Science.gov

Sample records for systematic model development

  1. Systematic development of reduced reaction mechanisms for dynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Kailasanath, K.; Oran, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for systematically developing a reduced chemical reaction mechanism for dynamic modeling of chemically reactive flows is presented. The method is based on the postulate that if a reduced reaction mechanism faithfully describes the time evolution of both thermal and chain reaction processes characteristic of a more complete mechanism, then the reduced mechanism will describe the chemical processes in a chemically reacting flow with approximately the same degree of accuracy. Here this postulate is tested by producing a series of mechanisms of reduced accuracy, which are derived from a full detailed mechanism for methane-oxygen combustion. These mechanisms were then tested in a series of reactive flow calculations in which a large-amplitude sinusoidal perturbation is applied to a system that is initially quiescent and whose temperature is high enough to start ignition processes. Comparison of the results for systems with and without convective flow show that this approach produces reduced mechanisms that are useful for calculations of explosions and detonations. Extensions and applicability to flames are discussed.

  2. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula.

  3. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27303124

  4. A Systematic Approach for Developing Conceptual Models of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. J.; Last, G. V.; Rohay, V. J.; Schelling, F. J.; Hildebrand, R. D.; Morse, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faces many decisions regarding future remedial actions and waste disposal at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. To support these decisions, DOE recognized the need for a comprehensive and systematic approach to developing and documenting complete, consistent, and defensible conceptual models of contaminant release and migration. After reviewing existing conceptual model development methodologies that might be applicable to environmental assessments at the Hanford Site, DOE initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) methodology developed for use in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal systems by NIREX. In adapting this methodology for use in the environmental assessments at Hanford, the international list of FEPs, compiled from nuclear waste disposal programs, was evaluated to develop a list of potentially relevant Hanford-specific FEPs. The international nuclear waste programs focus on deep geologic disposal while waste disposal at the Hanford Site involves burial in shallow unconsolidated geologic deposits. Thus, a graphical tool called the Process Relationship Diagram (PRD) was created to assist in identifying the international FEPs and additional factors that are relevant to Hanford, and to illustrate the relationships among these factors. The PRD is similar in form and function to the Master Directed Diagram used by NIREX to provide a visual and systematic structure for the FEP methodology. Adaptation of this approach is showing promise in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of relevant factors to be incorporated into environmental uncertainty assessments for the Hanford Site.

  5. FOCAL: an experimental design tool for systematizing metabolic discoveries and model development.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Christopher J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-12-13

    Current computational tools can generate and improve genome-scale models based on existing data; however, for many organisms, the data needed to test and refine such models are not available. To facilitate model development, we created the forced coupling algorithm, FOCAL, to identify genetic and environmental conditions such that a reaction becomes essential for an experimentally measurable phenotype. This reaction's conditional essentiality can then be tested experimentally to evaluate whether network connections occur or to create strains with desirable phenotypes. FOCAL allows network connections to be queried, which improves our understanding of metabolism and accuracy of developed models.

  6. Modeling Agrilus planipennis within-tree colonization patterns and development of a systematic subsampling plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees, Fraxinus spp., throughout eastern North America. Here, we use generalized linear mixed models to predict the presence or a...

  7. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  8. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  9. A systematic review of the existing models of disordered eating: Do they inform the development of effective interventions?

    PubMed

    Pennesi, Jamie-Lee; Wade, Tracey D

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders and disordered eating over the last decade, there still remains a pressing need to develop more effective interventions. In line with the 2008 Medical Research Council (MRC) evaluation framework from the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health, the development of sound theory is a necessary precursor to the development of effective interventions. The aim of the current review was to identify the existing models for disordered eating and to identify those models which have helped inform the development of interventions for disordered eating. In addition, we examine the variables that most commonly appear across these models, in terms of future implications for the development of interventions for disordered eating. While an extensive range of theoretical models for the development of disordered eating were identified (N=54), only ten (18.5%) had progressed beyond mere description and to the development of interventions that have been evaluated. It is recommended that future work examines whether interventions in eating disorders increase in efficacy when developed in line with theoretical considerations, that initiation of new models gives way to further development of existing models, and that there be greater utilisation of intervention studies to inform the development of theory. PMID:26781985

  10. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  11. Towards Systematic Benchmarking of Climate Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The process by which climate models are evaluated has evolved substantially over the past decade, with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) serving as a centralizing activity for coordinating model experimentation and enabling research. Scientists with a broad spectrum of expertise have contributed to the CMIP model evaluation process, resulting in many hundreds of publications that have served as a key resource for the IPCC process. For several reasons, efforts are now underway to further systematize some aspects of the model evaluation process. First, some model evaluation can now be considered routine and should not require "re-inventing the wheel" or a journal publication simply to update results with newer models. Second, the benefit of CMIP research to model development has not been optimal because the publication of results generally takes several years and is usually not reproducible for benchmarking newer model versions. And third, there are now hundreds of model versions and many thousands of simulations, but there is no community-based mechanism for routinely monitoring model performance changes. An important change in the design of CMIP6 can help address these limitations. CMIP6 will include a small set standardized experiments as an ongoing exercise (CMIP "DECK": ongoing Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima), so that modeling groups can submit them at any time and not be overly constrained by deadlines. In this presentation, efforts to establish routine benchmarking of existing and future CMIP simulations will be described. To date, some benchmarking tools have been made available to all CMIP modeling groups to enable them to readily compare with CMIP5 simulations during the model development process. A natural extension of this effort is to make results from all CMIP simulations widely available, including the results from newer models as soon as the simulations become available for research. Making the results from routine

  12. A Comprehensive and Systematic Approach to Developing and Documenting Conceptual Models of Contaminant Release and Migration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Schelling, F J.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Delamare, Michael A.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Hildebrand, R D.; Morse, John G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Riley, Robert G.; Soler, Luis; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy?s Richland Operations Office has initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) methodology (used in scenario development for nuclear waste disposal programs) to the environmental management and remediation problems facing the Hanford Site. These efforts have shown that modification of the FEPs methodology to incorporate the use of Process Relationship Diagrams (PRD) is effective in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of potentially relevant factors to be incorporated into a specific performance assessment. In developing this methodology for Hanford, a master PRD was created to provide an organization structure for identifying the potentially relevant factors (i.e. FEPs) and for illustrating the relationships between these factors. This organizational framework was developed to match the organization of current Hanford site-wide performance assessment activities and to facilitate screening of the FEPs relevant to the problems (and conceptual models) that need to be addressed at the site. However, the link between Hanford specific FEPs and the international list of FEPs was maintained to demonstrate completeness and perhaps to expand the usefulness of the international list for other environmental programs.

  13. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  14. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C Anthony; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kim, Sean H J; Ropella, Glen E P

    2013-01-01

    A crisis continues to brew within the pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) enterprise: productivity continues declining as costs rise, despite ongoing, often dramatic scientific and technical advances. To reverse this trend, we offer various suggestions for both the expansion and broader adoption of modeling and simulation (M&S) methods. We suggest strategies and scenarios intended to enable new M&S use cases that directly engage R&D knowledge generation and build actionable mechanistic insight, thereby opening the door to enhanced productivity. What M&S requirements must be satisfied to access and open the door, and begin reversing the productivity decline? Can current methods and tools fulfill the requirements, or are new methods necessary? We draw on the relevant, recent literature to provide and explore answers. In so doing, we identify essential, key roles for agent-based and other methods. We assemble a list of requirements necessary for M&S to meet the diverse needs distilled from a collection of research, review, and opinion articles. We argue that to realize its full potential, M&S should be actualized within a larger information technology framework—a dynamic knowledge repository—wherein models of various types execute, evolve, and increase in accuracy over time. We offer some details of the issues that must be addressed for such a repository to accrue the capabilities needed to reverse the productivity decline. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23737142

  15. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  16. Development of a Systematic Stakeholder Identification System for 3VS Modeling in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models, social, economic and environmental indicators are utilized to understand the interrelated impacts of programs and regulations on ecosystems and human communities. Critical to identifying the app...

  17. Pharmacokinetic models of morphine and its metabolites in neonates:: Systematic comparisons of models from the literature, and development of a new meta-model.

    PubMed

    Knøsgaard, Katrine Rørbæk; Foster, David John Richard; Kreilgaard, Mads; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Upton, Richard Neil; van den Anker, Johannes N

    2016-09-20

    Morphine is commonly used for pain management in preterm neonates. The aims of this study were to compare published models of neonatal pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites with a new dataset, and to combine the characteristics of the best predictive models to design a meta-model for morphine and its metabolites in preterm neonates. Moreover, the concentration-analgesia relationship for morphine in this clinical setting was also investigated. A population of 30 preterm neonates (gestational age: 23-32weeks) received a loading dose of morphine (50-100μg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion (5-10μg/kg/h) until analgesia was no longer required. Pain was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Five published population models were compared using numerical and graphical tests of goodness-of-fit and predictive performance. Population modelling was conducted using NONMEM® and the $PRIOR subroutine to describe the time-course of plasma concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide, and the concentration-analgesia relationship for morphine. No published model adequately described morphine concentrations in this new dataset. Previously published population pharmacokinetic models of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were combined into a meta-model. The meta-model provided an adequate description of the time-course of morphine and the concentrations of its metabolites in preterm neonates. Allometric weight scaling was applied to all clearance and volume terms. Maturation of morphine clearance was described as a function of postmenstrual age, while maturation of metabolite elimination was described as a function of postnatal age. A clear relationship between morphine concentrations and pain score was not established.

  18. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  19. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  20. Systematic errors in strong lens modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Traci Lin; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2015-08-01

    The lensing community has made great strides in quantifying the statistical errors associated with strong lens modeling. However, we are just now beginning to understand the systematic errors. Quantifying these errors is pertinent to Frontier Fields science, as number counts and luminosity functions are highly sensitive to the value of the magnifications of background sources across the entire field of view. We are aware that models can be very different when modelers change their assumptions about the parameterization of the lensing potential (i.e., parametric vs. non-parametric models). However, models built while utilizing a single methodology can lead to inconsistent outcomes for different quantities, distributions, and qualities of redshift information regarding the multiple images used as constraints in the lens model. We investigate how varying the number of multiple image constraints and available redshift information of those constraints (ex., spectroscopic vs. photometric vs. no redshift) can influence the outputs of our parametric strong lens models, specifically, the mass distribution and magnifications of background sources. We make use of the simulated clusters by M. Meneghetti et al. and the first two Frontier Fields clusters, which have a high number of multiply imaged galaxies with spectroscopically-measured redshifts (or input redshifts, in the case of simulated clusters). This work will not only inform upon Frontier Field science, but also for work on the growing collection of strong lensing galaxy clusters, most of which are less massive and are capable of lensing a handful of galaxies, and are more prone to these systematic errors.

  1. Antenna pointing systematic error model derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Lansing, F. L.; Riggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The pointing model used to represent and correct systematic errors for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas is presented. Analytical expressions are given in both azimuth-elevation (az-el) and hour angle-declination (ha-dec) mounts for RF axis collimation error, encoder offset, nonorthogonality of axes, axis plane tilt, and structural flexure due to gravity loading. While the residual pointing errors (rms) after correction appear to be within the ten percent of the half-power beamwidth criterion commonly set for good pointing accuracy, the DSN has embarked on an extensive pointing improvement and modeling program aiming toward an order of magnitude higher pointing precision.

  2. Using data assimilation for systematic model improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Matthew S.; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Browne, Phil

    2016-04-01

    In Numerical Weather Prediction parameterisations are used to simulate missing physics in the model. These can be due to a lack of scientific understanding or a lack of computing power available to address all the known physical processes. Parameterisations are sources of large uncertainty in a model as parameter values used in these parameterisations cannot be measured directly and hence are often not well known, and the parameterisations themselves are approximations of the processes present in the true atmosphere. Whilst there are many efficient and effective methods for combined state/parameter estimation in data assimilation, such as state augmentation, these are not effective at estimating the structure of parameterisations. A new method of parameterisation estimation is proposed that uses sequential data assimilation methods to estimate errors in the numerical models at each space-time point for each model equation. These errors are then fitted to predetermined functional forms of missing physics or parameterisations, that are based upon prior information. The method picks out the functional form, or that combination of functional forms, that bests fits the error structure. The prior information typically takes the form of expert knowledge. We applied the method to a one-dimensional advection model with additive model error, and it is shown that the method can accurately estimate parameterisations, with consistent error estimates. It is also demonstrated that state augmentation is not successful. The results indicate that this new method is a powerful tool in systematic model improvement.

  3. Improved Systematic Pointing Error Model for the DSN Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Withington, Philip M.; Richter, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    New pointing models have been developed for large reflector antennas whose construction is founded on elevation over azimuth mount. At JPL, the new models were applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-meter antenna s subnet for corrections of their systematic pointing errors; it achieved significant improvement in performance at Ka-band (32-GHz) and X-band (8.4-GHz). The new models provide pointing improvements relative to the traditional models by a factor of two to three, which translate to approximately 3-dB performance improvement at Ka-band. For radio science experiments where blind pointing performance is critical, the new innovation provides a new enabling technology. The model extends the traditional physical models with higher-order mathematical terms, thereby increasing the resolution of the model for a better fit to the underlying systematic imperfections that are the cause of antenna pointing errors. The philosophy of the traditional model was that all mathematical terms in the model must be traced to a physical phenomenon causing antenna pointing errors. The traditional physical terms are: antenna axis tilts, gravitational flexure, azimuth collimation, azimuth encoder fixed offset, azimuth and elevation skew, elevation encoder fixed offset, residual refraction, azimuth encoder scale error, and antenna pointing de-rotation terms for beam waveguide (BWG) antennas. Besides the addition of spherical harmonics terms, the new models differ from the traditional ones in that the coefficients for the cross-elevation and elevation corrections are completely independent and may be different, while in the traditional model, some of the terms are identical. In addition, the new software allows for all-sky or mission-specific model development, and can utilize the previously used model as an a priori estimate for the development of the updated models.

  4. Systematic comparison of model polymer nanocomposite mechanics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Senbo; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites render a range of outstanding materials from natural products such as silk, sea shells and bones, to synthesized nanoclay or carbon nanotube reinforced polymer systems. In contrast to the fast expanding interest in this type of material, the fundamental mechanisms of their mixing, phase behavior and reinforcement, especially for higher nanoparticle content as relevant for bio-inorganic composites, are still not fully understood. Although polymer nanocomposites exhibit diverse morphologies, qualitatively their mechanical properties are believed to be governed by a few parameters, namely their internal polymer network topology, nanoparticle volume fraction, particle surface properties and so on. Relating material mechanics to such elementary parameters is the purpose of this work. By taking a coarse-grained molecular modeling approach, we study an range of different polymer nanocomposites. We vary polymer nanoparticle connectivity, surface geometry and volume fraction to systematically study rheological/mechanical properties. Our models cover different materials, and reproduce key characteristics of real nanocomposites, such as phase separation, mechanical reinforcement. The results shed light on establishing elementary structure, property and function relationship of polymer nanocomposites. PMID:27623170

  5. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW, were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystem. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base, and to assess the cooperation between the rule-bases. Each AUTOCREW subsystem is composed of several expert systems that perform specific tasks. AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR was analyzed in detail to understand the difficulties involved in designing the system and to identify tools and methodologies that ease development. The NAVIGATOR determines optimal navigation strategies from a set of available sensors. A Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) expert system was systematically designed from Kalman filter covariance data; four ground-based, a satellite-based, and two on-board INS-aiding sensors were modeled and simulated to aid an INS. The NSM Expert was developed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. Navigation strategy selection is based on an RSS position error decision metric, which is computed from the covariance data. Results show that the NSM Expert predicts position error correctly between 45 and 100 percent of the time for a specified navaid configuration and aircraft trajectory. The NSM Expert adapts to new situations, and provides reasonable estimates of hybrid performance. The systematic nature of the ANOVA/ID3 method makes it broadly applicable to expert system design when experimental or simulation data is available.

  6. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  7. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  8. Systematic Uncertainties in High-Energy Hadronic Interaction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, M.; Knapp, J.; Ostapchenko, S.

    2003-07-01

    Hadronic interaction models for cosmic ray energies are uncertain since our knowledge of hadronic interactions is extrap olated from accelerator experiments at much lower energies. At present most high-energy models are based on Grib ov-Regge theory of multi-Pomeron exchange, which provides a theoretical framework to evaluate cross-sections and particle production. While experimental data constrain some of the model parameters, others are not well determined and are therefore a source of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we evaluate the variation of results obtained with the QGSJET model, when modifying parameters relating to three ma jor sources of uncertainty: the form of the parton structure function, the role of diffractive interactions, and the string hadronisation. Results on inelastic cross sections, on secondary particle production and on the air shower development are discussed.

  9. A systematic development process for patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including

  10. Systematic approach for modeling tetrachloroethene biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, D.M.

    1998-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a reasonably well understood process. Specific organisms capable of using PCE as an electron acceptor for growth require the addition of an electron donor to remove PCE from contaminated ground waters. However, competition from other anaerobic microorganisms for added electron donor will influence the rate and completeness of PCE degradation. The approach developed here allows for the explicit modeling of PCE and byproduct biodegradation as a function of electron donor and byproduct concentrations, and the microbiological ecology of the system. The approach is general and can be easily modified for ready use with in situ ground-water models or ex situ reactor models. Simulations conducted with models developed from this approach show the sensitivity of PCE biodegradation to input parameter values, in particular initial biomass concentrations. Additionally, the dechlorination rate will be strongly influenced by the microbial ecology of the system. Finally, comparison with experimental acclimation results indicates that existing kinetic constants may not be generally applicable. Better techniques for measuring the biomass of specific organisms groups in mixed systems are required.

  11. Making Economic Development Work: A Systematic Approach to Contract Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Cary A.; Custer, Harriet H.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the activities of Des Moines Area Community College's Economic Development Group (EDG), a division created to develop and coordinate a systematic approach to providing contract training for business and industry. Highlights the Project File System as the core of the EDG's delivery system. (AYC)

  12. Application of high-throughput mini-bioreactor system for systematic scale-down modeling, process characterization, and control strategy development.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput systems and processes have typically been targeted for process development and optimization in the bioprocessing industry. For process characterization, bench scale bioreactors have been the system of choice. Due to the need for performing different process conditions for multiple process parameters, the process characterization studies typically span several months and are considered time and resource intensive. In this study, we have shown the application of a high-throughput mini-bioreactor system viz. the Advanced Microscale Bioreactor (ambr15(TM) ), to perform process characterization in less than a month and develop an input control strategy. As a pre-requisite to process characterization, a scale-down model was first developed in the ambr system (15 mL) using statistical multivariate analysis techniques that showed comparability with both manufacturing scale (15,000 L) and bench scale (5 L). Volumetric sparge rates were matched between ambr and manufacturing scale, and the ambr process matched the pCO2 profiles as well as several other process and product quality parameters. The scale-down model was used to perform the process characterization DoE study and product quality results were generated. Upon comparison with DoE data from the bench scale bioreactors, similar effects of process parameters on process yield and product quality were identified between the two systems. We used the ambr data for setting action limits for the critical controlled parameters (CCPs), which were comparable to those from bench scale bioreactor data. In other words, the current work shows that the ambr15(TM) system is capable of replacing the bench scale bioreactor system for routine process development and process characterization.

  13. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Gabriel, T.A. )

    1991-03-27

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, D{theta} and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Systematic multiscale models for deep convection on mesoscales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Rupert; Majda, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    This paper builds on recent developments of a unified asymptotic approach to meteorological modeling [ZAMM, 80: 765 777, 2000, SIAM Proc. App. Math. 116, 227 289, 2004], which was used successfully in the development of Systematic multiscale models for the tropics in Majda and Klein [J. Atmosph. Sci. 60: 393 408, 2003] and Majda and Biello [PNAS, 101: 4736 4741, 2004]. Biello and Majda [J. Atmosph. Sci. 62: 1694 1720, 2005]. Here we account for typical bulk microphysics parameterizations of moist processes within this framework. The key steps are careful nondimensionalization of the bulk microphysics equations and the choice of appropriate distinguished limits for the various nondimensional small parameters that appear. We are then in a position to study scale interactions in the atmosphere involving moist physics. We demonstrate this by developing two systematic multiscale models that are motivated by our interest in mesoscale organized convection. The emphasis here is on multiple length scales but common time scales. The first of these models describes the short-time evolution of slender, deep convective hot towers with horizontal scale ~ 1 km interacting with the linearized momentum balance on length and time scales of (10 km/3 min). We expect this model to describe how convective inhibition may be overcome near the surface, how the onset of deep convection triggers convective-scale gravity waves, and that it will also yield new insight into how such local convective events may conspire to create larger-scale strong storms. The second model addresses the next larger range of length and time scales (10 km, 100 km, and 20 min) and exhibits mathematical features that are strongly reminiscent of mesoscale organized convection. In both cases, the asymptotic analysis reveals how the stiffness of condensation/evaporation processes induces highly nonlinear dynamics. Besides providing new theoretical insights, the derived models may also serve as a theoretical devices

  15. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: I. Theory and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a project that proposes and tests a comprehensive and systematic model of user evaluation of Web search engines. This article describes the model, including a set of criteria and measures and a method for implementation. A literature review portrays settings for developing the model and places applications of the model in contemporary…

  16. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  17. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    PubMed Central

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

  18. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  19. A systematic review of strong gravitational lens modeling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefor, Alan T.; Futamase, Toshifumi; Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Despite expanding research activity in gravitational lens modeling, there is no particular software which is considered a standard. Much of the gravitational lens modeling software is written by individual investigators for their own use. Some gravitational lens modeling software is freely available for download but is widely variable with regard to ease of use and quality of documentation. This review of 13 software packages was undertaken to provide a single source of information. Gravitational lens models are classified as parametric models or non-parametric models, and can be further divided into research and educational software. Software used in research includes the GRAVLENS package (with both gravlens and lensmodel), Lenstool, LensPerfect, glafic, PixeLens, SimpLens, Lensview, and GRALE. In this review, GravLensHD, G-Lens, Gravitational Lensing, lens and MOWGLI are categorized as educational programs that are useful for demonstrating various aspects of lensing. Each of the 13 software packages is reviewed with regard to software features (installation, documentation, files provided, etc.) and lensing features (type of model, input data, output data, etc.) as well as a brief review of studies where they have been used. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of strong gravitational lensing data for mass mapping, and suggest increased use of these techniques in the future. Coupled with the advent of greatly improved imaging, new approaches to modeling of strong gravitational lens systems are needed. This is the first systematic review of strong gravitational lens modeling software, providing investigators with a starting point for future software development to further advance gravitational lens modeling research. http://www.ephysics.org/mowgli/

  20. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohini; Dent, Tom; Meads, Catherine; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes and inform selection and implementation of these in practice. Design Systematic review using standard (quantitative) and realist (mainly qualitative) methodology. Inclusion criteria Papers in any language describing the development or external validation, or both, of models and scores to predict the risk of an adult developing type 2 diabetes. Data sources Medline, PreMedline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. Included studies were citation tracked in Google Scholar to identify follow-on studies of usability or impact. Data extraction Data were extracted on statistical properties of models, details of internal or external validation, and use of risk scores beyond the studies that developed them. Quantitative data were tabulated to compare model components and statistical properties. Qualitative data were analysed thematically to identify mechanisms by which use of the risk model or score might improve patient outcomes. Results 8864 titles were scanned, 115 full text papers considered, and 43 papers included in the final sample. These described the prospective development or validation, or both, of 145 risk prediction models and scores, 94 of which were studied in detail here. They had been tested on 6.88 million participants followed for up to 28 years. Heterogeneity of primary studies precluded meta-analysis. Some but not all risk models or scores had robust statistical properties (for example, good discrimination and calibration) and had been externally validated on a different population. Genetic markers added nothing to models over clinical and sociodemographic factors. Most authors described their score as “simple” or “easily implemented,” although few were specific about the intended users and under what circumstances. Ten mechanisms were identified by which measuring diabetes risk might improve outcomes. Follow-on studies that applied a risk score as part of an

  1. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code

  2. Alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robyn A; Conway, Aaron; Poulsen, Vanessa; Keech, Wendy; Tirimacco, Rosy; Tideman, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The traditional hospital-based model of cardiac rehabilitation faces substantial challenges, such as cost and accessibility. These challenges have led to the development of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify and critique evidence for the effectiveness of these alternative models. A total of 22 databases were searched to identify quantitative studies or systematic reviews of quantitative studies regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation. Included studies were appraised using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's designations for Level of Evidence. The 83 included articles described interventions in the following broad categories of alternative models of care: multifactorial individualized telehealth, internet based, telehealth focused on exercise, telehealth focused on recovery, community- or home-based, and complementary therapies. Multifactorial individualized telehealth and community- or home-based cardiac rehabilitation are effective alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, as they have produced similar reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with hospital-based programmes. While further research is required to address the paucity of data available regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in rural, remote, and culturally and linguistically diverse populations, our review indicates there is no need to rely on hospital-based strategies alone to deliver effective cardiac rehabilitation. Local healthcare systems should strive to integrate alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, such as brief telehealth interventions tailored to individual's risk factor profiles as well as community- or home-based programmes, in order to ensure there are choices available for patients that best fit their needs, risk factor profile, and preferences.

  3. Discovering a Gold Mine of Strategies for At-Risk Students through Systematic Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Jesse R.; Villarreal, Diana

    This paper discusses an effective model of systematic staff development focusing on prevention and intervention strategies used with at-risk students. The following are key elements: (1) matching of the purposes of training to the goals of the school districts; (2) multiple and integrated activities; (3) participants' thorough orientation to the…

  4. A systematic approach to behavior change interventions for the water and sanitation sector in developing countries: a conceptual model, a review, and a guideline.

    PubMed

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Public health practitioners increasingly agree that it is not enough to provide people with water and sanitation hardware. Numerous approaches are used to tackle the "software" which means to ensure behavior change necessary to come along with the sanitation hardware. A review of these approaches reveals several shortcomings, most importantly that they do not provide behavioral change interventions which correspond to psychological factors to be changed. This article presents a sound psychological model, which postulates that for the formation of new habitual behavior, five blocks of factors must be positive with regard to the new behavior: risk factors, attitudinal factors, normative factors, ability factors, and self-regulation factors. Standardized tools for measuring the factors in face-to-face interviews are presented, and behavioral interventions are provided for each factor block. A statistical analysis method is presented, which allows the determination of the improvement potential of each factor.

  5. A Demonstration of a Systematic Item-Reduction Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Harvey, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Establishing model parsimony is an important component of structural equation modeling (SEM). Unfortunately, little attention has been given to developing systematic procedures to accomplish this goal. To this end, the current study introduces an innovative application of the jackknife approach first presented in Rensvold and Cheung (1999). Unlike…

  6. Systematic study of the product through the asymmetric rotor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Parveen; Mittal, H. M.

    2016-09-01

    A systematic study of the product is carried out in the major shell space Z = 50–82, N = 82–126 within the framework of the asymmetric rotor model where the asymmetry parameter γ0 reflects change in the nuclear structure. A systematic study of the product with neutron number N is also discussed. The product provides a direct correlation with the asymmetry parameter γ0. The effect of subshells is visible in Ba-Gd nuclei with N > 82, but not in Hf-Pt nuclei with N > 104. We study, for the first time, the dependency of the product on the asymmetry parameter γ0.

  7. Systematic study of the product through the asymmetric rotor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Parveen; Mittal, H. M.

    2016-09-01

    A systematic study of the product is carried out in the major shell space Z = 50-82, N = 82-126 within the framework of the asymmetric rotor model where the asymmetry parameter γ0 reflects change in the nuclear structure. A systematic study of the product with neutron number N is also discussed. The product provides a direct correlation with the asymmetry parameter γ0. The effect of subshells is visible in Ba-Gd nuclei with N > 82, but not in Hf-Pt nuclei with N > 104. We study, for the first time, the dependency of the product on the asymmetry parameter γ0.

  8. Defining "innovativeness" in drug development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, A S; Wang, B; Avorn, J

    2013-09-01

    Some observers of drug development argue that the pace of pharmaceutical innovation is declining, but others deny that contention. This controversy may be due to different methods of defining and assessing innovation. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to develop a taxonomy of methods for measuring innovation in drug development. The 42 studies fell into four main categories: counts of new drugs approved, assessments of therapeutic value, economic outcomes, and patents issued. The definition determined whether a study found a positive or negative trend in innovative drug development. Of 21 studies that relied on counts, 9 (43%) concluded that the trend for drug discovery was favorable, 11 (52%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 1 reached no conclusion. By contrast, of 21 studies that used other measures of innovation, 0 concluded that the trend was favorable, 8 (47%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 13 reached no conclusion (P = 0.03).

  9. A Systematic Review on Interventions Supporting Preceptor Development.

    PubMed

    Windey, Maryann; Lawrence, Carol; Guthrie, Kimberly; Weeks, Debra; Sullo, Elaine; Chapa, Deborah W

    2015-01-01

    Increases in newly licensed nurses and experienced nurses changing specialties create a challenge for nursing professional development specialists (NPDS). The NPDS must use the best available evidence in designing programs. A systematic review of interventions for developing preceptors is needed to inform the NPDS in best practice. A search was conducted for full-text, quantitative, and mixed-methods articles published after the year 2000. Over 4000 titles were initially identified, which yielded 12 research studies for evaluation and syntheses. Results identified a limited body of evidence reflecting a need for NPDS to increase efforts in measuring the effectiveness of preceptor development initiatives.(See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9). PMID:26580462

  10. Flipping the classroom to teach systematic reviews: the development of a continuing education course for librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Marisa L.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Mani, Nandita S.; Townsend, Whitney A.; Smith, Judith E.; Masters, Chase; Kelley, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The researchers used the flipped classroom model to develop and conduct a systematic review course for librarians. Setting: The research took place at an academic health sciences library. Method: A team of informationists developed and conducted a pilot course. Assessment informed changes to both course components; a second course addressed gaps in the pilot. Main Results: Both the pilot and subsequent course received positive reviews. Changes based on assessment data will inform future iterations. Conclusion: The flipped classroom model can be successful in developing and implementing a course that is well rated by students. PMID:25918484

  11. Analysis and Correction of Systematic Height Model Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    The geometry of digital height models (DHM) determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP), but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital surface model (DSM) or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS PRISM images, are

  12. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  13. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Helen W

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to provide an introduction into the variety of animal models available for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to provide a concise systematic review of the general materials and methods involved in each model. Materials and methods were obtained from a literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles. Strengths and weaknesses of each animal choice were presented to include relative cost, anatomical and physiological features, and mechanism of injury desired. Further, a variety of homologous, isomorphic/induced, and predictive animal models were defined, described, and compared with respect to their relative ease of use, characteristics, range, adjustability (e.g., amplitude, duration, mass/size, velocity, and pressure), and rough order of magnitude cost. Just as the primary mechanism of action of TBI is limitless, so are the animal models available to study TBI. With such a wide variety of available animals, types of injury models, along with the research needs, there exists no single "gold standard" model of TBI rendering cross-comparison of data extremely difficult. Therefore, this chapter reflects a representative sampling of the TBI animal models available and is not an exhaustive comparison of every possible model and associated parameters. Throughout this chapter, special considerations for animal choice and TBI animal model classification are discussed. Criteria central to choosing appropriate animal models of TBI include ethics, funding, complexity (ease of use, safety, and controlled access requirements), type of model, model characteristics, and range of control (scope). PMID:27604713

  14. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobin; Mao, Fanzhen; Zhou, Zi; Zhao, Qinjian; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness.

  15. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  16. Drug development from natural resource: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Gupta, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Modern research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multidimensional approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biochemical combinatorial chemistry and bioassay-guided fractionation approaches. Natural sources continue to provide an alternative as pharmacological leads against various devastating diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer etc. Nowadays, there is enormous requirement of safe and effective drugs in the world. This has prompted scientists to revert back towards natural resources as a potential source of therapeutics for treatment and management of such chronic and fatal diseases. However, there are certain serious challenges and limitations in this field including scale up and commercialization of active compounds which allow only one in thousand lead molecules to be developed as drug. A systematic and scientific approach is an essential requirement for drug development from natural resource. This mini review provides an overview of the methods involved in natural product research starting from crude plant extract to bioactive pharmacological lead. Moreover, it also discusses the limitations of working concerning the bioactivity of medicinal plants.

  17. Statistical Inference Models for Image Datasets with Systematic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Hwa; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Chung, Moo K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal or cross sectional brain imaging data to identify effects of neurodegenerative diseases is a fundamental task in various studies in neuroscience. However, when there are systematic variations in the images due to parameter changes such as changes in the scanner protocol, hardware changes, or when combining data from multi-site studies, the statistical analysis becomes problematic. Motivated by this scenario, the goal of this paper is to develop a unified statistical solution to the problem of systematic variations in statistical image analysis. Based in part on recent literature in harmonic analysis on diffusion maps, we propose an algorithm which compares operators that are resilient to the systematic variations. These operators are derived from the empirical measurements of the image data and provide an efficient surrogate to capturing the actual changes across images. We also establish a connection between our method to the design of wavelets in non-Euclidean space. To evaluate the proposed ideas, we present various experimental results on detecting changes in simulations as well as show how the method offers improved statistical power in the analysis of real longitudinal PIB-PET imaging data acquired from participants at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:26989336

  18. SCID: Model for Effective Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    The Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID) model provides a tested procedure for developing high-quality, low-cost competency-based education and tech prep curriculum and instructional materials. It consists of 5 phases--analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation--and 23 components. The analysis phase…

  19. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  20. Systematic Reconstruction of Molecular Cascades Regulating GP Development Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxiang; Luo, Haofei; Wang, Rui; Lang, Jidong; Zhu, Siyu; Zhang, Zhenming; Fang, Jianhuo; Qu, Keke; Lin, Yuting; Long, Haizhou; Yao, Yi; Tian, Geng; Wu, Qiong

    2016-05-17

    The growth plate (GP) comprising sequentially differentiated cell layers is a critical structure for bone elongation and regeneration. Although several key regulators in GP development have been identified using genetic perturbation, systematic understanding is still limited. Here, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the gene expression profiles of 217 single cells from GPs and developed a bioinformatics pipeline named Sinova to de novo reconstruct physiological GP development in both temporal and spatial high resolution. Our unsupervised model not only confirmed prior knowledge, but also enabled the systematic discovery of genes, potential signal pathways, and surface markers CD9/CD200 to precisely depict development. Sinova further identified the effective combination of transcriptional factors (TFs) that regulates GP maturation, and the result was validated using an in vitro EGFP-Col10a screening system. Our case systematically reconstructed molecular cascades in GP development through single-cell profiling, and the bioinformatics pipeline is applicable to other developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27160914

  1. Agent-Based Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the use of agent-based modeling (ABM), a systems science method, in understanding noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their public health risk factors. We systematically reviewed studies in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Sciences published from January 2003 to July 2014. We retrieved 22 relevant articles; each had an observational or interventional design. Physical activity and diet were the most-studied outcomes. Often, single agent types were modeled, and the environment was usually irrelevant to the studied outcome. Predictive validation and sensitivity analyses were most used to validate models. Although increasingly used to study NCDs, ABM remains underutilized and, where used, is suboptimally reported in public health studies. Its use in studying NCDs will benefit from clarified best practices and improved rigor to establish its usefulness and facilitate replication, interpretation, and application. PMID:25602871

  2. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  3. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  4. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation Approaches: A Systematic Review of Published Models, Applications, and Model Verification.

    PubMed

    Sager, Jennifer E; Yu, Jingjing; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Isoherranen, Nina

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and simulation of drug disposition has emerged as an important tool in drug development, clinical study design and regulatory review, and the number of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling related publications and regulatory submissions have risen dramatically in recent years. However, the extent of use of PBPK modeling by researchers, and the public availability of models has not been systematically evaluated. This review evaluates PBPK-related publications to 1) identify the common applications of PBPK modeling; 2) determine ways in which models are developed; 3) establish how model quality is assessed; and 4) provide a list of publically available PBPK models for sensitive P450 and transporter substrates as well as selective inhibitors and inducers. PubMed searches were conducted using the terms "PBPK" and "physiologically based pharmacokinetic model" to collect published models. Only papers on PBPK modeling of pharmaceutical agents in humans published in English between 2008 and May 2015 were reviewed. A total of 366 PBPK-related articles met the search criteria, with the number of articles published per year rising steadily. Published models were most commonly used for drug-drug interaction predictions (28%), followed by interindividual variability and general clinical pharmacokinetic predictions (23%), formulation or absorption modeling (12%), and predicting age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and disposition (10%). In total, 106 models of sensitive substrates, inhibitors, and inducers were identified. An in-depth analysis of the model development and verification revealed a lack of consistency in model development and quality assessment practices, demonstrating a need for development of best-practice guidelines.

  5. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Reizner, W.; Hunter, J.G.; O’Malley, N.T.; Southgate, R.D.; Schwarz, E.M.; Kates, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed & Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorized by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarized and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting. PMID:24668594

  6. Toward Developing a Behavioral Counselor Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski Spector, Patricia; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Counselor education currently does not have a training model that is systematically employed and contains provisions for individual differences or promotes the development of programs for facilitating transfer of training. In the proposed model, counselor educators must decide which of the counseling student's behaviors will become the focus of…

  7. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy Ebreak = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of mχ=49+6.4-5.4 GeV.

  8. Communication for Development Interventions in Fragile States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Andrew; Rodger, Dianne; Power, Gerry; Mbus, Domenic Friguglietti; Brimacombe, Tait

    2013-01-01

    Executive summary Background A wide range of contextual and programmatic factors frame, affect and constrain communication for development (C4D) interventions undertaken in fragile or conflict affected states. For the purposes of this review, contextual factors include culture, poverty, different stages of conflict (such as latent, open or post-conflict scenarios), policy, legislation and so on, while programmatic factors include the type of intervention, formative and summative evaluation, project design and management, human and financial resources and so on. Understanding the various factors that influence C4D interventions in fragile states is important to improving practice, implementation and evaluation, as well as to the future development of methodologies and frameworks that can be utilised in conflict or crisis situations. Objective The objective of this review is to assess the contextual and programmatic factors that influence communication for development interventions in fragile states. Types of participants Persons regardless of age, gender and ethnicity – living in fragile states. Phenomena of interest The contextual and programmatic factors that influence communication for development (C4D) interventions in fragile states. Types of studies Qualitative peer reviewed studies, expert opinion, discussion papers, project reports, policy papers, position papers and other text. Search strategy Searches were conducted for published and unpublished material (between January 2001 – September 2011), including grey literature, in the English language. Databases searched were: Academic Search Premier; African Women's Bibliographic Database; Anthropology Plus; Bibliography of Asian Studies; Educational Resources Information Centre; Ingenta Connect; JSTOR; Scopus; and Sociological Abstracts; Communication for Social Change Consortium; DevComm (World Bank); Eldis; Search for Common Ground; The Communication Initiative; United Nations Development Programme

  9. Acute kidney injury following liver transplantation: a systematic review of published predictive models.

    PubMed

    Caragata, R; Wyssusek, K H; Kruger, P

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury is a frequent postoperative complication amongst liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This systematic review analysed the existing predictive models, in order to solidify current understanding. Articles were selected for inclusion if they described the primary development of a clinical prediction model (either an algorithm or risk score) to predict AKI post liver transplantation. The database search yielded a total of seven studies describing the primary development of a prediction model or risk score for the development of AKI following liver transplantation. The models span thirteen years of clinical research and highlight a gradual change in the definitions of AKI, emphasising the need to employ standardised definitions for subsequent studies. Collectively, the models identify a diverse range of predictive factors with several common trends. They emphasise the impact of preoperative renal dysfunction, liver disease severity and aetiology, metabolic risk factors as well as intraoperative variables including measures of haemodynamic instability and graft quality. Although several of the models address postoperative parameters, their utility in predictive modelling seems to be of questionable relevance. The common risk factors identified within this systematic review provide a minimum list of variables, which future studies should address. Research in this area would benefit from prospective, multi-site studies with larger cohorts as well as the subsequent internal and external validation of predictive models. Ultimately, the ability to identify patients at high risk of post-transplant AKI may enable early intervention and perhaps prevention. PMID:27029658

  10. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Pathogens In Developed and Developing Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Ellis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal illness is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are no precise or current estimates of the types and prevalence of pathogens associated with diarrheal illnesses in developed and developing settings. This systematic review assessed data from 60 studies published in the English language from five developing regions and developed countries worldwide to provide regional estimates of enteric pathogens affecting children. The random-effect method was used to establish the weighted average prevalence of pathogens in adults and children for each region. Significantly more pathogens were reported by studies from developing regions compared with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (P<0.016). The identification rates of pathogens from community based and hospital based studies were similar (58.5% and 58.1% respectively, P<0.619). The overall detection of enteric pathogens in developing countries was higher in adults (74.8%; 95% CI 63.1-83.8%) compared with children (56.7%; 95% CI 53.0-60.4%) (P<0.001). Rotavirus was the most frequently detected pathogen in all regions with the highest rate, 24.8% (95% CI 18.0-33.1%), detected in the developed countries. This systematic review is the first to provide an estimate of the prevalence of enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in adults and children in developed and developing settings. While pathogen detection rate is greater in developing regions the consistently high prevalence of rotavirus in both developed and developing settings underscores the urgent need for access to rotavirus vaccines. Increased travel between developing and developed countries increases disease risk, and hence developed countries have a vested interest in supporting vaccine accessibility in developing settings. PMID:25170480

  12. A Systematic Assessment of the Relationship Between the Complexity and Fidelity of Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addor, N.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the complexity and fidelity of hydrological models is challenging to investigate in a systematic way using current modeling frameworks. Its characterization has so far principally relied on the comparison of different models or of different modules within the same model. Shortcomings of these approaches include the difficulty to pinpoint model features that contribute to good simulations, given the small number of models or modeling hypotheses that are usually evaluated. We use the newly-developed Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) to comprehensively and systematically explore modeling alternatives across the continuum of model complexity. We use SUMMA's flexibility to evaluate the impacts of explicitly representing or lumping physical processes and hydrological landscapes. Starting from conceptual models based on the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE), we progressively increase model complexity and assess corresponding model fidelity. We scrutinize models' ability to reproduce observed events and the stability of their performance under changing climatic conditions (robustness). We will show preliminary results for catchments in different hydroclimatic regimes simulated using models of varying complexity. As a first step, model complexity will be quantified using computing time and the number of state variables; model robustness will be quantified using differential split-sample tests; and model performance will be quantified using a suite of multivariate and multi-scale diagnostic metrics. With this modeling approach we seek to uncover trade-offs between realism and practicality. A particular aim is to explore to which extent the replacement of conceptual formulations by physically explicit ones improves model performance, and whether this may lead to a reduction of uncertainty in hydrological simulations.

  13. Communication for Development Interventions in Fragile States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Andrew; Rodger, Dianne; Power, Gerry; Mbus, Domenic Friguglietti; Brimacombe, Tait

    2013-01-01

    factors that affect C4D implementation is critical to effective practice, this systematic review also highlights a need for early, more thorough and longer-term C4D interventions within fragile states (especially those that can be characterised by latent conflict and chronic instability). Early communication intervention can help reduce tension and promote reconciliation, but also enable development and humanitarian agencies to be better placed to address situations that may escalate into open conflict. Implications for policy and practice A wide range of contextual and programmatic factors combine to both constrain and provide opportunities for C4D initiatives in fragile states. Such factors need to be recognised, negotiated and addressed by practitioners in design, implementation and evaluation in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of C4D initiatives. Implications for research The quality of the evidence base relating to C4D interventions in fragile states is relatively weak. The difficultly of conducting rigorous evaluation and research in conflict-affected contexts should not be underestimated. This highlights a need to improve our understanding of communications environments within fragile states and the related need to develop appropriate methodological frameworks and tools that enable effective mapping and the identification of appropriate communication interventions to occur.

  14. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  15. Simulation Models for Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Speybroeck, Niko; Van Malderen, Carine; Harper, Sam; Müller, Birgit; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2013-01-01

    Background: The emergence and evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in health involves multiple factors interacting with each other at different levels. Simulation models are suitable for studying such complex and dynamic systems and have the ability to test the impact of policy interventions in silico. Objective: To explore how simulation models were used in the field of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods: An electronic search of studies assessing socioeconomic inequalities in health using a simulation model was conducted. Characteristics of the simulation models were extracted and distinct simulation approaches were identified. As an illustration, a simple agent-based model of the emergence of socioeconomic differences in alcohol abuse was developed. Results: We found 61 studies published between 1989 and 2013. Ten different simulation approaches were identified. The agent-based model illustration showed that multilevel, reciprocal and indirect effects of social determinants on health can be modeled flexibly. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the review, we discuss the utility of using simulation models for studying health inequalities, and refer to good modeling practices for developing such models. The review and the simulation model example suggest that the use of simulation models may enhance the understanding and debate about existing and new socioeconomic inequalities of health frameworks. PMID:24192788

  16. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  17. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    SciTech Connect

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  18. Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.

    PubMed

    Bailo, M; Baena, S; Marín, J J; Arredondo, J M; Auría, J M; Sánchez, B; Tardío, E; Falcón, L

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of bony pieces requires that they are oriented systematically to ensure that homologous regions are compared. Few orientation methods are highly accurate; this is particularly true for methods applied to three-dimensional models obtained by surface scanning, a technique whose special features make it a powerful tool in forensic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a systematic, assisted orientation method for aligning three-dimensional cranial models relative to the Frankfurt Plane, which would be produce accurate orientations independent of operator and anthropological expertise. The study sample comprised four crania of known age and sex. All the crania were scanned and reconstructed using an Eva Artec™ portable 3D surface scanner and subsequently, the position of certain characteristic landmarks were determined by three different operators using the Rhinoceros 3D surface modelling software. Intra-observer analysis showed a tendency for orientation to be more accurate when using the assisted method than when using conventional manual orientation. Inter-observer analysis showed that experienced evaluators achieve results at least as accurate if not more accurate using the assisted method than those obtained using manual orientation; while inexperienced evaluators achieved more accurate orientation using the assisted method. The method tested is a an innovative system capable of providing very precise, systematic and automatised spatial orientations of virtual cranial models relative to standardised anatomical planes independent of the operator and operator experience.

  19. Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.

    PubMed

    Bailo, M; Baena, S; Marín, J J; Arredondo, J M; Auría, J M; Sánchez, B; Tardío, E; Falcón, L

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of bony pieces requires that they are oriented systematically to ensure that homologous regions are compared. Few orientation methods are highly accurate; this is particularly true for methods applied to three-dimensional models obtained by surface scanning, a technique whose special features make it a powerful tool in forensic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a systematic, assisted orientation method for aligning three-dimensional cranial models relative to the Frankfurt Plane, which would be produce accurate orientations independent of operator and anthropological expertise. The study sample comprised four crania of known age and sex. All the crania were scanned and reconstructed using an Eva Artec™ portable 3D surface scanner and subsequently, the position of certain characteristic landmarks were determined by three different operators using the Rhinoceros 3D surface modelling software. Intra-observer analysis showed a tendency for orientation to be more accurate when using the assisted method than when using conventional manual orientation. Inter-observer analysis showed that experienced evaluators achieve results at least as accurate if not more accurate using the assisted method than those obtained using manual orientation; while inexperienced evaluators achieved more accurate orientation using the assisted method. The method tested is a an innovative system capable of providing very precise, systematic and automatised spatial orientations of virtual cranial models relative to standardised anatomical planes independent of the operator and operator experience. PMID:26481346

  20. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  1. Modeling Tourism Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, O. A.; Shembeleva, E. A.

    The basic approaches to decision making and modeling tourism sustainable development are reviewed. Dynamics of a sustainable development is considered in the Forrester's system dynamics. Multidimensionality of tourism sustainable development and multicriteria issues of sustainable development are analyzed. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of policies, sustainable tourism development strategies within an integrated and dynamic framework are discussed. Main modules that may be utilized for integrated modeling sustainable tourism development are proposed.

  2. Decoding {beta}-decay systematics: A global statistical model for {beta}{sup -} half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Costiris, N. J.; Mavrommatis, E.; Gernoth, K. A.; Clark, J. W.

    2009-10-15

    Statistical modeling of nuclear data provides a novel approach to nuclear systematics complementary to established theoretical and phenomenological approaches based on quantum theory. Continuing previous studies in which global statistical modeling is pursued within the general framework of machine learning theory, we implement advances in training algorithms designed to improve generalization, in application to the problem of reproducing and predicting the half-lives of nuclear ground states that decay 100% by the {beta}{sup -} mode. More specifically, fully connected, multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network models are developed using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm together with Bayesian regularization and cross-validation. The predictive performance of models emerging from extensive computer experiments is compared with that of traditional microscopic and phenomenological models as well as with the performance of other learning systems, including earlier neural network models as well as the support vector machines recently applied to the same problem. In discussing the results, emphasis is placed on predictions for nuclei that are far from the stability line, and especially those involved in r-process nucleosynthesis. It is found that the new statistical models can match or even surpass the predictive performance of conventional models for {beta}-decay systematics and accordingly should provide a valuable additional tool for exploring the expanding nuclear landscape.

  3. Decoding β-decay systematics: A global statistical model for β- half-lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costiris, N. J.; Mavrommatis, E.; Gernoth, K. A.; Clark, J. W.

    2009-10-01

    Statistical modeling of nuclear data provides a novel approach to nuclear systematics complementary to established theoretical and phenomenological approaches based on quantum theory. Continuing previous studies in which global statistical modeling is pursued within the general framework of machine learning theory, we implement advances in training algorithms designed to improve generalization, in application to the problem of reproducing and predicting the half-lives of nuclear ground states that decay 100% by the β- mode. More specifically, fully connected, multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network models are developed using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm together with Bayesian regularization and cross-validation. The predictive performance of models emerging from extensive computer experiments is compared with that of traditional microscopic and phenomenological models as well as with the performance of other learning systems, including earlier neural network models as well as the support vector machines recently applied to the same problem. In discussing the results, emphasis is placed on predictions for nuclei that are far from the stability line, and especially those involved in r-process nucleosynthesis. It is found that the new statistical models can match or even surpass the predictive performance of conventional models for β-decay systematics and accordingly should provide a valuable additional tool for exploring the expanding nuclear landscape.

  4. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  5. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Results Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. Conclusions We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents. PMID:21955914

  6. Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

  7. Contribution of animal models to the understanding of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic overview.

    PubMed

    Varga, O; Harangi, M; Olsson, I A S; Hansen, A K

    2010-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most important challenges to public health and biomedical research. Animal models of MetS, such as leptin-deficient obese mice, obese spontaneously hypertensive rats, JCR: LA-cp rats and the Ossabaw and Göttingen minipigs, have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiological basis and the development of novel therapies. For a complex disease syndrome, no animal model can be expected to serve all needs of research. Although each animal model has limitations and strengths, used together in a complementary fashion, they are essential for research on the MetS and for rapid progress in understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis towards a cure. The purpose of this review is to assess how current animal models contributed to our knowledge of the human MetS, and to systematically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available 78 animal models from 11 species.

  8. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  9. Systematic multiscale parameterization of heterogeneous elastic network models of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Edward; Pfaendtner, Jim; Voth, Gregory A

    2008-11-01

    We present a method to parameterize heterogeneous elastic network models (heteroENMs) of proteins to reproduce the fluctuations observed in atomistic simulations. Because it is based on atomistic simulation, our method allows the development of elastic coarse-grained models of proteins under different conditions or in different environments. The method is simple and applicable to models at any level of coarse-graining. We validated the method in three systems. First, we computed the persistence length of ADP-bound F-actin, using a heteroENM model. The value of 6.1 +/- 1.6 microm is consistent with the experimentally measured value of 9.0 +/- 0.5 microm. We then compared our method to a uniform elastic network model and a realistic extension algorithm via covariance Hessian (REACH) model of carboxy myoglobin, and found that the heteroENM method more accurately predicted mean-square fluctuations of alpha-carbon atoms. Finally, we showed that the method captures critical differences in effective harmonic interactions for coarse-grained models of the N-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (N-BAR) domain of amphiphysin, by building models of N-BAR both bound to a membrane and free in solution.

  10. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings. PMID:22276600

  11. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  12. The Analysis on Systematic Development of College Microlecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Lisi

    2013-01-01

    In order to apply micro lectures to college education successfully, construct new teaching and learning strategies and teaching model, this paper proposes characteristics of college microlecture based on the college education features and construct microlecture structure model based on the definitions by the experts and scholars. Microlecture's…

  13. A Systematic Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Social Work Research

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baorong; Perron, Brian E.; Gillespie, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Structural equation modelling (SEM) is serving an increasingly important role in developing knowledge for the social work profession. Numerous advances have made the software more user-friendly, enabling users to conduct analyses without fully understanding the underlying assumptions or the implications from their analytic decisions. Unlike other fields, there have not been any published reviews in social work research that systematically describe and critique the use of SEM. This study systematically reviewed how SEM is used in social work research and the extent to which it reflects best practices. Thirty-two articles from top-ranked social work journals published from 2001 to 2007 were examined. Of the different types of SEM, the most commonly used was confirmatory factor analysis. Strengths of the research reviewed included examining models and measures not previously tested empirically and generating new insights into old topics through the use of SEM. Weaknesses included significant model modifications without theoretical justification or substantive interpretations. Suggestions are offered for improving applications of SEM in social work research. Specifically, we encourage social work researchers to test competing models, to make model modifications only when theoretically justified, to detail the process of making modifications and to use estimation procedures appropriate to the data. PMID:25477696

  14. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik

    2015-12-28

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.

  15. Towards a controlled sensitivity analysis of model development decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn; Nijssen, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The current generation of hydrologic models have followed a myriad of different development paths, making it difficult for the community to test underlying hypotheses and identify a clear path to model improvement. Model comparison studies have been undertaken to explore model differences, but these studies have not been able to meaningfully attribute inter-model differences in predictive ability to individual model components because there are often too many structural and implementation differences among the models considered. As a consequence, model comparison studies to date have provided limited insight into the causes of differences in model behavior, and model development has often relied on the inspiration and experience of individual modelers rather than a systematic analysis of model shortcomings. This presentation will discuss a unified approach to process-based hydrologic modeling to enable controlled and systematic analysis of multiple model representations (hypotheses) of hydrologic processes and scaling behavior. Our approach, which we term the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), formulates a general set of conservation equations, providing the flexibility to experiment with different spatial representations, different flux parameterizations, different model parameter values, and different time stepping schemes. We will discuss the use of SUMMA to systematically analyze different model development decisions, focusing on both analysis of simulations for intensively instrumented research watersheds as well as simulations across a global dataset of FLUXNET sites. The intent of the presentation is to demonstrate how the systematic analysis of model shortcomings can help identify model weaknesses and inform future model development priorities.

  16. A Novel, Physics-Based Data Analytics Framework for Reducing Systematic Model Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Knievel, J. C.; Hacker, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most climate and weather models exhibit systematic biases, such as under predicted diurnal temperatures in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. General approaches to alleviate the systematic biases include improving model physics and numerics, improving data assimilation, and bias correction through post-processing. In this study, we developed a novel, physics-based data analytics framework in post processing by taking advantage of ever-growing high-resolution (spatial and temporal) observational and modeling data. In the framework, a spatiotemporal PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is first applied on the observational data to filter out noise and information on scales that a model may not be able to resolve. The filtered observations are then used to establish regression relationships with archived model forecasts in the same spatiotemporal domain. The regressions along with the model forecasts predict the projected observations in the forecasting period. The pre-regression PCA procedure strengthens regressions, and enhances predictive skills. We then combine the projected observations with the past observations to apply PCA iteratively to derive the final forecasts. This post-regression PCA reconstructs variances and scales of information that are lost in the regression. The framework was examined and validated with 24 days of 5-minute observational data and archives from the WRF model at 27 stations near Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The validation shows significant bias reduction in the diurnal cycle of predicted surface air temperature compared to the direct output from the WRF model. Additionally, unlike other post-processing bias correction schemes, the data analytics framework does not require long-term historic data and model archives. A week or two of the data is enough to take into account changes in weather regimes. The program, written in python, is also computationally efficient.

  17. Systematic Development of Special Educators as Facilitators of Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peryon, Charleen Dolphin

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the knowledge and skills helpful to special educators in their role as consulting teachers in mainstreaming. A parallel is drawn between adult development phases and career development. Sources of resistance to mainstreaming are cited. Three modes of consulting (provision, prescriptive, and mediation) are described.…

  18. Cochrane methods--twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally

    2013-09-20

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews.

  19. Development of an integrated surface stimulation device for systematic evaluation of wound electrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Howe, D S; Dunning, J; Zorman, C; Garverick, S L; Bogie, K M

    2015-02-01

    Ideally, all chronic wounds would be prevented as they can become life threatening complications. The concept that a wound produces a 'current of injury' due to the discontinuity in the electrical field of intact skin provides the basis for the concept that electrical stimulation (ES) may provide an effective treatment for chronic wounds. The optimal stimulation waveform parameters are unknown, limiting the reliability of achieving a successful clinical therapeutic outcome. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of ES for chronic wound therapy, systematic evaluation using a valid in vivo model is required. The focus of the current paper is development of the flexible modular surface stimulation (MSS) device by our group. This device can be programed to deliver a variety of clinically relevant stimulation paradigms and is essential to facilitate systematic in vivo studies. The MSS version 2.0 for small animal use provides all components of a single-channel, programmable current-controlled ES system within a lightweight, flexible, independently-powered portable device. Benchtop testing and validation indicates that custom electronics and control algorithms support the generation of high-voltage, low duty-cycle current pulses in a power-efficient manner, extending battery life and allowing ES therapy to be delivered for up to 7 days without needing to replace or disturb the wound dressing.

  20. Risk Prediction Models for Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Yoon K.; Myint, Phyo Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several models have been developed to predict the risk of mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aims to systematically identify and evaluate the performance of published risk prediction models for CAP. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library in November 2011 for initial derivation and validation studies for models which predict pneumonia mortality. We aimed to present the comparative usefulness of their mortality prediction. Results. We identified 20 different published risk prediction models for mortality in CAP. Four models relied on clinical variables that could be assessed in community settings, with the two validated models BTS1 and CRB-65 showing fairly similar balanced accuracy levels (0.77 and 0.72, resp.), while CRB-65 had AUROC of 0.78. Nine models required laboratory tests in addition to clinical variables, and the best performance levels amongst the validated models were those of CURB and CURB-65 (balanced accuracy 0.73 and 0.71, resp.), with CURB-65 having an AUROC of 0.79. The PSI (AUROC 0.82) was the only validated model with good discriminative ability among the four that relied on clinical, laboratorial, and radiological variables. Conclusions. There is no convincing evidence that other risk prediction models improve upon the well-established CURB-65 and PSI models. PMID:24228253

  1. An analysis of the least-squares problem for the DSN systematic pointing error model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic pointing error model is used to calibrate antennas in the Deep Space Network. The least squares problem is described and analyzed along with the solution methods used to determine the model's parameters. Specifically studied are the rank degeneracy problems resulting from beam pointing error measurement sets that incorporate inadequate sky coverage. A least squares parameter subset selection method is described and its applicability to the systematic error modeling process is demonstrated on Voyager 2 measurement distribution.

  2. Toward a Systematic Computerized Career Development Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Jack R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Suggests a conceptual framework for development of career programs in college, describes the need for such programs, and identifies some of the relevant research. The computer as a possible delivery vehicle for college-level career guidance is discussed and specific conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  3. Development of a Systematic Automotive Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Peter B.; And Others

    As part of a project to provide techniques for developing and implementing realistic vocational training and placement programs for prisoner rehabilitation, an Automotive Trades Council (ATC) was established to test the concept of using a citizens' council to function as a bridge between correctional and training personnel and the using society.…

  4. Systematic spectral analysis of GX 339-4: Influence of Galactic background and reflection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Corbel, S.; Coriat, M.

    2016-05-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries display large outbursts, during which their properties are strongly variable. We develop a systematic spectral analysis of the 3-40 keV {RXTE}/PCA data in order to study the evolution of these systems and apply it to GX 339-4. Using the low count rate observations, we provide a precise model of the Galactic background at GX 339-4's location and discuss its possible impact on the source spectral parameters. At higher fluxes, the use of a Gaussian line to model the reflection component can lead to the detection of a high-temperature disk, in particular in the high-hard state. We demonstrate that this component is an artifact arising from an incomplete modeling of the reflection spectrum.

  5. Validation of Ultrafilter Performance Model Based on Systematic Simulant Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Billing, Justin M.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-11-18

    Because of limited availability of test data with actual Hanford tank waste samples, a method was developed to estimate expected filtration performance based on physical characterization data for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A test with simulated waste was analyzed to demonstrate that filtration of this class of waste is consistent with a concentration polarization model. Subsequently, filtration data from actual waste samples were analyzed to demonstrate that centrifuged solids concentrations provide a reasonable estimate of the limiting concentration for filtration.

  6. A systematic molecular genetic approach to study mammalian germline development

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kuniya; Ko, Minoru S. H.; MacGregor, Grant R.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to study gene expression in mammalian embryonic germ cells as PGCs constitute only a minor proportion of the mouse embryo. We have overcome this problem by using a novel combination of established molecular and transgenic approaches. A line of mice has been generated in which the cells of the germ lineage express the β-galactosidase reporter gene during embryogenesis. Using this line, germ cells have been purified to near homogeneity from embryos at discrete stages during germline development by use of a stain for β-gal activity and a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Subsequently, cDNA libraries have been constructed from each germ cell population using a modified lone-linker PCR strategy. These combined cDNA libraries represent genes expressed in PGCs during mammalian germline development. To facilitate a molecular genetic approach to studying mammalian germline development, these cDNA libraries will be pooled to form an arrayed, addressed reference embryonic germ cell cDNA library. In parallel with large-scale cDNA sequencing efforts, genes that are differentially expressed in germ cells will be identified by screening the reference library with probes generated by subtractive hybridization. Complementary DNAs identified using this approach will be analyzed by sequencing, database comparison, genomic mapping and in situ hybridization to ascertain the potential functional importance of each gene to germline development. In addition to providing a wealth of novel information regarding patterns of gene expression during mammalian germline development, these results will form the basis for future experiments to determine the function of these genes in this process. PMID:9853837

  7. Dynamic Epidemiological Models for Dengue Transmission: A Systematic Review of Structural Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Andraud, Mathieu; Hens, Niel; Marais, Christiaan; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component). For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems. PMID:23139836

  8. Dynamic epidemiological models for dengue transmission: a systematic review of structural approaches.

    PubMed

    Andraud, Mathieu; Hens, Niel; Marais, Christiaan; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component). For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems.

  9. Towards the systematic development of medical networking technology.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Shetty, Ravindra; Sree, S Vinitha; Acharya, Sripathi; Acharya U, Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Poo, Chua Kok; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-12-01

    Currently, there is a disparity in the availability of doctors between urban and rural areas of developing countries. Most experienced doctors and specialists, as well as advanced diagnostic technologies, are available in urban areas. People living in rural areas have less or sometimes even no access to affordable healthcare facilities. Increasing the number of doctors and charitable medical hospitals or deploying advanced medical technologies in these areas might not be economically feasible, especially in developing countries. We need to mobilize science and technology to master this complex, large scale problem in an objective, logical, and professional way. This can only be achieved with a collaborative effort where a team of experts works on both technical and non-technical aspects of this health care divide. In this paper we use a systems engineering framework to discuss hospital networks which might be solution for the problem. We argue that with the advancement in communication and networking technologies, economically middle class people and even some rural poor have access to internet and mobile communication systems. Thus, Hospital Digital Networking Technologies (HDNT), such as telemedicine, can be developed to utilize internet, mobile and satellite communication systems to connect primitive rural healthcare centers to well advanced modern urban setups and thereby provide better consultation and diagnostic care to the needy people. This paper describes requirements and limitations of the HDNTs. It also presents the features of telemedicine, the implementation issues and the application of wireless technologies in the field of medical networking.

  10. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW which were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystems, are discussed. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base and to assess the cooperation between the rule bases. Simulation and comparative workload results for two mission scenarios are given. The scenarios are inbound surface-to-air-missile attack on the aircraft and pilot incapacitation. The methodology used to develop the AUTOCREW knowledge bases is summarized. Issues involved in designing the navigation sensor selection expert in AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR knowledge base are discussed in detail. The performance of seven navigation systems aiding a medium-accuracy INS was investigated using Kalman filter covariance analyses. A navigation sensor management (NSM) expert system was formulated from covariance simulation data using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and the ID3 algorithm. ANOVA results show that statistically different position accuracies are obtained when different navaids are used, the number of navaids aiding the INS is varied, the aircraft's trajectory is varied, and the performance history is varied. The ID3 algorithm determines the NSM expert's classification rules in the form of decision trees. The performance of these decision trees was assessed on two arbitrary trajectories, and the results demonstrate that the NSM expert adapts to new situations and provides reasonable estimates of the expected hybrid performance.

  11. Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-11-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a

  12. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    PubMed

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.

  13. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    PubMed

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely. PMID:21839562

  14. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750

  15. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR.

  16. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750

  17. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  18. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  19. Using a Systematic Approach to Develop a Chemistry Course Introducing Students to Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Shen, Bo; Hardacre, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach to develop the teaching of instrumental analytical chemistry is discussed, as well as a conceptual framework for organizing and executing lectures and a laboratory course. Three main components are used in this course: theoretical knowledge developed in the classroom, simulations via a virtual laboratory, and practical…

  20. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  1. Development of a systematic procedure for analyzing bus service cutback programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tadi, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this era of shrinking public resources and mounting operating costs, it is becoming increasingly important to operate public transit as efficiently as possible. The primary purpose of this thesis is to develop a systematic procedure (planning tool) that will enable transit operators to quickly and efficiently evaluate transit routes in order to minimize the total operating deficit while responding to service cutbacks or modifications. As a part of this research, a computer model called Transit Route Evaluation Model (TREM) is developed that can evaluate each transit route both at the system level and at the route level based upon a set of pre-specified criteria such as revenue/operating cost ratio, transit demand, population density, subsidy, and income. The unproductive routes, thus identified, are reviewed to analyze if service cutbacks or service modifications can be considered along those routes so that total operating deficit can be minimized. The alternative which yields the minimum operating deficit is considered as the optimal alternative. A case study example (Flint, Michigan) consisting of 12 routes is used to demonstrate the applicability of the research methodology. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted by changing the various input parameters in order to judge the viability of the methodology.

  2. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved. PMID:27262567

  3. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  4. Rectenna thermal model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  5. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  6. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  7. Systematic Land-Surface-Model Performance Evaluation on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahecha, M. D.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Beer, C.; Braakhekke, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Lange, H.; Lasslop, G.; Le Maire, G.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Vetter, M.

    2008-12-01

    Keeping track of the space--time evolution of CO2--, and H2O--fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere is essential to our understanding of current climate. Monitoring fluxes at site level is one option to characterize the temporal development of ecosystem--atmosphere interactions. Nevertheless, many aspects of ecosystem--atmosphere fluxes become meaningful only when interpreted in time over larger geographical regions. Empirical and process based models play a key role in spatial and temporal upscaling exercises. In this context, comparative model performance evaluations at site level are indispensable. We present a model evaluation scheme which investigates the model-data agreement separately on different time scales. Observed and modeled time series were decomposed by essentially non parametric techniques into subsignals (time scales) of characteristic fluctuations. By evaluating the extracted subsignals of observed and modeled C--fluxes (gross and net ecosystem exchange, GEE and NEE, and terrestrial ecosystem respiration, TER) separately, we obtain scale--dependent performances for the different evaluation measures. Our diagnostic model comparison allows uncovering time scales of model-data agreement and fundamental mismatch. We focus on the systematic evaluation of three land--surface models: Biome--BGC, ORCHIDEE, and LPJ. For the first time all models were driven by consistent site meteorology and compared to respective Eddy-Covariance flux observations. The results show that correct net C--fluxes may result from systematic (simultaneous) biases in TER and GEE on specific time scales of variation. We localize significant model-data mismatches of the annual-seasonal cycles in time and illustrate the recurrence characteristics of such problems. For example LPJ underestimates GEE during winter months and over estimates it in early summer at specific sites. Contrary, ORCHIDEE over-estimates the flux from July to September at these sites. Finally

  8. Systematic Assessment of Terrestrial Biogeochemistry in Coupled Climate-Carbon Models

    SciTech Connect

    Randerson, Jim; Hoffman, Forrest M; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Lindsay, Keith; Lee, Jeff; Nevison, Cynthia; Doney, Scott C.; Bonan, Gordon; Stockli, Reto; Covey, Curtis; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    With representation of the global carbon cycle becoming increasingly complex in climate models, it is important to develop ways to quantitatively evaluate model performance against in situ and remote sensing observations. Here we present a systematic framework, the Carbon-LAnd Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), for assessing terrestrial biogeochemistry models coupled to climate models using observations that span a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As an example of the value of such comparisons, we used this framework to evaluate two biogeochemistry models that are integrated within the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) and carbon-nitrogen (CN). Both models underestimated the magnitude of net carbon uptake during the growing season in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, based on comparison with atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements and eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange. Comparison with MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements show that this low bias in model fluxes was caused, at least in part, by 1-3 month delays in the timing of maximum leaf area. In the tropics, the models overestimated carbon storage in woody biomass based on comparison with datasets from the Amazon. Reducing this model bias will probably weaken the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon fluxes to both atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate. Global carbon sinks during the 1990s differed by a factor of two (2.4 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CASA vs. 1.2 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CN), with fluxes from both models compatible with the atmospheric budget given uncertainties in other terms. The models captured some of the timing of interannual global terrestrial carbon exchange during 1988-2004 based on comparison with atmospheric inversion results from TRANSCOM (r=0.66 for CASA and r=0.73 for CN). Adding (CASA) or improving (CN) the representation of deforestation fires may further increase agreement with the

  9. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted. PMID:15993465

  10. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted.

  11. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten; Dekker, Joost; Steultjens, Martijn; Lund, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. Methods and analysis Cohort, cross-sectional and case–control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical factor with (the development of) KOA will be included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus will be searched from their inception until August 2015. 2 reviewers will independently screen articles obtained by the search for eligibility, extract data and score risk of bias. Quality of evidence will be evaluated. Meta-analysis using random effects model will be applied in each of the biomechanical factors, if possible. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis does not require ethical approval. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at (inter)national conferences. Trial registration number CRD42015025092. PMID:27311908

  12. A Systematic Composite Service Design Modeling Method Using Graph-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system. PMID:25928358

  13. A systematic composite service design modeling method using graph-based theory.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system.

  14. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  15. Information Processing and Risk Perception: An Adaptation of the Heuristic-Systematic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes heuristic-systematic information-processing model and risk perception--the two major conceptual areas of the analysis. Discusses the proposed model, describing the context of the data collections (public health communication involving cancer epidemiology) and providing the results of a set of three replications using the proposed model.…

  16. Development of Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Doulabi, Mahbobeh ahmadi; Vameghi, Roshanak; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Mahmodi, Zohreh; Ghasemi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to gain a better perspective of the developmental status of children in different regions of Iran, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the factors impacting child development in Iranian studies. Materials and Methods: Articles published in Iranian and international journals indexed in the SID, PubMed, Scopus and Magiran databases from 2001-2015 were systematically reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords. After evaluating the quality of 155 articles in the initial search, 26 articles were analyzed according to the inclusion criteria. After investigations, meta-analysis was done for six studies and the results were combined using Random Effects model, and the heterogeneity of studies was evaluated using the I2 index. Data analysis was performed using STATA version 11.2. Results: Eagger & Beggs tests, respectively with 0/273 & 0/260 did not confirm the probability of publication bias in the data, but heterogeneity in studies was confirmed (p<0/001). On such basis, the pooled prevalence of developmental disorder based on Random Effect model was calculated to be 0.146, CI (0/107-0/184). The prevalence of developmental disorders in children in the studies reviewed was reported between 7 to 22.4%. The most important risk factors were in SES (Socio Economic Status) and Prenatal, Perinatal, Neonatal &Child groups. Conclusion: More extensive studies and early intervention with respect to causes of developmental delay in children seems necessary.

  17. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  18. Rumination and postnatal depression: A systematic review and a cognitive model.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Hannah; Fox, Elaine; Stein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) confers risk for a range of negative child developmental outcomes, at least in part through its impact on parenting behaviour. Whilst the behavioural effects of depression on parenting are well established, the cognitive mechanisms that may mediate this effect are less well understood. The current paper proposes that rumination may be a key cognitive mechanism through which parenting is affected in PND, and provides a systematic review of the existing literature on rumination in the context of perinatal depression. The review identifies ten relevant papers. Eight are questionnaire-based studies examining the role of rumination in predicting future depression and/or mother-infant relationship outcomes, such as bonding. Two are experimental studies examining the effects of induced rumination on parenting behaviours. The results of the review are discussed, and remaining questions highlighted. We then present a new theoretical model, developed specifically for the perinatal context, and informed by existing models of rumination and worry. Our cognitive model emphasises the relationship between rumination, cognitive biases and cognitive control, and the impact of these variables on infant cue processing and subsequent parenting responses. The model provides a potential framework for future work in this area, and to guide the development of treatment interventions. PMID:27203622

  19. "Learning to Play with New Friends": Systematic Quality Development Work in a Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the recontextualisation of systematic quality development work (Sqdw) in a leisure-time centre. Two teachers' processes of planning, organisation, documentation and evaluation were investigated, the aim being to explore the recontextualisation of Sqdw in practice. The study is thus a case study of these teachers' practice…

  20. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  1. Toward a Systematic and Intentional Approach to Leadership Development for the Early Childhood Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the literature indicated that the field of early childhood would benefit from a more systematic and intentional approach to developing leadership for professionals at all levels, including those with a range of training/education across a diversity of program types and professional positions. The intent of the present study was…

  2. Systematic Quality Development Work in a Swedish Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin; Sheridan, Sonja; Gustafsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing activity in the area of quality issues in education in Europe. Diverse discourses of policy for quality are encountered in daily practice. This article explores systematic quality development work in a Swedish educational setting: the leisure-time centre. By following 2 teachers' enactments of policy in planning, organising,…

  3. SCID: A Competency-Based Curriculum Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    To provide structure for developing curriculum for Competency Based Education (CBE), an effective and efficient model, Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), has been devised. SCID has five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Each of 23 components involves several steps, some optional. Phase…

  4. Systematic Parameterization of Monovalent Ions Employing the Nonbonded Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Song, Lin Frank; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-04-14

    Monovalent ions play fundamental roles in many biological processes in organisms. Modeling these ions in molecular simulations continues to be a challenging problem. The 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) nonbonded model is widely used to model monovalent ions in classical molecular dynamics simulations. A lot of parameterization efforts have been reported for these ions with a number of experimental end points. However, some reported parameter sets do not have a good balance between the two Lennard-Jones parameters (the van der Waals (VDW) radius and potential well depth), which affects their transferability. In the present work, via the use of a noble gas curve we fitted in former work (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 2733), we reoptimized the 12-6 LJ parameters for 15 monovalent ions (11 positive and 4 negative ions) for three extensively used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P(EW)). Since the 12-6 LJ nonbonded model performs poorly in some instances for these ions, we have also parameterized the 12-6-4 LJ-type nonbonded model (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2014, 10, 289) using the same three water models. The three derived parameter sets focused on reproducing the hydration free energies (the HFE set) and the ion-oxygen distance (the IOD set) using the 12-6 LJ nonbonded model and the 12-6-4 LJ-type nonbonded model (the 12-6-4 set) overall give improved results. In particular, the final parameter sets showed better agreement with quantum mechanically calculated VDW radii and improved transferability to ion-pair solutions when compared to previous parameter sets. PMID:26574374

  5. Energy interventions that facilitate sustainable development and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-04-01

    Objective To inform policy by providing an overview of systematic reviews on interventions that facilitate sustainable energy use and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 13 databases and nine websites based on a pre-defined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during the 17 years from January 1997 - January 2014 was included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Five systematic reviews and one economic evaluation met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions that impacted health were electricity for lighting and other uses (developing countries); improved stoves for cooking and health and/or cleaner fuels for cooking (developing countries); and household energy efficiency measures (developed countries). These interventions also had potential environmental and economic impacts. Their cost-effectiveness is not known, nor is their impact on health inequalities. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions where the impacts are likely to be positive but their implementation needs to be rigorously evaluated, including possible adverse impacts. Care needs to be taken not to exacerbate health inequalities and to consider context, human behavior and cultural factors so that the potential health benefits are realized in real-life implementation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured in future primary studies and systematic reviews.

  6. Energy interventions that facilitate sustainable development and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-04-01

    Objective To inform policy by providing an overview of systematic reviews on interventions that facilitate sustainable energy use and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 13 databases and nine websites based on a pre-defined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during the 17 years from January 1997 - January 2014 was included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Five systematic reviews and one economic evaluation met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions that impacted health were electricity for lighting and other uses (developing countries); improved stoves for cooking and health and/or cleaner fuels for cooking (developing countries); and household energy efficiency measures (developed countries). These interventions also had potential environmental and economic impacts. Their cost-effectiveness is not known, nor is their impact on health inequalities. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions where the impacts are likely to be positive but their implementation needs to be rigorously evaluated, including possible adverse impacts. Care needs to be taken not to exacerbate health inequalities and to consider context, human behavior and cultural factors so that the potential health benefits are realized in real-life implementation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured in future primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:27657185

  7. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. Results The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Conclusions Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations. PMID:23915274

  8. P300 Development across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The P300 component of the event-related potential is a large positive waveform that can be extracted from the ongoing electroencephalogram using a two-stimuli oddball paradigm, and has been associated with cognitive information processing (e.g. memory, attention, executive function). This paper reviews the development of the auditory P300 across the lifespan. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review and meta-analysis on the P300 was performed including 75 studies (n = 2,811). Scopus was searched for studies using healthy subjects and that reported means of P300 latency and amplitude measured at Pz and mean age. These findings were validated in an independent, existing cross-sectional dataset including 1,572 participants from ages 6–87. Curve-fitting procedures were applied to obtain a model of P300 development across the lifespan. In both studies logarithmic Gaussian models fitted the latency and amplitude data best. The P300 latency and amplitude follow a maturational path from childhood to adolescence, resulting in a period that marks a plateau, after which degenerative effects begin. We were able to determine ages that mark a maximum (in P300 amplitude) or trough (in P300 latency) segregating maturational from degenerative stages. We found these points of deflection occurred at different ages. Conclusions/Significance It is hypothesized that latency and amplitude index different aspects of brain maturation. The P300 latency possibly indexes neural speed or brain efficiency. The P300 amplitude might index neural power or cognitive resources, which increase with maturation. PMID:24551055

  9. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: symmetron and dilaton models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no

    2012-10-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in the dilaton and symmetron models of modified gravity using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of scenarios using only a few parameters, such as the coupling between the scalar field and the matter, and the range of the scalar force on very large scales. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ECOSMOG, which is a variant of RAMSES working in modified gravity scenarios, to perform a set of 110 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a large portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM template cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}. Our results show the full effect of screening on nonlinear structure formation and the associated deviation from ΛCDM. We also investigate how differences in the force mediated by the scalar field in modified gravity models lead to qualitatively different features for the nonlinear power spectrum and the halo mass function, and how varying the individual model parameters changes these observables. The differences are particularly large in the nonlinear power spectra whose shapes for f(R), dilaton and symmetron models vary greatly, and where the characteristic bump around 1 hMpc{sup −1} of f(R) models is preserved for symmetrons, whereas an increase on much smaller scales is particular to symmetrons. No bump is present for dilatons where a flattening of the power spectrum takes place on small scales. These deviations from ΛCDM and the differences between modified gravity models, such as dilatons and symmetrons, could be tested with future surveys.

  10. A Digital Tool Set for Systematic Model Design in Process-Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Hylke; Tramper, Johannes; Hartog, Rob J.M.; Vermue, Marian

    2006-01-01

    One of the objectives of the process technology curriculum at Wageningen University is that students learn how to design mathematical models in the context of process engineering, using a systematic problem analysis approach. Students find it difficult to learn to design a model and little material exists to meet this learning objective. For these…

  11. A Systematic Ecological Model for Adapting Physical Activities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task…

  12. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD. PMID:19367150

  13. Devices for In situ Development of Non-disturbed Oral Biofilm. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prada-López, Isabel; Quintas, Víctor; Vilaboa, Carlos; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to assess the types of devices used for in situ development of oral biofilm analyzed microbiologically. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all in situ studies of oral biofilm which used an oral device; the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases complemented with manual search were used. Specific devices used to microbiologically analyze oral biofilm in adults were included. After reading of the selected full texts, devices were identified and classified according to the oral cavity zone and manufacturing material. The “ideal” characteristics were analyzed in every group. Results: The search provided 787 abstracts, of which 111 papers were included. The devices used in these studies were classified as palatal, lingual or buccal. The last group was sub-classified in six groups based on the material of the device. Considering the analyzed characteristics, the thermoplastic devices and the Intraoral Device of Overlaid Disk-holding Splints (IDODS) presented more advantages than limitations. Conclusions: Buccal devices were the most commonly used for the study of in situ biofilm. The majority of buccal devices seemed to slightly affect the volunteer's comfort, the IDODS being the closest to the “ideal” model. Clinical Relevance: New devices for in situ oral biofilm microbiological studies should take into account the possible effect of their design on the volunteer's comfort and biofilm formation. PMID:27486437

  14. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  15. Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through systematic model-to-data comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Marcy, Peter W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Huzurbazar, Snehalata; Wolpert, Robert L.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-05-22

    We systematically compare an event-by-event heavy-ion collision model to data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Using a general Bayesian method, we probe multiple model parameters including fundamental quark-gluon plasma properties such as the specific shear viscosity η/s, calibrate the model to optimally reproduce experimental data, and extract quantitative constraints for all parameters simultaneously. Furthermore, the method is universal and easily extensible to other data and collision models.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Models and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephanie L.; Ding, Jie; Tang, Eugene Y. H.; Siervo, Mario; Robinson, Louise; Jagger, Carol; Stephan, Blossom C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Materials and Methods Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included. Results The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC), for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:25478916

  17. Systematic parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis using a multidimensional PEMFC model coupled with DAKOTA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao Yang; Luo, Gang; Jiang, Fangming; Carnes, Brian; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-05-01

    Current computational models for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) include a large number of parameters such as boundary conditions, material properties, and numerous parameters used in sub-models for membrane transport, two-phase flow and electrochemistry. In order to successfully use a computational PEMFC model in design and optimization, it is important to identify critical parameters under a wide variety of operating conditions, such as relative humidity, current load, temperature, etc. Moreover, when experimental data is available in the form of polarization curves or local distribution of current and reactant/product species (e.g., O2, H2O concentrations), critical parameters can be estimated in order to enable the model to better fit the data. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation are typically performed using manual adjustment of parameters, which is also common in parameter studies. We present work to demonstrate a systematic approach based on using a widely available toolkit developed at Sandia called DAKOTA that supports many kinds of design studies, such as sensitivity analysis as well as optimization and uncertainty quantification. In the present work, we couple a multidimensional PEMFC model (which is being developed, tested and later validated in a joint effort by a team from Penn State Univ. and Sandia National Laboratories) with DAKOTA through the mapping of model parameters to system responses. Using this interface, we demonstrate the efficiency of performing simple parameter studies as well as identifying critical parameters using sensitivity analysis. Finally, we show examples of optimization and parameter estimation using the automated capability in DAKOTA.

  18. Systematic process development towards high performance transferred thin silicon solar cells based on epitaxially grown absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia Salazar, Clara Paola

    ). First principles modeling, however, predicts that efficiencies of 20+% are achievable with less than 20 mum of c-Si. In addition to a high voltage design, this work reports state of the art epitaxial c-Si solar cell performance and a path towards 20+%-efficient transferred epitaxial solar cells. The design and fabrication approach is based on high open circuit voltage first, high short circuit current second. A first design is a thin solar cell grown on a conductive silicon wafer. This structure allows developing processes to increase bulk lifetime and reduce surface recombination. Important processes that can be used for a transferred solar cell such as increased fill factor (FF) are developed at this stage. A second design is based on the use of a separation layer prior to the solar cell growth. We achieve a comparable performance with the second design. A third design includes the transfer of the solar cell to a secondary substrate. Initial processing development is reported for the transferred solar cells. Improvements in solar cell critical parameters have been characterized with a combination of predictive modeling and solar cell diagnostic tools such as quantum efficiency and voltage measurements. Fabrication processes have been developed to improve solar cell performance. The combination of process development, test structures, systematic fabrication, testing and analysis concludes with a path to high voltage, transferred thin c-Si solar cells towards 20+% efficiencies.

  19. Biomass density and filament length synergistically affect activated sludge settling: systematic quantification and modeling.

    PubMed

    Jassby, D; Xiao, Y; Schuler, A J

    2014-01-01

    Settling of the biomass produced during biological treatment of wastewater is a critical and often problematic process. Filamentous bacteria content is the best-known factor affecting biomass settleability in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, and varying biomass density has recently been shown to play an important role as well. The objective of this study was to systematically determine how filament content and biomass density combine to affect microbial biomass settling, with a focus on density variations over the range found in full-scale systems. A laboratory-scale bioreactor system was operated to produce biomass with a range of filamentous bacterium contents. Biomass density was systematically varied in samples from this system by addition of synthetic microspheres to allow separation of filament content and density effects on settleability. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization indicated that the culture was dominated by Sphaerotilus natans, a common contributor to poor settling in full-scale systems. A simple, image-based metric of filament content (filament length per floc area) was linearly correlated with the more commonly used filament length per dry biomass measurement. A non-linear, semi-empirical model of settleability as a function of filament content and density was developed and evaluated, providing a better understanding of how these two parameters combine to affect settleability. Filament content (length per dry biomass weight) was nearly linearly related to sludge volume index (SVI) values, with a slightly decreasing differential, and biomass density exhibited an asymptotic relationship with SVI. The filament content associated with bulking was shown to be a function of biomass density. The marginal effect of filament content on settleability increased with decreasing biomass density (low density biomass was more sensitive to changes in filament content than was high density biomass), indicating a synergistic relationship between these

  20. Evidence synthesis in international development: a critique of systematic reviews and a pragmatist alternative

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an instrument of Evidence-Based Policy designed to produce comprehensive, unbiased, transparent and clear assessments of interventions’ effectiveness. From their origins in medical fields, systematic reviews have recently been promoted as offering important advances in a range of applied social science fields, including international development. Drawing on a case study of a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilisation as an intervention to tackle HIV/AIDS, this article problematises the use of systematic reviews to summarise complex and context-specific bodies of evidence. Social development interventions, such as ‘community mobilisation’ often take different forms in different interventions; are made successful by their situation in particular contexts, rather than being successful or unsuccessful universally; and have a rhetorical value that leads to the over-application of positively valued terms (e.g. ‘community mobilisation’), invalidating the keyword search process of a systematic review. The article suggests that the policy interest in definitive summary statements of ‘the evidence’ is at odds with academic assessments that evidence takes multiple, contradictory and complex forms, and with practitioner experience of the variability of practice in context. A pragmatist philosophy of evidence is explored as an alternative. Taking this approach implies expanding the definition of forms of research considered to be ‘useful evidence’ for evidence-based policy-making; decentralising decisions about ‘what works’ to allow for the use of local practical wisdom; and prioritising the establishment of good processes for the critical use of evidence, rather than producing context-insensitive summaries of ‘the evidence’. PMID:26426502

  1. Neural Systems Language: A Formal Modeling Language for the Systematic Description, Unambiguous Communication, and Automated Digital Curation of Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramsay A.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL’s development. We explore NSyL’s potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. PMID:23787962

  2. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases.

  3. A Systematic Literature Search on Psychological First Aid: Lack of Evidence to Develop Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dieltjens, Tessa; Moonens, Inge; Van Praet, Koen; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing psychological first aid (PFA) is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. Objective To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. Methods Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N) were conducted from inception to July 2013. Results Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20–53%) and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Conclusion The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims. PMID:25503520

  4. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-2 analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, David; Calafiura, Paolo; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Elsing, Markus; Farrell, Steven; Koeneke, Karsten; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krumnack, Nils; Lancon, Eric; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lei, Xiaowen; Strandberg, Sara; Verkerke, Wouter; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Woudstra, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This paper will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  5. Three Models of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Michael R.; Crumpler, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Compares ontogenetic models, which stress development through a series of stages; sociogenic models, which stress the influence of social context on adult behavior; and liberative models. Liberative models do not treat adult development as entirely dependent on biological or social determinism, and do stress individuals' conscious efforts at…

  6. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Etxeandia, Itziar; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem; Ventresca, Matthew; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Kowalski, Sérgio; Baldeh, Tejan; Zhang, Yuan; Raid, Ulla; Neumann, Ignacio; Norris, Susan L.; Thornton, Judith; Harbour, Robin; Treweek, Shaun; Guyatt, Gordon; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Reinap, Marge; Brožek, Jan; Oxman, Andrew; Akl, Elie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although several tools to evaluate the credibility of health care guidelines exist, guidance on practical steps for developing guidelines is lacking. We systematically compiled a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers could consider, without the expectation that every guideline would address each item. Methods: We searched data sources, including manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines (with a focus on methodology reports from international and national agencies, and professional societies) and recent articles providing systematic guidance. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items for the checklist using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions and suggestions for items to be added. Results: We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers. The topics and included items cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from the planning and formulation of guidelines, to their implementation and evaluation. The final checklist includes links to training materials as well as resources with suggested methodology for applying the items. Interpretation: The checklist will serve as a resource for guideline developers. Consideration of items on the checklist will support the development, implementation and evaluation of guidelines. We will use crowdsourcing to revise the checklist and keep it up to date. PMID:24344144

  7. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  8. ROBIS: A new tool to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews was developed

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny; Savović, Jelena; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Caldwell, Deborah M.; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Davies, Philippa; Kleijnen, Jos; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). Study Design and Setting We used four-stage approach to develop ROBIS: define the scope, review the evidence base, hold a face-to-face meeting, and refine the tool through piloting. Results ROBIS is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within health care settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews (“reviews of reviews”), and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in three phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process, and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the phase 2 domains. Signaling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results, and conclusions. Conclusions ROBIS is the first rigorously developed tool designed specifically to assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews. PMID:26092286

  9. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  10. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  11. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  12. Community Disaster Resilience: a Systematic Review on Assessment Models and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ostadtaghizadeh, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas; Jabbari, Hossain; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    we summarize the models identified in the literature and suggest that, as a starting point for the systematic operationalization of CDR, that existing indicators of community disaster resilience be classified in five domains. These are social, economic, institutional, physical and natural domains. A need to use appropriate and effective methods to quantify and weigh them with regard to their relative contributions to resilience is identified, as is a need to consider how these levels interrelate to influence resilience. Although assessment of disaster resilience especially at the community level will inform disaster risk reduction strategies, attempts to systematically do so are in preliminary phases. Further empirical investigation is needed to develop a operational and measurable CDR model. PMID:25905026

  13. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment.

  14. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment. PMID:12755272

  15. A Systematic Comparison between Classical Optimal Scaling and the Two-Parameter IRT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; de Gruijter, Dato N. M.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two alternative methods for the analysis of multivariate categorical data is systematically explored. It is shown that the person score of the first dimension of classical optimal scaling correlates strongly with the latent variable for the two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. Next, under the…

  16. Constraints and Opportunities in GCM Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. A.; Clune, T.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 30 years climate models have evolved from relatively simple representations of a few atmospheric processes to complex multi-disciplinary system models which incorporate physics from bottom of the ocean to the mesopause and are used for seasonal to multi-million year timescales. Computer infrastructure over that period has gone from punchcard mainframes to modern parallel clusters. Constraints of working within an ever evolving research code mean that most software changes must be incremental so as not to disrupt scientific throughput. Unfortunately, programming methodologies have generally not kept pace with these challenges, and existing implementations now present a heavy and growing burden on further model development as well as limiting flexibility and reliability. Opportunely, advances in software engineering from other disciplines (e.g. the commercial software industry) as well as new generations of powerful development tools can be incorporated by the model developers to incrementally and systematically improve underlying implementations and reverse the long term trend of increasing development overhead. However, these methodologies cannot be applied blindly, but rather must be carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of scientific software development. We will discuss the need for close integration of software engineers and climate scientists to find the optimal processes for climate modeling.

  17. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  18. Beyond frontier molecular orbital theory: a systematic electron transfer model (ETM) for polar bimolecular organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Katharine J; Johnson, Richard P

    2013-03-01

    Polar bimolecular reactions often begin as charge-transfer complexes and may proceed with a high degree of electron transfer character. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory is predicated in part on this concept. We have developed an electron transfer model (ETM) in which we systematically transfer one electron between reactants and then use density functional methods to model the resultant radical or radical ion intermediates. Sites of higher reactivity are revealed by a composite spin density map (SDM) of odd electron character on the electron density surface, assuming that a new two-electron bond would occur preferentially at these sites. ETM correctly predicts regio- and stereoselectivity for a broad array of reactions, including Diels-Alder, dipolar and ketene cycloadditions, Birch reduction, many types of nucleophilic additions, and electrophilic addition to aromatic rings and polyenes. Conformational analysis of radical ions is often necessary to predict reaction stereochemistry. The electronic and geometric changes due to one-electron oxidation or reduction parallel the reaction coordinate for electrophilic or nucleophilic addition, respectively. The effect is more dramatic for one-electron reduction.

  19. A Neurobiological Model of Borderline Personality Disorder: Systematic and Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging. We consolidate the results of these studies and provide an integrative model that attempts to incorporate the heterogeneous findings. The model specifies interactions among endogenous stress hormones, neurometabolism, and brain structures and circuits involved in emotion and cognition. The role of the amygdala in BPD is expanded to consider its functions in coordinating the brain's dynamic evaluation of the relevance of emotional stimuli in the context of an individual's goals and motivations. Future directions for neurobiological research on BPD are discussed, including implications for the Research Domain Criteria framework, accelerating genetics research by incorporating endophenotypes and gene × environment interactions, and exploring novel applications of neuroscience findings to treatment research.

  20. A Neurobiological Model of Borderline Personality Disorder: Systematic and Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging. We consolidate the results of these studies and provide an integrative model that attempts to incorporate the heterogeneous findings. The model specifies interactions among endogenous stress hormones, neurometabolism, and brain structures and circuits involved in emotion and cognition. The role of the amygdala in BPD is expanded to consider its functions in coordinating the brain's dynamic evaluation of the relevance of emotional stimuli in the context of an individual's goals and motivations. Future directions for neurobiological research on BPD are discussed, including implications for the Research Domain Criteria framework, accelerating genetics research by incorporating endophenotypes and gene × environment interactions, and exploring novel applications of neuroscience findings to treatment research. PMID:27603741

  1. Developing Behavioral Theory With the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl R Dennison

    2014-08-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory. Fifty-three studies tested associations between community social capital concepts and physical activity (38 studies), smoking (19 studies), and diet (2 studies). Trustworthiness of community members was consistently associated with more health-promoting and less disease-promoting behaviors in 19 studies. Neighborly reciprocity showed mixed results in 10 studies. Reporting a good sense of community was associated with more physical activity in only 5 of 16 studies. Neighborhood collective efficacy, which includes social cohesion and informal social control, was inconsistently associated with behaviors in 22 studies. Behavioral social norms were associated with smoking and physical activity in 2 of 6 studies, and neighborhood modeling of physical activity was associated with increased activity in 12 of 17 studies, with 1 opposing result. This review identifies several community social capital-related concepts that are, at times, associated with both health-promoting and disease-promoting behaviors and often have no associations. Theory explains these findings by describing the relationships and interactions among these concepts. Using these findings, this article proposes a conceptual framework that integrates community social capital concepts into existing behavioral theory. Iterative empirically based theory development is needed to address these concepts, which affect behaviors. These results can also inform theoretically based community-based and socially tailored interventions.

  2. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Øiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I; Thorlund, J B

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and combined using a random effects model. Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis after the initial searches. Five cohort studies with a follow-up time between 2.5 and 14 years, and a total number of 5707 participants (3553 males and 2154 females), were finally included. The meta-analysis showed an overall increased risk of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in participants with knee extensor muscle weakness (OR 1.65 95% CI 1.23, 2.21; I(2) = 50.5%). This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that knee extensor muscle weakness was associated with an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in both men and women.

  3. Development of a multiport test bench and systematic measurements of cable bundles for automotive EMC tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonser, M.; Keller, C.; Hansen, J.; Weigel, R.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the development of a cable bundle test bench is described and exemplary results of the systematic measurement of cable bundles for automotive EMC tests are presented. The test bench consists of particularly developed adapter boxes and switch matrices, which allow together with a network analyzer to perform a network analysis with up to 32 ports and up to 1 GHz. Calibration and deembedding procedures are described and validated. Cable bundles that are characteristic to automotive EMC tests are investigated with respect to the number of wires within the cable bundle, the class of the cable bundle and the type of wires.

  4. Systematic U(1 ) B - L extensions of loop-induced neutrino mass models with dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shu-Yu; Toma, Takashi; Tsumura, Koji

    2016-08-01

    We study the gauged U(1 ) B - L extensions of the models for neutrino masses and dark matter. In this class of models, tiny neutrino masses are radiatively induced through the loop diagrams, while the origin of the dark matter stability is guaranteed by the remnant of the gauge symmetry. Depending on how the lepton number conservation is violated, these models are systematically classified. We present complete lists for the one-loop Z2 and the two-loop Z3 radiative seesaw models as examples of the classification. The anomaly cancellation conditions in these models are also discussed.

  5. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  6. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  7. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  8. Calcium Isotope Systematics During Development of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    Calcium isotope distributions have been recognized as showing systematic and predictable fractionation in nature. However, most of the observed calcium isotope fractionation to date is due to biological processes. The presence of abundant amounts of calcium in mineralized tissues makes the isotopic system of calcium particularly valuable in biological and paleobiological questions involving biomineralization. In order to apply calcium isotope systematics to paleobiological questions the changes in the calcium isotope signatures of mineralized tissue in modern animals should be studied. My study observed the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) through embryologic ontogeny. This was accomplished by obtaining fertilized eggs staged in a growth series from day 12 to day 20. The eggs were dissected and shell, embryonic bone, albumen, and yolk were analyzed in order to characterize the calcium isotopic composition of the individual components over the course of the growth series. Several systematic changes in the isotopic signatures of various tissues were observed during the course of the development of the embryos. In general, mineralization in biological systems preferentially partitions the lighter isotopes of calcium into hard parts. As a result of this fractionation during mineralization, partitioning of light isotopes of calcium into the mineralized tissues may result in residual tissues being enriched in the heavier isotopes as ontogeny progresses. Better understanding of the behavior of calcium in modern biological systems will improve its application to fossils and expand the number of paleobiological and evolutionary questions that can be addressed using calcium isotopic data.

  9. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given.

  10. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  11. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  12. Design of roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error for cylindrical components with large radius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao

    2016-02-01

    The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius. PMID:26931894

  13. [Application analysis of Nursing Care Systematization according to Horta's Conceptual Model].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Sandra Maria Botelho; Barros, Alba Lúcia Botura Leite

    2005-01-01

    This study has as purpose to analyse the implementation of the Nursing Care Systematization in a private hospital in medical surgical units. Results evidenced that the Horta's Conceptual Model was present only in part of nursing hystory instrument, that the remaining phases of nursing process were not inter-related and that there was a lack of coherence of the prescribed actions in relation to the patient's health condition. From the results of the study it can be concluded that the model used for Nursing Care Systematization is eclectic, not obeying therefore, only to Horta's conceptual model; the totality of the data had not been collected in some phases of the nursing process; there is no correlation of the phases in the majority of analyzed patient records; diagnostic and planning phases do not comprise the phases of the nursing process as proposed by Horta.

  14. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  15. Neighborhood Development: Issues and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that Neighborhood Development Organization (NDO) staffs and volunteers have a faulty understanding of the political economies of poor urban communities, and have adopted a free market orientation. Recommends an alternative "organizing-driven" model of community development. (FMW)

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of HBV and HCV Screening Strategies – A Systematic Review of Existing Modelling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geue, Claudia; Wu, Olivia; Xin, Yiqiao; Heggie, Robert; Hutchinson, Sharon; Martin, Natasha K.; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of screening for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are generally heterogeneous in terms of risk groups, settings, screening intervention, outcomes and the economic modelling framework. It is therefore difficult to compare cost-effectiveness results between studies. This systematic review aims to summarise and critically assess existing economic models for HBV and HCV in order to identify the main methodological differences in modelling approaches. Methods A structured search strategy was developed and a systematic review carried out. A critical assessment of the decision-analytic models was carried out according to the guidelines and framework developed for assessment of decision-analytic models in Health Technology Assessment of health care interventions. Results The overall approach to analysing the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies was found to be broadly consistent for HBV and HCV. However, modelling parameters and related structure differed between models, producing different results. More recent publications performed better against a performance matrix, evaluating model components and methodology. Conclusion When assessing screening strategies for HBV and HCV infection, the focus should be on more recent studies, which applied the latest treatment regimes, test methods and had better and more complete data on which to base their models. In addition to parameter selection and associated assumptions, careful consideration of dynamic versus static modelling is recommended. Future research may want to focus on these methodological issues. In addition, the ability to evaluate screening strategies for multiple infectious diseases, (HCV and HIV at the same time) might prove important for decision makers. PMID:26689908

  17. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  18. Systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing students' and nurses' writing skills.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Leonardelli, Adrianne K; Turner, Kathleen M; Hawks, Sharon J; Derouin, Anne L; Hueckel, Rémi M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing the writing skills of nursing students and nurses. Of 728 screened citations, 80 articles were included in the review. Writing assignments in nursing courses were the most common, followed by strategies for writing across the curriculum and specific courses to improve the writing skills of nursing students. To improve nurses' writing skills, workshops were used most frequently. Only 28 (35%) of the articles were data based, and most articles described the writing program, strategy, or assignment but did not evaluate its effectiveness.

  19. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  20. The psychoneuroimmunological effects of music: a systematic review and a new model.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, Daisy; Ockelford, Adam; Belai, Abi

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest over the past decade into the health benefits of music, in particular examining its psychological and neurological effects. Yet this is the first attempt to systematically review publications on the psychoneuroimmunology of music. Of the selected sixty-three studies published over the past 22 years, a range of effects of music on neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, lymphocytes, vital signs and immunoglobulins as well as psychological assessments are cataloged. Research so far points to the pivotal role of stress pathways in linking music to an immune response. However, several challenges to this research are noted: (1) there is very little discussion on the possible mechanisms by which music is achieving its neurological and immunological impact; (2) the studies tend to examine biomarkers in isolation, without taking into consideration the interaction of the biomarkers in question with other physiological or metabolic activities of the body, leading to an unclear understanding of the impact that music may be having; (3) terms are not being defined clearly enough, such as distinctions not being made between different kinds of stress and 'music' being used to encompass a broad spectrum of activities without determining which aspects of musical engagement are responsible for alterations in biomarkers. In light of this, a new model is presented which provides a framework for developing a taxonomy of musical and stress-related variables in research design, and tracing the broad pathways that are involved in its influence on the body.

  1. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  2. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  3. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  4. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies. Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory’ and 'highly desirable’ standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard

  5. Classroom Crisis Intervention through Contracting: A Moral Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1981-01-01

    A counselor can arbitrate problem situations using a systematic approach to classroom intervention which includes meetings with the teacher and students. This crisis intervention model based on moral development can be more effective than reliance on guidance activities disconnected from the actual classroom settings where the problems arise.…

  6. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  7. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Results Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development. PMID:25996151

  8. Development of a systematic and practical methodology for the design of vehicles semi-active suspension control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolandhemmat, Hamidreza; Clark, Christopher M.; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic and practical methodology is presented for design of vehicle semi-active suspension systems. Typically, the semi-active control strategies developed to improve vehicle ride comfort and stability have a switching nature. This makes the design of the controlled suspension systems difficult and highly dependent on an extensive trial-and-error process. The proposed methodology maps the discontinuous control system model to a continuous linear region, where all the time and frequency design techniques, established in the conventional control system theory, can be applied. If the semi-active control system is designed to satisfy some ride and stability requirements, an inverse mapping offers the ultimate control law. At the end, the entire design procedure is summarised in six steps. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the design of a semi-active suspension system for a Cadillac SRX 2005 is demonstrated with road tests results. Real-time experiments confirm that the use of the newly developed systematic design method reduces the required time and effort in real industrial problems.

  9. Passive Smoking and the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-01-01

    Passive smoking may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children because of their partially developed physiological systems. The aim of the present systematic paper is to investigate whether passive smoking is associated with factors that influence the development of CVD in children. Data sources included Medline, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health (CINAHL) research database, Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), the 2006 Office of the Surgeon General's report, and the 2005 report from the California Environmental Protection Agency. We identified a total of 42 relevant articles (i.e., 30 reviews and 12 observational). Results revealed that passive smoking may be implicated in deteriorating cardiovascular status in children in terms of unfavorable high-density lipoprotein levels and deteriorated vascular function. PMID:20886056

  10. The Impact of Official Development Aid on Maternal and Reproductive Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emma Michelle; Hayman, Rachel; Crawford, Fay; Jeffery, Patricia; Smith, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate) and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning). Discussion This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid. PMID:23468860

  11. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  12. Developing Rapport with Children in Forensic Interviews: Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

    PubMed

    Saywitz, Karen J; Larson, Rakel P; Hobbs, Sue D; Wells, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of guidelines recommend that developing rapport with children is essential for successful forensic child interviewing; however, the question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to generate evidence-based guidelines for developing rapport with children in legal contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify experimental studies of the effects of rapport-building methods on the reliability of children's reports. Independent raters applied 12 exclusion criteria to the 2,761 potentially relevant articles located by electronic and hand searches of the literature. Experimental studies were few. Although studies to date are a beginning, the overall scientific base is weak regarding even basic issues such as how to best define rapport and the efficacy of common rapport-building techniques. This systematic review highlights what we know, what we do not know, and how much more we need to know to create evidence-based best practice. Recommendations for reshaping the research agenda are discussed.

  13. Pilipino American Identity Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the identity development of F/Pilipino Americans. Because of a distinct history and culture that differentiates them from other Asian groups, F/Pilipino Americans may experience a different ethnic identity development than other Asian Americans. A nonlinear 6-stage ethnic identity development model is proposed to promote…

  14. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 41 studies were included in the review. Results. In response to acutely painful procedures, most infants had an increase in mean heart rate (HR) that varied in magnitude both across and within gestational and postnatal ages. Research in the area of HR variability has been inconsistent, limiting conclusions. Conclusions. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand the inherent variability of cardiovascular pain responses across and within gestational and postnatal ages and the causes for the variability. PMID:27445630

  15. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  16. A systematic evaluation of a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Victoria M; Burnes, David; Chalfy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a conceptually based, systematic evaluation process employing multivariate techniques to evaluate a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer intervention model (JASA-LEAP). Logistic regression analyses were used with a random sample of case records (n = 250) from three intervention sites. Client retention, program fidelity, and exposure to multidisciplinary services were significantly related to reduction in mistreatment risk at case closure. Female gender, married status, and living with perpetrator significantly predicted unfavorable outcomes. This study extends the elder mistreatment program evaluation literature beyond descriptive/bivariate evaluation strategies. Findings suggest that a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model is a successful approach.

  17. Online communities of practice and their role in educational development: a systematic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Swift, Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Practice teachers and academics have a role in developing knowledge and promoting evidence-based practice with their students in a supportive and creative learning environment. Recent advances in technology are enabling communities of practice' (CoPs) to be developed online and may present a valuable opportunity to form greater connections between educators. To explore this idea, the author conducted a systematic appraisal of published evidence relating to the impact of using an online CoP (OCoP) to develop knowledge among healthcare educators. Three academic databases were targeted for articles and the search retrieved nine articles that were analysed for quality. The findings identified that an OCoP offers a 'polycontextual' environment that can enhance knowledge development, strengthen social ties and build social capital. Communities that support tacit knowledge development, information sharing and problem solving are most valued and existing information and communication technology (ICT) tools can be used to promote usability and accessibility. Recognising the value of tacit knowledge and using ICT for educational development within workload hours will require a shift in cultural thinking at both an individual and organisational level. PMID:24791455

  18. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

  19. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  20. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship

  1. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  2. Kantian Model of Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Hyun Sub

    A Kantian model of moral development already tested on adolescents was further tested on normal and delinquent Korean adults. The model, based on the philosophy of Kant, starts its causality from the self, moves from the self to parental images, advances from parental images to duty and legality, and moves from duty and legality to a moral…

  3. Development of ocular hypertension secondary to tamponade with light versus heavy silicone oil: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Cruciani, Mario; Semeraro, Francesco; Costagliola, Ciro; Romano, Mario R

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The intraocular silicone oil (SO) tamponades used in the treatment of retinal detachment (RD) have been associated with a difference ocular hypertension (OH) rate. To clarify, if this complication was associated to use of standard SO (SSO) versus heavy SO (HSO), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative study between two kind of SO (standard or light vs. heavy) for the treatment of RD and macular hole, without restriction to study design. Materials and Methods: The methodological quality of two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were evaluated using the criteria given in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention, while three non-RCTs were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The primary outcome was the rate of patients with OH treated with SSO compared to HSO. Results: There were a higher number of rates of OH in HSO compared to SSO. This difference was statistically significant with the fixed effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06–2.28; P = 0.02) while there was not significative difference with the random effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.51; 95% CI, 0.98–2.33; P = 0.06). Conclusion: We noted a trend that points out a higher OH rate in HSO group compared to SSO, but this finding, due to the small size and variable design of studies, needs to be confirmed in well-designed and large size RCTs. PMID:25971167

  4. Development of a Web-based repository for sharing biomedical terminology from systematic review searches: a case study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Ladue, John

    2014-01-01

    Requests for comprehensive searches, such as searches to support systematic reviews, seem to be evolving into routine practice in the health sciences library environment. Collecting terminology for these searches is often a time-consuming process. This case study reports on the development of a searchable Web-based repository, MedTerm Search Assist, as a means for librarians to share biomedical terminology from systematic review searches. PMID:24735266

  5. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  6. The Status of Faculty Development Programmes in Iran after the Medical Education Reform: A Systematic and Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmady, Soleiman; Changiz, Tahereh; Brommels, Mats; Gaffney, Andrew F.; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    Modern universities achieve institutional goals when faculty members are able to fulfil diverse roles. Faculty development must therefore employ pedagogical principles while guided by institutional needs. Systematic evaluation of such programmes has not been done in developing countries. This paper examines faculty development in Iran, where…

  7. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training. PMID:22361800

  8. Addressing the leadership gap in medicine: residents' need for systematic leadership development training.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bernard, Ken; Bohnen, Jordan; Bohmer, Richard

    2012-04-01

    All clinicians take on leadership responsibilities when delivering care. Evidence suggests that effective clinical leadership yields superior clinical outcomes. However, few residency programs systematically teach all residents how to lead, and many clinicians are inadequately prepared to meet their day-to-day clinical leadership responsibilities. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to make the case for the need to refocus residency education around the development of outstanding "frontline" clinical leaders and, second, to provide an evidence-based framework for designing formal leadership development programs for residents. The authors first present a definition of clinical leadership and highlight evidence that effective frontline clinical leadership improves both clinical outcomes and satisfaction for patients and providers. The authors then discuss the health care "leadership gap" and describe barriers to implementing leadership development training in health care. Next, they present evidence that leaders are not just "born" but, rather, can be "made," and offer a set of best practices to facilitate the design of leadership development programs. Finally, the authors suggest approaches to mitigating barriers to implementing leadership development programs and highlight the major reasons why health care delivery organizations, residency programs, and national accreditation bodies must make comprehensive leadership education an explicit goal of residency training.

  9. A Systematic Approach for Model-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A requirement for effective aircraft engine performance estimation is the ability to account for engine degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. This paper presents a linear point design methodology for minimizing the degradation-induced error in model-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications. The technique specifically focuses on the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown health parameters than available sensor measurements. A condition for Kalman filter-based estimation is that the number of health parameters estimated cannot exceed the number of sensed measurements. In this paper, the estimated health parameter vector will be replaced by a reduced order tuner vector whose dimension is equivalent to the sensed measurement vector. The reduced order tuner vector is systematically selected to minimize the theoretical mean squared estimation error of a maximum a posteriori estimator formulation. This paper derives theoretical estimation errors at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the estimation accuracy achieved through conventional maximum a posteriori and Kalman filter estimation approaches. Maximum a posteriori estimation results demonstrate that reduced order tuning parameter vectors can be found that approximate the accuracy of estimating all health parameters directly. Kalman filter estimation results based on the same reduced order tuning parameter vectors demonstrate that significantly improved estimation accuracy can be achieved over the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuner vector. However, additional development is necessary to fully extend the methodology to Kalman filter

  10. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line. PMID:26654767

  11. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs. PMID:26464014

  12. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs.

  13. Modeling crust-mantle evolution using radiogenic Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti

    2015-04-01

    The present-day elemental and isotopic composition of Earth's terrestrial reservoirs can be used as geochemical constraints to study evolution of the crust-mantle system. A flexible open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper depleted mantle (UM) -source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and lower mantle (LM) reservoir with a D" layer -source of ocean island basalts (OIB), and incorporating key radioactive isotope systematics (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb), is solved numerically at 1 Ma time step for 4.55 Ga, the age of the Earth. The best possible solution is the one that produces the present-day concentrations as well as isotopic ratios in terrestrial reservoirs, compiled from published data. Different crustal growth scenarios (exponential, episodic, early and late growth), proposed in earlier studies, and its effect on the evolution of isotope systematics of terrestrial reservoirs is studied. Model simulations strongly favor a layered mantle structure satisfying majority of the isotopic constraints. In the successful model, which is similar to that proposed by Kellogg et al. (1999), the present-day UM comprises of 60% of mantle mass and extends to a depth 1600 km, whereas the LM becomes non-primitive and more enriched than the bulk silicate Earth, mainly due to addition of recycled crustal material. Modeling suggest that isotopic evolution of reservoirs is affected by the mode of crustal growth. Only two scenarios satisfied majority of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints but failed to reproduce the present-day Pb-isotope systematics; exponential growth of crust (mean age, tc=2.3 Ga) and delayed and episodic growth (no growth for initial 900 Ma, tc=2.05 Ga) proposed by Patchett and Arndt (1986). However, assuming a slightly young Earth (4.45 Ga) better satisfies the Pb-isotope systematics. Although, the delayed crustal growth model satisfied Sr-Nd isotopic constraints, presence of early Hadean crust (4.03 and 4.4 Ga

  14. Income and child mortality in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, Bernadette; Makuta, Innocent; Chiwaula, Levison; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to quantify the relationship between national income and infant and under-five mortality in developing countries. Design We conducted a systematic literature search of studies that examined the relationship between income and child mortality (infant and/or under-five mortality) and meta-analysed their results. Setting Developing countries. Main outcome measures Child mortality (infant and /or under-five mortality). Results The systematic literature search identified 24 studies, which produced 38 estimates that examined the impact of income on the mortality rates. Using meta-analysis, we produced pooled estimates of the relationship between income and mortality. The pooled estimate of the relationship between income and infant mortality before adjusting for covariates is −0.95 (95% CI −1.34 to −0.57) and that for under-five mortality is −0.45 (95% CI −0.79 to −0.11). After adjusting for covariates, pooled estimate of the relationship between income and infant mortality is −0.33 (−0.39 to −0.26) while the estimate for under-five mortality is −0.28 (−0.37 to −0.19). If a country has an infant mortality of 50 per 1000 live births and the gross domestic product per capita purchasing power parity increases by 10%, the infant mortality will decrease to 45 per 1000 live births. Conclusion Income is an important determinant of child survival and this work provides a pooled estimate for the relationship. PMID:23824332

  15. Systematic evaluation of buffer influences on the development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Márquez López, Johanna; Sulzmann, Anja; Thewes, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Development and cell differentiation are key features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Already at early developmental stages, the gene expression profile changes in the amoebae to make the cells aggregation competent. In the laboratory, development starts when the cells are washed free of nutrients. For this purpose, various non-nutrient buffers are used in different laboratories. However, to date, it is not clear if different buffers have different influences on the development of D. discoideum. Therefore, we investigated systematically the influence of six widely used buffers on the development of D. discoideum. Investigation was done at the phenotypical, biochemical, and molecular level. The results show that some of the investigated buffers show clear differences in the phenotypical outcome of the developmental cycle, at a biochemical level as measured in the response to cAMP, and/or at a molecular level as measured in the expression of early developmental marker genes. According to our results buffer compositions should be considered carefully for all developmental experiments with D. discoideum, especially when gene expression will be investigated. PMID:26791868

  16. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  17. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  18. Diagnosing the Systematic Effects of Parametrized Physical Processes in a Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffin, Leo; Methven, John; Gray, Sue

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models of the atmosphere combine a dynamical core, which approximates solutions to the adiabatic and frictionless governing equations, with the tendencies arising from the parametrization of physical processes. Tracers of potential vorticity (PV) can be used to accumulate the tendencies of parametrized physical processes and diagnose their impacts on the large-scale dynamics. This is due to two key properties of PV, conservation following an air mass and invertibility which relates the PV distribution to the balanced dynamics of the atmosphere. Applying the PV tracers to many short forecasts allows for a systematic investigation of the behaviour of parametrized physical processes. The forecasts are 2.5 day lead time forecasts run using the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) initialised at 0Z for each day in November/December/January 2013/14. The analysis of the PV tracers has been focussed on regions where diabatic processes can be important (tropopause ridges and troughs, frontal regions and the boundary layer top). The tropopause can be described as a surface of constant PV with a sharp PV gradient. Previous work using the PV tracers in individual case studies has shown that parametrized physical processes act to enhance the tropopause PV contrast which can affect the Rossby wave phase speed. The short forecasts show results consistent with a systematic enhancement of tropopause PV contrast by diabatic processes and show systematically different behaviour between ridges and troughs. The implication of this work is that a failure to correctly represent the effects of diabatic processes on the tropopause in models can lead to poor Rossby wave evolution and potentially downstream forecast busts.

  19. Globalization of Continuing Professional Development by Journal Clubs via Microblogging: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Marlon; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Romanic, Diana; Papa, Nathan; Bolton, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background Journal clubs are an essential tool in promoting clinical evidence-based medical education to all medical and allied health professionals. Twitter represents a public, microblogging forum that can facilitate traditional journal club requirements, while also reaching a global audience, and participation for discussion with study authors and colleagues. Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the current state of social media–facilitated journal clubs, specifically Twitter, as an example of continuing professional development. Methods A systematic review of literature databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC via ProQuest) was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search of Twitter, the followers of identified journal clubs, and Symplur was also performed. Demographic and monthly tweet data were extracted from Twitter and Symplur. All manuscripts related to Twitter-based journal clubs were included. Statistical analyses were performed in MS Excel and STATA. Results From a total of 469 citations, 11 manuscripts were included and referred to five Twitter-based journal clubs (#ALiEMJC, #BlueJC, #ebnjc, #urojc, #meded). A Twitter-based journal club search yielded 34 potential hashtags/accounts, of which 24 were included in the final analysis. The median duration of activity was 11.75 (interquartile range [IQR] 19.9, SD 10.9) months, with 7 now inactive. The median number of followers and participants was 374 (IQR 574) and 157 (IQR 272), respectively. An overall increasing establishment of active Twitter-based journal clubs was observed, resulting in an exponential increase in total cumulative tweets (R 2=.98), and tweets per month (R 2=.72). Cumulative tweets for specific journal clubs increased linearly, with @ADC_JC, @EBNursingBMJ, @igsjc, @iurojc, and @NephJC, and showing greatest rate of change, as well as total impressions per month since

  20. A study for systematic errors of the GLA forecast model in tropical regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Baker, Wayman E.; Pfaendtner, James; Corrigan, Martin

    1988-01-01

    From the sensitivity studies performed with the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system, it was revealed that the forecast errors in the tropics affect the ability to forecast midlatitude weather in some cases. Apparently, the forecast errors occurring in the tropics can propagate to midlatitudes. Therefore, the systematic error analysis of the GLA forecast system becomes a necessary step in improving the model's forecast performance. The major effort of this study is to examine the possible impact of the hydrological-cycle forecast error on dynamical fields in the GLA forecast system.

  1. Systematical calculation of α decay half-lives with a generalized liquid drop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Haifei; Royer, G.; Li, Junqing

    2014-01-01

    A systematic calculation of α decay half-lives is presented for even-even nuclei between Te and Z = 118 isotopes. The potential energy governing α decay has been determined within a liquid drop model including proximity effects between the α particle and the daughter nucleus and taking into account the experimental Q value. The α decay half-lives have been deduced from the WKB barrier penetration probability. The α decay half-lives obtained agree reasonably well with the experimental data.

  2. Antiretroviral Therapy and Pregnancy Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Ashu, Eta Ebasi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite significant efforts to understand adverse pregnancy outcome in women receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), ART-related adverse birth outcomes are still poorly understood. We systematically review ART-related adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women; we also review the covariates associated with adverse birth outcomes in the aforementioned group. Methods: The main source for our systematic review was electronic bibliographic databases. Databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and AIDSLINE were searched. Furthermore, search engines such as Google and Google Scholar were specifically searched for gray literature. Methodological quality of available literature was assessed using the Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale & M. Hewitt guideline. We examined a total of 1,124 papers and reviewed the studies using the PICOT criteria which stands for Patient (population), Intervention (or “Exposure”), Comparison, Outcome and Type of study. Finally, 32 methodologically fit studies were retained and included in our review. Results: Frequently observed adverse birth outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), Preterm Birth (PB), Small for Gestational Age (SGA), while still birth and congenital anomalies were infrequent. Type of regimen such as Protease Inhibitor (PI) based regimens and timing of initiation of ART are some of the factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Covariates principally included malnutrition and other co-morbidities such as malaria and HIV. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: There is growing evidence in published literature suggesting that ART might be causing adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in developing countries. There is a need to consider regimen types for HIV-infected pregnant women. There is need to design large cohort studies.

  3. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  4. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring.

  5. Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Two-Leg Landing: A Systematic Review and Mathematical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Tienan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF) during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH), (2) to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3) to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH. Methods. A computerized bibliographical search was conducted to extract PvGRF data on a single foot when participants landed with both feet from various DHs. An innovative mathematical model was constructed to analyze effects of gender, landing type, shoes, ankle stabilizers, surface stiffness and sample frequency on PvGRF based on the pooled data. Results. Pooled PvGRF and DH data of 26 articles showed that the square root function fits their relationship well. An experimental validation was also done on the regression equation for the medicum frequency. The PvGRF was not significantly affected by surface stiffness, but was significantly higher in men than women, the platform than suspended landing, the barefoot than shod condition, and ankle stabilizer than control condition, and higher than lower frequencies. Conclusions. The PvGRF and root DH showed a linear relationship. The mathematical modeling method with systematic review is helpful to analyze the influence factors during landing movement without considering DH. PMID:25243113

  6. Systematic problems with using dark matter simulations to model stellar halos

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Valluri, Monica; Stinson, Greg S.; Debattista, Victor P.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2014-03-10

    The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be 'painted' onto dark matter (DM) particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure DM simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted DM particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure DM simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the 'painting' simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted DM particles have different kinematics from star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure DM simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on DM-only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

  7. An online model correction method based on an inverse problem: Part II—systematic model error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Haile; Shen, Xueshun; Chou, Jifan

    2015-11-01

    An online systematic error correction is presented and examined as a technique to improve the accuracy of real-time numerical weather prediction, based on the dataset of model errors (MEs) in past intervals. Given the analyses, the ME in each interval (6 h) between two analyses can be iteratively obtained by introducing an unknown tendency term into the prediction equation, shown in Part I of this two-paper series. In this part, after analyzing the 5-year (2001-2005) GRAPES-GFS (Global Forecast System of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) error patterns and evolution, a systematic model error correction is given based on the least-squares approach by firstly using the past MEs. To test the correction, we applied the approach in GRAPES-GFS for July 2009 and January 2010. The datasets associated with the initial condition and SST used in this study were based on NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) FNL (final) data. The results indicated that the Northern Hemispheric systematically underestimated equator-to-pole geopotential gradient and westerly wind of GRAPES-GFS were largely enhanced, and the biases of temperature and wind in the tropics were strongly reduced. Therefore, the correction results in a more skillful forecast with lower mean bias and root-mean-square error and higher anomaly correlation coefficient.

  8. Establishing components of cultural competence healthcare models to better cater for the needs of migrants with disability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Olaussen, Sarah Jamison; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the challenges of providing services to migrants with disability (MWD), including healthcare providers' (HCP) level of cultural competence, and documented components of the cultural competence framework required to reduce disability-related health inequalities. This systematic review was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Six databases were searched from January 2000 to August 2013: Ovid Medline, Ovid PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINHAL plus, Informit health databases and Scopus. The search focused on MWD, carers of MWD and HCP working with MWD in industrialised countries. The search yielded 271 articles of which 11 met the inclusion criteria (10 qualitative and 1 quantitative). While HCP perceived themselves as being culturally competent, carers of MWD felt that HCP needed to be more culturally competent as MWD's needs were not being adequately addressed due to cultural misunderstandings and disrespect of cultural values, beliefs and traditions. The review found one existing healthcare model intended for use with MWD; however, the lack of specific attention to cultural competency limits its clinical utility. The findings of this review led to the development of suggested components to be included in a cultural competence model for HCP working with MWD. PMID:26752498

  9. Establishing components of cultural competence healthcare models to better cater for the needs of migrants with disability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Olaussen, Sarah Jamison; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the challenges of providing services to migrants with disability (MWD), including healthcare providers' (HCP) level of cultural competence, and documented components of the cultural competence framework required to reduce disability-related health inequalities. This systematic review was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Six databases were searched from January 2000 to August 2013: Ovid Medline, Ovid PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINHAL plus, Informit health databases and Scopus. The search focused on MWD, carers of MWD and HCP working with MWD in industrialised countries. The search yielded 271 articles of which 11 met the inclusion criteria (10 qualitative and 1 quantitative). While HCP perceived themselves as being culturally competent, carers of MWD felt that HCP needed to be more culturally competent as MWD's needs were not being adequately addressed due to cultural misunderstandings and disrespect of cultural values, beliefs and traditions. The review found one existing healthcare model intended for use with MWD; however, the lack of specific attention to cultural competency limits its clinical utility. The findings of this review led to the development of suggested components to be included in a cultural competence model for HCP working with MWD.

  10. Systematic, theoretically-grounded development and feasibility testing of an innovative, preventive web-based game for children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; March, Sonja; Kenardy, Justin; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children are affected by acute medical events annually, creating need for resources to promote recovery. While web-based interventions promise wide reach and low cost for users, development can be time- and cost-intensive. A systematic approach to intervention development can help to minimize costs and increase likelihood of effectiveness. Using a systematic approach, our team integrated evidence on the etiology of traumatic stress, an explicit program theory, and a user-centered design process to intervention development. Objective To describe evidence and the program theory model applied to the Coping Coach intervention and present pilot data evaluating intervention feasibility and acceptability. Method Informed by empirical evidence on traumatic stress prevention, an overarching program theory model was articulated to delineate pathways from a) specific intervention content to b) program targets and proximal outcomes to c) key longer-term health outcomes. Systematic user-testing with children ages 8–12 (N = 42) exposed to an acute medical event and their parents was conducted throughout intervention development. Results Functionality challenges in early prototypes necessitated revisions. Child engagement was positive throughout revisions to the Coping Coach intervention. Final pilot-testing demonstrated promising feasibility and high user-engagement and satisfaction. Conclusion Applying a systematic approach to the development of Coping Coach led to the creation of a functional intervention that is accepted by children and parents. Development of new e-health interventions may benefit from a similar approach. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of Coping Coach in achieving targeted outcomes of reduced trauma symptoms and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:25844276

  11. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.

  12. VARTM Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Technical Monitor); Dowling, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform.

  13. Modeling Systematic Change in Stopover Duration Does Not Improve Bias in Trends Estimated from Migration Counts

    PubMed Central

    Crewe, Tara L.; Taylor, Philip D.; Lepage, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The use of counts of unmarked migrating animals to monitor long term population trends assumes independence of daily counts and a constant rate of detection. However, migratory stopovers often last days or weeks, violating the assumption of count independence. Further, a systematic change in stopover duration will result in a change in the probability of detecting individuals once, but also in the probability of detecting individuals on more than one sampling occasion. We tested how variation in stopover duration influenced accuracy and precision of population trends by simulating migration count data with known constant rate of population change and by allowing daily probability of survival (an index of stopover duration) to remain constant, or to vary randomly, cyclically, or increase linearly over time by various levels. Using simulated datasets with a systematic increase in stopover duration, we also tested whether any resulting bias in population trend could be reduced by modeling the underlying source of variation in detection, or by subsampling data to every three or five days to reduce the incidence of recounting. Mean bias in population trend did not differ significantly from zero when stopover duration remained constant or varied randomly over time, but bias and the detection of false trends increased significantly with a systematic increase in stopover duration. Importantly, an increase in stopover duration over time resulted in a compounding effect on counts due to the increased probability of detection and of recounting on subsequent sampling occasions. Under this scenario, bias in population trend could not be modeled using a covariate for stopover duration alone. Rather, to improve inference drawn about long term population change using counts of unmarked migrants, analyses must include a covariate for stopover duration, as well as incorporate sampling modifications (e.g., subsampling) to reduce the probability that individuals will be detected on

  14. Systematic approach to development of pressure sensors using dielectric electro-active polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, A.; Dunn, J.; Seelecke, S.

    2013-09-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs) have become attractive materials for various actuation and sensing applications due to their high energy and power density, high efficiency, light weight, and fast response speed. However, commercial development has been hindered due to a variety of constraints such as reliability, non-linear behavior, cost of driving electronics, and form factor requirements. This paper presents the systematic development from laboratory concept to commercial readiness of a novel pressure sensing system using a DEAP membrane. The pressure sensing system was designed for in-line pressure measurements for low pressure applications such as health systems monitoring. A first generation sensor was designed, built and tested with a focus on the qualitative capabilities of EAP membranes as sensors. Experimental measurements were conducted that demonstrated the capability of the sensor to output a voltage signal proportional to a changing pressure. Several undesirable characteristics were observed during these initial tests such as strong hysteresis, non-linearity, very limited pressure range, and low fatigue life. A second generation prototype was then designed to remove or compensate for these undesirable characteristics. This prototype was then built and tested. The new design showed an almost complete removal of hysteretic non-linear effects and was capable of operating at 10 × the pressure range of the initial generation. This new design is the framework for a novel DEAP based pressure sensor ready for commercial applications.

  15. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  16. USEPA Resistance Management Model development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA requires registrants of plant incorporated protectant (PIP) crops to provide information relating to the time frame for pest resistance development related to the control traits of the crop. Simulation models are used to evaluate the future conditions for resistance de...

  17. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation.

  18. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation. PMID:25627852

  19. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-09-01

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP-CAM). SP-CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real-time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP-CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results from a drift of the large-scale wind field in SP-CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP-CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP-CAM. This advection tendency in SP-CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off-equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. Systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP-CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.

  20. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study

  1. Provider payment in community-based health insurance schemes in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Sauerborn, Rainer; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Community-based health insurance (CBI) is a common mechanism to generate financial resources for health care in developing countries. We review for the first time provider payment methods used in CBI in developing countries and their impact on CBI performance. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on provider payment methods used by CBI in developing countries published up to January 2010. Results Information on provider payment was available for a total of 32 CBI schemes in 34 reviewed publications: 17 schemes in South Asia, 10 in sub-Saharan Africa, 4 in East Asia and 1 in Latin America. Various types of provider payment were applied by the CBI schemes: 17 used fee-for-service, 12 used salaries, 9 applied a coverage ceiling, 7 used capitation and 6 applied a co-insurance. The evidence suggests that provider payment impacts CBI performance through provider participation and support for CBI, population enrolment and patient satisfaction with CBI, quantity and quality of services provided and provider and patient retention. Lack of provider participation in designing and choosing a CBI payment method can lead to reduced provider support for the scheme. Conclusion CBI schemes in developing countries have used a wide range of provider payment methods. The existing evidence suggests that payment methods are a key determinant of CBI performance and sustainability, but the strength of this evidence is limited since it is largely based on observational studies rather than on trials or on quasi-experimental research. According to the evidence, provider payment can affect provider participation, satisfaction and retention in CBI; the quantity and quality of services provided to CBI patients; patient demand of CBI services; and population enrollment, risk pooling and financial sustainability of CBI. CBI schemes should carefully consider how their current payment methods influence their performance, how changes in the methods could improve

  2. A systematic review of the collaborative clinical education model to inform speech-language pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Charmaine; Porter, Judi

    2013-12-01

    A shortage of clinical education placements for allied health students internationally has led to the need to explore innovative models of clinical education. The collaborative model where one clinical educator supervises two or more students completing a clinical placement concurrently is one model enabling expansion of student placements. The aims of this review were to investigate advantages and disadvantages of the collaborative model and to explore its implementation across allied health. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and Embase). Two independent reviewers evaluated studies for methodological quality. Seventeen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Advantages and disadvantages identified were consistent across disciplines. A key advantage of the model was the opportunity afforded for peer learning, whilst a frequently reported disadvantage was reduced time for individual supervision of students. The methodological quality of many included studies was poor, impacting on interpretation of the evidence base. Insufficient data were provided on how the model was implemented across studies. There is a need for high quality research to guide implementation of this model across a wider range of allied health disciplines and to determine educational outcomes using reliable and validated measures. PMID:23402324

  3. A systematic review of the collaborative clinical education model to inform speech-language pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Charmaine; Porter, Judi

    2013-12-01

    A shortage of clinical education placements for allied health students internationally has led to the need to explore innovative models of clinical education. The collaborative model where one clinical educator supervises two or more students completing a clinical placement concurrently is one model enabling expansion of student placements. The aims of this review were to investigate advantages and disadvantages of the collaborative model and to explore its implementation across allied health. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and Embase). Two independent reviewers evaluated studies for methodological quality. Seventeen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Advantages and disadvantages identified were consistent across disciplines. A key advantage of the model was the opportunity afforded for peer learning, whilst a frequently reported disadvantage was reduced time for individual supervision of students. The methodological quality of many included studies was poor, impacting on interpretation of the evidence base. Insufficient data were provided on how the model was implemented across studies. There is a need for high quality research to guide implementation of this model across a wider range of allied health disciplines and to determine educational outcomes using reliable and validated measures.

  4. Developing a Novel, Sustainable and Beneficial System for the Systematic Management of Hospital Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Hinduja, Indira N.; Ahuja, Harish S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is the 2nd most populated country in the world. Population of India is increasing at a tremendous rate. Proportionately, the numbers of people seeking health care are increasing. In that ratio the quantities of hospital wastes, in wider terms, healthcare wastes that are getting generated is also increasing. Current methods for the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are not able to cope up with the rate of generation of healthcare wastes and moreover are not eco-friendly at all. Due to this, the current rules and regulations regarding the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are getting violated, ultimately leading to improper management of healthcare wastes, posing a serious threat to the environment and to the community. Aim To develop a novel, sustainable and beneficial system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes utilizing the strategies of waste reduction, waste segregation and recycling of Non Hazardous Hospital Wastes (NHHWs). Materials and Methods Firstly a detailed study of the Healthcare Waste Management System (HCWMS) operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was done. A pilot study was then performed. After that, data regarding the generation and management of healthcare wastes in the other healthcare settings was collected and analyzed. Considering all this, a novel, sustainable and beneficial template system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes was proposed. Lastly the possible positive impacts from the implementation of HCWMSs designed using proposed template HCWMS in significant numbers of healthcare establishments was gauged. Results The healthcare waste management system operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was found to be very efficient and provided vital inputs about developing the novel HCWMS. The pilot study was successfully completed generating significant revenue from the hospital’s own NHHWs while managing them in an eco-friendly way. The total healthcare waste

  5. Religion and Spirituality's Influences on HIV Syndemics Among MSM: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Model.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Jonathan M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the quantitative HIV research that assessed the relationships between religion, spirituality, HIV syndemics, and individual HIV syndemics-related health conditions (e.g. depression, substance abuse, HIV risk) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. No quantitative studies were found that assessed the relationships between HIV syndemics, religion, and spirituality. Nine studies, with 13 statistical analyses, were found that examined the relationships between individual HIV syndemics-related health conditions, religion, and spirituality. Among the 13 analyses, religion and spirituality were found to have mixed relationships with HIV syndemics-related health conditions (6 nonsignificant associations; 5 negative associations; 2 positive associations). Given the overall lack of inclusion of religion and spirituality in HIV syndemics research, a conceptual model that hypothesizes the potential interactions of religion and spirituality with HIV syndemics-related health conditions is presented. The implications of the model for MSM's health are outlined.

  6. Systematic model researches on the stability limits of the DVL series of float designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W.

    1949-01-01

    To determine the trim range in which a seaplane can take off without porpoising, stability tests were made of a Plexiglas model, composed of float, wing, and tailplane, which corresponded to a full-size research airplane. The model and full-size stability limits are in good agreement. After all structural parts pertaining to the air frame were removed gradually, the aerodynamic forces replaced by weight forces, and the moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity changed, no marked change of limits of the stable zone was noticeable. The latter, therefore, is for practical purposes affected only by hydrodynamic phenomena. The stability limits of the DVL family of floats were determined by a systematic investigation independent of any particular sea-plane design, thus a seaplane may be designed to give a run free from porpoising.

  7. Local and Global Views of Systematic Errors of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechoso, C. Roberto; Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Lixin

    2014-05-01

    Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (CGCMs) have serious systematic errors that challenge the reliability of climate predictions. One major reason for such biases is the misrepresentations of physical processes, which can be amplified by feedbacks among climate components especially in the tropics. Much effort, therefore, is dedicated to the better representation of physical processes in coordination with intense process studies. The present paper starts with a presentation of these systematic CGCM errors with an emphasis on the sea surface temperature (SST) in simulations by 22 participants in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Different regions are considered for discussion of model errors, including the one around the equator, the one covered by the stratocumulus decks off Peru and Namibia, and the confluence between the Angola and Benguela currents. Hypotheses on the reasons for the errors are reviewed, with particular attention on the parameterization of low-level marine clouds, model difficulties in the simulation of the ocean heat budget under the stratocumulus decks, and location of strong SST gradients. Next the presentation turns to a global perspective of the errors and their causes. It is shown that a simulated weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) tends to be associated with cold biases in the entire Northern Hemisphere with an atmospheric pattern that resembles the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. The AMOC weakening is also associated with a strengthening of Antarctic bottom water formation and warm SST biases in the Southern Ocean. It is also shown that cold biases in the tropical North Atlantic and West African/Indian monsoon regions during the warm season in the Northern Hemisphere have interhemispheric links with warm SST biases in the tropical southeastern Pacific and Atlantic, respectively. The results suggest that improving the simulation of regional processes may not suffice for a more

  8. Regional estimation of groundwater arsenic concentrations through systematical dynamic-neural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 μg l-1 for training; 106.13 μg l-1 for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 μg l-1 for training; 143.37 μg l-1 for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 μg l-1) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the

  9. Restructuring school: Improving K--8 science teaching and learning in schools through systematic professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliezar, Diana Catalina

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness that a systematic, content specific professional development program has on K--8 teachers' attitudes, content preparedness, pedagogy preparedness, teacher efficacy, and their knowledge of standards and classroom practice. The Northeastern LSC program in this study is a project that uses inquiry-based, hands-on science kits that have been designed to help K--8 students comprehend science content and processes that are outlined by the various science standards such as the National Science Education Standards (NSES, 2001). Teachers were stratified according to the number of professional development hours they encountered and the types of science courses that they took in order to make comparisons between teachers with few hours of professional development and those with many hours of professional development. The study utilized archival teacher data that was collected using teacher questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations. The content of a secondary analysis of teacher surveys, teacher interviews and classroom observation was acquired from a study of 196 teachers in 1998--1999, 267 teachers in 1999--2000 and 243 teachers in 2002--2003 from seven school districts. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compute group differences in teachers' attitudes toward teaching, content preparedness, pedagogy preparedness, beliefs, rating on quality of professional development, traditional teaching practices, investigative culture, investigative practices, teachers' efficacy, and teachers' knowledge of national science standards. Qualitative analysis was also conducted using the teacher interview and classroom observation data. Quantitative findings suggested that there was no predictive relationship between the dependent variables of teachers' years in teaching, the number of hours focused on the Northeastern LSC professional development and the types of science courses taken during college and

  10. Infant feeding and risk of developing celiac disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silano, Marco; Agostoni, Carlo; Sanz, Yolanda; Guandalini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for the association of breast feeding, breastfeeding duration or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of celiac disease (CD). Design Systematic review. Methods We searched MEDLINE, via PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, for studies published up to 31 August 2015 investigating the association of breastfeeding duration, breast feeding at the moment of gluten introduction or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of CD. Prospective studies had to enrol infants/children at high risk of CD. For retrospective studies, participants had to be children or adults with CD. The paper quality was assessed by means of a GRADE score and the bias risk was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (for observational cohort studies) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool (for randomised trials). Results Out of 149 retrieved papers, 48 were considered in depth and 16 were included in this review (9 were prospective and 2 were interventional). We found that neither duration of breastfeeding nor breastfeeding at time of gluten introduction nor the delayed introduction of gluten during weaning were effective in preventing later development of CD. Conclusions Currently, there is no evidence on the optimal breastfeeding duration or the effects of avoiding early (<4 months of age) or late (≥6 or even at 12 months) gluten introduction in children at risk of CD. Accordingly, no specific general recommendations about gluten introduction or optimal breastfeeding duration can be presently provided on evidence-based criteria in order to prevent CD. PMID:26810996

  11. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Shattuck, Mischa; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Wyness, Laura; Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2008-01-01

    Background A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Methods Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. Results Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. Conclusion While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly. PMID:19055827

  12. The Impact of Mobile Health Interventions on Chronic Disease Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allison G.; Willner, Jonathan M.; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Materials and Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient–provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. Conclusions: M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries. PMID:24205809

  13. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. PMID:25676921

  14. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water.

  15. Development of a systematic studies apparatus at NC State for the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K.; Golub, R.; Haase, D.; Hawari, A.; Huffman, P.; Korobkina, E.; Reid, A.; Swank, C.; Young, A. R.; Alarcon, R.; Dipert, R.; Chu, P.-H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bartoszek, L.; Crawford, C.; Korsch, W.

    2013-10-01

    An apparatus is being developed for use at the UCN source at the 1 MW NCSU PULSTAR reactor. The goal is to study several critical aspects of the SNS neutron EDM experiment without the electric field. Detailed studies of the interactions between the 3He and UCNs, measurements of the correlation functions determining the geometric phase systematic effect, optimization of the parameters for critical dressing, and the pseudomagnetic field caused by neutron scattering from polarized 3He will be made. Because of the extremely long turn around times, these would be almost impossible with the SNS apparatus. In this setup, polarized UCNs and 3He will be repeatedly loaded into an acrylic cell coated with deuterated TPB and polystyrene on the inner walls. Scintillation light produced in the superfluid 4He also in the cell after spin-dependent capture of UCNs on 3He will be used to measure the Larmor precession frequency difference between the two species in an external magnetic field. An overview of the experiment will be presented.

  16. Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Krämer, H

    2010-06-01

    Skin cancer is caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indoor tanning is a totally avoidable risk behaviour. This review addresses the specific characteristics of sunbed users and the differences in motivation and risk perception compared with non-users. This review is based solely on empirical original articles. Based on literature searches with widely used reference databases ('PubMed', 'OVID', 'Social Citation Index', 'ERIC--Educational Resources Information Center', 'Web of Science' and the 'International Bibliography of the Social Sciences'), we included studies from developed nations with a publication date between 1 January 2000 and 12 August 2008. All studies were selected, classified and coded simultaneously by both authors on a blinded basis. All searches were performed on 13 and 14 August 2008. In accordance with the QUOROM and the MOOSE Statements, we identified 16 original studies. The typical sunbed user is female, between 17 and 30 years old, and tends to live a comparatively unhealthy lifestyle: Users smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol more frequently and eat less healthy food than non-users. Users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UVR, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family members and the experience of positive emotions and relaxation by indoor tanning. This review is the first systematic review on risk groups among sunbed users that has been published in a scientific journal. There is still a lack of information among users, particularly among young people regarding the safety of solariums. PMID:20015180

  17. Endogenous Opioid Antagonism in Physiological Experimental Pain Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Mads U.; Pereira, Manuel P.; Andersen, Lars Peter H.; Dahl, Jørgen B.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid antagonists are pharmacological tools applied as an indirect measure to detect activation of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in experimental pain models. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) antagonists in placebo-controlled, double-blind studies using ʻinhibitoryʼ or ʻsensitizingʼ, physiological test paradigms in healthy human subjects. The databases PubMed and Embase were searched according to predefined criteria. Out of a total of 2,142 records, 63 studies (1,477 subjects [male/female ratio = 1.5]) were considered relevant. Twenty-five studies utilized ʻinhibitoryʼ test paradigms (ITP) and 38 studies utilized ʻsensitizingʼ test paradigms (STP). The ITP-studies were characterized as conditioning modulation models (22 studies) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation models (rTMS; 3 studies), and, the STP-studies as secondary hyperalgesia models (6 studies), ʻpainʼ models (25 studies), summation models (2 studies), nociceptive reflex models (3 studies) and miscellaneous models (2 studies). A consistent reversal of analgesia by a MOR-antagonist was demonstrated in 10 of the 25 ITP-studies, including stress-induced analgesia and rTMS. In the remaining 14 conditioning modulation studies either absence of effects or ambiguous effects by MOR-antagonists, were observed. In the STP-studies, no effect of the opioid-blockade could be demonstrated in 5 out of 6 secondary hyperalgesia studies. The direction of MOR-antagonist dependent effects upon pain ratings, threshold assessments and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), did not appear consistent in 28 out of 32 ʻpainʼ model studies. In conclusion, only in 2 experimental human pain models, i.e., stress-induced analgesia and rTMS, administration of MOR-antagonist demonstrated a consistent effect, presumably mediated by an EOS-dependent mechanisms of analgesia and hyperalgesia. PMID:26029906

  18. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Giardia lamblia and Endemic Pediatric Diarrhea in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Muhsen, Khitam; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38–.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50–6.76; P < .001), positively linking Giardia with that syndrome. The well-powered Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is prospectively addressing the association between G. lamblia infection and diarrhea in children in developing countries. PMID:23169940

  19. The Natural Method of Language Learning: Systematized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Arline B.

    In this monograph, the language and pedagogical concepts embodied in the Tucson Early Education Model are used to develop a systematized method of natural language learning. It is hypothesized that young children in school continually resystematize their language, and that conscious and systematic modeling by the teacher should accelerate this…

  20. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  1. Preventing the development of depression at work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of universal interventions in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a major public health problem among working-age adults. The workplace is potentially an important location for interventions aimed at preventing the development of depression, but to date, the mental health impact of universal interventions in the workplace has been unclear. Method A systematic search was conducted in relevant databases to identify randomized controlled trials of workplace interventions aimed at universal prevention of depression. The quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed using results from studies of adequate methodological quality, with pooled effect size estimates obtained from a random effects model. Results Nine workplace-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified. The majority of the included studies utilized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques. The overall standardized mean difference (SMD) between the intervention and control groups was 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.24, P = 0.0002), indicating a small positive effect. A separate analysis using only CBT-based interventions yielded a significant SMD of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.22, P = 0.01). Conclusions There is good quality evidence that universally delivered workplace mental health interventions can reduce the level of depression symptoms among workers. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-based programs than other interventions. Evidence-based workplace interventions should be a key component of efforts to prevent the development of depression among adults. PMID:24886246

  2. [Skilled communication as "intervention" : Models for systematic communication in the healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E

    2015-02-01

    Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies.

  3. [Skilled communication as "intervention" : Models for systematic communication in the healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E

    2015-02-01

    Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies. PMID:25519190

  4. Evidence for the Efficacy of the Child Advocacy Center Model: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Herbert, James Leslie; Bromfield, Leah

    2016-07-01

    The Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model has been presented as the solution to many of the problems inherent in responses by authorities to child sexual abuse. The lack of referral to therapeutic services and support, procedurally flawed and potentially traumatic investigation practices, and conflict between the different statutory agencies involved are all thought to contribute to low conviction rates for abuse and poor outcomes for children. The CAC model aims to address these problems through a combination of multidisciplinary teams, joint investigations, and services, all provided in a single child friendly environment. Using a systematic search strategy, this research aimed to identify and review all studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of the approach as a whole, recognizing that a separate evidence base exists for parts of the approach (e.g., victim advocacy and therapeutic responses). The review found that while the criminal justice outcomes of the model have been well studied, there was a lack of research on the effect of the model on child and family outcomes. Although some modest outcomes were clear, the lack of empirical research, and overreliance on measuring program outputs, rather than outcomes, suggests that some clarification of the goals of the CAC model is needed.

  5. A systematic study of multiple minerals precipitation modelling in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien J

    2015-11-15

    Mineral solids precipitation is important in wastewater treatment. However approaches to minerals precipitation modelling are varied, often empirical, and mostly focused on single precipitate classes. A common approach, applicable to multi-species precipitates, is needed to integrate into existing wastewater treatment models. The present study systematically tested a semi-mechanistic modelling approach, using various experimental platforms with multiple minerals precipitation. Experiments included dynamic titration with addition of sodium hydroxide to synthetic wastewater, and aeration to progressively increase pH and induce precipitation in real piggery digestate and sewage sludge digestate. The model approach consisted of an equilibrium part for aqueous phase reactions and a kinetic part for minerals precipitation. The model was fitted to dissolved calcium, magnesium, total inorganic carbon and phosphate. Results indicated that precipitation was dominated by the mineral struvite, forming together with varied and minor amounts of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The model approach was noted to have the advantage of requiring a minimal number of fitted parameters, so the model was readily identifiable. Kinetic rate coefficients, which were statistically fitted, were generally in the range 0.35-11.6 h(-1) with confidence intervals of 10-80% relative. Confidence regions for the kinetic rate coefficients were often asymmetric with model-data residuals increasing more gradually with larger coefficient values. This suggests that a large kinetic coefficient could be used when actual measured data is lacking for a particular precipitate-matrix combination. Correlation between the kinetic rate coefficients of different minerals was low, indicating that parameter values for individual minerals could be independently fitted (keeping all other model parameters constant). Implementation was therefore relatively flexible, and would be readily expandable to include other

  6. A systematic study of multiple minerals precipitation modelling in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien J

    2015-11-15

    Mineral solids precipitation is important in wastewater treatment. However approaches to minerals precipitation modelling are varied, often empirical, and mostly focused on single precipitate classes. A common approach, applicable to multi-species precipitates, is needed to integrate into existing wastewater treatment models. The present study systematically tested a semi-mechanistic modelling approach, using various experimental platforms with multiple minerals precipitation. Experiments included dynamic titration with addition of sodium hydroxide to synthetic wastewater, and aeration to progressively increase pH and induce precipitation in real piggery digestate and sewage sludge digestate. The model approach consisted of an equilibrium part for aqueous phase reactions and a kinetic part for minerals precipitation. The model was fitted to dissolved calcium, magnesium, total inorganic carbon and phosphate. Results indicated that precipitation was dominated by the mineral struvite, forming together with varied and minor amounts of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The model approach was noted to have the advantage of requiring a minimal number of fitted parameters, so the model was readily identifiable. Kinetic rate coefficients, which were statistically fitted, were generally in the range 0.35-11.6 h(-1) with confidence intervals of 10-80% relative. Confidence regions for the kinetic rate coefficients were often asymmetric with model-data residuals increasing more gradually with larger coefficient values. This suggests that a large kinetic coefficient could be used when actual measured data is lacking for a particular precipitate-matrix combination. Correlation between the kinetic rate coefficients of different minerals was low, indicating that parameter values for individual minerals could be independently fitted (keeping all other model parameters constant). Implementation was therefore relatively flexible, and would be readily expandable to include other

  7. Familial Risk Factors for the Development of Somatoform Symptoms and Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ilva Elena; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether familial risk factors for the development of somatoform symptoms and somatoform disorders in children and adolescents can be deduced from studies which investigated the intergenerational transmission of functional abdominal pain and somatoform disorders. A systematic review of articles published in…

  8. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  9. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Communication Programs to Change HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii)…

  10. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  11. QbD-enabled systematic development of gastroretentive multiple-unit microballoons of itopride hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sanjay; Beg, Sarwar; Asthana, Abhay; Garg, Babita; Asthana, Gyati Shilakari; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present studies were to develop the systematically optimized multiple-unit gastroretentive microballoons, i.e. hollow microspheres of itopride hydrochloride (ITH) employing quality by design (QbD)-based approach. Initially, the patient-centric QTPP and CQAs were earmarked, and preliminary studies were conducted to screen the suitable polymer, solvent, solvent ratio, pH and temperature conditions. Microspheres were prepared by non-aqueous solvent evaporation method employing Eudragit S-100. Risk assessment studies carried out by constructing Ishikawa cause-effect fish-bone diagram, and techniques like risk estimation matrix (REM) and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) facilitated the selection of plausible factors affecting the drug product CQAs, i.e. percent yield, entrapment efficiency (EE) and percent buoyancy. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for optimizing CMAs and CPPs selected during factor screening studies employing Taguchi design, i.e. drug-polymer ratio (X1), stirring temperature (X2) and stirring speed (X3). The hollow microspheres, as per BBD, were evaluated for EE, particle size and drug release characteristics. The optimum formulation was embarked upon using numerical desirability function yielding excellent floatation characteristics along with adequate drug release control. Drug-excipient compatibility studies employing FT-IR, DSC and powder XRD revealed absence of significant interaction among the formulation excipients. The SEM studies on the optimized formulation showed hollow and spherical nature of the prepared microspheres. In vivo X-ray imaging studies in rabbits confirmed the buoyant nature of the hollow microspheres for 8 h in the upper GI tract. In a nutshell, the current investigations report the successful development of gastroretentive floating microspheres for once-a-day administration of ITH.

  12. Use of a monitoring tool for growth and development in Brazilian children – systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Larissa da Costa; Sad, Izabela Rocha; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. Data source: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were “growth and development”, “child development”, “child health record”, “child health handbook”, “health record and child” and “child handbook”, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Data synthesis: Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. Conclusions: The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document. PMID:26705605

  13. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  14. Adherence to HAART: A Systematic Review of Developed and Developing Nation Patient-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Nachega, Jean B; Bangsberg, David R; Singh, Sonal; Rachlis, Beth; Wu, Ping; Wilson, Kumanan; Buchan, Iain; Gill, Christopher J; Cooper, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Background Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. Methods and Findings We examined both developed and developing nations. We searched the following databases: AMED (inception to June 2005), Campbell Collaboration (inception to June 2005), CinAhl (inception to June 2005), Cochrane Library (inception to June 2005), Embase (inception to June 2005), ERIC (inception to June 2005), MedLine (inception to June 2005), and NHS EED (inception to June 2005). We retrieved studies conducted in both developed and developing nation settings that examined barriers and facilitators addressing adherence. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. We independently, in duplicate, extracted data reported in qualitative studies addressing adherence. We then examined all quantitative studies addressing barriers and facilitators noted from the qualitative studies. In order to place the findings of the qualitative studies in a generalizable context, we meta-analyzed the surveys to determine a best estimate of the overall prevalence of issues. We included 37 qualitative studies and 47 studies using a quantitative methodology (surveys). Seventy-two studies (35 qualitative) were conducted in developed nations, while the remaining 12 (two qualitative) were conducted in developing nations. Important barriers reported in both economic settings included fear of disclosure, concomitant substance abuse, forgetfulness, suspicions of treatment, regimens that are too complicated, number of pills required, decreased quality of life, work and family responsibilities, falling asleep, and access to medication. Important facilitators reported by patients in developed nation settings included having a sense of self

  15. Computational Modeling of Biological Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazier, James

    2005-03-01

    The patterns of gene expression are only part of the complex set of processes that govern the formation of tissue structures during embryonic development. Cells need to differentiate and to migrate long distances through tissues. How do they know what to become and where to go? Cells secrete and follow gradients of diffusible chemicals (chemotaxis) and secrete non-diffusing extracellular matrix. In addition, variable adhesion molecules expressed on cells' surfaces help them to form coherent structures by differential adhesion. CompuCell is a public domain modeling environment which implements a simple, energy minimization framework to describe these and related morphogenetic processes. One attractive feature of this approach is that it can interface at small length scales with increasingly sophisticated models for genetic regulation and biochemistry inside individual cells and at large length scales with continuum Partial Differential Equation and Finite Element models. We provide examples of how this method applies to problems including the development of the bone structure in the avian wing, the life cycle of the simple organism, Dictyostelium discoideum and to vascular development and show how it ``postdicts'' the results of VE-cadherin knock-out experiments on in vitro vasculogenesis experiments.

  16. Developing the Curriculum for Pupils Experiencing Difficulties in Learning in Ordinary Schools: A Systematic, Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Judith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of curriculum development methods in 10 elementary and 10 secondary schools in Great Britain. Reports that interviews and documentation were analyzed using grounded data categories and grouped into a model. Identifies differences in the manner of schools' provision for children with learning disabilities. Discusses…

  17. Developing Models for Predictive Climate Science

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Jones, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration designed to construct cutting-edge climate science simulation models for a broad research community. Predictive climate simulations are currently being prepared for the petascale computers of the near future. Modeling capabilities are continuously being improved in order to provide better answers to critical questions about Earth's climate. Climate change and its implications are front page news in today's world. Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should more resources be devoted to preparing for an increase in the frequency of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina? Will coastal cities be flooded due to a rise in sea level? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), which archives all weather data for the nation, reports that global surface temperatures have increased over the last century, and that the rate of increase is three times greater since 1976. Will temperatures continue to climb at this rate, will they decline again, or will the rate of increase become even steeper? To address such a flurry of questions, scientists must adopt a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the DOE is dedicated to advancing climate research in order to elucidate the causes of climate change, including the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use. Thus, climate science--which by nature involves advanced computing technology and methods--has been the focus of a number of DOE's SciDAC research projects. Dr. John Drake (ORNL) and Dr. Philip Jones (LANL) served as principal investigators on the SciDAC project, 'Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers.' The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled global system that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the

  18. Community-wide model validation studies for systematic assessment of ionosphere-thermosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rastätter, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    As an unbiased agent, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading community-wide model validation efforts; GEM, CEDAR and GEM-CEDAR Modeling Challenges since 2009. The CEDAR ETI (Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere) Challenge focused on the ability of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) models to reproduce basic IT system parameters, such as electron and neutral densities, NmF2, hmF2, and Total Electron Content (TEC). Model-data time series comparisons were performed for a set of selected events with different levels of geomagnetic activity (quiet, moderate, storms). The follow-on CEDAR-GEM Challenge aims to quantify geomagnetic storm impacts on the IT system. On-going studies include quantifying the storm energy input, such as increase in auroral precipitation and Joule heating, and quantifying the storm-time variations of neutral density and TEC. In this paper, we will present lessons learned from the Modeling Challenges led by the CCMC.

  19. Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical System.

    PubMed

    Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E

    2016-09-01

    The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in primary care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as primary care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare system initiating widespread implementation of the primary care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare system are discussed. PMID:27484777

  20. Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical System.

    PubMed

    Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E

    2016-09-01

    The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in primary care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as primary care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare system initiating widespread implementation of the primary care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare system are discussed.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  2. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-10-14

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  3. Systematic comparison of initial velocities for neutron stars in different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    I have studied the initial velocity (Maxwellian and exponential distributions) and the scale height of isolated old (aged ≥ 109 yr) neutron stars (NSs) at different Galactocentric distances R in three population models. The smooth time-independent 3-D axisymmetric gravitational potentials (Miyamoto-Nagai and Paczyński models) were also used. The correlation between these quantities significantly affects the shapes of the profiles and distributions of the simulated sample, because the differences in the initial kick can arise from differences in the formation and evolution of NSs with other physical parameters. The scale height of the density distribution increases systematically with R. I have also shown that the distribution of old NSs in these population models agrees with the observed structure of the Galaxy in terms of initial velocities (1-D and 3-D), as well as the scale height distributions. These distributions tend to have an asymptotic behavior at the point R = 2.75 kpc. This means that the quality of the models can be described in terms of a mean of the fitted Gaussian, and this could also give an overall perspective of the phase space properties of nearby old NSs on a given gravitational potential.

  4. Systematizing Web Search through a Meta-Cognitive, Systems-Based, Information Structuring Model (McSIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuhamdieh, Ayman H.; Harder, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a meta-cognitive, systems-based, information structuring model (McSIS) to systematize online information search behavior based on literature review of information-seeking models. The General Systems Theory's (GST) prepositions serve as its framework. Factors influencing information-seekers, such as the individual learning…

  5. Systematic reviews need systematic searchers

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Sampson, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will provide a description of the methods, skills, and knowledge of expert searchers working on systematic review teams. Brief Description: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are very important to health care practitioners, who need to keep abreast of the medical literature and make informed decisions. Searching is a critical part of conducting these systematic reviews, as errors made in the search process potentially result in a biased or otherwise incomplete evidence base for the review. Searches for systematic reviews need to be constructed to maximize recall and deal effectively with a number of potentially biasing factors. Librarians who conduct the searches for systematic reviews must be experts. Discussion/Conclusion: Expert searchers need to understand the specifics about data structure and functions of bibliographic and specialized databases, as well as the technical and methodological issues of searching. Search methodology must be based on research about retrieval practices, and it is vital that expert searchers keep informed about, advocate for, and, moreover, conduct research in information retrieval. Expert searchers are an important part of the systematic review team, crucial throughout the review process—from the development of the proposal and research question to publication. PMID:15685278

  6. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  7. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  8. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  9. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  10. Quality of the Development of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anjni; Vieira, Mateus Mazorra Coelho; Abraham, John; Reid, Nick; Tran, Tu; Tomecsek, Kevin; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Eucker, Stephanie; Gerardo, Charles J.; Staton, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings. A comprehensive reference and citation analysis was performed. CPGs found were assessed using the AGREE II instrument by five independent reviewers and scores were aggregated and reported in percentage of total possible score. An initial 2742 articles were evaluated with an additional 98 articles from the citation and reference analysis, yielding 273 full texts examined. A total of 24 final CPGs were included, of which 23 were from high income countries (HIC) and 1 from LMIC. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the best score on overall assessment was 100.0 for the CPG from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NIHCE, 2007), followed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZ, 2006) and the National Clinical Guideline (SIGN, 2009) both with a score of 96.7. The CPG from a LMIC had lower scores than CPGs from higher income settings. Our study identified and evaluated 24 CPGs with the highest scores in clarity and presentation, scope and purpose, and rigor of development. Most of these CPGs were developed in HICs, with limited applicability or utility for resource limited settings. Stakeholder involvement, Applicability, and

  11. Improving SMOS retrieved salinity: characterization of systematic errors in reconstructed and modelled brightness temperature images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourrion, J.; Guimbard, S.; Sabia, R.; Portabella, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Turiel, A.; Ballabrera, J.; Gabarro, C.; Perez, F.; Martinez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched on November 2nd, 2009 with the aim of providing, over the oceans, synoptic sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements with spatial and temporal coverage adequate for large-scale oceanographic studies. For each single satellite overpass, SSS is retrieved after collecting, at fixed ground locations, a series of brightness temperature from successive scenes corresponding to various geometrical and polarization conditions. SSS is inversed through minimization of the difference between reconstructed and modeled brightness temperatures. To meet the challenging mission requirements, retrieved SSS needs to accomplish an accuracy of 0.1 psu after averaging in a 10- or 30-day period and 2°x2° or 1°x1° spatial boxes, respectively. It is expected that, at such scales, the high radiometric noise can be reduced to a level such that remaining errors and inconsistencies in the retrieved salinity fields can essentially be related to (1) systematic brightness temperature errors in the antenna reference frame, (2) systematic errors in the Geophysical Model Function - GMF, used to model the observations and retrieve salinity - for specific environmental conditions and/or particular auxiliary parameter values and (3) errors in the auxiliary datasets used as input to the GMF. The present communication primarily aims at adressing above point 1 and possibly point 2 for the whole polarimetric information i.e. issued from both co-polar and cross-polar measurements. Several factors may potentially produce systematic errors in the antenna reference frame: the unavoidable fact that all antenna are not perfectly identical, the imperfect characterization of the instrument response e.g. antenna patterns, account for receiver temperatures in the reconstruction, calibration using flat sky scenes, implementation of ripple reduction algorithms at sharp

  12. Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin; Vetter, Mona; Herold, Martin; Churkina, Galina; Reichstein, Markus; Zaehle, Soenke; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Bondeau, Alberte; Chen, Youmin; Trusilova, Kristina; Feser, Frauke; Heimann, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Continental to global-scale modeling of the carbon cycle using process-based models is subject to large uncertainties. These uncertainties originate from the model structure and uncertainty in model forcing fields; however, little is known about their relative importance. A thorough understanding and quantification of uncertainties is necessary to correctly interpret carbon cycle simulations and guide further model developments. This study elucidates the effects of different state-of-the-art land cover and meteorological data set options and biosphere models on simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP) over Europe. The analysis is based on (1) three different process-oriented terrestrial biosphere models (Biome-BGC, LPJ, and Orchidee) driven with the same input data and one model (Biome-BGC) driven with (2) two different meteorological data sets (ECMWF and REMO), (3) three different land cover data sets (GLC2000, MODIS, and SYNMAP), and (4) three different spatial resolutions of the land cover (0.25° fractional, 0.25° dominant, and 0.5° dominant). We systematically investigate effects on the magnitude, spatial pattern, and interannual variation of GPP. While changing the land cover map or the spatial resolution has only little effect on the model outcomes, changing the meteorological drivers and especially the model results in substantial differences. Uncertainties of the meteorological forcings affect particularly strongly interannual variations of simulated GPP. By decomposing modeled GPP into their biophysical and ecophysiological components (absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), respectively) we show that differences of interannual GPP variations among models result primarily from differences of simulating RUE. Major discrepancies appear to be related to the feedback through the carbon-nitrogen interactions in one model (Biome-BGC) and water stress effects, besides the modeling of croplands. We suggest

  13. Animal models of prenatal immune challenge and their contribution to the study of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, D.S.; Araújo, D.P.; Sampaio, L.R.L.; Vasconcelos, S.M.M.; Sales, P.M.G.; Sousa, F.C.F.; Hallak, J.E.; Crippa, J.A.; Carvalho, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal immune challenge (PIC) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism. Based on this, the goal of this article was to review the main contributions of PIC models, especially the one using the viral-mimetic particle polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly-I:C), to the understanding of the etiology, biological basis and treatment of schizophrenia. This systematic review consisted of a search of available web databases (PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge) for original studies published in the last 10 years (May 2001 to October 2011) concerning animal models of PIC, focusing on those using poly-I:C. The results showed that the PIC model with poly-I:C is able to mimic the prodrome and both the positive and negative/cognitive dimensions of schizophrenia, depending on the specific gestation time window of the immune challenge. The model resembles the neurobiology and etiology of schizophrenia and has good predictive value. In conclusion, this model is a robust tool for the identification of novel molecular targets during prenatal life, adolescence and adulthood that might contribute to the development of preventive and/or treatment strategies (targeting specific symptoms, i.e., positive or negative/cognitive) for this devastating mental disorder, also presenting biosafety as compared to viral infection models. One limitation of this model is the incapacity to model the full spectrum of immune responses normally induced by viral exposure. PMID:22392187

  14. Animal models of prenatal immune challenge and their contribution to the study of schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, D S; Araújo, D P; Sampaio, L R L; Vasconcelos, S M M; Sales, P M G; Sousa, F C F; Hallak, J E; Crippa, J A; Carvalho, A F

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal immune challenge (PIC) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism. Based on this, the goal of this article was to review the main contributions of PIC models, especially the one using the viral-mimetic particle polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly-I:C), to the understanding of the etiology, biological basis and treatment of schizophrenia. This systematic review consisted of a search of available web databases (PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge) for original studies published in the last 10 years (May 2001 to October 2011) concerning animal models of PIC, focusing on those using poly-I:C. The results showed that the PIC model with poly-I:C is able to mimic the prodrome and both the positive and negative/cognitive dimensions of schizophrenia, depending on the specific gestation time window of the immune challenge. The model resembles the neurobiology and etiology of schizophrenia and has good predictive value. In conclusion, this model is a robust tool for the identification of novel molecular targets during prenatal life, adolescence and adulthood that might contribute to the development of preventive and/or treatment strategies (targeting specific symptoms, i.e., positive or negative/cognitive) for this devastating mental disorder, also presenting biosafety as compared to viral infection models. One limitation of this model is the incapacity to model the full spectrum of immune responses normally induced by viral exposure.

  15. A systematic multiscale modeling and experimental approach to protect grain boundaries in magnesium alloys from corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Horstemeyer, Mark R.; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    2015-09-30

    A multiscale modeling Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model was developed that captures the fundamental structure-property relationships. The macroscale ISV model used lower length scale simulations (Butler-Volmer and Electronics Structures results) in order to inform the ISVs at the macroscale. The chemomechanical ISV model was calibrated and validated from experiments with magnesium (Mg) alloys that were investigated under corrosive environments coupled with experimental electrochemical studies. Because the ISV chemomechanical model is physically based, it can be used for other material systems to predict corrosion behavior. As such, others can use the chemomechanical model for analyzing corrosion effects on their designs.

  16. Prediction of Poor Outcome in Patients with Acute Liver Failure—Systematic Review of Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Wlodzimirow, Kama A.; Eslami, Saeid; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute liver failure is a rare disease with high mortality and liver transplantation is the only life saving therapy. Accurate prognosis of ALF is crucial for proper intervention. Aim To identify and characterize newly developed prognostic models of mortality for ALF patients, assess study quality, identify important variables and provide recommendations for the development of improved models in the future. Methods The online databases MEDLINE® (1950–2012) and EMBASE® (1980–2012) were searched for English-language articles that reported original data from clinical trials or observational studies on prognostic models in ALF patients. Studies were included if they developed a new model or modified existing prognostic models. The studies were evaluated based on an existing framework for scoring the methodological and reporting quality of prognostic models. Results Twenty studies were included, of which 18 reported on newly developed models, 1 on modification of the Kings College Criteria (KCC) and 1 on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). Ten studies compared the newly developed models to previously existing models (e.g. KCC); they all reported that the new models were superior. In the 12-point methodological quality score, only one study scored full points. On the 38-point reporting score, no study scored full points. There was a general lack of reporting on missing values. In addition, none of the studies used performance measures for calibration and accuracy (e.g. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics, Brier score), and only 5 studies used the AUC as a measure of discrimination. Conclusions There are many studies on prognostic models for ALF but they show methodological and reporting limitations. Future studies could be improved by better reporting and handling of missing data, the inclusion of model calibration aspects, use of absolute risk measures, explicit considerations for variable selection, the use of a more extensive set of reference models

  17. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  18. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  19. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  20. Shuttle Spacesuit (Radiation) Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, J. E.; Qualls, G. D.; Staritz, P. J.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Ware, J.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed spacesuit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the spacesuit are critical to an estimate of exposures and for assessing the health risk to the astronaut during extravehicular activity (EVA). Fine detail of the basic fabric structure, helmet, and backpack is required to assure a valid evaluation. The exposure fields within the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) and Female (CAF) are evaluated at 148 and 156 points, respectively, to determine the dose fluctuations within critical organs. Exposure evaluations for ambient environments will be given and potential implications for geomagnetic storm conditions discussed.

  1. The Practice Audit Model: A Process for Continuing Professional Education Needs Assessment and Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutz, Wayne D.; And Others

    The Practice Audit Model, a direct outgrowth of the Pennsylvania Pharmacists' Professional Development Program, provides a systematic framework in which to assess occupational and professional practitioners' continuing education needs and develop programs to meet those needs. The ultimate objective of the Practice Audit Model is to assist…

  2. Clinical outcomes of HIV care delivery models in the US: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, April D; Martin, Erika G; Galadima, Hadiza; Bono, Rose S; Tehrani, Ali Bonakdar; Cyrus, John W; Henderson, Margaret; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Krist, Alexander H

    2016-10-01

    With over 1 million people living with HIV, the US faces national challenges in HIV care delivery due to an inadequate HIV specialist workforce and the increasing role of non-communicable chronic diseases in driving morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Alternative HIV care delivery models, which include substantial roles for advanced practitioners and/or coordination between specialty and primary care settings in managing HIV-infected patients, may address these needs. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on patient-level HIV-specific and primary care health outcomes for HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient care across HIV care delivery models. We identified randomized trials and observational studies from bibliographic and other databases through March 2016. Eligible studies met pre-specified eligibility criteria including on care delivery models and patient-level health outcomes. We considered all available evidence, including non-experimental studies, and evaluated studies for risk of bias. We identified 3605 studies, of which 13 met eligibility criteria. Of the 13 eligible studies, the majority evaluated specialty-based care (9 studies). Across all studies and care delivery models, eligible studies primarily reported mortality and antiretroviral use, with specialty-based care associated with mortality reductions at the clinician and practice levels and with increased antiretroviral initiation or use at the clinician level but not the practice level. Limited and heterogeneous outcomes were reported for other patient-level HIV-specific outcomes (e.g., viral suppression) as well as for primary care health outcomes across all care delivery models. No studies addressed chronic care outcomes related to aging. Limited evidence was available across geographic settings and key populations. As re-design of care delivery in the US continues to evolve, better understanding of patient-level HIV-related and primary care health outcomes, especially

  3. A systematic impact assessment of GRACE error correlation on data assimilation in hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Maike; Kusche, Jürgen; Döll, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Recently, ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) have found increasing application for merging hydrological models with total water storage anomaly (TWSA) fields from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Previous studies have disregarded the effect of spatially correlated errors of GRACE TWSA products in their investigations. Here, for the first time, we systematically assess the impact of the GRACE error correlation structure on EnKF data assimilation into a hydrological model, i.e. on estimated compartmental and total water storages and model parameter values. Our investigations include (1) assimilating gridded GRACE-derived TWSA into the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model and, simultaneously, calibrating its parameters; (2) introducing GRACE observations on different spatial scales; (3) modelling observation errors as either spatially white or correlated in the assimilation procedure, and (4) replacing the standard EnKF algorithm by the square root analysis scheme or, alternatively, the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman filter. Results of a synthetic experiment designed for the Mississippi River Basin indicate that the hydrological parameters are sensitive to TWSA assimilation if spatial resolution of the observation data is sufficiently high. We find a significant influence of spatial error correlation on the adjusted water states and model parameters for all implemented filter variants, in particular for subbasins with a large discrepancy between observed and initially simulated TWSA and for north-south elongated sub-basins. Considering these correlated errors, however, does not generally improve results: while some metrics indicate that it is helpful to consider the full GRACE error covariance matrix, it appears to have an adverse effect on others. We conclude that considering the characteristics of GRACE error correlation is at least as important as the selection of the spatial discretisation of TWSA observations, while the choice

  4. Quantitative clinical pharmacology for size and age scaling in pediatric drug development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Samant, Tanay S; Mangal, Naveen; Lukacova, Viera; Schmidt, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    The establishment of drug dosing in children is often hindered by the lack of actual pediatric efficacy and safety data. To overcome this limitation, scaling approaches are frequently employed to leverage adult clinical information for informing pediatric dosing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the different scaling approaches used in pediatric pharmacotherapy as well as their proper implementation in drug development and clinical use. We will start out with a brief overview of the current regulatory requirements in pediatric drug development, followed by a review of the most commonly employed scaling approaches in increasing order of complexity ranging from simple body weight-based dosing to physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Each of the presented approaches has advantages and limitations, which will be highlighted throughout the course of the review by the use of clinically-relevant examples. The choice of the approach employed consequently depends on the clinical question at hand and the availability of sufficient clinical data. The main effort while establishing and qualifying these scaling approaches should be directed towards the development of safe and effective dosing regimens in children rather than identifying the best model, ie models should be fit for purpose.

  5. A Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention to Increase Healthy Behavior Through General Practice: Protocol and Systematic Development

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general

  6. Do preoperative fear avoidance model factors predict outcomes after lumbar disc herniation surgery? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) surgery is usually recommended when conservative treatments fail to manage patients’ symptoms. However, many patients undergoing LDH surgery continue to report pain and disability. Preoperative psychological factors have shown to be predictive for postoperative outcomes. Our aim was to systematically review studies that prospectively examined the prognostic value of factors in the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM), including back pain, leg pain, catastrophizing, anxiety, fear-avoidance, depression, physical activity and disability, to predict postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing LDH surgery. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of prospective studies that measured any FAM factors preoperatively to predict postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing LDH surgery. Our search databases included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. We assessed the quality of each included study using a certain quality assessment list. Degree of agreement between reviewers on quality assessment was examined. Results related to FAM factors in the included studies were summarized. Results Thirteen prospective studies met our inclusion criteria. Most studies were considered high quality. Heterogeneity was present between the included studies in many aspects. The most common FAM factors examinered were baseline pain, disability and depression. In, general, depression, fear-avoidance behaviors, passive pain coping, and anxiety FAM factors appeared to have negative influence on LDH surgical outcome. Baseline back pain and leg pain appeared to have differing prognostic value on LDH surgical outcomes. Conclusions FAM factors seem to influence LDH surgical outcomes. Patients with high levels of depression, anxiety and fear-avoidance behaviors are more likely to have poor outcomes following LDH surgery. Conversely, high levels of leg pain, but not back pain seem to be predictor for favorable LDH surgery outcome. More research is needed to

  7. Systematic Engine Uprate Technology Development and Deployment for Pipeline Compressor Engines through Increased Torque

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Schmitt; Daniel Olsen

    2005-09-30

    Three methods were utilized to analyze key components of slow-speed, large-bore, natural gas integral engines. These three methods included the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), dynamic modal analysis using finite element analysis (FEA), and a stress analysis method also using FEA. The CFD analysis focuses primarily on the fuel mixing in the combustion chamber of a TLA engine. Results indicate a significant increase in the homogeneity of the air and fuel using high-pressure fuel injection (HPFI) instead of standard low-pressure mechanical gas admission valve (MGAV). A modal analysis of three engine crankshafts (TLA-6, HBA-6, and GMV-10) is developed and presented. Results indicate that each crankshaft has a natural frequency and corresponding speed that is well away from the typical engine operating speed. A frame stress analysis method is also developed and presented. Two different crankcases are examined. A TLA-6 crankcase is modeled and a stress analysis is performed. The method of dynamic load determination, model setup, and the results from the stress analysis are discussed. Preliminary results indicate a 10%-15% maximum increase in frame stress due to a 20% increase in HP. However, the high stress regions were localized. A new hydraulically actuated mechanical fuel valve is also developed and presented. This valve provides equivalent high-energy (supersonic) fuel injection comparable to a HPFI system, at 1/5th of the natural gas fuel pressure. This valve was developed in cooperation with the Dresser-Rand Corporation.

  8. Storytelling to Enhance Teaching and Learning: The Systematic Design, Development, and Testing of Two Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Sivo, Stephen; Pounds, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Storytelling may be a powerful instructional approach for engaging learners and facilitating e-learning. However, relatively little is known about how to apply story within the context of systematic instructional design processes and claims for the effectiveness of storytelling in training and education have been primarily anecdotal and…

  9. Developing Behavioral Theory with the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…

  10. Towards systematic evaluation of crop model outputs for global land-use models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclere, David; Azevedo, Ligia B.; Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovič, Juraj; Havlík, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Land provides vital socioeconomic resources to the society, however at the cost of large environmental degradations. Global integrated models combining high resolution global gridded crop models (GGCMs) and global economic models (GEMs) are increasingly being used to inform sustainable solution for agricultural land-use. However, little effort has yet been done to evaluate and compare the accuracy of GGCM outputs. In addition, GGCM datasets require a large amount of parameters whose values and their variability across space are weakly constrained: increasing the accuracy of such dataset has a very high computing cost. Innovative evaluation methods are required both to ground credibility to the global integrated models, and to allow efficient parameter specification of GGCMs. We propose an evaluation strategy for GGCM datasets in the perspective of use in GEMs, illustrated with preliminary results from a novel dataset (the Hypercube) generated by the EPIC GGCM and used in the GLOBIOM land use GEM to inform on present-day crop yield, water and nutrient input needs for 16 crops x 15 management intensities, at a spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes. We adopt the following principle: evaluation should provide a transparent diagnosis of model adequacy for its intended use. We briefly describe how the Hypercube data is generated and how it articulates with GLOBIOM in order to transparently identify the performances to be evaluated, as well as the main assumptions and data processing involved. Expected performances include adequately representing the sub-national heterogeneity in crop yield and input needs: i) in space, ii) across crop species, and iii) across management intensities. We will present and discuss measures of these expected performances and weight the relative contribution of crop model, input data and data processing steps in performances. We will also compare obtained yield gaps and main yield-limiting factors against the M3 dataset. Next steps include

  11. The Efficacy of Trastuzumab in Animal Models of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiarong; Yang, Canhong; Guo, Bin; Sena, Emily S.; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Yuan, Yawei; Hirst, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Trastuzumab is an effective treatment, the first monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). To inform the development of other effective treatments we report summary estimates of efficacy of trastuzumab on survival and tumour volume in animal models of breast cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE systematically to identify publications testing trastuzumab in animal models of breast cancer. Data describing tumour volume, median survival and animal features were extracted and we assessed quality using a 12-item checklist. We analysed the impact of study design and quality and evidence for publication bias. Results We included data from 83 studies reporting 169 experiments using 2076 mice. Trastuzumab treatment caused a substantial reduction in tumour growth, with tumours in treated animals growing to 32.6% of the volume of tumours in control animals (95%CI 27.8%-38.2%). Median survival was prolonged by a factor of 1.45 (1.30–1.62). Many study design and quality features accounted for between-study heterogeneity and we found evidence suggesting publication bias. Conclusion We have found trastuzumab to be effective in animal breast cancer models across a range of experimental circumstances. However the presence of publication bias and a low prevalence of measures to reduce bias provide a focus for future improvements in preclinical breast cancer research. PMID:27463246

  12. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-12-01

    The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews

  13. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

    PubMed

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D; Miller, Douglass R; Miller, Gary L; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23,477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info.

  14. Systematic or signal? How dark matter misalignments can bias strong lensing models of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D.; Kneib, J. P.; Jauzac, M.

    2016-05-01

    We explore how assuming that mass traces light in strong gravitational lensing models can lead to systematic errors in the predicted position of multiple images. Using a model based on the galaxy cluster MACS J0416 (z = 0.397) from the Hubble Frontier Fields, we split each galactic halo into a baryonic and dark matter component. We then shift the dark matter halo such that it no longer aligns with the baryonic halo and investigate how this affects the resulting position of multiple images. We find for physically motivated misalignments in dark halo position, ellipticity, position angle and density profile that multiple images can move on average by more than 0.2 arcsec with individual images moving greater than 1 arcsec. We finally estimate the full error induced by assuming that light traces mass and find that this assumption leads to an expected rms error of 0.5 arcsec, almost the entire error budget observed in the Frontier Fields. Given the large potential contribution from the assumption that light traces mass to the error budget in mass reconstructions, we predict that it should be possible to make a first significant detection and characterization of dark halo misalignments in the Hubble Frontier Fields with strong lensing. Finally, we find that it may be possible to detect ˜1 kpc offsets between dark matter and baryons, the smoking gun for self-interacting dark matter, should the correct alignment of multiple images be observed.

  15. Ibogaine and addiction in the animal model, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Belgers, M; Leenaars, M; Homberg, J R; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M; Schellekens, A F A; Hooijmans, C R

    2016-01-01

    Ibogaine is a naturally occurring substance which has been increasingly used in the lay-scene to reduce craving and relapse in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). Although human clinical trials on the safety and efficacy of ibogaine are lacking, animal studies do support the efficacy of ibogaine. In this systematic review and meta-analysis (MA), we summarise these animal findings, addressing three questions: (1) does ibogaine reduce addictive behaviour in animal models of SUDs?; (2) what are the toxic effects of ibogaine on motor functioning, cerebellum and heart rhythm?; (3) what are neuropharmacological working mechanisms of ibogaine treatment in animal models of SUDs? MA of 27 studies showed that ibogaine reduced drug self-administration, particularly during the first 24 h after administration. Ibogaine had no effect on drug-induced conditioned place preference. Ibogaine administration resulted in motor impairment in the first 24 h after supplementation, and cerebral cell loss even weeks after administration. Data on ibogaines effect on cardiac rhythm, as well as on its neuropharmacological working mechanisms are limited. Our results warrant further studies into the clinical efficacy of ibogaine in SUD patients in reducing craving and substance use, but close monitoring of the patients is recommended because of the possible toxic effects. In addition, more work is needed to unravel the neuropharmacological working mechanisms of ibogaine and to investigate its effects on heart rhythm. PMID:27244235

  16. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

    PubMed Central

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D.; Miller, Douglass R.; Miller, Gary L.; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B.

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23 477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info PMID:26861659

  17. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  18. Modeling Cu(II) Binding to Peptides Using the Extensible Systematic Force Field

    PubMed Central

    Ryvkin, Faina; Greenaway, Frederick T.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the extensible systematic force field (ESFF) was tested for copper(II) binding to a 34-amino-acid Cu(II) peptide, which includes five histidine residues and is the putative copper-binding site of lysyl oxidase. To improve computational efficiency, distance geometry calculations were used to constrain all combinations of three histidine ligands to be within bonding distance of the copper and the best results were utilized as starting structures for the ESFF computations. All likely copper geometries were modeled, but the results showed only a small dependence on the geometrical model in that all resulted in a distorted square pyramidal geometry about the copper, some of the imidazole rings were poorly oriented for ligation to the Cu(II), and the copper-nitrogen bond distances were too long. The results suggest that ESFF should be used with caution for Cu(II) complexes where the copper-ligand bonds have significant covalency and when the ligands are not geometrically constrained to be planar. PMID:20300581

  19. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  20. Towards a systematic construction of realistic D-brane models on a del Pezzo singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Krippendorf, Sven; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    A systematic approach is followed in order to identify realistic D-brane models at toric del Pezzo singularities. Requiring quark and lepton spectrum and Yukawas from D3 branes and massless hypercharge, we are led to Pati-Salam extensions of the Standard Model. Hierarchies of masses, flavour mixings and control of couplings select higher order del Pezzo singularities, minimising the Higgs sector prefers toric del Pezzos with dP 3 providing the most successful compromise. Then a supersymmetric local string model is presented with the following properties at low energies: (i) the MSSM spectrum plus a local B - L gauge field or additional Higgs fields depending on the breaking pattern, (ii) a realistic hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and (iii) realistic flavour mixing between quark and lepton families with computable CKM and PMNS matrices, and CP violation consistent with observations. In this construction, kinetic terms are diagonal and under calculational control suppressing standard FCNC contributions. Proton decay operators of dimension 4, 5, 6 are suppressed, and gauge couplings can unify depending on the breaking scales from string scales at energies in the range 1012-1016 GeV, consistent with TeV soft-masses from moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking. The GUT scale model corresponds to D3 branes at dP 3 with two copies of the Pati-Salam gauge symmetry SU(4) × SU(2) R × SU(2) L . D-brane instantons generate a non-vanishing μ-term. Right handed sneutrinos can break the B - L symmetry and induce a see-saw mechanism of neutrino masses and R-parity violating operators with observable low-energy implications.

  1. A Systematic Review of Self-Management Health Care Models for Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Fenwick, Karissa M.; Barr, Nicholas; Cohen, Heather; Brekke, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The general medical health of individuals with serious mental illnesses is compromised relative to those without serious mental illnesses. To address this health disparity, numerous integrated care strategies are being employed from the system level to the level of individual patients. However, self-management of health care, a strategy considered an integral aspect of typical care, has been infrequently included in interventions for this population. Despite reservations about the capacity of those with serious mental illnesses to self-manage health care, a subset of new interventions focused on general medical health in this population has tested whether models including self-management strategies have empirical support. To understand whether these models are supported, the authors reviewed the evidence for self-management models. Methods This systematic review examined collaborative and integrated care models that include self-management components for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Results Across the 14 studies identified in this review, promising evidence was found that individuals with serious mental health issues can collaborate with health professionals or be trained to self-manage their health and health care. The evidence supports the use of mental health peers or professional staff to implement health care interventions. However, the substantial heterogeneity in study design, types of training, and examined outcomes limited conclusions about the comparative effectiveness of existing studies. Conclusions This review found preliminary support that self-management interventions targeting the general medical health of those with serious mental illnesses are efficacious, but future work is needed to determine what elements of training or skills lead to the most salient changes. PMID:25023057

  2. How robust are the natural history parameters used in chlamydia transmission dynamic models? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transmission dynamic models linked to economic analyses often form part of the decision making process when introducing new chlamydia screening interventions. Outputs from these transmission dynamic models can vary depending on the values of the parameters used to describe the infection. Therefore these values can have an important influence on policy and resource allocation. The risk of progression from infection to pelvic inflammatory disease has been extensively studied but the parameters which govern the transmission dynamics are frequently neglected. We conducted a systematic review of transmission dynamic models linked to economic analyses of chlamydia screening interventions to critically assess the source and variability of the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic, the duration of infection and the transmission probability. We identified nine relevant studies in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane database. We found that there is a wide variation in their natural history parameters, including an absolute difference in the proportion of asymptomatic infections of 25% in women and 75% in men, a six-fold difference in the duration of asymptomatic infection and a four-fold difference in the per act transmission probability. We consider that much of this variation can be explained by a lack of consensus in the literature. We found that a significant proportion of parameter values were referenced back to the early chlamydia literature, before the introduction of nucleic acid modes of diagnosis and the widespread testing of asymptomatic individuals. In conclusion, authors should use high quality contemporary evidence to inform their parameter values, clearly document their assumptions and make appropriate use of sensitivity analysis. This will help to make models more transparent and increase their utility to policy makers. PMID:24476335

  3. A systematic review of model-based economic evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for lower extremity artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anil; Joore, Manuela A; ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; ten Cate, Hugo; Severens, Johan L

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is a sign of wide spread atherosclerosis also affecting coronary, cerebral and renal arteries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Many economic evaluations have been published for LEAD due to its clinical, social and economic importance. The aim of this systematic review was to assess modelling methods used in published economic evaluations in the field of LEAD. Our review appraised and compared the general characteristics, model structure and methodological quality of published models. Electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until February 2013 via OVID interface. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Health Technology Assessment database hosted by National Institute for Health research and National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED) were also searched. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by using the Philips' checklist. Sixteen model-based economic evaluations were identified and included. Eleven models compared therapeutic health technologies; three models compared diagnostic tests and two models compared a combination of diagnostic and therapeutic options for LEAD. Results of this systematic review revealed an acceptable to low methodological quality of the included studies. Methodological diversity and insufficient information posed a challenge for valid comparison of the included studies. In conclusion, there is a need for transparent, methodologically comparable and scientifically credible model-based economic evaluations in the field of LEAD. Future modelling studies should include clinically and economically important cardiovascular outcomes to reflect the wider impact of LEAD on individual patients and on the society.

  4. A hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation scheme with systematic error correction for limited-area ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddo, Paolo; Storto, Andrea; Dobricic, Srdjan; Russo, Aniello; Lewis, Craig; Onken, Reiner; Coelho, Emanuel

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation scheme to estimate the vertical and horizontal parts of the background error covariance matrix for an ocean variational data assimilation system is presented and tested in a limited-area ocean model implemented in the western Mediterranean Sea. An extensive data set collected during the Recognized Environmental Picture Experiments conducted in June 2014 by the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation has been used for assimilation and validation. The hybrid scheme is used to both correct the systematic error introduced in the system from the external forcing (initialisation, lateral and surface open boundary conditions) and model parameterisation, and improve the representation of small-scale errors in the background error covariance matrix. An ensemble system is run offline for further use in the hybrid scheme, generated through perturbation of assimilated observations. Results of four different experiments have been compared. The reference experiment uses the classical stationary formulation of the background error covariance matrix and has no systematic error correction. The other three experiments account for, or not, systematic error correction and hybrid background error covariance matrix combining the static and the ensemble-derived errors of the day. Results show that the hybrid scheme when used in conjunction with the systematic error correction reduces the mean absolute error of temperature and salinity misfit by 55 and 42 % respectively, versus statistics arising from standard climatological covariances without systematic error correction.

  5. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Systematic Approach for the Evaluation of Career Planning and Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Covert, Robert W.

    The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1966 by Malcolm Provus, provides information for program assessment and program improvement. Under the DEM, evaluation is defined as the comparison of an actual performance to a desired standard. The DEM embodies five stages of evaluation based upon a program's natural development: program…

  6. Systematic optimization of fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high-solid loading based on enzymatic hydrolysis and dynamic metabolic modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Khajeeram, Sutamat; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-03-01

    An integrative simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) modeling is a useful guiding tool for rapid process optimization to meet the techno-economic requirement of industrial-scale lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this work, we have developed the SSF model composing of a metabolic network of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell associated with fermentation kinetics and enzyme hydrolysis model to quantitatively capture dynamic responses of yeast cell growth and fermentation during SSF. By using model-based design of feeding profiles for substrate and yeast cell in the fed-batch SSF process, an efficient ethanol production with high titer of up to 65 g/L and high yield of 85 % of theoretical yield was accomplished. The ethanol titer and productivity was increased by 47 and 41 %, correspondingly, in optimized fed-batch SSF as compared to batch process. The developed integrative SSF model is, therefore, considered as a promising approach for systematic design of economical and sustainable SSF bioprocessing of lignocellulose.

  7. The systematic study of the stability of forecasts in the rate- and state-dependent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gaetano, D.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous observations have shown a general spatial correlation between positive Coulomb failure stress changes due to an earthquake and the locations of aftershocks. However this correlation does not give any indication of the rate from which we can infer the magnitude using the Gutenberg-Richter law. Dieterich's rate- and state-dependent model can be used to obtain a forecast of the observed aftershock rate for the space and time evolution of seismicity caused by stress changes applied to an infinite population of nucleating patches. The seismicity rate changes on this model depend on eight parameters: the stressing rate, the amplitude of the stress perturbation, the physical constitutive properties of faults, the spatial parameters (location and radii of the cells), the start and duration of each of the temporal windows as well as the background seismicity rate. The background seismicity is declustered using the epidemic type aftershock sequence model. We use the 1992 Landers earthquake as a case study, using the Southern California Earthquake Data Centre (SCEDC) catalogue, to examine if Dieterich's rate- and state-dependent model can forecast the aftershock seismicity rate. We perform a systematic study on a range of values on all the parameters to test the forecasting ability of this model. The results obtained suggest variable success in forecasting, when varying the values for the parameters, with the spatial and temporal parameters being the most sensitive. The Omori-Utsu law describes the aftershock rate as a power law in time following the main shock and depends on only three parameters: the aftershock productivity, the elapsed time since the main shock and the constant time shift, all of which can be estimated in the early part of the aftershock sequence and then extrapolated to give a long term rate forecast. All parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood methods. We compare the Dieterich and the Omori-Utsu forecasts using the Akaike information

  8. How far can systematic reviews inform policy development for "wicked" rural health service problems?

    PubMed

    Humphreys, John S; Kuipers, Pim; Wakerman, John; Wells, Robert; Jones, Judith A; Kinsman, Leigh D

    2009-11-01

    Policy makers and researchers increasingly look to systematic reviews as a means of connecting research and evidence more effectively with policy. Based on Australian research into rural and remote primary health care services, we note some concerns regarding the suitability of systematic review methods when applied to such settings. It suggests that rural and other health services are highly complex and researching them is akin to dealing with "wicked" problems. It proposes that the notion of "wicked" problems may inform our understanding of the issues and our choice of appropriate methods to inform health service policy. Key issues including the complexity of health services, methodological limitations of traditional reviews, the nature of materials under review, and the importance of the service context are highlighted. These indicate the need for broader approaches to capturing relevant evidence. Sustained, collaborative synthesis in which complexity, ambiguity and context is acknowledged is proposed as a way of addressing the wicked nature of these issues.

  9. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Different Service Delivery Models on Communication Outcomes for Elementary School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirrin, Frank M.; Schooling, Tracy L.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Diehl, Sylvia F.; Flynn, Perry F.; Staskowski, Maureen; Torrey, T. Zoann; Adamczyk, Deborah F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an evidence-based systematic review (EBSR) of peer-reviewed articles from the last 30 years about the effect of different service delivery models on speech-language intervention outcomes for elementary school-age students. Method: A computer search of electronic databases was conducted to…

  10. Immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation in adults: a systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Snowsill, Tristan; Haasova, Marcela; Coelho, Helen; Crathorne, Louise; Cooper, Chris; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Peters, Jaime; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Huxley, Nicola; Moore, Jason; Allwood, Matt; Lowe, Jenny; Hyde, Chris; Hoyle, Martin; Bond, Mary; Anderson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    ), Health Economic Evaluations Database (via Wiley Online Library) and the American Economic Association's electronic bibliography (via EconLit, EBSCOhost). Included studies were selected according to predefined methods and criteria. A random-effects model was used to analyse clinical effectiveness data (odds ratios for binary data and mean differences for continuous data). Network meta-analyses were undertaken within a Bayesian framework. A new discrete time-state transition economic model (semi-Markov) was developed, with acute rejection, graft function (GRF) and new-onset diabetes mellitus used to extrapolate graft survival. Recipients were assumed to be in one of three health states: functioning graft, graft loss or death. RESULTS Eighty-nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs), of variable quality, were included. For induction therapy, no treatment appeared more effective than another in reducing graft loss or mortality. Compared with placebo/no induction, rATG and BAS appeared more effective in reducing biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) and BAS appeared more effective at improving GRF. For maintenance therapy, no treatment was better for all outcomes and no treatment appeared most effective at reducing graft loss. BEL + MMF appeared more effective than TAC + MMF and SRL + MMF at reducing mortality. MMF + CSA (ciclosporin), TAC + MMF, SRL + TAC, TAC + AZA (azathioprine) and EVL + CSA appeared more effective than CSA + AZA and EVL + MPS at reducing BPAR. SRL + AZA, TAC + AZA, TAC + MMF and BEL + MMF appeared to improve GRF compared with CSA + AZA and MMF + CSA. In the base-case deterministic and probabilistic analyses, BAS, MMF and TAC were predicted to be cost-effective at £20,000 and £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). When comparing all regimens, only BAS + TAC + MMF was cost-effective at £20,000 and £30,000 per QALY. LIMITATIONS For included trials, there was substantial

  11. [The influence of Janicki cercomer theory on the development of platyhelminthes systematics and evolution investigations].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    (Cestoda), Heynemann, Ginetsinskaja, Pearson, Cable, Rhode and Gibson (Trematoda), Bychovsky, Lambert and Malmberg (Monogenea) are referred, with special emphasises on the differences in the ideas presented by their authors. In the second period two points are underlined: a dynamic development of new techniques and methods (including molecular investigations) allowing to gather more and more different data on the parasites, and, as a consequence of this phenomenon, a new approach to the evolutionary problems--the birth of numeric and phylogenetic systematics. In this period "the cercomer theory", as well as supporting the group Cercomeromorphae generally are not accepted (exception: Brooks et al.). In contrast, the new taxon--Neodermata has been created by Ehlers. The importance of this publication for further evolutionary study is stressed. In this background some publications are quoted, especially those, presenting the results of searching for monophyletic groups and joining them in hieratic kladograms (Brooks and al., Rohde at al., Littlewood at al., and the others). It is stated, that in spite of some differences in the kladograms builded by various authors (resulting mainly from the set of features being analysed) the monophyly of big taxons of Neodermata (Trematoda, Monogenea, Cestoda) is fairly well documented. In conclusion several points connected with the "cercomer theory" are emphasized. It is now obvious, that the base of this theory--homology of caudal appendices of Janicki's Cercomerophora has to be rejected, as well as his concept of subsequent evolution of Platyhelminthes. But the base of his joining of Monogena, Trematoda (in his theory--Digenea) and Cestoda in one group (lack of cilia on the body surface), opposite to the Turbellaria (ciliary ephitelium) is maintained by the creation of Neodermata, undoubtedly documented better and in a different way. Also his idea (after many years of rejecting) on close affinity of Digenea and Cestoda seems to have

  12. Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Srivastava, Rani; Craig, Dianna; Tucker, Donna; Grinspun, Doris; Bajnok, Irmajean; Griffin, Pat; Long, Leslye; Porritt, Kylie; Han, Thuzar; Gi, Aye A

    2007-03-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence on the structures and processes that support development of effective culturally competent practices and a healthy work environment. Culturally competent practices are a congruent set of workforce behaviours, management practices and institutional policies within a practice setting resulting in an organisational environment that is inclusive of cultural and other forms of diversity. Inclusion criteria  This review included quantitative and qualitative evidence, with a particular emphasis on identifying systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. For quantitative evidence, other controlled, and descriptive designs were also included. For qualitative evidence, all methodologies were considered. Participants were staff, patients, and systems or policies that were involved or affected by concepts of cultural competence in the nursing workforce in a healthcare environment. Types of interventions included any strategy that had a cultural competence component, which influenced the work environment, and/or patient and nursing staff in the environment. The types of outcomes of interest to this review included nursing staff outcomes, patient outcomes, organisational outcomes and systems level outcomes. Search strategy  The search sought both published and unpublished literature written in the English language. A comprehensive three-step search strategy was used, first to identify appropriate key words, second to combine all optimal key words into a comprehensive search strategy for each database and finally to review the reference lists of all included reviews and research reports. The databases searched were CINAHL, Medline, Current Contents, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Econ lit, ABI/Inform, ERIC and PubMed. The search for unpublished literature used Dissertation Abstracts International. Methodological

  13. [The influence of Janicki cercomer theory on the development of platyhelminthes systematics and evolution investigations].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    (Cestoda), Heynemann, Ginetsinskaja, Pearson, Cable, Rhode and Gibson (Trematoda), Bychovsky, Lambert and Malmberg (Monogenea) are referred, with special emphasises on the differences in the ideas presented by their authors. In the second period two points are underlined: a dynamic development of new techniques and methods (including molecular investigations) allowing to gather more and more different data on the parasites, and, as a consequence of this phenomenon, a new approach to the evolutionary problems--the birth of numeric and phylogenetic systematics. In this period "the cercomer theory", as well as supporting the group Cercomeromorphae generally are not accepted (exception: Brooks et al.). In contrast, the new taxon--Neodermata has been created by Ehlers. The importance of this publication for further evolutionary study is stressed. In this background some publications are quoted, especially those, presenting the results of searching for monophyletic groups and joining them in hieratic kladograms (Brooks and al., Rohde at al., Littlewood at al., and the others). It is stated, that in spite of some differences in the kladograms builded by various authors (resulting mainly from the set of features being analysed) the monophyly of big taxons of Neodermata (Trematoda, Monogenea, Cestoda) is fairly well documented. In conclusion several points connected with the "cercomer theory" are emphasized. It is now obvious, that the base of this theory--homology of caudal appendices of Janicki's Cercomerophora has to be rejected, as well as his concept of subsequent evolution of Platyhelminthes. But the base of his joining of Monogena, Trematoda (in his theory--Digenea) and Cestoda in one group (lack of cilia on the body surface), opposite to the Turbellaria (ciliary ephitelium) is maintained by the creation of Neodermata, undoubtedly documented better and in a different way. Also his idea (after many years of rejecting) on close affinity of Digenea and Cestoda seems to have

  14. Systematic features of axisymmetric neutrino-driven core-collapse supernova models in multiple progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ko; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of two-dimensional (2D) core-collapse supernova simulations employing a neutrino transport scheme by the isotropic diffusion source approximation. We study 101 solar-metallicity, 247 ultra metal-poor, and 30 zero-metal progenitors covering zero-age main sequence mass from 10.8 M⊙ to 75.0 M⊙. Using the 378 progenitors in total, we systematically investigate how the differences in the structures of these multiple progenitors impact the hydrodynamics evolution. By following a long-term evolution over 1.0 s after bounce, most of the computed models exhibit neutrino-driven revival of the stalled bounce shock at ˜200-800 ms postbounce, leading to the possibility of explosion. Pushing the boundaries of expectations in previous one-dimensional studies, our results confirm that the compactness parameter ξ that characterizes the structure of the progenitors is also a key in 2D to diagnosing the properties of neutrino-driven explosions. Models with high ξ undergo high ram pressure from the accreting matter onto the stalled shock, which affects the subsequent evolution of the shock expansion and the mass of the protoneutron star under the influence of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion-shock instability. We show that the accretion luminosity becomes higher for models with high ξ, which makes the growth rate of the diagnostic explosion energy higher and the synthesized nickel mass bigger. We find that these explosion characteristics tend to show a monotonic increase as a function of the compactness parameter ξ.

  15. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  16. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions.

  17. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions. PMID:27198800

  18. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  19. Factors Associated With Adoption of Health Information Technology: A Conceptual Model Based on a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    DeShazo, Jonathan; Kim, Forest; Fulton, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) allocated $19.2 billion to incentivize adoption of the electronic health record (EHR). Since 2009, Meaningful Use Criteria have dominated information technology (IT) strategy. Health care organizations have struggled to meet expectations and avoid penalties to reimbursements from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizational theories attempt to explain factors that influence organizational change, and many theories address changes in organizational strategy. However, due to the complexities of the health care industry, existing organizational theories fall short of demonstrating association with significant health care IT implementations. There is no organizational theory for health care that identifies, groups, and analyzes both internal and external factors of influence for large health care IT implementations like adoption of the EHR. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a full-spectrum of both internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of health information technology (HIT), specifically the EHR. The result is a conceptual model that is commensurate with the complexity of with the health care sector. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English), EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar for both empirical studies and theory-based writing from 1993-2013 that demonstrated association between influential factors and three modes of HIT: EHR, electronic medical record (EMR), and computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We also looked at published books on organizational theories. We made notes and noted trends on adoption factors. These factors were grouped as adoption factors associated with various versions of EHR adoption. Results The resulting conceptual model summarizes the diversity of independent variables (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs) used

  20. A systematic survey of the response of a model NF-κB signalling pathway to TNFα stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjiao; Paszek, Pawel; Horton, Caroline A.; Yue, Hong; White, Michael R.H.; Kell, Douglas B.; Muldoon, Mark R.; Broomhead, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White's lab established that strong, continuous stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) can induce sustained oscillations in the subcellular localisation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). But the intensity of the TNFα signal varies substantially, from picomolar in the blood plasma of healthy organisms to nanomolar in diseased states. We report on a systematic survey using computational bifurcation theory to explore the relationship between the intensity of TNFα stimulation and the existence of sustained NF-κB oscillations. Using a deterministic model developed by Ashall et al. in 2009, we find that the system's responses to TNFα are characterised by a supercritical Hopf bifurcation point: above a critical intensity of TNFα the system exhibits sustained oscillations in NF-kB localisation. For TNFα below this critical value, damped oscillations are observed. This picture depends, however, on the values of the model's other parameters. When the values of certain reaction rates are altered the response of the signalling pathway to TNFα stimulation changes: in addition to the sustained oscillations induced by high-dose stimulation, a second oscillatory regime appears at much lower doses. Finally, we define scores to quantify the sensitivity of the dynamics of the system to variation in its parameters and use these scores to establish that the qualitative dynamics are most sensitive to the details of NF-κB mediated gene transcription. PMID:22202812

  1. Enamel matrix derivative for replanted teeth in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on periodontal healing of replanted teeth in animal models. Materials and Methods The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge and Scopus for articles published up to Oct 2012. Animal studies in which EMD was applied in transplanted or replanted teeth with adequate controls and histological data were considered. Normal periodontal healing or root resorption determined by histology after EMD was applied in replanted teeth with adequate controls was used as outcome measures. The following search strategy was used: ('Emdogain' OR 'enamel matrix proteins' OR 'enamel matrix derivative') AND ('avulsion' OR 'transplantion' OR 'autotransplantation' OR 'replantation'). Results Six animal studies were included in the final review. There was great heterogeneity in study design among included studies. Two studies with similar study designs were identified and analyzed by a meta-analysis. The pooled estimates showed a significantly higher normal healing and surface resorption and significantly less inflammatory and replacement resorption in EMD-treated groups compared with non-EMD-treated groups. Conclusions With the limitations of this systematic review, the use of EMD led to greater normal periodontal healing and surface root resorption and less inflammatory and replacement root resorption in the presence of periodontal ligaments. However, no definite conclusion could be drawn with regard to the effect of EMD on periodontal healing and root resorption when no periodontal ligaments exist. PMID:24303353

  2. Genetics of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and proposal of an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Amad, Ali; Ramoz, Nicolas; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most common mental disorders and is characterized by a pervasive pattern of emotional lability, impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties, identity disturbances, and disturbed cognition. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature concerning the genetics of BPD, including familial and twin studies, association studies, and gene-environment interaction studies. Moreover, meta-analyses were performed when at least two case-control studies testing the same polymorphism were available. For each gene variant, a pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using fixed or random effects models. Familial and twin studies largely support the potential role of a genetic vulnerability at the root of BPD, with an estimated heritability of approximately 40%. Moreover, there is evidence for both gene-environment interactions and correlations. However, association studies for BPD are sparse, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions. According to our meta-analysis, no significant associations were found for the serotonin transporter gene, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene, or the serotonin 1B receptor gene. We hypothesize that such a discrepancy (negative association studies but high heritability of the disorder) could be understandable through a paradigm shift, in which "plasticity" genes (rather than "vulnerability" genes) would be involved. Such a framework postulates a balance between positive and negative events, which interact with plasticity genes in the genesis of BPD.

  3. Identification of cutoff points for Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index in adolescents: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Leal, Vanessa Sá; da Lima, Niedja Maria Silva; Costa, Emília Chagas; de Aquino, Nathalia Barbosa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify cutoff points of the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index established for adolescents and discuss their applicability for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in Brazilian adolescents. Data source: A systematic review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: "adolescents", "insulin resistance" and "Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve". Original articles carried out with adolescents published between 2005 and 2015 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages, which included the statistical analysis using Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve to determine the index cutoff (HOMA-IR) were included. Data synthesis: A total of 184 articles were identified and after the study phases were applied, seven articles were selected for the review. All selected studies established their cutoffs using a Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve, with the lowest observed cutoff of 1.65 for girls and 1.95 for boys and the highest of 3.82 for girls and 5.22 for boys. Of the studies analyzed, one proposed external validity, recommending the use of the HOMA-IR cutoff>2.5 for both genders. Conclusions: The HOMA-IR index constitutes a reliable method for the detection of insulin resistance in adolescents, as long as it uses cutoffs that are more adequate for the reality of the study population, allowing early diagnosis of insulin resistance and enabling multidisciplinary interventions aiming at health promotion of this population. PMID:26559605

  4. Systematic Analysis of Fly Models with Multiple Drivers Reveals Different Effects of Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin in Neuron Subtype-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Masaki; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a commonly used model organism for neurodegenerative diseases. Its major advantages include a short lifespan and its susceptibility to manipulation using sophisticated genetic techniques. Here, we report the systematic comparison of fly models of two polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. We induced expression of the normal and mutant forms of full-length Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin exon 1 in cholinergic, dopaminergic, and motor neurons, and glial cells using cell type-specific drivers. We systematically analyzed their effects based on multiple phenotypes: eclosion rate, lifespan, motor performance, and circadian rhythms of spontaneous activity. This systematic assay system enabled us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the functional disabilities of different genotypes. The results suggest different effects of Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin on specific types of neural cells during development and in adulthood. In addition, we confirmed the therapeutic effects of LiCl and butyrate using representative models. These results support the usefulness of this assay system for screening candidate chemical compounds that modify the pathologies of polyQ diseases. PMID:25551764

  5. Risk-based approach for systematic development of gastroretentive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mirani, A G; Patankar, S P; Kadam, V J

    2016-10-01

    The research envisioned was the development of diltiazem hydrochloride effervescent floating matrix tablet using a risk-based approach. Preliminarily, the in vitro drug release profile was derived which theoretically simulated the in vivo condition after oral administration. Considering this as a rationale, the formulation development was initiated with defining the quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQAs). The preliminary studies were conducted to screen material attributes and process parameters followed by their risk assessment studies to select the plausible factors affecting the drug product CQAs, i.e., floating lag time and drug release profile. A 3(2) full factorial design was used to estimate the effect of the amount of swelling polymer (X 1) and gas-generating agent (X 2) on percent drug release (Q t1h and Q t8h) and floating lag time. Response and interaction plots were generated to examine the variables. Selection of an optimized formulation was done using desirability function and further validated. The model diagnostic plots represent the absence of outliers. The optimized formula obtained by the software was further validated, and the result of drug release and floating lag time was close to the predicted values. In a clear and concise way, the current investigations report the successful development of an effervescent floating matrix tablet for twice daily administration of diltiazem hydrochloride.

  6. Systematic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Progam Award and Course and Curriculum Development Program Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    important positions in the lower-division chemistry curriculum. The new curriculum reflects accurately current practice in research and the chemical industry where growth is occurring in these new fields. Today information-technology-based learning enables a practical approach to discovery learning, which educational theorists have long favored. Students can learn science by doing science. In particular, we will produce problem-based modular learning units that define the molecular science curriculum; data sets organized for exploratory learning; prepackaged molecular, mathematical, and schematic models illustrating important principles and phenomena; and a client/server system that manages education. Client/server technology enables individualized courses and frees students from rigid time constraints. The learning units will be used immediately by several of the community colleges in technology programs, such as those for science technicians and hazardous materials technicians at Mount San Antonio CC. New assessment vehicles including cumulative electronic portfolios of group and individual work provide new insight into student development and potential. The project also addresses the preparation of primary and secondary science teachers by involving them as active participants in the lower division courses of the molecular science curriculum. At both UCLA and CSUF, these students will gain experience with the modules, associated learning methods, and electronic delivery system. These experiences should result in teachers with a practical perspective on science teaching as well as the ability to utilize current technology to direct learning activities. The electronic delivery system will allow students at UCLA to work with the science education faculty at CSUF to obtain certification. Since 1990 two high schools (Aliso Niguel and Crossroads) have become members of the Alliance. These schools have the facilities to expose students, experienced teachers, and future teachers

  7. Systematic validation of disease models for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sendi, P P; Craig, B A; Pfluger, D; Gafni, A; Bucher, H C

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluations are often based on computer models which simulate the course of disease with and without medical interventions. The purpose of this study is to propose and illustrate a rigorous approach for validating such disease models. For illustrative purposes, we applied this approach to a computer-based model we developed to mimic the history of HIV-infected subjects at the greatest risk for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in Switzerland. The drugs included as a prophylactic intervention against MAC infection were azithromycin and clarithromycin. We used a homogenous Markov chain to describe the progression of an HIV-infected patient through six MAC-free states, one MAC state, and death. Probability estimates were extracted from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study database (1993-95) and randomized controlled trials. The model was validated testing for (1) technical validity (2) predictive validity (3) face validity and (4) modelling process validity. Sensitivity analysis and independent model implementation in DATA (PPS) and self-written Fortran 90 code (BAC) assured technical validity. Agreement between modelled and observed MAC incidence confirmed predictive validity. Modelled MAC prophylaxis at different starting conditions affirmed face validity. Published articles by other authors supported modelling process validity. The proposed validation procedure is a useful approach to improve the validity of the model. PMID:10461580

  8. Systematic validation of non-equilibrium thermochemical models using Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Kenji; Panesi, Marco; Prudhomme, Serge

    2015-10-01

    The validation process proposed by Babuška et al. [1] is applied to thermochemical models describing post-shock flow conditions. In this validation approach, experimental data is involved only in the calibration of the models, and the decision process is based on quantities of interest (QoIs) predicted on scenarios that are not necessarily amenable experimentally. Moreover, uncertainties present in the experimental data, as well as those resulting from an incomplete physical model description, are propagated to the QoIs. We investigate four commonly used thermochemical models: a one-temperature model (which assumes thermal equilibrium among all inner modes), and two-temperature models developed by Macheret et al. [2], Marrone and Treanor [3], and Park [4]. Up to 16 uncertain parameters are estimated using Bayesian updating based on the latest absolute volumetric radiance data collected at the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) installed inside the NASA Ames Research Center. Following the solution of the inverse problems, the forward problems are solved in order to predict the radiative heat flux, QoI, and examine the validity of these models. Our results show that all four models are invalid, but for different reasons: the one-temperature model simply fails to reproduce the data while the two-temperature models exhibit unacceptably large uncertainties in the QoI predictions.

  9. The systematic study of the stability of forecasts in the rate- and state-dependent model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gaetano, D.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous observations have shown a general spatial correlation between positive Coulomb failure stress changes due to an earthquake and the locations of aftershocks. However this correlation does not give any indication of the rate from which we can infer the magnitude using the Gutenberg-Richter law. Dieterich's rate- and state-dependent model can be used to obtain a forecast of the observed aftershock rate for the space and time evolution of seismicity caused by stress changes applied to an infinite population of nucleating patches. The seismicity rate changes on this model depend on eight parameters: the stressing rate, the amplitude of the stress perturbation, the physical constitutive properties of faults, the spatial parameters (location and radii of the cells), the start and duration of each of the temporal windows as well as the background seismicity rate. The background seismicity is obtained from the epidemic type aftershock sequence model. We use the 1992 Landers earthquake as a case study, using the Southern California Earthquake Data Centre (SCEDC) catalogue, to examine if Dieterich's rate- and state-dependent model can forecast the aftershock seismicity rate. A systematic study is performed on a range of values on all the parameters to test the forecasting ability of this model. The results obtained suggest variable success in forecasting, when varying the values for the parameters, with the spatial and temporal parameters being the most sensitive. Dieterich's rate- and state-dependent model is compared with a well studied null hypothesis, the Omori-Utsu law. This law describes the aftershock rate as a power law in time following the main shock and depends on only three parameters: the aftershock productivity, the elapsed time since the main shock and the constant time shift, all of which can be estimated in the early part of the aftershock sequence and then extrapolated to give a long term rate forecast. All parameters are estimated using maximum

  10. Validation of Community Models: 2. Development of a Baseline, Using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series providing independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Here I present a comprehensive validation of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare the next generation of comparable forecasting models. The WSA model is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth up to 4 days into the future. Given its importance to both the research and forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically and independently. I offer just such an independent and systematic validation. I report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests synoptic line of sight magnetograms. For this study I generated model results for monthly magnetograms from multiple observatories, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2074. I compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources and performance at quiet and active times. I also consider the ability of the WSA model to forecast both sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind and reversals in the polarity of the radial component of the IMF. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future versions of the model as well as the current and future generation of magnetohydrodynamic models under development for forecasting use.

  11. Evaluation of internally consistent parameters for the triple-layer model by the systematic analysis of oxide surface titration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Nita; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    1997-07-01

    Systematic analysis of surface titration data from the literature has been performed for ten oxides (anatase, hematite, goethite, rutile, amorphous silica, quartz, magnetite, δ-MnO 2, corundum, and γ-alumina) in ten electrolytes (LiNo 3, NaNO 3, KNO 3, CsNO 3, LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaI, and NaClO 4) over a wide range of ionic strengths (0.001 M-2.9 M) to establish adsorption equilibrium constants and capacitances consistent with the triple-layer model of surface complexation. Experimental data for the same mineral in different electrolytes and data for a given mineral/ electrolyte system from various investigators have been compared. In this analysis, the surface protonation constants (K,, and Ks,2) were calculated by combining predicted values of Δ pK( logKs,2 - logKs,1) (Sverjensky and Sahai, 1996) with experimental points of zero charge; site-densities were obtained from tritium-exchange experiments reported in the literature, and the outer-layer capacitance (C 2) was set at 0.2 F·m -2. This scheme permitted us to retrieve consistent sets of values for the inner layer capacitance (C 1), and for the electrolyte adsorption constants ( Ks,L - and Ks,M +) corresponding, respectively, to the equilibria > SOH2+ + Laq- = > SOH2+ - L- and > SO- + Maq+ = > SO- - M+ Aqueous activity coefficients were calculated using the extended Debye-Huckel equation (Helgeson et al., 1981), which is valid to high ionic strengths (>0.5 M). Systematic analysis of the data reveals important trends and differences between triple-layer model predictions and experimental data and between data for the same mineral/ electrolyte from different investigators. Furthermore, the analysis yields an internally consistent set of triple-layer parameters which will be used in developing a predictive model for electrolyte adsorption based on Born solvation and electrostatic theory (Sahai and Sverjensky, 1997a).

  12. GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND TESTING OF CODE FUNCTIONALITY AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective use of ground-water simulation codes as management decision tools requires the establishment of their functionality, performance characteristics, and applicability to the problem at hand. This is accomplished through application of a systematic code-testing protocol and...

  13. Systematic coarse-graining of spectrin-level red blood cell models

    PubMed Central

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-01-01

    We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which yield accurate mechanical response. Based on a semi-analytic theory the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of healthy and infected RBCs in malaria can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. The present analysis predicts correctly the membrane Young’s modulus in contrast to about 50% error in predictions by previous models. In addition, we develop a stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-smooth or poorly controlled equilibrium shape and dependence of the mechanical properties on the initial triangulation quality. Here we employ dissipative particle dynamics for the implementation but the proposed model is general and suitable for use in many existing continuum and particle-based numerical methods. PMID:24353352

  14. Contact tracing of tuberculosis: a systematic review of transmission modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Begun, Matt; Newall, Anthony T; Marks, Guy B; Wood, James G

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommended intervention of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) appears to have been less successful than expected in reducing the burden of TB in some high prevalence settings. One strategy for enhancing DOTS is incorporating active case-finding through screening contacts of TB patients as widely used in low-prevalence settings. Predictive models that incorporate population-level effects on transmission provide one means of predicting impacts of such interventions. We aim to identify all TB transmission modelling studies addressing contact tracing and to describe and critically assess their modelling assumptions, parameter choices and relevance to policy. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COMPENDEX, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases for relevant English language publications up to February 2012. Of the 1285 studies identified, only 5 studies met our inclusion criteria of models of TB transmission dynamics in human populations designed to incorporate contact tracing as an intervention. Detailed implementation of contact processes was only present in two studies, while only one study presented a model for a high prevalence, developing world setting. Some use of relevant data for parameter estimation was made in each study however validation of the predicted impact of interventions was not attempted in any of the studies. Despite a large body of literature on TB transmission modelling, few published studies incorporate contact tracing. There is considerable scope for future analyses to make better use of data and to apply individual based models to facilitate more realistic patterns of infectious contact. Combined with a focus on high burden settings this would greatly increase the potential for models to inform the use of contract tracing as a TB control policy. Our findings highlight the potential for collaborative work between clinicians, epidemiologists and modellers to gather data required to enhance model development and validation and

  15. Contact Tracing of Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review of Transmission Modelling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Begun, Matt; Newall, Anthony T.; Marks, Guy B.; Wood, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The WHO recommended intervention of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) appears to have been less successful than expected in reducing the burden of TB in some high prevalence settings. One strategy for enhancing DOTS is incorporating active case-finding through screening contacts of TB patients as widely used in low-prevalence settings. Predictive models that incorporate population-level effects on transmission provide one means of predicting impacts of such interventions. We aim to identify all TB transmission modelling studies addressing contact tracing and to describe and critically assess their modelling assumptions, parameter choices and relevance to policy. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COMPENDEX, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases for relevant English language publications up to February 2012. Of the 1285 studies identified, only 5 studies met our inclusion criteria of models of TB transmission dynamics in human populations designed to incorporate contact tracing as an intervention. Detailed implementation of contact processes was only present in two studies, while only one study presented a model for a high prevalence, developing world setting. Some use of relevant data for parameter estimation was made in each study however validation of the predicted impact of interventions was not attempted in any of the studies. Despite a large body of literature on TB transmission modelling, few published studies incorporate contact tracing. There is considerable scope for future analyses to make better use of data and to apply individual based models to facilitate more realistic patterns of infectious contact. Combined with a focus on high burden settings this would greatly increase the potential for models to inform the use of contract tracing as a TB control policy. Our findings highlight the potential for collaborative work between clinicians, epidemiologists and modellers to gather data required to enhance model development and validation and

  16. Reducing impacts of systematic errors in the observation data on inversing ecosystem model parameters using different normalization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Xu, M.; Huang, M.; Yu, G.

    2009-11-01

    Modeling ecosystem carbon cycle on the regional and global scales is crucial to the prediction of future global atmospheric CO2 concentration and thus global temperature which features large uncertainties due mainly to the limitations in our knowledge and in the climate and ecosystem models. There is a growing body of research on parameter estimation against available carbon measurements to reduce model prediction uncertainty at regional and global scales. However, the systematic errors with the observation data have rarely been investigated in the optimization procedures in previous studies. In this study, we examined the feasibility of reducing the impact of systematic errors on parameter estimation using normalization methods, and evaluated the effectiveness of three normalization methods (i.e. maximum normalization, min-max normalization, and z-score normalization) on inversing key parameters, for example the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax,25) at a reference temperature of 25°C, in a process-based ecosystem model for deciduous needle-leaf forests in northern China constrained by the leaf area index (LAI) data. The LAI data used for parameter estimation were composed of the model output LAI (truth) and various designated systematic errors and random errors. We found that the estimation of Vcmax,25 could be severely biased with the composite LAI if no normalization was taken. Compared with the maximum normalization and the min-max normalization methods, the z-score normalization method was the most robust in reducing the impact of systematic errors on parameter estimation. The most probable values of estimated Vcmax,25 inversed by the z-score normalized LAI data were consistent with the true parameter values as in the model inputs though the estimation uncertainty increased with the magnitudes of random errors in the observations. We concluded that the z-score normalization method should be applied to the observed or measured data to improve model parameter

  17. Infants' Developing Appreciation of Similarities between Model Objects and Their Real-World Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Barbara A.; Johnson, Kathy E.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that model competence does not emerge until relatively late in infancy (20-26 months). Development was systematically analyzed within 3 key areas--count noun learning, dual representation, and categorization--hypothesized to support the emergence of model competence in the second year. In an object-handling preferential…

  18. Systematics and limit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.

  19. Developing attributes for discrete choice experiments in health: a systematic literature review and case study of alcohol misuse interventions

    PubMed Central

    Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health. PMID:27695386

  20. Developing attributes for discrete choice experiments in health: a systematic literature review and case study of alcohol misuse interventions

    PubMed Central

    Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health.

  1. The Association between Silica Exposure and Development of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puerta, Jose A.; Gedmintas, Lydia; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Crystalline silica is among the environmental exposures associated with increased risk of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Silica exposure has also been related to the development of ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), but past studies appear to conflict as to the presence and magnitude of the associated risks of disease. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the existing studies and meta-analysis of their results. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE and international scientific conference abstract databases for studies examining the association of silica exposure with AAV. Studies in English, French, or Spanish were included and those examining the association of silica with ANCA-positivity alone were excluded. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We meta-analyzed the results using random effects models and tested for heterogeneity. We performed sensitivity and subgroup analyses, examining studies that adjusted for smoking and occupational risk factors as well as studies that analyzed by subtypes of AAV. Results We identified 158 potential manuscripts and 3 abstracts related to silica exposure and risk of AAV. 147 were excluded after abstract review and 14 underwent detailed evaluation of full manuscript/abstract. After further application of exclusion criteria, 6 studies (all case-controls) remained. The studies had moderate heterogeneity in selection of cases and controls, exposure assessment, disease definition and controlling for potential confounders. We found an overall significant summary effect estimate of silica “ever exposure” with development of AAV (summary OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.51- 4.36), with moderate heterogeneity (I2=48.40%). ORs were similar for studies examining only MPA (OR 3.95, CI 95% 1.89-8.24), compared to those only studying GPA (OR 3.56, CI 95% 1.85-6.82). Conclusion Despite moderate heterogeneity among studies, the totality of

  2. Three-dimensional developing flow model for photocatalytic monolith reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md.M.; Raupp, G.B.; Hay, S.O.; Obee, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    A first-principles mathematical model describes performance of a titania-coated honeycomb monolith photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor for air purification. The single-channel, 3-D convection-diffusion-reaction model assumes steady-state operation, negligible axial dispersion, and negligible homogeneous reaction. The reactor model accounts rigorously for entrance effects arising from the developing fluid-flow field and uses a previously developed first-principles radiation-field submodel for the UV flux profile down the monolith length. The model requires specification of an intrinsic photocatalytic reaction rate dependent on local UV light intensity and local reactant concentration, and uses reaction-rate expressions and kinetic parameters determined independently using a flat-plate reactor. Model predictions matched experimental pilot-scale formaldehyde conversion measurements for a range of inlet formaldehyde concentrations, air humidity levels, monolith lengths, and for various monolith/lamp-bank configurations. This agreement was realized without benefit of any adjustable photocatalytic reactor model parameters, radiation-field submodel parameters, or kinetic submodel parameters. The model tends to systematically overpredict toluene conversion data by about 33%, which falls within the accepted limits of experimental kinetic parameter accuracy. With further validation, the model could be used in PCO reactor design and to develop quantitative energy utilization metrics.

  3. Towards Developing Systematics for Using Periodic Studies of the Hydrothermal Manifestations as Effective Tool for Monitoring Largely 'inaccessible' Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.

    2010-12-01

    solfataric activities, the geochemical signatures of the peripheral hydrothermal systems and nearby surface water bodies change significantly. These geochemical changes can be correlated and verified with the observed volcanic activities. Ground deformation of the volcanoes will be studied through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR), while thermal infrared remote sensing will be used for monitoring thermal anomalies. The reason for choosing these remote methods over the conventional ground based on-site monitoring, is the difficulty in accessing the aforementioned volcanic centers and risk involved in carrying such instruments for frequent observations, as required for the proposed work. In fact, the idea of developing such a Systematics is because of the risk involved in ground based monitoring of these volcanoes. However, microgravity study, which is relatively easier and safer, will be done to validate the results of the remote sensing studies. The expected outcome of the proposed work will not only help in the mitigation of potential hazard of the aforementioned volcanoes, which are currently unmonitored for the reasons mentioned earlier; but will also serve as a model for monitoring remote and largely ‘inaccessible’ volcanoes elsewhere.

  4. The HIV Modes of Transmission model: a systematic review of its findings and adherence to guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Shubber, Zara; Mishra, Sharmistha; Vesga, Juan F.; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The HIV Modes of Transmission (MOT) model estimates the annual fraction of new HIV infections (FNI) acquired by different risk groups. It was designed to guide country-specific HIV prevention policies. To determine if the MOT produced context-specific recommendations, we analyzed MOT results by region and epidemic type, and explored the factors (e.g. data used to estimate parameter inputs, adherence to guidelines) influencing the differences. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and UNAIDS reports, and contacted UNAIDS country directors for published MOT results from MOT inception (2003) to 25 September 2012. Results We retrieved four journal articles and 20 UNAIDS reports covering 29 countries. In 13 countries, the largest FNI (range 26 to 63%) was acquired by the low-risk group and increased with low-risk population size. The FNI among female sex workers (FSWs) remained low (median 1.3%, range 0.04 to 14.4%), with little variability by region and epidemic type despite variability in sexual behaviour. In India and Thailand, where FSWs play an important role in transmission, the FNI among FSWs was 2 and 4%, respectively. In contrast, the FNI among men who have sex with men (MSM) varied across regions (range 0.1 to 89%) and increased with MSM population size. The FNI among people who inject drugs (PWID, range 0 to 82%) was largest in early-phase epidemics with low overall HIV prevalence. Most MOT studies were conducted and reported as per guidelines but data quality remains an issue. Conclusions Although countries are generally performing the MOT as per guidelines, there is little variation in the FNI (except among MSM and PWID) by region and epidemic type. Homogeneity in MOT FNI for FSWs, clients and low-risk groups may limit the utility of MOT for guiding country-specific interventions in heterosexual HIV epidemics. PMID:24962034

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of earth and environmental models: a systematic review to guide scientific advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Pianosi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Sensitivity Analysis (SA) investigates how the variation in the output of a numerical model can be attributed to variations of its input factors. SA is increasingly being used in earth and environmental modelling for a variety of purposes, including uncertainty assessment, model calibration and diagnostic evaluation, dominant control analysis and robust decision-making. Here we provide some practical advice regarding best practice in SA and discuss important open questions based on a detailed recent review of the existing body of work in SA. Open questions relate to the consideration of input factor interactions, methods for factor mapping and the formal inclusion of discrete factors in SA (for example for model structure comparison). We will analyse these questions using relevant examples and discuss possible ways forward. We aim at stimulating the discussion within the community of SA developers and users regarding the setting of good practices and on defining priorities for future research.

  6. Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Ensembles Predicts Drug Combination Effects on Cell Signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Morris, MK; Clarke, DC; Osimiri, LC

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in developing anticancer therapies is determining the efficacies of drugs and their combinations in physiologically relevant microenvironments. We describe here our application of “constrained fuzzy logic” (CFL) ensemble modeling of the intracellular signaling network for predicting inhibitor treatments that reduce the phospho‐levels of key transcription factors downstream of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines representative of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microenvironments. We observed that the CFL models successfully predicted the effects of several kinase inhibitor combinations. Furthermore, the ensemble predictions revealed ambiguous predictions that could be traced to a specific structural feature of these models, which we resolved with dedicated experiments, finding that IL‐1α activates downstream signals through TAK1 and not MEKK1 in HepG2 cells. We conclude that CFL‐Q2LM (Querying Quantitative Logic Models) is a promising approach for predicting effective anticancer drug combinations in cancer‐relevant microenvironments. PMID:27567007

  7. Curriculum Development: A Philosophical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Presenting models based on the philosophies of Carl Rogers, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, and Jean-Paul Sartre, this paper proposes a philosophical approach to education and concludes with pragmatic suggestions concerning teaching based on a fully-functioning-person model. The fully-functioning person is characterized as being open to experience,…

  8. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  9. 'Paranoia and its historical development (systematized delusion)', by Eugenio Tanzi (1884).

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This was the first paper by the Italian alienist Eugenio Tanzi (1856-1934). It surveyed existing works and provided an analysis of clinical categories such as monomania, sensory madness, moral insanity, Wahnsinn, Verrücktheit and systematized delusions, which had been used in France, Germany, Britain and Italy since the early nineteenth century to deal with paranoia. As pointed out by Tanzi, discrepancies and discontinuities in diagnostic concepts affected both psychiatric nosology and practice. Paranoia (from the Greek παρά and νοια) made for greater clarity in psychiatric terminology, and denoted a broad category, including both acute and chronic delusional states which were considered to be distinct from mania and melancholia, and usually not to lead to mental deterioration.

  10. 'Paranoia and its historical development (systematized delusion)', by Eugenio Tanzi (1884).

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    This was the first paper by the Italian alienist Eugenio Tanzi (1856-1934). It surveyed existing works and provided an analysis of clinical categories such as monomania, sensory madness, moral insanity, Wahnsinn, Verrücktheit and systematized delusions, which had been used in France, Germany, Britain and Italy since the early nineteenth century to deal with paranoia. As pointed out by Tanzi, discrepancies and discontinuities in diagnostic concepts affected both psychiatric nosology and practice. Paranoia (from the Greek παρά and νοια) made for greater clarity in psychiatric terminology, and denoted a broad category, including both acute and chronic delusional states which were considered to be distinct from mania and melancholia, and usually not to lead to mental deterioration. PMID:27145948

  11. Visual Information Strategies in Mental Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    This paper examines how visual information strategies may be used to facilitate the development of mental models. Topics covered include: definition of mental models; mental models and visual information; mental modeling concepts; power of modeling, including examples related to physical science, mathematics, writing, and depth of processing;…

  12. (1)H NMR based metabolomic profiling revealed doxorubicin-induced systematic alterations in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qian-Yun; Li, Zhen-Yu; Du, Guan-Hua; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2016-01-25

    -related metabolism. In addition, the change of endogenous metabolites in rats urine, serum, heart and kidney were correlated with the echocardiography parameters. This integrative study should help to develop a systematic understanding of cardiomyopathy-related diseases and their metabolic events. PMID:26595282

  13. Systematic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Progam Award and Course and Curriculum Development Program Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    important positions in the lower-division chemistry curriculum. The new curriculum reflects accurately current practice in research and the chemical industry where growth is occurring in these new fields. Today information-technology-based learning enables a practical approach to discovery learning, which educational theorists have long favored. Students can learn science by doing science. In particular, we will produce problem-based modular learning units that define the molecular science curriculum; data sets organized for exploratory learning; prepackaged molecular, mathematical, and schematic models illustrating important principles and phenomena; and a client/server system that manages education. Client/server technology enables individualized courses and frees students from rigid time constraints. The learning units will be used immediately by several of the community colleges in technology programs, such as those for science technicians and hazardous materials technicians at Mount San Antonio CC. New assessment vehicles including cumulative electronic portfolios of group and individual work provide new insight into student development and potential. The project also addresses the preparation of primary and secondary science teachers by involving them as active participants in the lower division courses of the molecular science curriculum. At both UCLA and CSUF, these students will gain experience with the modules, associated learning methods, and electronic delivery system. These experiences should result in teachers with a practical perspective on science teaching as well as the ability to utilize current technology to direct learning activities. The electronic delivery system will allow students at UCLA to work with the science education faculty at CSUF to obtain certification. Since 1990 two high schools (Aliso Niguel and Crossroads) have become members of the Alliance. These schools have the facilities to expose students, experienced teachers, and future teachers

  14. Effective audit in general practice: a method for systematically developing audit protocols containing evidence-based review criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, R C; Khunti, K; Baker, R; Lakhani, M

    1997-01-01

    Though many general practitioners (GPs) now take part in audit, there is still concern about the extent to which participation in audit leads to improvements in practice. Improved methods are needed for the incorporation of research evidence into criteria for use in audit. In this paper, a six-stage systematic method is described for developing audit protocols containing prioritized evidence-based criteria. The stages are: selection of a topic, identification of key elements of care, focused literature reviews, prioritization of the criteria on the strength of the evidence and impact on outcome, preparation of full documentation, and peer review. PMID:9519525

  15. The epilepsy treatment gap in developing countries: a systematic review of the magnitude, causes and intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mbuba, Caroline K.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Newton, Charles R.; Carter, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries, people with epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, a phenomenon called the treatment gap (TG). We carried out a systematic review to investigate the magnitude, causes and intervention strategies to improve outcomes in developing countries. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases, supplemented by a hand search of references in the key papers. The degree of heterogeneity and a pooled TG estimate were determined using meta-analysis techniques. The estimates were further stratified by continent and location of study (urban, rural). Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria: twelve from Africa, nine from Asia and six from Latin America. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity and inconsistency between studies. The overall estimate of the TG was 56/100 (95% CI: 31.1-100.0). The variation in estimates could possibly be explained by non-uniform TG estimation methods and the diverse study populations, among other factors. The TG was mainly attributed to inadequate skilled manpower, cost of treatment, cultural beliefs and unavailability of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). These factors have been addressed using different intervention strategies for instance education and supply of AEDs. Future research should estimate the TG coherently and develop sustainable interventions that will address the causes. PMID:18557778

  16. Mouse models rarely mimic the transcriptome of human neurodegenerative diseases: A systematic bioinformatics-based critique of preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Burns, Terry C; Li, Matthew D; Mehta, Swapnil; Awad, Ahmed J; Morgan, Alexander A

    2015-07-15

    Translational research for neurodegenerative disease depends intimately upon animal models. Unfortunately, promising therapies developed using mouse models mostly fail in clinical trials, highlighting uncertainty about how well mouse models mimic human neurodegenerative disease at the molecular level. We compared the transcriptional signature of neurodegeneration in mouse models of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), Parkinson׳s disease (PD), Huntington׳s disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to human disease. In contrast to aging, which demonstrated a conserved transcriptome between humans and mice, only 3 of 19 animal models showed significant enrichment for gene sets comprising the most dysregulated up- and down-regulated human genes. Spearman׳s correlation analysis revealed even healthy human aging to be more closely related to human neurodegeneration than any mouse model of AD, PD, ALS or HD. Remarkably, mouse models frequently upregulated stress response genes that were consistently downregulated in human diseases. Among potential alternate models of neurodegeneration, mouse prion disease outperformed all other disease-specific models. Even among the best available animal models, conserved differences between mouse and human transcriptomes were found across multiple animal model versus human disease comparisons, surprisingly, even including aging. Relative to mouse models, mouse disease signatures demonstrated consistent trends toward preserved mitochondrial function protein catabolism, DNA repair responses, and chromatin maintenance. These findings suggest a more complex and multifactorial pathophysiology in human neurodegeneration than is captured through standard animal models, and suggest that even among conserved physiological processes such as aging, mice are less prone to exhibit neurodegeneration-like changes. This work may help explain the poor track record of mouse-based translational therapies for neurodegeneration and provides a path

  17. Development of ocean model LSOMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachl, Libor; Martinec, Zdenek

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to present the ocean general circulation model LSOMG. It originates from the LSG (Maier-Reimer and Mikolajewicz, 1992) ocean model, however, significant number of changes has been made. LSOMG is a z-coordinate baroclinic ocean model which solves the primitive equations under the Boussinesq approximation. We intend to use the model for a various geophysical applications with the focus on paleoclimate studies. Hence, the model is not as complex as the current state-of-art climate models, such as the Modular Ocean Model or NEMO models. On the other hand, it is less computationally demanding. The changes and improvements in the code will be reported. One of the obvious changes is that the governing equations are no more discretized on the Arakawa E grid. The whole model has been rewritten on the Arakawa C grid. The main motivation is to avoid a coexistence of two solutions on the grid that evolve independently of each other. A more natural treatment of boundary conditions and simpler structure of the grid are additional advantages. Another significant change is the treatment of time tendencies. The system of equations is split to barotropic and baroclinic subsystems. Both subsystems may either be discretized at the same time points (as in the original LSG model), or their discretizations may be staggered in time as described in Griffies (2004). The original fully implicit barotropic time stepping scheme was found to significantly dissipate energy. Three different time stepping schemes are available instead. Namely, the predictor-corrector scheme of Griffies (2004), the generalized forward-backward scheme of Shchepetkin and McWilliams (2008) and the implicit free surface scheme of Campin et al. (2004). The first two schemes are intended to be used with the split-explicit model configuration for short-term studies whereas the third scheme is suitable for long-term studies, e.g. paleoclimate studies. The short-term studies may also

  18. Barriers to accessing surgical care in Pakistan: healthcare barrier model and quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Furqan B; Irfan, Bismah B; Spiegel, David A

    2012-07-01

    Inadequate access to surgical services results in increased morbidity and mortality from a spectrum of conditions in Pakistan. We employed a modification of Andersen's model of health services utilization and developed a 'Healthcare Barrier Model,' to characterize the barriers to accessing health care in developing countries, using surgical care in Pakistan as a case study. We performed a literature search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Global Health Database, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and selected 64 of 3113 references for analysis. Patient-related variables included age (elderly), gender (female), preferential use of alternative health providers (Hakeem, traditional healers, others), personal perceptions regarding disease and potential for treatment, poverty, personal expenses for healthcare, lack of social support, geographic constraints to accessing a health facility, and compromised general health status as it relates to the development of surgical disease. Environmental barriers include deficiencies in governance, the burden of displaced or refugee populations, and aspects of the medicolegal system, which impact treatment and referral. Barriers relating to the health system include deficiencies in capacity (infrastructure, physical resources, human resources) and organization, and inadequate monitoring. Provider-related barriers include deficiencies in knowledge and skills (and ongoing educational opportunities), delays in referral, deficient communication, and deficient numbers of female health providers for female patients. The Healthcare Barrier model addresses this broad spectrum of barriers and is designed to help formulate a framework of healthcare barriers. To overcome these barriers will require a multidisciplinary, multisectoral effort aimed at strengthening the health system. PMID:22079839

  19. A systematic development and evaluation of an undergraduate course in zoo biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Patrick Mullen

    The biology curricula offered by most institutions of higher education follow a classic pattern of basic taxonomy, phylogeny, physiology, genetics, molecular biology and biometry. This course regimen certainly provides a knowledge structure within the discipline, but is somewhat lacking in information that is directly applicable within the field of zoo biology. The zoo biology curriculum set forth in this dissertation was designed to offer students immersion into the rapidly evolving field of zoo biology. It also offers insight and perspectives into the zoo profession, encompassing 185 accredited zoological parks and aquariums, which employ numerous biologists. There is not a degree granting college or university in Texas that currently offers coursework in this specialization. In order to determine the merit and worth of a course in zoo biology, a field trial and a revised course were presented and subjected to a systematic evaluation. Four evaluative categories were utilized following Benton's (1992) design: (a) consistency between terminal performance objectives, activities and test instrument items, (b) effect on scientific knowledge, (c) activity usefulness as perceived by course participants and the instructor, (d) course worth. Student (N = 49) and component data were measured using a pre-post-test design, a questionnaire, and other informal instruments during the antecedent, transaction and outcome phases. Data from the pre-post-tests were analyzed using t-tests for correlated means. The analysis of activities and test items indicated that they were consistent with the terminal performance objectives. The pre-post-test results indicated that the course had a positive effect on knowledge gain within the field of study. A significant statistical difference was found between the test means at a probability of p ≤ 0.001. A post course attitudinal questionnaire elicited a rating of 4.65 on a Likert scale of 5.0 on perceived usefulness to the participants. A

  20. Development of a career coaching model for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yera

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. Methods: This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. Results: The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the “crystallization” period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), “specification” period (medical year 1 and 2), and “implementation” period (medical year 3 and 4). Conclusion: The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level. PMID:26867586

  1. The potential of social enterprise to enhance health and well-being: a model and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kerr, Susan

    2014-12-01

    In recent years civil society organisations, associations, institutions and groups have become increasingly involved at various levels in the governance of healthcare systems around the world. In the UK, particularly in the context of recent reform of the National Health Service in England, social enterprise - that part of the third sector engaged in trading - has come to the fore as a potential model of state-sponsored healthcare delivery. However, to date, there has been no review of evidence on the outcomes of social enterprise involvement in healthcare, nor in the ability of social enterprise to address health inequalities more widely through action on the social determinants of health. Following the development of an initial conceptual model, this systematic review identifies and synthesises evidence from published empirical research on the impact of social enterprise activity on health outcomes and their social determinants. Ten health and social science databases were searched with no date delimiters set. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied prior to data extraction and quality appraisal. Heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed precluded meta-analysis/meta-synthesis and so the results are therefore presented in narrative form. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The included studies provide limited evidence that social enterprise activity can impact positively on mental health, self-reliance/esteem and health behaviours, reduce stigmatization and build social capital, all of which can contribute to overall health and well-being. No empirical research was identified that examined social enterprise as an alternative mode of healthcare delivery. Due to the limited evidence available, we discuss the relationship between the evidence found and other literature not included in the review. There is a clear need for research to better understand and evidence causal mechanisms and to explore the impact of social enterprise activity, and wider civil

  2. Systematization of accuracy indices variance when modelling the forming external cylindrical turning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabanov, I. P.; Simonova, L. A.; Balabanova, O. N.

    2015-06-01

    The article considers the problem of accuracy deviation systematization for external cylindrical turning, proposed a hierarchical approach to the evaluation of these deviations, an approach to the analysis of nesting accuracy metrics, as well as, the common scheme of identification of deviations of the accuracy metrics for party billets in external machining were proposed.

  3. Learning with Geoinformation in German Schools: Systematic Integration with a GIS Competency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Jan Christoph; Uphues, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    While the application of geoinformation (GI) in German schools is becoming increasingly important, a systematic integration in school curricula, arranged in a cumulative and competence-oriented manner, is still lacking. Here the authors discuss existing approaches to the problem and propose a learning strategy based on the stepwise gain of GI…

  4. Development and impact of computerised decision support systems for clinical management of depression: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Triñanes, Yolanda; Atienza, Gerardo; Louro-González, Arturo; de-las-Heras-Liñero, Elena; Alvarez-Ariza, María; Palao, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    One of the proposals for improving clinical practice is to introduce computerised decision support systems (CDSS) and integrate these with electronic medical records. Accordingly, this study sought to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of CDSS in the management of depression. A search was performed in Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo, in order to do this. The quality of quantitative studies was assessed using the SIGN method, and qualitative studies using the CASPe checklist. Seven studies were identified (3 randomised clinical trials, 3 non-randomised trials, and one qualitative study). The CDSS assessed incorporated content drawn from guidelines and other evidence-based products. In general, the CDSS had a positive impact on different aspects, such as the screening and diagnosis, treatment, improvement in depressive symptoms and quality of life, and referral of patients. The use of CDSS could thus serve to optimise care of depression in various scenarios by providing recommendations based on the best evidence available and facilitating decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:25500093

  5. Systematic imaging reveals features and changing localization of mRNAs in Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Jambor, Helena; Surendranath, Vineeth; Kalinka, Alex T; Mejstrik, Pavel; Saalfeld, Stephan; Tomancak, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    mRNA localization is critical for eukaryotic cells and affects numerous transcripts, yet how cells regulate distribution of many mRNAs to their subcellular destinations is still unknown. We combined transcriptomics and systematic imaging to determine the tissue-specific expression and subcellular distribution of 5862 mRNAs during Drosophila oogenesis. mRNA localization is widespread in the ovary and detectable in all of its cell types—the somatic epithelial, the nurse cells, and the oocyte. Genes defined by a common RNA localization share distinct gene features and differ in expression level, 3′UTR length and sequence conservation from unlocalized mRNAs. Comparison of mRNA localizations in different contexts revealed that localization of individual mRNAs changes over time in the oocyte and between ovarian and embryonic cell types. This genome scale image-based resource (Dresden Ovary Table, DOT, http://tomancak-srv1.mpi-cbg.de/DOT/main.html) enables the transition from mechanistic dissection of singular mRNA localization events towards global understanding of how mRNAs transcribed in the nucleus distribute in cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05003.001 PMID:25838129

  6. Development and impact of computerised decision support systems for clinical management of depression: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Triñanes, Yolanda; Atienza, Gerardo; Louro-González, Arturo; de-las-Heras-Liñero, Elena; Alvarez-Ariza, María; Palao, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    One of the proposals for improving clinical practice is to introduce computerised decision support systems (CDSS) and integrate these with electronic medical records. Accordingly, this study sought to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of CDSS in the management of depression. A search was performed in Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo, in order to do this. The quality of quantitative studies was assessed using the SIGN method, and qualitative studies using the CASPe checklist. Seven studies were identified (3 randomised clinical trials, 3 non-randomised trials, and one qualitative study). The CDSS assessed incorporated content drawn from guidelines and other evidence-based products. In general, the CDSS had a positive impact on different aspects, such as the screening and diagnosis, treatment, improvement in depressive symptoms and quality of life, and referral of patients. The use of CDSS could thus serve to optimise care of depression in various scenarios by providing recommendations based on the best evidence available and facilitating decision-making in clinical practice.

  7. Systematic Model-in-the-Loop Test of Embedded Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Alexander; Müller, Wolfgang

    Current model-based development processes offer new opportunities for verification automation, e.g., in automotive development. The duty of functional verification is the detection of design flaws. Current functional verification approaches exhibit a major gap between requirement definition and formal property definition, especially when analog signals are involved. Besides lack of methodical support for natural language formalization, there does not exist a standardized and accepted means for formal property definition as a target for verification planning. This article addresses several shortcomings of embedded system verification. An Enhanced Classification Tree Method is developed based on the established Classification Tree Method for Embeded Systems CTM/ES which applies a hardware verification language to define a verification environment.

  8. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential. PMID:24212815

  9. Organization Development: Strategies and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckhard, Richard

    This book, written for managers, specialists, and students of management, is based largely on the author's experience in helping organization leaders with planned-change efforts, and on related experience of colleagues in the field. Chapter 1 presents the background and causes for the increased concern with organization development and planned…

  10. Presurgical diagnosis of adnexal tumours using mathematical models and scoring systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Jeroen; Sayasneh, Ahmad; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Bourne, Tom; Timmerman, Dirk; Van Calster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Characterizing ovarian pathology is fundamental to optimizing management in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Inappropriate referral to oncology services can lead to unnecessary surgery or overly radical interventions compromising fertility in young women, whilst the consequences of failing to recognize cancer significantly impact on prognosis. By reflecting on recent developments of new diagnostic tests for preoperative identification of malignant disease in women with adnexal masses, we aimed to update a previous systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS An extended search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE (OvidSp) from March 2008 to October 2013. Eligible studies provided information on diagnostic test performance of models, designed to predict ovarian cancer in a preoperative setting, that contained at least two variables. Study selection and extraction of study characteristics, types of bias, and test performance was performed independently by two reviewers. Quality was assessed using a modified version of the QUADAS assessment tool. A bivariate hierarchical random effects model was used to produce summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals or plot summary ROC curves for all models considered. RESULTS Our extended search identified a total of 1542 new primary articles. In total, 195 studies were eligible for qualitative data synthesis, and 96 validation studies reporting on 19 different prediction models met the predefined criteria for quantitative data synthesis. These models were tested on 26 438 adnexal masses, including 7199 (27%) malignant and 19 239 (73%) benign masses. The Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) was the most frequently validated model. The logistic regression model LR2 with a risk cut-off of 10% and Simple Rules (SR), both developed by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) study, performed better than all other included models with a pooled sensitivity and specificity

  11. Presurgical diagnosis of adnexal tumours using mathematical models and scoring systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Jeroen; Sayasneh, Ahmad; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Bourne, Tom; Timmerman, Dirk; Van Calster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Characterizing ovarian pathology is fundamental to optimizing management in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Inappropriate referral to oncology services can lead to unnecessary surgery or overly radical interventions compromising fertility in young women, whilst the consequences of failing to recognize cancer significantly impact on prognosis. By reflecting on recent developments of new diagnostic tests for preoperative identification of malignant disease in women with adnexal masses, we aimed to update a previous systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS An extended search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE (OvidSp) from March 2008 to October 2013. Eligible studies provided information on diagnostic test performance of models, designed to predict ovarian cancer in a preoperative setting, that contained at least two variables. Study selection and extraction of study characteristics, types of bias, and test performance was performed independently by two reviewers. Quality was assessed using a modified version of the QUADAS assessment tool. A bivariate hierarchical random effects model was used to produce summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals or plot summary ROC curves for all models considered. RESULTS Our extended search identified a total of 1542 new primary articles. In total, 195 studies were eligible for qualitative data synthesis, and 96 validation studies reporting on 19 different prediction models met the predefined criteria for quantitative data synthesis. These models were tested on 26 438 adnexal masses, including 7199 (27%) malignant and 19 239 (73%) benign masses. The Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) was the most frequently validated model. The logistic regression model LR2 with a risk cut-off of 10% and Simple Rules (SR), both developed by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) study, performed better than all other included models with a pooled sensitivity and specificity

  12. The Recognition of and Care Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illness in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas Christie; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-Lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654). Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively). A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria) and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34%) was low. Conclusions Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes. PMID:24718483

  13. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  14. Rodent Hypoxia-Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P; Yager, Jerome Y; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5-3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice-Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  15. Rodent Hypoxia–Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P.; Yager, Jerome Y.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5–3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice–Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  16. [Nursing care systematization in rehabilitation unit, in accordance to Horta's conceptual model].

    PubMed

    Neves, Rinaldo de Souza

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of a conceptual model in the Nursing Attendance Systemization allows the development of activities based on theoretical references that can guide the implantation and the implementation of nursing proceedings in hospitals. In this article we examine the option made for the implementation of the Horta's conceptual model in the construction of a nursing attendance system in the Rehabilitation Unit of a public hospital located in the Federal District of Brazil. Through the utilization of these theoretical references it was possible to make available a data collection tool based on the basic human needs. The identification of these needs made possible the construction of the hierarchically disposed pyramid of the neurological patients' modified basic needs. Through this reference paper we intend to elaborate the prescription and nursing evolution based in the concepts and standards of the Horta's nursing process, making possible the inter-relationship of all phases of this attendance methodology.

  17. The value of using feasibility models in systematic conservation planning to predict landholder management uptake.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J D; Evans, Megan C; Mills, Morena

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the social dimensions of conservation opportunity is crucial for conservation planning in multiple-use landscapes. However, factors that influence the feasibility of implementing conservation actions, such as the history of landscape management, and landholders' willingness to engage are often difficult or time consuming to quantify and rarely incorporated into planning. We examined how conservation agencies could reduce costs of acquiring such data by developing predictive models of management feasibility parameterized with social and biophysical factors likely to influence landholders' decisions to engage in management. To test the utility of our best-supported model, we developed 4 alternative investment scenarios based on different input data for conservation planning: social data only; biological data only; potential conservation opportunity derived from modeled feasibility that incurs no social data collection costs; and existing conservation opportunity derived from feasibility data that incurred collection costs. Using spatially explicit information on biodiversity values, feasibility, and management costs, we prioritized locations in southwest Australia to control an invasive predator that is detrimental to both agriculture and natural ecosystems: the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). When social data collection costs were moderate to high, the most cost-effective investment scenario resulted from a predictive model of feasibility. Combining empirical feasibility data with biological data was more cost-effective for prioritizing management when social data collection costs were low (<4% of the total budget). Calls for more data to inform conservation planning should take into account the costs and benefits of collecting and using social data to ensure that limited funding for conservation is spent in the most cost-efficient and effective manner.

  18. The value of using feasibility models in systematic conservation planning to predict landholder management uptake.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J D; Evans, Megan C; Mills, Morena

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the social dimensions of conservation opportunity is crucial for conservation planning in multiple-use landscapes. However, factors that influence the feasibility of implementing conservation actions, such as the history of landscape management, and landholders' willingness to engage are often difficult or time consuming to quantify and rarely incorporated into planning. We examined how conservation agencies could reduce costs of acquiring such data by developing predictive models of management feasibility parameterized with social and biophysical factors likely to influence landholders' decisions to engage in management. To test the utility of our best-supported model, we developed 4 alternative investment scenarios based on different input data for conservation planning: social data only; biological data only; potential conservation opportunity derived from modeled feasibility that incurs no social data collection costs; and existing conservation opportunity derived from feasibility data that incurred collection costs. Using spatially explicit information on biodiversity values, feasibility, and management costs, we prioritized locations in southwest Australia to control an invasive predator that is detrimental to both agriculture and natural ecosystems: the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). When social data collection costs were moderate to high, the most cost-effective investment scenario resulted from a predictive model of feasibility. Combining empirical feasibility data with biological data was more cost-effective for prioritizing management when social data collection costs were low (<4% of the total budget). Calls for more data to inform conservation planning should take into account the costs and benefits of collecting and using social data to ensure that limited funding for conservation is spent in the most cost-efficient and effective manner. PMID:25382827

  19. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  20. Iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E; Harding, Kimberly B; Marquis, Grace S

    2013-04-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980-November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women's iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers' iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants' iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774

  1. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E.; Harding, Kimberly B.; Marquis, Grace S.

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774

  2. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Moazzam; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Tran, Nhan; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete and accurate reporting of programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is essential to understand the impact of SRH programmes, as well as to guide their replication and scale-up. Objectives To provide an overview of existing reporting tools and identify core items used in programme reporting with a focus on programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes. Methods A systematic review was completed for the period 2000–2014. Reporting guidelines, checklists and tools, irrespective of study design, applicable for reporting on programmes targeting SRH outcomes, were included. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract of all records. Full texts were assessed in duplicate, followed by data extraction on the focus, content area, year of publication, validation and description of reporting items. Data was synthesized using an iterative thematic approach, where items related to programme preparation, implementation and evaluation in each tool were extracted and aggregated into a consolidated list. Results Out of the 3,656 records screened for title and abstracts, full texts were retrieved for 182 articles, out of which 108 were excluded. Seventy-four full text articles corresponding to 45 reporting tools were retained for synthesis. The majority of tools were developed for reporting on intervention research (n = 15), randomized controlled trials (n = 8) and systematic reviews (n = 7). We identified a total of 50 reporting items, across three main domains and corresponding sub-domains: programme preparation (objective/focus, design, piloting); programme implementation (content, timing/duration/location, providers/staff, participants, delivery, implementation outcomes), and programme evaluation (process evaluation, implementation barriers/facilitators, outcome/impact evaluation). Conclusions Over the past decade a wide range of tools have been developed

  3. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) is a major component of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The device is a three stage centrifugal pump that is directly driven by a two stage hot gas turbine. The purpose of the pump is to deliver fuel (liquid hydrogen) from the low pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) through the main fuel valve (MFV) to the thrust chamber coolant circuits. In doing so, the pump pressurizes the fuel from an inlet pressure of approximately 178 psi to a discharge pressure of over 6000 psi. At full power level (FPL), the pump rotates at a speed of over 37,000 rpm while generating approximately 77,000 horsepower. Obviously, a pump failure at these speeds and power levels could jeopardize the mission. Results are summarized for work in which the solutions obtained from analytical models of the fuel turbopump impellers are compared with the results obtained from dynamic tests.

  4. Targeting Medication Non-Adherence Behavior in Selected Autoimmune Diseases: A Systematic Approach to Digital Health Program Development

    PubMed Central

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Fournier, Rachel; Ingham, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background 29 autoimmune diseases, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn’s Disease, and Systematic Lupus Erythematosus affect 7.6-9.4% of the population. While effective therapy is available, many patients do not follow treatment or use medications as directed. Digital health and Web 2.0 interventions have demonstrated much promise in increasing medication and treatment adherence, but to date many Internet tools have proven disappointing. In fact, most digital interventions continue to suffer from high attrition in patient populations, are burdensome for healthcare professionals, and have relatively short life spans. Objective Digital health tools have traditionally centered on the transformation of existing interventions (such as diaries, trackers, stage-based or cognitive behavioral therapy programs, coupons, or symptom checklists) to electronic format. Advanced digital interventions have also incorporated attributes of Web 2.0 such as social networking, text messaging, and the use of video. Despite these efforts, there has not been little measurable impact in non-adherence for illnesses that require medical interventions, and research must look to other strategies or development methodologies. As a first step in investigating the feasibility of developing such a tool, the objective of the current study is to systematically rate factors of non-adherence that have been reported in past research studies. Methods Grounded Theory, recognized as a rigorous method that facilitates the emergence of new themes through systematic analysis, data collection and coding, was used to analyze quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies addressing the following autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, gout, Crohn’s Disease, Systematic Lupus Erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were only included if they contained primary data addressing the relationship with non-adherence. Results Out of the 27 studies, four non-modifiable and 11 modifiable

  5. Adipose-derived stems cells and their role in human cancer development, growth, progression, and metastasis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Kyle E; Kokai, Lauren; Edwards, Robert P; Philips, Brian J; Sheikh, M Aamir; Kelley, Joseph; Comerci, John; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Linkov, Faina

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a well recognized risk factor for several types of cancers, many of which occur solely or disproportionately in women. Adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), which have received attention for their role in cancer behavior. The purpose of this systematic review is to present the existing literature on the role of ASCs in the growth, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer, with an emphasis on malignancies that primarily affect women. To accomplish this goal, the bibliographic database PubMed was systematically searched for articles published between 2001 and 2014 that address ASCs' relationship to human cancer. Thirty-seven articles on ASCs' role in human cancer were reviewed. Literature suggests that ASCs exhibit cancer-promoting properties, influence/are influenced by the tumor microenvironment, promote angiogenesis, and may be associated with pathogenic processes through a variety of mechanisms, such as playing a role in hypoxic tumor microenvironment. ASCs appear to be important contributors to tumor behavior, but research in areas specific to women's cancers, specifically endometrial cancer, is scarce. Also, because obesity continues to be a major health concern, it is important to continue research in this area to improve understanding of the impact adiposity has on cancer incidence.

  6. Relevance of Non-communicable Comorbidities for the Development of the Severe Forms of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design—best using prospective designs—and sample sizes. PMID:26727113

  7. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies.

  8. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  9. Relevance of Non-communicable Comorbidities for the Development of the Severe Forms of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design-best using prospective designs-and sample sizes.

  10. Resist development modeling for OPC accuracy improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yongfa; Zavyalova, Lena; Zhang, Yunqiang; Zhang, Charlie; Lucas, Kevin; Falch, Brad; Croffie, Ebo; Li, Jianliang; Melvin, Lawrence; Ward, Brian

    2009-03-01

    A precise lithographic model has always been a critical component for the technique of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) since it was introduced a decade ago [1]. As semiconductor manufacturing moves to 32nm and 22nm technology nodes with 193nm wafer immersion lithography, the demand for more accurate models is unprecedented to predict complex imaging phenomena at high numerical aperture (NA) with aggressive illumination conditions necessary for these nodes. An OPC model may comprise all the physical processing components from mask e-beam writing steps to final CDSEM measurement of the feature dimensions. In order to provide a precise model, it is desired that every component involved in the processing physics be accurately modeled using minimum metrology data. In the past years, much attention has been paid to studying mask 3-D effects, mask writing limitations, laser spectrum profile, lens pupil polarization/apodization, source shape characterization, stage vibration, and so on. However, relatively fewer studies have been devoted to modeling of the development process of resist film though it is an essential processing step that cannot be neglected. Instead, threshold models are commonly used to approximate resist development behavior. While resist models capable of simulating development path are widely used in many commercial lithography simulators, the lack of this component in current OPC modeling lies in the fact that direct adoption of those development models into OPC modeling compromises its capability of full chip simulation. In this work, we have successfully incorporated a photoresist development model into production OPC modeling software without sacrificing its full chip capability. The resist film development behavior is simulated in the model to incorporate observed complex resist phenomena such as surface inhibition, developer mass transport, HMDS poisoning, development contrast, etc. The necessary parameters are calibrated using metrology data

  11. A Systematic Review on the Development of Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Relation to International Immigration: The Leading Role of the Environment Confirmed

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Báltica; Uphoff, Eleonora; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep Maria; Wright, John

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is rising worldwide. Evidence on potential causal pathways of asthma and allergies is growing, but findings have been contradictory, particularly on the interplay between allergic diseases and understudied social determinants of health like migration status. This review aimed at providing evidence for the association between migration status and asthma and allergies, and to explore the mechanisms between migration status and the development of asthma and allergies. Methods and Findings Systematic review on asthma and allergies and immigration status in accordance with the guidelines set by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of the prevalence of asthma in immigrants compared to the host population was 0.60 (95% CI 0.45–0.84), and the pooled OR for allergies was 1.01 (95% CI 0.62–1.69). The pooled OR for the prevalence of asthma in first generation versus second generation immigrants was 0.37 (95% CI 0.25–0.58). Comparisons between populations in their countries of origin and those that emigrated vary depending on their level of development; more developed countries show higher rates of asthma and allergies. Conclusions Our findings suggest a strong influence of the environment on the development of asthma and allergic diseases throughout the life course. The prevalence of asthma is generally higher in second generation than first generation immigrants. With length of residence in the host country the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases increases steadily. These findings are consistent across study populations, host countries, and children as well as adults. Differences have been found to be significant when tested in a linear model, as well as when comparing between early and later age of migration, and between shorter and longer time of residence. PMID:25141011

  12. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model ecosystem services: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, Wendy; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Willcock, Simon P.; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    SWAT, a watershed modeling tool has been proposed to help quantify ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services incorporates the collective benefits natural systems provide primarily to human beings. It is becoming increasingly important to track the impact that human activities have on the environment in order to determine its resilience and sustainability. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of efforts using SWAT to quantify ecosystem services, to determine the model's capability examining various types of services, and to describe the approach used by various researchers. A literature review was conducted to identify studies in which SWAT was explicitly used for quantifying ecosystem services in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural aspects. A total of 44 peer reviewed publications were identified. Most of these used SWAT to quantify provisioning services (34%), regulating services (27%), or a combination of both (25%). While studies using SWAT for evaluating ecosystem services are limited (approximately 1% of SWAT's peered review publications), and usage (vs. potential) of services by beneficiaries is a current model limitation, the available literature sets the stage for the continuous development and potential of SWAT as a methodological framework for quantifying ecosystem services to assist in decision-making.

  13. The National Osteoporosis Foundation's position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: a systematic review and implementation recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Gordon, C M; Janz, K F; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J M; Lewis, R; O'Karma, M; Wallace, T C; Zemel, B S

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle choices influence 20-40 % of adult peak bone mass. Therefore, optimization of lifestyle factors known to influence peak bone mass and strength is an important strategy aimed at reducing risk of osteoporosis or low bone mass later in life. The National Osteoporosis Foundation has issued this scientific statement to provide evidence-based guidance and a national implementation strategy for the purpose of helping individuals achieve maximal peak bone mass early in life. In this scientific statement, we (1) report the results of an evidence-based review of the literature since 2000 on factors that influence achieving the full genetic potential for skeletal mass; (2) recommend lifestyle choices that promote maximal bone health throughout the lifespan; (3) outline a research agenda to address current gaps; and (4) identify implementation strategies. We conducted a systematic review of the role of individual nutrients, food patterns, special issues, contraceptives, and physical activity on bone mass and strength development in youth. An evidence grading system was applied to describe the strength of available evidence on these individual modifiable lifestyle factors that may (or may not) influence the development of peak bone mass (Table 1). A summary of the grades for each of these factors is given below. We describe the underpinning biology of these relationships as well as other factors for which a systematic review approach was not possible. Articles published since 2000, all of which followed the report by Heaney et al. [1] published in that year, were considered for this scientific statement. This current review is a systematic update of the previous review conducted by the National Osteoporosis Foundation [1]. [Table: see text] Considering the evidence-based literature review, we recommend lifestyle choices that promote maximal bone health from childhood through young to late adolescence and outline a research agenda to address current gaps in knowledge

  14. Chemie im Kontext: Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical concepts from issues relevant to the learners, starting with the learners' ideas and questions. The teaching methodology of the course builds strongly on self-directed and cooperative forms of learning activities in the classroom. Currently, a large implementation program is under way with working groups of teachers in 14 of the 16 federal states (Bundesländer) in Germany. This program combines the development of teaching units, their implementation in schools, and the professional development of teachers. Now in its third year, the project has yielded positive results and funds for continuation have been granted.

  15. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  16. Clinical Psychology: A Research and Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskowski, Anthony

    The purpose of this paper is to present a clinical research and development (R and D) model along with the rationale for its implementation and a sample training program for clinical psychologists. Although it may be possible to correct some problems by a clearer restatement of the scientist-professional model, a new model of clinical R and D has…

  17. International Development Models for Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Williams, James

    2005-01-01

    Over the last half century of educational development, six distinctive administrative models have emerged: (1) neo-colonial, (2) centralised, (3) decentralised-regionalisation, (4) decentralised-sectoral, (5) community-based, and (6) transformative models. The origins, strengths, and weaknesses of the respective models are reviewed and compared.…

  18. A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

    Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

  19. A Systematic Review of Developing Team Competencies in Information Systems Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figl, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to work effectively in teams has been a key competence for information systems engineers for a long time. Gradually, more attention is being paid to developing this generic competence as part of academic curricula, resulting in two questions: how to best promote team competencies and how to implement team projects successfully. These…

  20. Infusing Diversity Constructs in Preservice Teacher Preparation: The Impact of a Systematic Faculty Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Susan P.; Catlett, Camille; Moore, Susan; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorp, Eva K.; Corso, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview and the results of the Crosswalks Intervention, which was developed, implemented, and evaluated to support inclusive early childhood preservice programs to be more reflective of, and responsive to, cultural and linguistic diversity. The Crosswalks Intervention, funded by the US Department of Education, was a…

  1. Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Professional Development Schools: A Social Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Christensen, Lynnette; Wall, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are an increasingly popular strategy for improving schools. While PLCs routinely implement universal academic screening, they seldom screen for emotional and behavioral problems. This is unfortunate, as the early signs of emotional and behavioral disorders can be identified and interventions developed. The…

  2. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  3. Making Resources Matter: A Systematic Approach to Developing the Local Consolidated Plan. Modules One [to] Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Williams, Jean

    This guide is designed to help school districts develop a consolidated plan for programs and resources. It outlines the importance of generating a consolidated plan to reduce duplication, identify children's needs, and coordinate funds from various programs. Consisting of 10 modules, the guide addresses all components of the planning process and…

  4. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and strategies required by 5 CFR 410.201, and that foster a broad agency and Governmentwide... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Succession Planning... the agencies' succession plans. Agencies also must issue written policies to ensure they: (a)...

  5. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and strategies required by 5 CFR 410.201, and that foster a broad agency and Governmentwide... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Succession Planning... the agencies' succession plans. Agencies also must issue written policies to ensure they: (a)...

  6. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and strategies required by 5 CFR 410.201, and that foster a broad agency and Governmentwide... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Succession Planning... the agencies' succession plans. Agencies also must issue written policies to ensure they: (a)...

  7. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  8. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must provide for the development of individuals in supervisory, managerial and executive positions, as well as individuals whom the agency identifies as potential candidates for those positions, based on..., and strategies required by 5 CFR 410.201, and that foster a broad agency and...

  9. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must provide for the development of individuals in supervisory, managerial and executive positions, as well as individuals whom the agency identifies as potential candidates for those positions, based on..., and strategies required by 5 CFR 410.201, and that foster a broad agency and...

  10. Integrating science and business models of sustainability for environmentally-challenging industries such as secondary lead smelters: a systematic review and analysis of findings.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Wallace, S; Rinder, M

    2010-09-01

    Secondary lead smelters (SLS) represent an environmentally-challenging industry as they deal with toxic substances posing potential threats to both human and environmental health, consequently, they operate under strict government regulations. Such challenges have resulted in the significant reduction of SLS plants in the last three decades. In addition, the domestic recycling of lead has been on a steep decline in the past 10 years as the amount of lead recovered has remained virtually unchanged while consumption has increased. Therefore, one may wonder whether sustainable development can be achieved among SLS. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a roadmap for sustainable development can be established for SLS. The following aims were established in support of the study objective: (1) to conduct a systematic review and an analysis of models of sustainable systems with a particular emphasis on SLS; (2) to document the challenges for the U.S. secondary lead smelting industry; and (3) to explore practices and concepts which act as vehicles for SLS on the road to sustainable development. An evidence-based methodology was adopted to achieve the study objective. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted to implement the aforementioned specific aims. Inclusion criteria were established to filter out irrelevant scientific papers and reports. The relevant articles were closely scrutinized and appraised to extract the required information and data for the possible development of a sustainable roadmap. The search process yielded a number of research articles which were utilized in the systematic review. Two types of models emerged: management/business and science/mathematical models. Although the management/business models explored actions to achieve sustainable growth in the industrial enterprise, science/mathematical models attempted to explain the sustainable behaviors and properties aiming at predominantly ecosystem management. As such

  11. Integrating science and business models of sustainability for environmentally-challenging industries such as secondary lead smelters: a systematic review and analysis of findings.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Wallace, S; Rinder, M

    2010-09-01

    Secondary lead smelters (SLS) represent an environmentally-challenging industry as they deal with toxic substances posing potential threats to both human and environmental health, consequently, they operate under strict government regulations. Such challenges have resulted in the significant reduction of SLS plants in the last three decades. In addition, the domestic recycling of lead has been on a steep decline in the past 10 years as the amount of lead recovered has remained virtually unchanged while consumption has increased. Therefore, one may wonder whether sustainable development can be achieved among SLS. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a roadmap for sustainable development can be established for SLS. The following aims were established in support of the study objective: (1) to conduct a systematic review and an analysis of models of sustainable systems with a particular emphasis on SLS; (2) to document the challenges for the U.S. secondary lead smelting industry; and (3) to explore practices and concepts which act as vehicles for SLS on the road to sustainable development. An evidence-based methodology was adopted to achieve the study objective. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted to implement the aforementioned specific aims. Inclusion criteria were established to filter out irrelevant scientific papers and reports. The relevant articles were closely scrutinized and appraised to extract the required information and data for the possible development of a sustainable roadmap. The search process yielded a number of research articles which were utilized in the systematic review. Two types of models emerged: management/business and science/mathematical models. Although the management/business models explored actions to achieve sustainable growth in the industrial enterprise, science/mathematical models attempted to explain the sustainable behaviors and properties aiming at predominantly ecosystem management. As such

  12. Necessity of Systematic HIV Disclosure in HIV-infected Families: Committed Communities Development Trusts Approach and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pavitri; Patkar, Poonam; Beard, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Due to greater access to antiretroviral therapy, telling adolescents that they are HIV-infected and/or affected has become an integral and intricate part of the treatment protocol. Despite growing treatment resources from public and private sectors, there is a lack of systematic disclosure for children and adolescents affected and living with HIV/AIDS. Committed Communities Development Trust, a non-government organization working with children and adults infected with and/or affected by HIV, conducted a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study with 33 families in their home-based care program to evaluate their current disclosure protocol. The findings indicate that these experiences implementing and fine-tuning this protocol provide useful lessons for other Indian non-government organizations working with HIV-positive families. PMID:26061919

  13. Development of an algorithm to provide awareness in choosing study designs for inclusion in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions: a method study

    PubMed Central

    Peinemann, Frank; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop an algorithm that aims to provide guidance and awareness for choosing multiple study designs in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions. Design Method study: (1) To summarise the literature base on the topic. (2) To apply the integration of various study types in systematic reviews. (3) To devise decision points and outline a pragmatic decision tree. (4) To check the plausibility of the algorithm by backtracking its pathways in four systematic reviews. Results (1) The results of our systematic review of the published literature have already been published. (2) We recaptured the experience from our four previously conducted systematic reviews that required the integration of various study types. (3) We chose length of follow-up (long, short), frequency of events (rare, frequent) and types of outcome as decision points (death, disease, discomfort, disability, dissatisfaction) and aligned the study design labels according to the Cochrane Handbook. We also considered practical or ethical concerns, and the problem of unavailable high-quality evidence. While applying the algorithm, disease-specific circumstances and aims of interventions should be considered. (4) We confirmed the plausibility of the pathways of the algorithm. Conclusions We propose that the algorithm can assist to bring seminal features of a systematic review with multiple study designs to the attention of anyone who is planning to conduct a systematic review. It aims to increase awareness and we think that it may reduce the time burden on review authors and may contribute to the production of a higher quality review. PMID:26289450

  14. The stewardship model: current viability for genetic biobank practice development.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw; Schepp, Karen; McGrath, Barbara; Mitchell, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The "stewardship model" of ethics relationships is a conceptual framework initially proposed by Jeffers in Advances in Nursing Science, 24(2), 2001. It conceptualized ethical responsibilities in the practice of systematic collection and storage of biospecimens in biobanks for future healthcare genetic research. Since the article's publication 8 years ago, genetic biobanks have grown in number around the world and discernible biobank relational conceptualizations were published. Nursing leadership adopted competency standards for all genetic nursing practices. The involvement of nurses has increased and is projected for further significant increase as biobank practices emerge from research into clinical care settings. This assessment of current viability of this previously established stewardship model offers fresh insights to existing and future nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was to analyze the original stewardship model's components, the relational parties, and characteristics; by contrasting those with proposed conceptualizations and existing biobank practices developed subsequent to its publication. The model's current viability and theoretical development status are assessed for its ability to support a future nursing evidence base for best practices. Proposals for the model's expansion are suggested.

  15. Models and applications for measuring the impact of health research: update of a systematic review for the Health Technology Assessment programme.

    PubMed Central

    Raftery, James; Hanney, Steve; Greenhalgh, Trish; Glover, Matthew; Blatch-Jones, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme. DATA SOURCES We searched databases including Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and The Cochrane Library from January 2005 to August 2014. REVIEW METHODS This narrative systematic literature review comprised an update, extension and analysis/discussion. We systematically searched eight databases, supplemented by personal knowledge, in August 2014 through to March 2015. RESULTS The literature on impact assessment has much expanded. The Payback Framework, with adaptations, remains the most widely used approach. It draws on different philosophical traditions, enhancing an underlying logic model with an interpretative case study element and attention to context. Besides the logic model, other ideal type approaches included constructionist, realist, critical and performative. Most models in practice drew pragmatically on elements of several ideal types. Monetisation of impact, an increasingly popular approach, shows a high return from research but relies heavily on assumptions about the extent to which health gains depend on research. Despite usually requiring systematic reviews before funding trials, the HTA programme does not routinely examine the impact of those trials on subsequent systematic reviews. The York/Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation toolkits provide ways of assessing such impact, but need to be evaluated. The literature, as reviewed

  16. Chronic Sequelae of E. coli O157: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Proportion of E. coli O157 Cases That Develop Chronic Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, Jan; Thomas, M. Kate; Fazil, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the proportion of Escherichia coli O157 cases that develop chronic sequelae. Data Sources: We conducted a systematic review of articles published prior to July 2011 in Pubmed, Agricola, CabDirect, or Food Safety and Technology Abstracts. Study Selection: Studies were selected that reported the number of E. coli O157 cases that developed reactive arthritis (ReA), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or Guillain Barré syndrome. Methods: Three levels of screening and data extraction of articles were conducted using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was performed on unique outcome measures using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. Meta-regression was used to explore the influence of nine study-level variables on heterogeneity. Results: A total of 82 studies were identified reporting 141 different outcome measures; 81 reported on HUS and one reported on ReA. Depending on the number of cases of E. coli O157, the estimate for the proportion of E. coli O157 cases that develop HUS ranged from 17.2% in extra-small studies (<50 cases) to 4.2% in extra-large studies (>1000 cases). Heterogeneity was significantly associated with group size (p<0.0001); however, the majority of the heterogeneity was unexplained. Conclusions: High unexplained heterogeneity indicated that the study-level factors examined had a minimal influence on the variation of estimates reported. PMID:24404780

  17. Gender analysis in the development and validation of FFQ: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Kang, Minji; Song, Won Ok; Shim, Jae Eun; Paik, Hee Young

    2016-02-28

    FFQ comprising food items, intake frequency categories and portion sizes have been used in large-scale observational studies to assess long-term dietary exposure. Although gender is an important influence on food choice and portion size, gender differences are not often analysed during FFQ development. This study investigated whether gender differences were considered sufficiently when developing FFQ, which affects the results of validation studies. A PubMed search using combinations of 'FFQ', 'Food Frequency Questionnaire', 'Validation' and 'Validity' identified 246 validation studies available in English, published between January 1983 and May 2014, which included healthy male and female adults. The development process of the 196 FFQ used in the 246 validation studies was examined. Of these, twenty-one FFQ (10·7%) considered gender during item selection or portion size determination, and were therefore classified as gender specific (GS), but 175 (89·3%) did not consider gender, and were classified as 'not gender specific (NGS)'. When the ratios between intake levels obtained using the FFQ and a reference method for energy and seven nutrients were compared between the GS group and the NGS group, more significant differences were observed in women than in men (four v. one nutrient). Intake of three nutrients was significantly underestimated in both sexes in the GS group. In the NGS group, nutrient intakes were significantly overestimated more often in women than in men (four v. one). These results indicate that not considering gender in FFQ development causes greater inaccuracy in dietary intake assessment in women than in men. Results of nutritional epidemiological studies should be re-evaluated for their validity, especially if the studies used NGS-FFQ.

  18. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). We reviewed literature on biosecurity practices for prevention of infectious diseases, and published recommendations for backyard poultry and assessed evidence of their impact and feasibility, particularly in developing countries. Documents were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) website, and from Pubmed and Google databases. Results A total of 62 peer-reviewed and non-referred documents were found, most of which were published recently (after 2004) and focused on HPAI/H5N1-related biosecurity measures (64%). Recommendations addressed measures for flock management, feed and water management, poultry trade and stock change, poultry health management and the risk to humans. Only one general guideline was found for backyard poultry-related biosecurity; the other documents were drawn up for specific developing settings and only engaged their authors (e.g. consultants). These national guidelines written by consultants generated recommendations regarding measures derived from the highest standards of commercial poultry production. Although biosecurity principles of isolation and containment are described in most documents, only a few documents were found on the impact of measures in family poultry settings and none gave any evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness for backyard poultry. Conclusions Given the persistent threat posed by HPAI/H5N1 to humans in developing countries, our findings highlight the importance of encouraging applied research toward identifying sustained and adapted

  19. What Is the Role of Informal Healthcare Providers in Developing Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ingram, Matthew; Lofthouse, Heather Kinlaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Informal health care providers (IPs) comprise a significant component of health systems in developing nations. Yet little is known about the most basic characteristics of performance, cost, quality, utilization, and size of this sector. To address this gap we conducted a comprehensive literature review on the informal health care sector in developing countries. We searched for studies published since 2000 through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and relevant grey literature from The New York Academy of Medicine, The World Bank, The Center for Global Development, USAID, SHOPS (formerly PSP-One), The World Health Organization, DFID, Human Resources for Health Global Resource Center. In total, 334 articles were retrieved, and 122 met inclusion criteria and chosen for data abstraction. Results indicate that IPs make up a significant portion of the healthcare sector globally, with almost half of studies (48%) from Sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization estimates from 24 studies in the literature of IP for healthcare services ranged from 9% to 90% of all healthcare interactions, depending on the country, the disease in question, and methods of measurement. IPs operate in a variety of health areas, although baseline information on quality is notably incomplete and poor quality of care is generally assumed. There was a wide variation in how quality of care is measured. The review found that IPs reported inadequate drug provision, poor adherence to clinical national guidelines, and that there were gaps in knowledge and provider practice; however, studies also found that the formal sector also reported poor provider practices. Reasons for using IPs included convenience, affordability, and social and cultural effects. Recommendations from the literature amount to a call for more engagement with the IP sector. IPs are a large component of nearly all developing country health systems. Research and policies of engagement are needed. PMID:23405101

  20. Social networks and female reproductive choices in the developing world: a systematized review.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Samantha M P; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-10

    Continuing high global maternal mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries have resulted in an increasing push to improve reproductive health services for women. Seeking innovative ways for assessing how positive health knowledge and behaviors spread to this vulnerable population has increased the use of social network theories and analysis in health promotion research. Despite the increased research on social networks and health, no overarching review on social networks and maternal health literature in developing countries has been conducted. This paper attempts to synthesize this literature by identifying both published and unpublished studies in major databases on social networks and maternal and child health. This review examined a range of study types for inclusion, including experimental and non-experimental study designs including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, cohort studies, case control studies, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional observational studies. Only those that occurred in developing countries were included in the review. Eighteen eligible articles were identified; these were published between 1997 and 2012. The findings indicated that the most common social network mechanisms studied within the literature were social learning and social influence. The main outcomes studied were contraceptive use and fertility decisions. Findings suggest the need for continuing research on social networks and maternal health, particularly through the examination of the range of social mechanisms through which networks may influence health behaviors and knowledge, and the analysis of a larger variety of reproductive outcomes.

  1. Systematic stereoscopic analyses for cloacal development: The origin of anorectal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Matsumaru, Daisuke; Murashima, Aki; Fukushima, Junichi; Senda, Syuhei; Matsushita, Shoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Yamada, Gen

    2015-01-01

    The division of the embryonic cloaca is the most essential event for the formation of digestive and urinary tracts. The defective development of the cloaca results in anorectal malformations (ARMs; 2–5 per 10,000 live births). However, the developmental and pathogenic mechanisms of ARMs are unclear. In the current study, we visualized the epithelia in the developing cloaca and nephric ducts (NDs). Systemic stereoscopic analyses revealed that the ND-cloaca connection sites shifted from the lateral-middle to dorsal-anterior part of the cloaca during cloacal division from E10.5 to E11.5 in mouse embryos. Genetic cell labeling analyses revealed that the cells in the ventral cloacal epithelium in the early stages rarely contributed to the dorsal part. Moreover, we revealed the possible morphogenetic movement of endodermal cells within the anterior part of the urogenital sinus and hindgut. These results provide the basis for understanding both cloacal development and the ARM pathogenesis. PMID:26354024

  2. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2015-07-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals.

  3. Professional Development for the New Millennium. Professional Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    In 1998, the Mississippi Legislature amended Mississippi Code Section 37-17 concerning the requirements for local school district professional development programs. The Department of Education then revised this portion of the model to reflect the statutory changes. This handbook contains the definition and purpose of professional development and…

  4. Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Hanyuan; Zeng, Erliang; Liu, Qi; Ma, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.

  5. Zircon Lu-Hf systematics: Evidence for the episodic development of Archaean greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. E.; Tatsumoto, M.; Farquhar, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A combined U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic study of zircons was undertaken in order to determine the provenance and age of an Archean granite-greenstone terrain and to test the detailed application of the Lu-Hf system in various Archean zircons. The eastern Wawa subprovince of the Superior province consists of the low grade Michipicoten and Gamitagama greenstone belts and the granitic terrain. The Hf isotopic data indicate that the typical lithological features of a greenstone belt cycle could be accommodated in a crustal growth model that involved decreasing depth of melting in three isotopically distinct reservoirs: mantle, lower crust and upper crust. The model age of the sources given by the intersection of the lower crustal curve with the bulk earth evolution curve is about 2900 My, in good agreement with the zircon U-Pb basement age. This linear array also has a similar intersection age to that of Proterozoic carbonatite complexes. The general convergence of the other reservoir vectors around this age suggests that mantle depletion, crustal extraction and intracrustal differentiation were all part of the same episodic event. It is also apparent that recycling of older basement was important in the formation of many of the later greenstone belt rocks.

  6. An Aristotelian Model of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Aristotelian renaissance in the philosophy of education, the development of virtue has not received much attention. This is unfortunate, because an attempt to draft an Aristotelian model of moral development can help philosophers to evaluate the contribution Aristotelian virtue ethics can make to our understanding of moral development,…

  7. Michigan State University's New Instructional Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Castelle G.; Sachs, Steven G.

    Michigan State University developed a new instructional model which is a more comprehensive approach involving several instructional development consultants working with a group of faculty, a department, or an entire college. It involves specific agreements between clients and consultants before beginning the instructional development projects…

  8. A Career Roles Model of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…

  9. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-06-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES. Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prospective studies supported etiological roles for relationship stress, perceived stress, and distress, while the studies on work-related stress (WS) showed conflicting results; ii) dyslipidemi: too few studies on psychosocial stress as a risk factor for dyslipidemia were available to draw a conclusion; however, a trend toward a positive association was present; iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2): prospective studies supported perceived stress and distress as risk factors for the development of DM2 among men, but not among women, while WS was generally not supported as a risk factor among neither men nor women; iv) hypertension: marital stress and perceived stress might have an influence on blood pressure (BP), while no association was found regarding distress. Evaluating WS the results were equivocal and indicated that different types of WS affected the BP differently between men and women. In conclusion, a longitudinal association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES seems present. However, the number of studies with sufficient quality is limited and the design of the studies is substantially heterogeneous.

  10. [A model of world population growth as an experiment in systematic research].

    PubMed

    Kapitsa, S

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for the estimation of global population growth, and the estimates were compared with those of the UN and covered the stretch of 4.4 million years B.C. to the years 2175 and 2500 A.D. The estimates were also broken down into human, geological, and technological historical periods. The model showed that human population would stabilize at the level of 14 billion around 2500 A.D. and 13 billion around 2200 A.D., in accordance with UN projections. It also revealed the history of human population growth through the following stages (UN figures are listed in parentheses): 100,000, about 1.6 million years ago; 5 (1-5) million, 35,000 B.C.; 21 (10-15) million, 7000 B.C.; 46 (47) million, 2000 B.C.; 93 (100-230) million, at the time of Christ; 185 (275-345) million, 1000 A.D.; 366 (450-540) million, 1500 A.D.; 887 (907) million, 1800 A.D.; 1158 (1170) million, 1850 A.D.; 1656 (1650-1710) million, 1900 A.D.; 2812 (2515) million, 1950 A.D.; 5253 (5328) million, 1990 A.D.; 6265 (6261) million, 2000 A.D.; 10,487 (10,019) million, 2050 A.D.; 12,034 (11,186) million, 2100 A.D.; 12,648 (11,543) million, 2150 A.D.; 12,946 (11,600) million, 2200 A.D.; and 13,536 million, 2500 A.D. The model advanced the investigation of phenomena by studying the interactions between economical, technological, social, cultural, and biological processes. The analysis showed that humanity has reached a critical phase in its growth and that development in each period depended on external, not internal, factors. This permits the formulation of the principle of demographic imperative (distinct from the Malthusian principle), which states that resources determine the speed and extent of the growth of population.

  11. Phylogenetic systematics of egg-brooding frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and the evolution of direct development.

    PubMed

    Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; De La Riva, Ignacio; Pombal, José P; Da Silva, Helio R; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Medina-Méndez, Esteban; Frost, Darrel R

    2015-01-01

    Egg-brooding frogs (Hemiphractidae) are a group of 105 currently recognized Neotropical species, with a remarkable diversity of developmental modes, from direct development to free-living and exotrophic tadpoles. Females carry their eggs on the back and embryos have unique bell-shaped gills. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of these frogs and used the resulting phylogeny to review their taxonomy and test hypotheses on the evolution of developmental modes and bell-shaped gills. Our inferences relied on a total evidence parsimony analysis of DNA sequences of up to 20 mitochondrial and nuclear genes (analyzed under tree-alignment), and 51 phenotypic characters sampled for 83% of currently valid hemiphractid species. Our analyses rendered a well-resolved phylogeny, with both Hemiphractidae (sister of Athesphatanura) and its six recognized genera being monophyletic. We also inferred novel intergeneric relationships [((Cryptobatrachus, Flectonotus), (Stefania, (Fritziana, (Hemiphractus, Gastrotheca))))], the non-monophyly of all species groups previously proposed within Gastrotheca and Stefania, and the existence of several putative new species within Fritziana and Hemiphractus. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our results support the most recent common ancestor of hemiphractids as a direct-developer. Free-living aquatic tadpoles apparently evolved from direct-developing ancestors three to eight times. Embryos of the sister taxa Cryptobatrachus and Flectonotus share a pair of single gills derived from branchial arch I, while embryos of the clade including the other four genera have two pairs of gills derived from branchial arches I and II respectively. Furthermore, in Gastrotheca the fusion of the two pairs of gills is a putative synapomorphy. We propose a revised taxonomy concordant with our optimal topologies.

  12. Toward a More Systematic Assessment of Smoking: Development of a Smoking Module for PROMIS®

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the PROMIS® Smoking Initiative is to develop, evaluate, and standardize item banks to assess cigarette smoking behavior and biopsychosocial constructs associated with smoking for both daily and non-daily smokers. Methods We used qualitative methods to develop the item pool (following the PROMIS® approach: e.g., literature search, “binning and winnowing” of items, and focus groups and cognitive interviews to finalize wording and format), and quantitative methods (e.g., factor analysis) to develop the item banks. Results We considered a total of 1622 extant items, and 44 new items for inclusion in the smoking item banks. A final set of 277 items representing 11 conceptual domains was selected for field testing in a national sample of smokers. Using data from 3021 daily smokers in the field test, an iterative series of exploratory factor analyses and project team discussions resulted in six item banks: Positive Consequences of Smoking (40 items), Smoking Dependence/Craving (55 items), Health Consequences of Smoking (26 items), Psychosocial Consequences of Smoking (37 items), Coping Aspects of Smoking (30 items), and Social Factors of Smoking (23 items). Conclusions Inclusion of a smoking domain in the PROMIS® framework will standardize measurement of key smoking constructs using state-of-the-art psychometric methods, and make them widely accessible to health care providers, smoking researchers and the large community of researchers using PROMIS® who might not otherwise include an assessment of smoking in their design. Next steps include reducing the number of items in each domain, conducting confirmatory analyses, and duplicating the process for non-daily smokers. PMID:22770824

  13. Quality of Animal Experiments in Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Drug Development – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martić-Kehl, Marianne Isabelle; Wernery, Jannis; Folkers, Gerd; Schubiger, Pius August

    2015-01-01

    Translation from preclinical animal research to clinical bedside has proven to be difficult to impossible in many fields of research (e.g. acute stroke, ALS and HIV vaccination development) with oncology showing particularly low translation rates (5% vs. 20% for cardiovascular diseases). Several investigations on published preclinical animal research have revealed that apart from plain species differences, translational problems can arise from low study quality (e.g. study design) or non-representative experimental conditions (e.g. treatment schedule). This review assessed the published experimental circumstances and quality of anti-angiogenic cancer drug development in 232 in vivo studies. The quality of study design was often insufficient; at least the information published about the experiments was not satisfactory in most cases. There was no quality improvement over time, with the exception of conflict of interest statements. This increase presumably arose mainly because journal guidelines request such statements more often recently. Visual inspection of data and a cluster analysis confirmed a trend described in literature that low study quality tends to overestimate study outcome. It was also found that experimental outcome was more favorable when a potential drug was investigated as the main focus of a study, compared to drugs that were used as comparison interventions. We assume that t