapy in prevalent patients, while the calcium-free binder, lanthanum carbonate, might provide good value for money, as second-line therapy, in incident patients. The studies' overall quality was suboptimal. Drawing firm conclusions was not possible due to the quality heterogeneity and inconsistent results. Future high-quality economic evaluations are needed to confirm the findings of this review and to address other interventions to manage hyperphosphataemia in this population.

  1. Rmax: A systematic approach to evaluate instrument sort performance using center stream catch.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Andrew; Gardner, Rui; Perez-Gonzalez, Alexis; Lopes, Telma; Martinez, Lola

    2015-07-01

    Sorting performance can be evaluated with regard to Purity, Yield and/or Recovery of the sorted fraction. Purity is a check on the quality of the sample and the sort decisions made by the instrument. Recovery and Yield definitions vary with some authors regarding both as how efficient the instrument is at sorting the target particles from the original sample, others distinguishing Recovery from Yield, where the former is used to describe the accuracy of the instrument's sort count. Yield and Recovery are often neglected, mostly due to difficulties in their measurement. Purity of the sort product is often cited alone but is not sufficient to evaluate sorting performance. All of these three performance metrics require re-sampling of the sorted fraction. But, unlike Purity, calculating Yield and/or Recovery calls for the absolute counting of particles in the sorted fraction, which may not be feasible, particularly when dealing with rare populations and precious samples. In addition, the counting process itself involves large errors. Here we describe a new metric for evaluating instrument sort Recovery, defined as the number of particles sorted relative to the number of original particles to be sorted. This calculation requires only measuring the ratios of target and non-target populations in the original pre-sort sample and in the waste stream or center stream catch (CSC), avoiding re-sampling the sorted fraction and absolute counting. We called this new metric Rmax, since it corresponds to the maximum expected Recovery for a particular set of instrument parameters. Rmax is ideal to evaluate and troubleshoot the optimum drop-charge delay of the sorter, or any instrument related failures that will affect sort performance. It can be used as a daily quality control check but can be particularly useful to assess instrument performance before single-cell sorting experiments. Because we do not perturb the sort fraction we can calculate Rmax during the sort process, being

  2. [The influence of Janicki cercomer theory on the development of platyhelminthes systematics and evolution investigations].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    (Cestoda), Heynemann, Ginetsinskaja, Pearson, Cable, Rhode and Gibson (Trematoda), Bychovsky, Lambert and Malmberg (Monogenea) are referred, with special emphasises on the differences in the ideas presented by their authors. In the second period two points are underlined: a dynamic development of new techniques and methods (including molecular investigations) allowing to gather more and more different data on the parasites, and, as a consequence of this phenomenon, a new approach to the evolutionary problems--the birth of numeric and phylogenetic systematics. In this period "the cercomer theory", as well as supporting the group Cercomeromorphae generally are not accepted (exception: Brooks et al.). In contrast, the new taxon--Neodermata has been created by Ehlers. The importance of this publication for further evolutionary study is stressed. In this background some publications are quoted, especially those, presenting the results of searching for monophyletic groups and joining them in hieratic kladograms (Brooks and al., Rohde at al., Littlewood at al., and the others). It is stated, that in spite of some differences in the kladograms builded by various authors (resulting mainly from the set of features being analysed) the monophyly of big taxons of Neodermata (Trematoda, Monogenea, Cestoda) is fairly well documented. In conclusion several points connected with the "cercomer theory" are emphasized. It is now obvious, that the base of this theory--homology of caudal appendices of Janicki's Cercomerophora has to be rejected, as well as his concept of subsequent evolution of Platyhelminthes. But the base of his joining of Monogena, Trematoda (in his theory--Digenea) and Cestoda in one group (lack of cilia on the body surface), opposite to the Turbellaria (ciliary ephitelium) is maintained by the creation of Neodermata, undoubtedly documented better and in a different way. Also his idea (after many years of rejecting) on close affinity of Digenea and Cestoda seems to have

  3. [The influence of Janicki cercomer theory on the development of platyhelminthes systematics and evolution investigations].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    (Cestoda), Heynemann, Ginetsinskaja, Pearson, Cable, Rhode and Gibson (Trematoda), Bychovsky, Lambert and Malmberg (Monogenea) are referred, with special emphasises on the differences in the ideas presented by their authors. In the second period two points are underlined: a dynamic development of new techniques and methods (including molecular investigations) allowing to gather more and more different data on the parasites, and, as a consequence of this phenomenon, a new approach to the evolutionary problems--the birth of numeric and phylogenetic systematics. In this period "the cercomer theory", as well as supporting the group Cercomeromorphae generally are not accepted (exception: Brooks et al.). In contrast, the new taxon--Neodermata has been created by Ehlers. The importance of this publication for further evolutionary study is stressed. In this background some publications are quoted, especially those, presenting the results of searching for monophyletic groups and joining them in hieratic kladograms (Brooks and al., Rohde at al., Littlewood at al., and the others). It is stated, that in spite of some differences in the kladograms builded by various authors (resulting mainly from the set of features being analysed) the monophyly of big taxons of Neodermata (Trematoda, Monogenea, Cestoda) is fairly well documented. In conclusion several points connected with the "cercomer theory" are emphasized. It is now obvious, that the base of this theory--homology of caudal appendices of Janicki's Cercomerophora has to be rejected, as well as his concept of subsequent evolution of Platyhelminthes. But the base of his joining of Monogena, Trematoda (in his theory--Digenea) and Cestoda in one group (lack of cilia on the body surface), opposite to the Turbellaria (ciliary ephitelium) is maintained by the creation of Neodermata, undoubtedly documented better and in a different way. Also his idea (after many years of rejecting) on close affinity of Digenea and Cestoda seems to have

  4. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  5. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  6. Gender analysis in the development and validation of FFQ: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Kang, Minji; Song, Won Ok; Shim, Jae Eun; Paik, Hee Young

    2016-02-28

    FFQ comprising food items, intake frequency categories and portion sizes have been used in large-scale observational studies to assess long-term dietary exposure. Although gender is an important influence on food choice and portion size, gender differences are not often analysed during FFQ development. This study investigated whether gender differences were considered sufficiently when developing FFQ, which affects the results of validation studies. A PubMed search using combinations of 'FFQ', 'Food Frequency Questionnaire', 'Validation' and 'Validity' identified 246 validation studies available in English, published between January 1983 and May 2014, which included healthy male and female adults. The development process of the 196 FFQ used in the 246 validation studies was examined. Of these, twenty-one FFQ (10·7%) considered gender during item selection or portion size determination, and were therefore classified as gender specific (GS), but 175 (89·3%) did not consider gender, and were classified as 'not gender specific (NGS)'. When the ratios between intake levels obtained using the FFQ and a reference method for energy and seven nutrients were compared between the GS group and the NGS group, more significant differences were observed in women than in men (four v. one nutrient). Intake of three nutrients was significantly underestimated in both sexes in the GS group. In the NGS group, nutrient intakes were significantly overestimated more often in women than in men (four v. one). These results indicate that not considering gender in FFQ development causes greater inaccuracy in dietary intake assessment in women than in men. Results of nutritional epidemiological studies should be re-evaluated for their validity, especially if the studies used NGS-FFQ.

  7. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    PubMed

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes.

  8. Systematically Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Information Systems Capstone Course: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, T. Grandon; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    The information systems capstone experience for undergraduate majors is a topic frequently discussed in academic circles within the field. Though very little consensus exists on this topic, there are core themes that emerge in the design, development, and delivery of the undergraduate capstone courses. Our analysis of prior literature reveals four…

  9. The Association between Silica Exposure and Development of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puerta, Jose A.; Gedmintas, Lydia; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Crystalline silica is among the environmental exposures associated with increased risk of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Silica exposure has also been related to the development of ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), but past studies appear to conflict as to the presence and magnitude of the associated risks of disease. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the existing studies and meta-analysis of their results. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE and international scientific conference abstract databases for studies examining the association of silica exposure with AAV. Studies in English, French, or Spanish were included and those examining the association of silica with ANCA-positivity alone were excluded. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We meta-analyzed the results using random effects models and tested for heterogeneity. We performed sensitivity and subgroup analyses, examining studies that adjusted for smoking and occupational risk factors as well as studies that analyzed by subtypes of AAV. Results We identified 158 potential manuscripts and 3 abstracts related to silica exposure and risk of AAV. 147 were excluded after abstract review and 14 underwent detailed evaluation of full manuscript/abstract. After further application of exclusion criteria, 6 studies (all case-controls) remained. The studies had moderate heterogeneity in selection of cases and controls, exposure assessment, disease definition and controlling for potential confounders. We found an overall significant summary effect estimate of silica “ever exposure” with development of AAV (summary OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.51- 4.36), with moderate heterogeneity (I2=48.40%). ORs were similar for studies examining only MPA (OR 3.95, CI 95% 1.89-8.24), compared to those only studying GPA (OR 3.56, CI 95% 1.85-6.82). Conclusion Despite moderate heterogeneity among studies, the totality of

  10. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Batel Marques, Francisco; Penedones, Ana; Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs), besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs. Objective To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated. Results Twenty-nine (94%) longitudinal observational studies and two (7%) cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74%) studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%). Twenty (65%) studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65%) studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7%) also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7,192.36. Discussion Methodological heterogeneities were identified among the included studies, such as design, type of ADEs, suspected drugs, and type and structure of costs. Despite such discrepancies, the financial burden associated with ADE costs was found to be high. In the light of the present findings

  11. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Batel Marques, Francisco; Penedones, Ana; Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs), besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs. Objective To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated. Results Twenty-nine (94%) longitudinal observational studies and two (7%) cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74%) studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%). Twenty (65%) studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65%) studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7%) also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7,192.36. Discussion Methodological heterogeneities were identified among the included studies, such as design, type of ADEs, suspected drugs, and type and structure of costs. Despite such discrepancies, the financial burden associated with ADE costs was found to be high. In the light of the present findings

  12. [METHODS OF EVALUATION OF MUSCLE MASS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Osvaldo Costa; de Oliveira, Cláudia Eliza Patrocínio; Candia-Luján, Ramón; Romero-Pérez, Ena Monserrat; de Paz Fernandez, José Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: en los últimos años las investigaciones sobre la masa muscular han cobrado popularidad por su relación con la salud. Así, la medición precisa de la masa muscular puede tener aplicación clínica, ya que puede interferir en el diagnóstico y prescripción del tratamiento medicamentoso o no medicamentoso. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de los métodos más utilizados para la evaluación de la masa muscular en ensayos controlados aleatorios, con sus ventajas y desventajas. Método: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed, Web of Science y Scopus, con las palabras muscle mass, measurement, assessment y evaluation, combinadas de esta manera: “muscle mass” AND (measurement OR assessment OR evaluation). Resultados: 23 estudios fueron recuperados y analizados, todos ellos en inglés. El 69,56% utilizaron solamente un método para la cuantificación de la masa muscular; el 69,57% utilizaron la doble absorciometría de rayos X (DXA); en el 45,46% el tipo de medida utilizado fue la masa corporal total libre de grasa; y el 51,61% eligieron el cuerpo total como sitio de medida. Conclusiones: en los ensayos controlados aleatorios analizados la mayor parte utilizó apenas un método de evaluación, siendo la DXA el método más empleado, la masa corporal total libre de grasa el tipo de medida más utilizado y el cuerpo total el sitio de medida más común.

  13. [Developing Effective Program Evaluations: Fact Pack].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmyer, David B.; Huntington, Gail S.

    This information package offers guidelines on conducting program evaluations to improve services. Though the examples relate specifically to respite care services for families of individuals with disabilities, the information is more generally applicable. In the first of four factsheets, titled "Local Program Evaluation," the form of evaluation…

  14. Evaluating Leadership Development in an Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Brett; Cormack, Erica; Spice, Barb

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of the Royal Military College of Canada's Aboriginal Leadership Opportunity Year leadership practicum was conducted in 2009. This novel approach used several human performance technology (HPT) models to frame the evaluation and identify the dimensions and subdimensions of merit. This article explains the theoretical framework of the…

  15. Evaluation of Training Programs for Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indira, A.

    2008-01-01

    An Evaluation of the "Impact Assessment of the Training Programs" of a National Level Training Institution in India was conducted using the Kirkpatrick Method (KP Method). The studied Institution takes up research, provides training, offers consultancy and initiates action in the rural sector of India. The evaluation study used a detailed…

  16. Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results of the evaluation

  17. Toward a More Systematic Assessment of Smoking: Development of a Smoking Module for PROMIS®

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the PROMIS® Smoking Initiative is to develop, evaluate, and standardize item banks to assess cigarette smoking behavior and biopsychosocial constructs associated with smoking for both daily and non-daily smokers. Methods We used qualitative methods to develop the item pool (following the PROMIS® approach: e.g., literature search, “binning and winnowing” of items, and focus groups and cognitive interviews to finalize wording and format), and quantitative methods (e.g., factor analysis) to develop the item banks. Results We considered a total of 1622 extant items, and 44 new items for inclusion in the smoking item banks. A final set of 277 items representing 11 conceptual domains was selected for field testing in a national sample of smokers. Using data from 3021 daily smokers in the field test, an iterative series of exploratory factor analyses and project team discussions resulted in six item banks: Positive Consequences of Smoking (40 items), Smoking Dependence/Craving (55 items), Health Consequences of Smoking (26 items), Psychosocial Consequences of Smoking (37 items), Coping Aspects of Smoking (30 items), and Social Factors of Smoking (23 items). Conclusions Inclusion of a smoking domain in the PROMIS® framework will standardize measurement of key smoking constructs using state-of-the-art psychometric methods, and make them widely accessible to health care providers, smoking researchers and the large community of researchers using PROMIS® who might not otherwise include an assessment of smoking in their design. Next steps include reducing the number of items in each domain, conducting confirmatory analyses, and duplicating the process for non-daily smokers. PMID:22770824

  18. Measurement properties of instruments evaluating self-care and related concepts in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clari, Marco; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The use of valid and reliable instruments for assessing self-care is crucial for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the measurement properties and theoretical foundations of instruments for assessing self-care and related concepts in people with COPD. A systematic review was conducted of articles describing the development and validation of self-care instruments. The methodological quality of the measurement properties was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Ten studies were included evaluating five instruments: three for assessing self-care and self-management and two for assessing self-efficacy. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale was the most studied instrument, but due to poor study methodological quality, evidence about its measurement properties is inconclusive. Evidence from the COPD Self-Management Scale is more promising, but only one study tested its properties. Due to inconclusive evidence of their measurement properties, no instrument can be recommended for clinical use.

  19. Systematic Evaluation of Different Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for Cytomegalovirus Detection: Feasibility of Blood Donor Screening.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

    2015-10-01

    Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 10(2) to 4.30 × 10(3) IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(-) or IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(+)), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection.

  20. Systematic Evaluation of Different Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for Cytomegalovirus Detection: Feasibility of Blood Donor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Knabbe, C.; Dreier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 102 to 4.30 × 103 IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA+/IgM+/IgG− or IgA+/IgM+/IgG+), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection. PMID:26202109

  1. Evaluation of multi-level social learning for sustainable landscapes: perspective of a development initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederic; Drotz, Marcus K; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F Henry; McTaggart, Johanna; Olsson, Anders; Pautov, Yurij; Svensson, Lennart; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized. PMID:23475659

  2. Evaluation of multi-level social learning for sustainable landscapes: perspective of a development initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederic; Drotz, Marcus K; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F Henry; McTaggart, Johanna; Olsson, Anders; Pautov, Yurij; Svensson, Lennart; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.

  3. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  4. The warfarin–cranberry juice interaction revisited: A systematic in vitro–in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ngoc; Brantley, Scott J; Carrizosa, Daniel R; Kashuba, Angela DM; Dees, E Claire; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Background Cranberry products have been implicated in several case reports to enhance the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The mechanism could involve inhibition of the hepatic CYP2C9-mediated metabolic clearance of warfarin by components in cranberry. Because dietary/natural substances vary substantially in bioactive ingredient composition, multiple cranberry products were evaluated in vitro before testing this hypothesis in vivo. Methods The inhibitory effects of five types of cranberry juices were compared with those of water on CYP2C9 activity (S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation) in human liver microsomes (HLM). The most potent juice was compared with water on S/R-warfarin pharmacokinetics in 16 healthy participants given a single dose of warfarin 10 mg. Results Only one juice inhibited S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in HLM in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05), from 20% to >95% at 0.05% to 0.5% juice (v/v), respectively. However, this juice had no effect on the geometric mean AUC0–∞ and terminal half-life of S/R-warfarin in human subjects. Conclusions A cranberry juice that inhibited warfarin metabolism in HLM had no effect on warfarin clearance in healthy participants. The lack of an in vitro–in vivo concordance likely reflects the fact that the site of warfarin metabolism (liver) is remote from the site of exposure to the inhibitory components in the cranberry juice (intestine). PMID:20865058

  5. Pronuclear morphology evaluation for fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The current systematic review was aimed to assess the effectiveness of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. All available studies reporting on zygote morphology and clinical and/or biological outcomes were analyzed. Forty studies were included in the final analysis. Fourteen different zygote scoring systems were employed. Zygote morphology correlated significantly with embryo quality and cleavage, blastocyst stage, embryonic chromosome status, in a high proportion of the studies which assessed the specific outcome [15/25 (60%), 15/20 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%), 6/6 (100%), respectively]. On the other hand, only a reduced proportion of papers showed a statistically significant relationship between implantation, pregnancy and delivery/live-birth rates and zygote morphology score [12/23 (52.2%), 12/25 (48%), 1/4 (25%), respectively]. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the lack of conclusive data on the clinical efficacy of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles, even if biological results showing a good relationship with embryo viability suggest a role in cycles in which the transfer/freezing is performed at day 1. PMID:24028277

  6. Structural review of the San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads. Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.Y.

    1982-05-01

    This report is a structural assessment of the containment structure of the San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station Unit 1, performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The San Onofre assessment focused on the overall structural integrity of the containment structure under a safe shutdown earthquake an a postulated design basis accident. The safe shutdown earthquake was represented by the Housner Spectra, scaled to 0.67 g peak ground acceleration. The postulated design basis accident was either a loss of coolant accident or a main steam line break. Several combined stresses were evaluated for their adherence to the 1980 edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code allowables. All the calculated stress intensities were found to be acceptable according to this code except the general primary membrane stress due to combined dead and pressure loads under level A service limits. Because the containment structure was previously tested under combined dead and pressure loads for a higher peak pressure than the one used here, this study concluded that it was acceptable.

  7. Development Research of a Teachers' Educational Performance Support System: The Practices of Design, Development, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Smith, Thomas J.; Harris, Marian S.; Lockard, James

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted design and development research methodology (Richey & Klein, "Design and development research: Methods, strategies, and issues," 2007) to systematically investigate the process of applying instructional design principles, human-computer interaction, and software engineering to a performance support system (PSS) for behavior…

  8. Evaluating systematic dependencies of type Ia supernovae : the influence of deflagration to detonation density.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A. P.; Calder, A. C.; Townsley, D. M.; Chamulak, D. A.; Brown, E. F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2010-09-01

    We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} for a 1 Z {circle_dot} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.

  9. EVALUATING SYSTEMATIC DEPENDENCIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE INFLUENCE OF DEFLAGRATION TO DETONATION DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2010-09-01

    We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {sub sun} for a 1 Z{sub sun} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M{sub sun} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.

  10. Evaluation of a systematic approach for identifying injury scenarios. Kids'n' Cars Teams.

    PubMed Central

    Christoffel, K. K.; Schofer, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a new multidisciplinary method for reconstructing the causal sequences that lead to child pedestrian injuries. SETTING: Subjects were 5-12 year old residents of Chicago, Illinois, USA, presenting for care due to pedestrian injury at one pediatric trauma center. METHODS: The interactions of medical, child, psychosocial, and traffic factors contributing to the injury were analysed. For 142 cases, information about the victim, his/her family, the injury site, and the activities just before the injury, was used in a structured manner by a multidisciplinary team to produce injury scenarios. Each scenario comprised a list of contributing factors, an estimate of the importance of each, and a narrative description of the causal sequence leading to the injury event. Face validity was assessed by two outside teams that performed a structured review of a subsample of cases (n = 11). Reliability was evaluated by comparison of the results of parallel teams assessing the same cases (n = 14). Process consistency and bias were assessed by analysis of the correlations of factor-importance rating patterns between members and over time. RESULTS: The outside team's agreement scores were based on a 1-5 Likert scale; these showed a mean of 3.6 and median of 4.0. Parallel teams consistently showed agreement greater than 85% on global attributes of cases. Intraclass correlation coefficient scores showed fair or better agreement for all classes of contributors, and excellent agreement for more than one third. Rating pattern analyses showed strong agreement by team members. Agreement did not increase over the period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: This causal sequence reconstruction method has acceptable face validity, reliability, and internal consistency. Although labor intensive and thus costly, it can produce unique, rich information for understanding injury causation and for guiding the search for promising interventions. PMID:9346095

  11. Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Farshad; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Arabloo, Jalal; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Norouzi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy. Methods: The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. Results from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intraoperative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications; and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer. Conclusion: According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology. PMID:26793649

  12. Statewide Systematic Evaluation of Sudden, Unexpected Infant Death Classification: Results from a National Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Kryscio, Richard; Holsinger, James W.; Krous, Henry F.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded seven states, including Kentucky, to clarify statewide death certification practices in sudden, unexpected infant death and compare state performances with national expectations. Accurate assignment of the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected infant death is critical for accurate vital statistics data to direct limited resources to appropriate targets, and to implement optimal and safe risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives are to (1) Compare SUID death certifications recommended by the KY medical examiners with the stated cause of death text field on the hard copy death electronic death certificates and (2) Compare KY and national SUID rates. Causes of death for SUID cases recommended by the medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates in KY were collected retrospectively for 2004 and 2005. Medical examiner recommendations were based upon a classification scheme devised by them in 2003. Coroners hard copy death certificates and the cause of death rates in KY were compared to those occurring nationally. Eleven percent of infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly did not undergo autopsy during the study interval. The KY 2003 classification scheme for SIDS is at variance with the NICHD and San Diego SIDS definitions. Significant differences in causes of death recommended by medical examiners and those appearing on the hard copy and electronic death certificates were identified. SIDS rates increased in KY in contrast to decreasing rates nationally. Nationwide adoption of a widely used SIDS definition, such as that proposed in San Diego in 2004 as well as legislation by states to ensure autopsy in all cases of sudden unexpected infant death are recommended. Medical examiners’ recommendations for cause of death should appear on death certificates. Multidisciplinary pediatric death review teams prospectively evaluating cases before death

  13. A Systematic Evaluation of Different Methods for Calculating Adolescent Vaccination Levels Using Immunization Information System Data

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Charitha; Dong, Shiming; Potter, Rachel C.; Dombkowski, Kevin J.; Stokley, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Immunization information systems (IISs) are valuable surveillance tools; however, population relocation may introduce bias when determining immunization coverage. We explored alternative methods for estimating the vaccine-eligible population when calculating adolescent immunization levels using a statewide IIS. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Michigan State Care Improvement Registry (MCIR) for all adolescents aged 11–18 years registered in the MCIR as of October 2010. We explored four methods for determining denominators: (1) including all adolescents with MCIR records, (2) excluding adolescents with out-of-state residence, (3) further excluding those without MCIR activity ≥10 years prior to the evaluation date, and (4) using a denominator based on U.S. Census data. We estimated state- and county-specific coverage levels for four adolescent vaccines. Results We found a 20% difference in estimated vaccination coverage between the most inclusive and restrictive denominator populations. Although there was some variability among the four methods in vaccination at the state level (2%–11%), greater variation occurred at the county level (up to 21%). This variation was substantial enough to potentially impact public health assessments of immunization programs. Generally, vaccines with higher coverage levels had greater absolute variation, as did counties with smaller populations. Conclusion At the county level, using the four denominator calculation methods resulted in substantial differences in estimated adolescent immunization rates that were less apparent when aggregated at the state level. Further research is needed to ascertain the most appropriate method for estimating vaccine coverage levels using IIS data. PMID:24179260

  14. Systematic Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Questionnaire to Assess Toddler Feeding12

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Kristen M.; Pepper, M. Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E.; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R.; Black, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers’ responses to concerns about their children’s dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12–32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α: 0.64–0.87) and test-retest (0.57–0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P < 0.05) convergent validity results further validated the scale, confirming established relations between feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior. PMID:24068792

  15. Developing attributes for discrete choice experiments in health: a systematic literature review and case study of alcohol misuse interventions

    PubMed Central

    Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health. PMID:27695386

  16. Developing attributes for discrete choice experiments in health: a systematic literature review and case study of alcohol misuse interventions

    PubMed Central

    Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health.

  17. Systematic evaluation of four-dimensional hybrid depth scanning for carbon-ion lung therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji; Inaniwa, Taku; Zenklusen, Silvan; Nakao, Minoru; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Irradiation of a moving target with a scanning beam requires a comprehensive understanding of organ motion as well as a robust dose error mitigation technique. The authors studied the effects of intrafractional respiratory motion for carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with phase-controlled rescanning on dose distributions for lung tumors. To address density variations, they used 4DCT data. Methods: Dose distributions for various rescanning methods, such as simple layer rescanning (LR), volumetric rescanning, and phase-controlled rescanning (PCR), were calculated for a lung phantom and a lung patient studies. To ensure realism, they set the scanning parameters such as scanning velocity and energy variation time to be similar to those used at our institution. Evaluation metrics were determined with regard to clinical relevance, and consisted of (i) phase-controlled rescanning, (ii) sweep direction, (iii) target motion (direction and amplitude), (iv) respiratory cycle, and (v) prescribed dose. Spot weight maps were calculated by using a beam field-specific target volume, which takes account of range variations for respective respiratory phases. To emphasize the impact of intrafractional motion on the dose distribution, respiratory gating was not used. The accumulated dose was calculated by applying a B-spline-based deformable image registration, and the results for phase-controlled layered rescanning (PCR{sub L}) and phase-controlled volumetric rescanning (PCR{sub V}) were compared. Results: For the phantom study, simple LR was unable to improve the dose distributions for an increased number of rescannings. The phase-controlled technique without rescanning (1 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub L} and 1 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub V}) degraded dose conformity significantly due to a reduced scan velocity. In contrast, 4 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub L} or more significantly and consistently improved dose distribution. PCR{sub V} showed interference effects, but in general

  18. Reflections on conducting evaluations for rural development interventions in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Laura Pan; Liu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    An appropriate evaluation methodology is critical in collecting valid data in complex development intervention contexts. This paper explores this issue by putting forward an appropriate evaluation methodology for development interventions in rural China. It draws on the experience of an impact evaluation of a sustainable agricultural biodiversity management project conducted in Hainan, China in 2010. The authors propose that evaluation be culturally responsive and the evaluation design be rooted in the particular cultural context where an evaluation is conducted. The appropriate use of the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach and methods helps generate data that are relevant and meaningful for evaluation purposes in rural China.

  19. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Øiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I; Thorlund, J B

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and combined using a random effects model. Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis after the initial searches. Five cohort studies with a follow-up time between 2.5 and 14 years, and a total number of 5707 participants (3553 males and 2154 females), were finally included. The meta-analysis showed an overall increased risk of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in participants with knee extensor muscle weakness (OR 1.65 95% CI 1.23, 2.21; I(2) = 50.5%). This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that knee extensor muscle weakness was associated with an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in both men and women.

  20. The Development of Logical Structures for E-Learning Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudevdagva, Uranchimeg; Hardt, Wolfram; Dolgor, Jargalmaa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with development of logical structures for e-learning evaluation. Evaluation is a complex task into which many different groups of people are involved. As a rule these groups have different understanding and varying expectations on e-learning evaluation. Using logical structures for e-learning evaluation we can join the different…

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Leadership Development: A Professional Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martineau, Jennifer; Hannum, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Scratch the surface of any successful organization and readers will likely find systems designed to evaluate how well it runs. The approach to evaluation presented in this book can be applied in a variety of contexts, but the focus here is on the evaluation of leadership development initiatives. Effective evaluations keep leadership development…

  2. Training Software Developers and Designers to Conduct Usability Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Mikael Brasholt; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Many efforts to improve the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both of these approaches depend on a complete division of work between…

  3. EVALUATING SYSTEMATIC DEPENDENCIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE INFLUENCE OF PROGENITOR {sup 22}Ne CONTENT ON DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Dean M.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2009-08-20

    We present a theoretical framework for formal study of systematic effects in supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia) that utilizes two-dimensional simulations to implement a form of the deflagration-detonation transition (DDT) explosion scenario. The framework is developed from a randomized initial condition that leads to a sample of simulated SNe Ia whose {sup 56}Ni masses have a similar average and range to those observed, and have many other modestly realistic features such as the velocity extent of intermediate-mass elements. The intended purpose is to enable statistically well defined studies of both physical and theoretical parameters of the SNe Ia explosion simulation. We present here a thorough description of the outcome of the SNe Ia explosions produced by our current simulations. A first application of this framework is utilized to study the dependence of the SNe Ia on the {sup 22}Ne content, which is known to be directly influenced by the progenitor stellar population's metallicity. Our study is very specifically tailored to measure how the {sup 22}Ne content influences the competition between the rise of plumes of burned material and the expansion of the star before these plumes reach DDT conditions. This influence arises from the dependence of the energy release, progenitor structure, and laminar flame speed on {sup 22}Ne content. For this study, we explore these three effects for a fixed carbon content and DDT density. By setting the density at which nucleosynthesis takes place during the detonation phase of the explosion, the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion controls the amount of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) and therefore {sup 56}Ni produced. Of particular interest is how this influence of {sup 22}Ne content compares to the direct modification of the {sup 56}Ni mass via the inherent neutron excess as discussed by Timmes et al. Although the outcome following from any particular ignition condition can change dramatically

  4. Teaching Web Evaluation: A Cognitive Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjes-Small, Candice; Archer, Alyssa; Tucker, Katelyn; Vassady, Lisa; Resor, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Web evaluation has been a standard information literacy offering for years and has always been a challenging topic for instruction librarians. Over time, the authors had tried a myriad of strategies to teach freshmen how to assess the credibility of Web sites but felt the efforts were insufficient. By familiarizing themselves with the cognitive…

  5. 'Paranoia and its historical development (systematized delusion)', by Eugenio Tanzi (1884).

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This was the first paper by the Italian alienist Eugenio Tanzi (1856-1934). It surveyed existing works and provided an analysis of clinical categories such as monomania, sensory madness, moral insanity, Wahnsinn, Verrücktheit and systematized delusions, which had been used in France, Germany, Britain and Italy since the early nineteenth century to deal with paranoia. As pointed out by Tanzi, discrepancies and discontinuities in diagnostic concepts affected both psychiatric nosology and practice. Paranoia (from the Greek παρά and νοια) made for greater clarity in psychiatric terminology, and denoted a broad category, including both acute and chronic delusional states which were considered to be distinct from mania and melancholia, and usually not to lead to mental deterioration.

  6. 'Paranoia and its historical development (systematized delusion)', by Eugenio Tanzi (1884).

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This was the first paper by the Italian alienist Eugenio Tanzi (1856-1934). It surveyed existing works and provided an analysis of clinical categories such as monomania, sensory madness, moral insanity, Wahnsinn, Verrücktheit and systematized delusions, which had been used in France, Germany, Britain and Italy since the early nineteenth century to deal with paranoia. As pointed out by Tanzi, discrepancies and discontinuities in diagnostic concepts affected both psychiatric nosology and practice. Paranoia (from the Greek παρά and νοια) made for greater clarity in psychiatric terminology, and denoted a broad category, including both acute and chronic delusional states which were considered to be distinct from mania and melancholia, and usually not to lead to mental deterioration. PMID:27145948

  7. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. Methods A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Results Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. Conclusion This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. Further efforts are required from

  8. The Federal Role in Vocational and Technical Education at the Secondary Level: Principles for Moving toward a Greater Emphasis on Supporting Systematic Innovation and Rigorous Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, James J.

    This paper argues that the federal government's role in vocational and technical education (VTE) should include a greater emphasis on systematically testing promising strategies and interventions and subjecting them to rigorous evaluations of their effects, implementation, costs, and benefits. Section 1 presents a rationale for rethinking the…

  9. Practitioner Review: The Effectiveness of Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Children and Families: A Systematic and Critical Evaluation of the Literature from 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Woods, Kevin; Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy; Green, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background and scope: Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strengths-based therapeutic approach, emphasizing the resources that people possess and how these can be applied to a positive change process. The current study provides a systematic review of the SFBT evidence base and a critical evaluation of the use and application of SFBT in…

  10. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effective audit in general practice: a method for systematically developing audit protocols containing evidence-based review criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, R C; Khunti, K; Baker, R; Lakhani, M

    1997-01-01

    Though many general practitioners (GPs) now take part in audit, there is still concern about the extent to which participation in audit leads to improvements in practice. Improved methods are needed for the incorporation of research evidence into criteria for use in audit. In this paper, a six-stage systematic method is described for developing audit protocols containing prioritized evidence-based criteria. The stages are: selection of a topic, identification of key elements of care, focused literature reviews, prioritization of the criteria on the strength of the evidence and impact on outcome, preparation of full documentation, and peer review. PMID:9519525

  12. Systematic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Progam Award and Course and Curriculum Development Program Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    ,000 Application modules in the form of projects and active learning techniques to provide a strong foundation in the principles of chemical measurement and to pique the interest of both chemistry majors and nonmajors will be developed for use in introductory analytical courses. The modules will address an analytical problem drawn from current research in biological, environmental, or materials science. Students will be responsible for proposing and evaluating analytical protocols to solve the problems: they will conduct workshops and design their own laboratory experiments. A multidisciplinary Advisory Council will guide the PIs in problem selection and module development. A two-week faculty workshop will provide training in the use of these modules. A World Wide Web home page will be used to distribute information about the modules and will allow users to share experiences using them. Modules will ultimately be distributed by a commercial publisher. Process Workshops for General Chemistry. David M. Hanson SUNY at Stony Brook DUE 9555142 150,000 The process skills needed by students will be addressed by developing innovations in both content and methodology to replace recitation sessions associated with large lecture courses by process workshops, specifically for introductory chemistry courses. The novel format involves process skills, student participation, and active learning at the forefront. Students will work in cooperative-learning groups on lessons that involve discovery learning, critical thinking, problem solving, reporting, and assessment. Computer-based technology will be used to provide personalized quizzes, and the workshop lessons will be transported to a computer network, multi-media format. The objectives of this project are to develop teaching strategies that support a successful cooperative-learning environment, develop lessons that enhance the understanding of concepts and promote learning and problem solving through the use of higher order thinking skills

  13. Development and evaluation of advanced austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.; King, J.F.; Bolling, E.

    1990-01-01

    Research was performed on advanced austenitic alloys for tubing in heat recovery systems. Evaluations addressed the need to optimize strength, fabricability, and surface protection for specific environments and temperatures. Alloys studied included advanced lean austenitic stainless steels and higher chromium alloys to 760{degree}C, nickel-chromium-iron aluminides at temperature to 760{degree}C, and Ni--Cr alloys with capability for service to 1000{degree}C. Coordinated research was performed at a number of universities and industrial research facilities. Evaluation of the lean stainless steels focused on MC-forming alloys and a family of modified 316 stainless steels. Work nearing completion revealed that many of the alloy design criteria for the lean stainless steels could be met. With the judicious selection of thermal-mechanical processing, data indicated that high strength and ductility could be achieved in both base metal and weldments. Fabrication requirements needed to produce optimum performance called for high solution treating temperatures and small levels of cold or warm work. Evaluations of high chromium stainless steels and modifications of alloy 800H were encouraging, and good properties were observed for temperatures to 760{degree}C. Work on the alloys and claddings for service to 1000{degree}C was begun on two commercial alloys of nearest in PBFC hot gas cleanup systems. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The epilepsy treatment gap in developing countries: a systematic review of the magnitude, causes and intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mbuba, Caroline K.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Newton, Charles R.; Carter, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries, people with epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, a phenomenon called the treatment gap (TG). We carried out a systematic review to investigate the magnitude, causes and intervention strategies to improve outcomes in developing countries. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases, supplemented by a hand search of references in the key papers. The degree of heterogeneity and a pooled TG estimate were determined using meta-analysis techniques. The estimates were further stratified by continent and location of study (urban, rural). Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria: twelve from Africa, nine from Asia and six from Latin America. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity and inconsistency between studies. The overall estimate of the TG was 56/100 (95% CI: 31.1-100.0). The variation in estimates could possibly be explained by non-uniform TG estimation methods and the diverse study populations, among other factors. The TG was mainly attributed to inadequate skilled manpower, cost of treatment, cultural beliefs and unavailability of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). These factors have been addressed using different intervention strategies for instance education and supply of AEDs. Future research should estimate the TG coherently and develop sustainable interventions that will address the causes. PMID:18557778

  15. VivaScope® 1500 and 3000 systems for detecting and monitoring skin lesions: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Steven J; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Osei-Assibey, George; Marceniuk, Gemma; Wakefield, Victoria; Karner, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. The main risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or the use of sunbeds. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are first examined with a dermoscope. After examination, those with non-cancerous lesions are discharged, but lesions that are still considered clinically suspicious are surgically removed. VivaScope(®) is a non-invasive technology designed to be used in conjunction with dermoscopy to provide a more accurate diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions or to provide more accurate presurgical margins reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of VivaScope(®) 1500 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA; Lucid Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; or Lucid Inc., MAVIG GmbH, Munich, Germany) and VivaScope(®) 3000 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA) in the diagnosis of equivocal skin lesions, and VivaScope 3000 in lesion margin delineation prior to surgical excision of lesions. DATA SOURCES Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched on 14 October 2014, reference lists of included papers were assessed and clinical experts were contacted for additional information on published and unpublished studies. METHODS A systematic review was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies evaluating dermoscopy plus VivaScope, or VivaScope alone, with histopathology as the reference test. A probabilistic de novo economic model was developed to synthesise the available data on costs and clinical outcomes from the UK NHS perspective. All costs were expressed as 2014 prices. RESULTS Sixteen studies were included in the review, but they were too heterogeneous to be combined in a meta-analysis. One of two diagnostic studies that were deemed most representative of UK clinical practice reported that dermoscopy plus VivaScope 1500

  16. VivaScope® 1500 and 3000 systems for detecting and monitoring skin lesions: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Steven J; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Osei-Assibey, George; Marceniuk, Gemma; Wakefield, Victoria; Karner, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. The main risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or the use of sunbeds. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are first examined with a dermoscope. After examination, those with non-cancerous lesions are discharged, but lesions that are still considered clinically suspicious are surgically removed. VivaScope(®) is a non-invasive technology designed to be used in conjunction with dermoscopy to provide a more accurate diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions or to provide more accurate presurgical margins reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of VivaScope(®) 1500 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA; Lucid Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; or Lucid Inc., MAVIG GmbH, Munich, Germany) and VivaScope(®) 3000 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA) in the diagnosis of equivocal skin lesions, and VivaScope 3000 in lesion margin delineation prior to surgical excision of lesions. DATA SOURCES Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched on 14 October 2014, reference lists of included papers were assessed and clinical experts were contacted for additional information on published and unpublished studies. METHODS A systematic review was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies evaluating dermoscopy plus VivaScope, or VivaScope alone, with histopathology as the reference test. A probabilistic de novo economic model was developed to synthesise the available data on costs and clinical outcomes from the UK NHS perspective. All costs were expressed as 2014 prices. RESULTS Sixteen studies were included in the review, but they were too heterogeneous to be combined in a meta-analysis. One of two diagnostic studies that were deemed most representative of UK clinical practice reported that dermoscopy plus VivaScope 1500

  17. Program Evaluation Development in the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimov, Afar; Borovykh, Alexander; Kuzmin, Alexey; Abdykadyrova, Asel; Efendiev, Djahangir; Greshnova, Ekaterina; Konovalova, Elena; Frants, Inessa; Palivoda, Liubov; Usifli, Seymour; Balakirev, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the development of program evaluation in CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries. We start by telling a story that describes how evaluation appeared in the scene, how it developed and who the key players were in its development. We discuss the issue of demand for and supply of evaluation…

  18. The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouge, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-01

    In May 1990, the first evaluation seminar in Africa took place in Cote d'Ivoire. It was the first in a series of regional seminars on evaluation planned by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The seminar was jointly presented by the DAC and African Development Bank (ADB).…

  19. Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Concept development and technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, G.W.; Berthold, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Babcock Wilcox Company (B W) was contracted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to perform Phase 1 of a Research Development (R D) program on a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) System for Industrial Furnaces. The objective of the Phase 1 effort was to develop, evaluate and recommend concepts for measuring the internal temperature of steel workpieces undergoing processing within an industrial furnace. In addition, the Phase 1 effort was to determine the economic benefits which would be derived from such a system and the steel industry's interest in the commercial availability of a WPTA. This initial Phase 1 effort then could be used to determine the desirability of pursuing this concept through Phase 2 development and laboratory testing, and Phase 3 prototype construction and field testing. This phased approach allows GO/NO/GO decisions to be made at each step along the way and assures optimum use of available funds. The end goal of the entire program is the development of a commercial product whose use would result in a significant monetary benefit to the industry in terms of cost savings resulting from reduced energy use, reduced material loss, reduced manhours per ton of finished product and potentially other benefits such as improved product quality. 37 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Beyond resistance: exploring health managers' propensity for participatory evaluation in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Smits, Pernelle A; Champagne, François; Farand, Lambert

    2012-05-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the components of learning, working in groups, use of judgment and use of systematic methods. We interviewed 16 health managers to determine the meaning they ascribe to these four components in their practice in a developing country, Haïti. We found that learning was often informal and that all managers attached a negative meaning to the use of judgment. Working in groups was favored by all managers, while the health managers viewed the use of systematic methods differently than do evaluators. The administrative health managers generally ranked lower in propensity for PPE than did their clinical colleagues. Implications for the practice of evaluation are discussed in relation to the work styles exhibited by managers in everyday practice, the proactive repetition of actions, the control exercised by formal procedures, and the collective versus "solitary" image of one's environment of action. PMID:22221891

  1. Spinel compounds as multivalent battery cathodes: A systematic evaluation based on ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Miao; Rong, Ziqin; Malik, Rahul; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Jain, Anubhav; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.

    2014-12-16

    In this study, batteries that shuttle multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions are promising candidates for achieving higher energy density than available with current Li-ion technology. Finding electrode materials that reversibly store and release these multivalent cations is considered a major challenge for enabling such multivalent battery technology. In this paper, we use recent advances in high-throughput first-principles calculations to systematically evaluate the performance of compounds with the spinel structure as multivalent intercalation cathode materials, spanning a matrix of five different intercalating ions and seven transition metal redox active cations. We estimate the insertion voltage, capacity, thermodynamic stability of charged and discharged states, as well as the intercalating ion mobility and use these properties to evaluate promising directions. Our calculations indicate that the Mn2O4 spinel phase based on Mg and Ca are feasible cathode materials. In general, we find that multivalent cathodes exhibit lower voltages compared to Li cathodes; the voltages of Ca spinels are ~0.2 V higher than those of Mg compounds (versus their corresponding metals), and the voltages of Mg compounds are ~1.4 V higher than Zn compounds; consequently, Ca and Mg spinels exhibit the highest energy densities amongst all the multivalent cation species. The activation barrier for the Al³⁺ ion migration in the Mn₂O₄ spinel is very high (~1400 meV for Al3+ in the dilute limit); thus, the use of an Al based Mn spinel intercalation cathode is unlikely. Amongst the choice of transition metals, Mn-based spinel structures rank highest when balancing all the considered properties.

  2. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Irwin, C K; Yoon, K J; Wang, C; Hoff, S J; Zimmerman, J J; Denagamage, T; O'Connor, A M

    2011-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design. PMID:21148699

  3. Evaluation of emergency department performance – a systematic review on recommended performance and quality-in-care measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. Aim To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published literature regard as being most relevant in assessing overall ED performance. Methods Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review of review articles reporting accentuated ED performance measures was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. Results A number of articles addresses this study’s objective (n = 14 of 46 unique hits). Time intervals and patient-related measures were dominant in the identified performance measures in review articles from US, UK, Sweden and Canada. Length of stay (LOS), time between patient arrival to initial clinical assessment, and time between patient arrivals to admission were highlighted by the majority of articles. Concurrently, “patients left without being seen” (LWBS), unplanned re-attendance within a maximum of 72 hours, mortality/morbidity, and number of unintended incidents were the most highlighted performance measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. Conclusions A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study’s results allow for advancement

  4. Using the Systematic Review Methodology To Evaluate Factors That Influence the Persistence of Influenza Virus in Environmental Matrices▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, C. K.; Yoon, K. J.; Wang, C.; Hoff, S. J.; Zimmerman, J. J.; Denagamage, T.; O'Connor, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design. PMID:21148699

  5. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Irwin, C K; Yoon, K J; Wang, C; Hoff, S J; Zimmerman, J J; Denagamage, T; O'Connor, A M

    2011-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design.

  6. Systematic evaluation of nitrate and perchlorate bioreduction kinetics in groundwater using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Ziv-El, Michal C; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the simultaneous reduction kinetics of the oxidized compounds, we treated nitrate-contaminated groundwater (approximately 9.4 mg-N/L) containing low concentrations of perchlorate (approximately 12.5 microg/L) and saturated with dissolved oxygen (approximately 8 mg/L) in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). We systematically increased the hydrogen availability and simultaneously varied the surface loading of the oxidized compounds on the biofilm in order to provide a comprehensive, quantitative data set with which to evaluate the relationship between electron donor (H(2)) availability, surface loading of the electron acceptors (oxidized compounds), and simultaneous bioreduction of the electron acceptors. Increasing the H(2) pressure delivered more H(2) gas, and the total H(2) flux increased linearly from approximately 0.04 mg/cm(2)-d for 0.5 psig (0.034 atm) to 0.13 mg/cm(2)-d for 9.5 psig (0.65 atm). This increased rate of H(2) delivery allowed for continued reduction of the acceptors as their surface loading increased. The electron acceptors had a clear hydrogen-utilization order when the availability of hydrogen was limited: oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, and then perchlorate. Spiking the influent with perchlorate or nitrate allowed us to identify the maximum surface loadings that still achieved more than 99.5% reduction of both oxidized contaminants: 0.21 mg NO(3)-N/cm(2)-d and 3.4 microg ClO(4)/cm(2)-d. Both maximum values appear to be controlled by factors other than hydrogen availability.

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Ralph F., Jr.; Robison, David J.

    Two sections of an introductory educational psychology course given at the University of Akron were restructured using some nontraditional elements. Student evalutions of the course's content and structure and student achievement measures were used to analyze the effectiveness of the changes. The statistical analyses are detailed. The results are…

  8. Digital three-dimensional image fusion processes for planning and evaluating orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Plooij, Joanneke M; Maal, Thomas J J; Haers, Piet; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Bergé, Stefaan J

    2011-04-01

    The three important tissue groups in orthognathic surgery (facial soft tissues, facial skeleton and dentition) can be referred to as a triad. This triad plays a decisive role in planning orthognathic surgery. Technological developments have led to the development of different three-dimensional (3D) technologies such as multiplanar CT and MRI scanning, 3D photography modalities and surface scanning. An objective method to predict surgical and orthodontic outcome should be established based on the integration of structural (soft tissue envelope, facial skeleton and dentition) and photographic 3D images. None of the craniofacial imaging techniques can capture the complete triad with optimal quality. This can only be achieved by 'image fusion' of different imaging techniques to create a 3D virtual head that can display all triad elements. A systematic search of current literature on image fusion in the craniofacial area was performed. 15 articles were found describing 3D digital image fusion models of two or more different imaging techniques for orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. From these articles it is concluded, that image fusion and especially the 3D virtual head are accurate and realistic tools for documentation, analysis, treatment planning and long term follow up. This may provide an accurate and realistic prediction model.

  9. The application of SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) in the development of compensatory cognitive rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients with left and right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Baber, Chris; Bienkiewicz, Marta; Worthington, Andrew; Hazell, Alexa; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 33% of stroke patients have difficulty performing activities of daily living, often committing errors during the planning and execution of such activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the human error identification (HEI) technique SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) to predict errors during the performance of daily activities in stroke patients with left and right hemisphere lesions. Using SHERPA we successfully predicted 36 of the 38 observed errors, with analysis indicating that the proportion of predicted and observed errors was similar for all sub-tasks and severity levels. HEI results were used to develop compensatory cognitive strategies that clinicians could employ to reduce or prevent errors from occurring. This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of SHERPA in the design of cognitive rehabilitation strategies in stroke populations.

  10. Development and evaluation of decorated aceclofenac nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Joo; Meghani, Nilesh; Choi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at achieving enhanced solubility of aceclofenac (ACF) in nanocrystaline forms (ACF-NC) and evaluating the effects of ACF-NC on cell viability. Decorated ACF-NC were prepared by nano-precipitation with stabilizers. Three kinds of stabilizers were investigated: Tween 80, Poloxamer 407, and PEG 6000. The crystal structure and morphology of ACF-NC were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The solubility of ACF-NC and ACF (pure) was evaluated in different media (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 buffers and distilled water [DW]). A drug release study was performed in PBS for 24h. Cell viability was evaluated for 24h using a human colon cancer cell-line (HCT-116) and a human breast cancer cell-line (MCF-7). Decorated ACF-NC with a mean size of 725nm were successfully prepared. The solubility of the decorated ACF-NC were 4-7 times higher than that of ACF in DW and pH 6.8 buffer. A peak shift from 153.1°C to 150.5-151.0°C was observed in the DSC thermogram of decorated ACF-NC versus ACF. In terms of drug release, there was an initial burst in decorated ACF-NC within 1h followed by slow release for up to 4h. Decorated ACF-NC exhibited viability approximately 63.9% of HCT-116 cells and also showed viability in 58.3% of MCF-7 cells at 15μg/mL of drug concentration. In conclusion, decorated ACF-NC proved to be a promising approach for enhancing drug solubility and cytotoxicity. PMID:27011350

  11. Curriculum Development--From RDD to RED: Review, Evaluate, Develop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilbeck, Malcolm

    The changing role of research in curriculum development since the late 1950's is reviewed. Factors are discussed that have affected the prevailing attitudes toward research and its value, including its role in fields other than education and the mixed success with which various research and development models have met in education. Particular…

  12. Development and impact of computerised decision support systems for clinical management of depression: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Triñanes, Yolanda; Atienza, Gerardo; Louro-González, Arturo; de-las-Heras-Liñero, Elena; Alvarez-Ariza, María; Palao, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    One of the proposals for improving clinical practice is to introduce computerised decision support systems (CDSS) and integrate these with electronic medical records. Accordingly, this study sought to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of CDSS in the management of