Science.gov

Sample records for systematic model development

  1. Systematic development of reduced reaction mechanisms for dynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Kailasanath, K.; Oran, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for systematically developing a reduced chemical reaction mechanism for dynamic modeling of chemically reactive flows is presented. The method is based on the postulate that if a reduced reaction mechanism faithfully describes the time evolution of both thermal and chain reaction processes characteristic of a more complete mechanism, then the reduced mechanism will describe the chemical processes in a chemically reacting flow with approximately the same degree of accuracy. Here this postulate is tested by producing a series of mechanisms of reduced accuracy, which are derived from a full detailed mechanism for methane-oxygen combustion. These mechanisms were then tested in a series of reactive flow calculations in which a large-amplitude sinusoidal perturbation is applied to a system that is initially quiescent and whose temperature is high enough to start ignition processes. Comparison of the results for systems with and without convective flow show that this approach produces reduced mechanisms that are useful for calculations of explosions and detonations. Extensions and applicability to flames are discussed.

  2. Development of a Curriculum Integrated Library-Use Instructional Model: A Systematic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Neal S.

    A project was undertaken at Ricks College to develop a systematic library-use instructional model to be integrated into the existing genealogy curriculum. In addition to surveying relevant literature and making appropriate contacts with two- and four-year academic libraries, a needs assessment was conducted, instructional objectives were written,…

  3. Development of a Curriculum Integrated Library-Use Instructional Model: A Systematic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Neal S.

    A project was undertaken at Ricks College to develop a systematic library-use instructional model to be integrated into the existing genealogy curriculum. In addition to surveying relevant literature and making appropriate contacts with two- and four-year academic libraries, a needs assessment was conducted, instructional objectives were written,…

  4. Developing population models: A systematic approach for pesticide risk assessment using herbaceous plants as an example.

    PubMed

    Schmolke, Amelie; Kapo, Katherine E; Rueda-Cediel, Pamela; Thorbek, Pernille; Brain, Richard; Forbes, Valery

    2017-12-01

    Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development. The resulting conceptual model includes the necessary complexity to address the model purpose on the basis of current understanding and available data. We provide specific guidance for the development of population models for herbaceous plant species in pesticide risk assessment and demonstrate the approach with an example of a conceptual model developed following the decision guide for herbicide risk assessment of Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii), a species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision guide specific to herbaceous plants demonstrates the details, but the general approach can be adapted for other species groups and management objectives. Population models provide a tool to link population-level dynamics, species and habitat characteristics as well as information about stressors in a single approach. Developing such models in a systematic, transparent way will increase their applicability and credibility, reduce development efforts, and result in models that are readily available for use in species management and risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing Risk Prediction Models for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula: a Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Quality.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Guo, Ya; Xu, Banghao; Xiao, Kaiyin; Peng, Tao; Peng, Minhao

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is still a major complication after pancreatic surgery, despite improvements of surgical technique and perioperative management. We sought to systematically review and critically access the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles published before January 1, 2015, which described the development of models to predict the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. We extracted information of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula, risk predictor selection, missing data, model-building strategies, and model performance. Seven studies of developing seven risk prediction models were included. In three studies (42 %), the number of events per variable was less than 10. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from 9 to 32. Five studies (71 %) reported using univariate screening, which was not recommended in building a multivariate model, to reduce the number of risk predictors. Six risk prediction models (86 %) were developed by categorizing all continuous risk predictors. The treatment and handling of missing data were not mentioned in all studies. We found use of inappropriate methods that could endanger the development of model, including univariate pre-screening of variables, categorization of continuous risk predictors, and model validation. The use of inappropriate methods affects the reliability and the accuracy of the probability estimates of predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula.

  6. Current Developments in Dementia Risk Prediction Modelling: An Updated Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Eugene Y H; Harrison, Stephanie L; Errington, Linda; Gordon, Mark F; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Novak, Gerald; Dufouil, Carole; Brayne, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Launer, Lenore J; Stephan, Blossom C M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of individuals at high risk of dementia influences clinical care, inclusion criteria for clinical trials and development of preventative strategies. Numerous models have been developed for predicting dementia. To evaluate these models we undertook a systematic review in 2010 and updated this in 2014 due to the increase in research published in this area. Here we include a critique of the variables selected for inclusion and an assessment of model prognostic performance. Our previous systematic review was updated with a search from January 2009 to March 2014 in electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science). Articles examining risk of dementia in non-demented individuals and including measures of sensitivity, specificity or the area under the curve (AUC) or c-statistic were included. In total, 1,234 articles were identified from the search; 21 articles met inclusion criteria. New developments in dementia risk prediction include the testing of non-APOE genes, use of non-traditional dementia risk factors, incorporation of diet, physical function and ethnicity, and model development in specific subgroups of the population including individuals with diabetes and those with different educational levels. Four models have been externally validated. Three studies considered time or cost implications of computing the model. There is no one model that is recommended for dementia risk prediction in population-based settings. Further, it is unlikely that one model will fit all. Consideration of the optimal features of new models should focus on methodology (setting/sample, model development and testing in a replication cohort) and the acceptability and cost of attaining the risk variables included in the prediction score. Further work is required to validate existing models or develop new ones in different populations as well as determine the ethical implications of dementia risk prediction, before applying the particular models in

  7. Current Developments in Dementia Risk Prediction Modelling: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Eugene Y. H.; Harrison, Stephanie L.; Errington, Linda; Gordon, Mark F.; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Novak, Gerald; Dufouil, Carole; Brayne, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Launer, Lenore J.; Stephan, Blossom C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of individuals at high risk of dementia influences clinical care, inclusion criteria for clinical trials and development of preventative strategies. Numerous models have been developed for predicting dementia. To evaluate these models we undertook a systematic review in 2010 and updated this in 2014 due to the increase in research published in this area. Here we include a critique of the variables selected for inclusion and an assessment of model prognostic performance. Methods Our previous systematic review was updated with a search from January 2009 to March 2014 in electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science). Articles examining risk of dementia in non-demented individuals and including measures of sensitivity, specificity or the area under the curve (AUC) or c-statistic were included. Findings In total, 1,234 articles were identified from the search; 21 articles met inclusion criteria. New developments in dementia risk prediction include the testing of non-APOE genes, use of non-traditional dementia risk factors, incorporation of diet, physical function and ethnicity, and model development in specific subgroups of the population including individuals with diabetes and those with different educational levels. Four models have been externally validated. Three studies considered time or cost implications of computing the model. Interpretation There is no one model that is recommended for dementia risk prediction in population-based settings. Further, it is unlikely that one model will fit all. Consideration of the optimal features of new models should focus on methodology (setting/sample, model development and testing in a replication cohort) and the acceptability and cost of attaining the risk variables included in the prediction score. Further work is required to validate existing models or develop new ones in different populations as well as determine the ethical implications of dementia risk prediction

  8. A Systematic Approach for Developing Conceptual Models of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C. J.; Last, G. V.; Rohay, V. J.; Schelling, F. J.; Hildebrand, R. D.; Morse, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faces many decisions regarding future remedial actions and waste disposal at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. To support these decisions, DOE recognized the need for a comprehensive and systematic approach to developing and documenting complete, consistent, and defensible conceptual models of contaminant release and migration. After reviewing existing conceptual model development methodologies that might be applicable to environmental assessments at the Hanford Site, DOE initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) methodology developed for use in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal systems by NIREX. In adapting this methodology for use in the environmental assessments at Hanford, the international list of FEPs, compiled from nuclear waste disposal programs, was evaluated to develop a list of potentially relevant Hanford-specific FEPs. The international nuclear waste programs focus on deep geologic disposal while waste disposal at the Hanford Site involves burial in shallow unconsolidated geologic deposits. Thus, a graphical tool called the Process Relationship Diagram (PRD) was created to assist in identifying the international FEPs and additional factors that are relevant to Hanford, and to illustrate the relationships among these factors. The PRD is similar in form and function to the Master Directed Diagram used by NIREX to provide a visual and systematic structure for the FEP methodology. Adaptation of this approach is showing promise in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of relevant factors to be incorporated into environmental uncertainty assessments for the Hanford Site.

  9. Developing risk prediction models for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of methodology and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation estimates that by 2030 there will be approximately 350 million people with type 2 diabetes. Associated with renal complications, heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, early identification of patients with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes or those at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes is an important challenge. We sought to systematically review and critically assess the conduct and reporting of methods used to develop risk prediction models for predicting the risk of having undiagnosed (prevalent) or future risk of developing (incident) type 2 diabetes in adults. Methods We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify studies published before May 2011 that describe the development of models combining two or more variables to predict the risk of prevalent or incident type 2 diabetes. We extracted key information that describes aspects of developing a prediction model including study design, sample size and number of events, outcome definition, risk predictor selection and coding, missing data, model-building strategies and aspects of performance. Results Thirty-nine studies comprising 43 risk prediction models were included. Seventeen studies (44%) reported the development of models to predict incident type 2 diabetes, whilst 15 studies (38%) described the derivation of models to predict prevalent type 2 diabetes. In nine studies (23%), the number of events per variable was less than ten, whilst in fourteen studies there was insufficient information reported for this measure to be calculated. The number of candidate risk predictors ranged from four to sixty-four, and in seven studies it was unclear how many risk predictors were considered. A method, not recommended to select risk predictors for inclusion in the multivariate model, using statistical significance from univariate screening was carried out in eight studies (21%), whilst the selection procedure was unclear in

  10. A systematic review of predictive models for asthma development in children.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Schmick, Darell; Johnson, Michael D

    2015-11-28

    Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease affecting 9.6 % of American children. Delay in asthma diagnosis is prevalent, resulting in suboptimal asthma management. To help avoid delay in asthma diagnosis and advance asthma prevention research, researchers have proposed various models to predict asthma development in children. This paper reviews these models. A systematic review was conducted through searching in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, and OpenGrey up to June 3, 2015. The literature on predictive models for asthma development in children was retrieved, with search results limited to human subjects and children (birth to 18 years). Two independent reviewers screened the literature, performed data extraction, and assessed article quality. The literature search returned 13,101 references in total. After manual review, 32 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in the paper. We identify several limitations of existing predictive models for asthma development in children, and provide preliminary thoughts on how to address these limitations. Existing predictive models for asthma development in children have inadequate accuracy. Efforts to improve these models' performance are needed, but are limited by a lack of a gold standard for asthma development in children.

  11. A systematic approach for scale-down model development and characterization of commercial cell culture processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Hashimura, Yasunori; Pendleton, Robert; Harms, Jean; Collins, Erin; Lee, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The objective of process characterization is to demonstrate robustness of manufacturing processes by understanding the relationship between key operating parameters and final performance. Technical information from the characterization study is important for subsequent process validation, and this has become a regulatory expectation in recent years. Since performing the study at the manufacturing scale is not practically feasible, development of scale-down models that represent the performance of the commercial process is essential to achieve reliable process characterization. In this study, we describe a systematic approach to develop a bioreactor scale-down model and to characterize a cell culture process for recombinant protein production in CHO cells. First, a scale-down model using 2-L bioreactors was developed on the basis of the 2000-L commercial scale process. Profiles of cell growth, productivity, product quality, culture environments (pH, DO, pCO2), and level of metabolites (glucose, glutamine, lactate, ammonia) were compared between the two scales to qualify the scale-down model. The key operating parameters were then characterized in single-parameter ranging studies and an interaction study using this scale-down model. Appropriate operation ranges and acceptance criteria for certain key parameters were determined to ensure the success of process validation and the process performance consistency. The process worst-case condition was also identified through the interaction study.

  12. Anxiety in the context of cancer: A systematic review and development of an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Curran, Leah; Sharpe, Louise; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-08-01

    Anxiety is common in the context of cancer, but there are few theoretical models that apply to people with cancer across the trajectory of their illness. The aims of this review are to identify existing theories and to propose an integrated model of cancer-related anxiety. Using a systematic literature search of Medline, Premedline and PsycINFO databases, we identified nine theoretical models of anxiety in the context of cancer. We reviewed these for psychological concepts that fell under five themes: pre-existing schema, the inherent nature of cancer, cognitive factors, coping responses and contextual factors. From these themes, we integrated concepts from different models to develop a theoretical framework to explain the development and maintenance of anxiety in the context of cancer. The resulting model suggests that pre-existing schema, past experiences of cancer, an intolerance of uncertainty and meta-cognitive beliefs about worry interact with the inherent nature of cancer to produce overwhelming distress. The distress activates cognitive processes characterized by vigilance, worry and rumination. Attempts to cope by re-establishing control, and a pattern of vigilance to cancer-related cues and/or avoidance reinforce anxiety, in the context of a range of systemic factors that can either buffer against or worsen the anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Systematic uncertainty reduction strategies for developing streamflow forecasts utilizing multiple climate models and hydrologic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harminder; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies show that multimodel combinations improve hydroclimatic predictions by reducing model uncertainty. Given that climate forecasts are available from multiple climate models, which could be ingested with multiple watershed models, what is the best strategy to reduce the uncertainty in streamflow forecasts? To address this question, we consider three possible strategies: (1) reduce the input uncertainty first by combining climate models and then use the multimodel climate forecasts with multiple watershed models (MM-P), (2) ingest the individual climate forecasts (without multimodel combination) with various watershed models and then combine the streamflow predictions that arise from all possible combinations of climate and watershed models (MM-Q), (3) combine the streamflow forecasts obtained from multiple watershed models based on strategy (1) to develop a single streamflow prediction that reduces uncertainty in both climate forecasts and watershed models (MM-PQ). For this purpose, we consider synthetic schemes that generate streamflow and climate forecasts, for comparing the performance of three strategies with the true streamflow generated by a given hydrologic model. Results from the synthetic study show that reducing input uncertainty first (MM-P) by combining climate forecasts results in reduced error in predicting the true streamflow compared to the error of multimodel streamflow forecasts obtained by combining streamflow forecasts from all-possible combination of individual climate model with various hydrologic models (MM-Q). Since the true hydrologic model structure is unknown, it is desirable to consider MM-PQ as an alternate choice that reduces both input uncertainty and hydrologic model uncertainty. Application on two watersheds in NC also indicates that reducing the input uncertainty first is critical before reducing the hydrologic model uncertainty.

  14. A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: implications for model development.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, Goetz; Allen, Jacqui; Feldman, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Consumer-directed care is increasingly becoming a mainstream option in community-based aged care. However, a systematic review describing how the current evaluation research translates into practise has not been published to date. This review aimed to systematically establish an evidence base of user preferences for and satisfaction with services associated with consumer-directed care programmes for older people. Twelve databases were searched, including MedLine, BioMed Central, Cinahl, Expanded Academic ASAP, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Age Line, Science Direct, Social Citation Index, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and Google were also searched. Eligible studies were those reporting on choice, user preferences and service satisfaction outcomes regarding a programme or model of home-based care in the United States or United Kingdom. This systematic narrative review retrieved literature published from January 1992 to August 2011. A total of 277 references were identified. Of these 17 met the selection criteria and were reviewed. Findings indicate that older people report varying preferences for consumer-directed care with some demonstrating limited interest. Clients and carers reported good service satisfaction. However, research comparing user preferences across countries or investigating how ecological factors shape user preferences has received limited attention. Policy-makers and practitioners need to carefully consider the diverse contexts, needs and preferences of older adults in adopting consumer-directed care approaches in community aged care. The review calls for the development of consumer-directed care programmes offering a broad range of options that allow for personalisation and greater control over services without necessarily transferring the responsibility for administrative responsibilities to service users. Review findings suggest that consumer-directed care approaches have the potential to empower older

  15. Development of Systematic Approaches for Calibration of Subsurface Transport Models Using Hard and Soft Data on System Characteristics and Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    environmental problems to include the simulation of contaminant transport and volatilization in the shallow subsurface and water content fluctuation...REPORT Development of systematic approaches for calibration of subsurface transport models using hard and soft data on system characteristics and...Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS model calibration, data assimilation, subsurface transport Tissa H. Illangasekare, Toshihiro Sakaki Colorado

  16. The Psychology Department Model Advisement Procedure: A Comprehensive, Systematic Approach to Career Development Advisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer; Pellegrino, Jennifer; Catapano, Brittani; Hutzel, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The MAP (Model Advisement Procedure) is a comprehensive, systematic approach to developmental student advisement. The MAP was implemented to improve advisement consistency, improve student preparation for internships/senior projects, increase career exploration, reduce career uncertainty, and, ultimately, improve student satisfaction with the…

  17. Systematic Eclectic Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents and evaluates four systematic eclectic models of psychotherapy: Beutler's eclectic psychotherapy; Howard, Nance, and Myers' adaptive counseling and therapy; Lazarus' multimodal therapy; and Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical approach. Examines support for these models and makes conceptual and empirical recommendations.…

  18. A systematic literature review of the key challenges for developing the structure of public health economic models.

    PubMed

    Squires, Hazel; Chilcott, James; Akehurst, Ronald; Burr, Jennifer; Kelly, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    To identify the key methodological challenges for public health economic modelling and set an agenda for future research. An iterative literature search identified papers describing methodological challenges for developing the structure of public health economic models. Additional multidisciplinary literature searches helped expand upon important ideas raised within the review. Fifteen articles were identified within the formal literature search, highlighting three key challenges: inclusion of non-healthcare costs and outcomes; inclusion of equity; and modelling complex systems and multi-component interventions. Based upon these and multidisciplinary searches about dynamic complexity, the social determinants of health, and models of human behaviour, six areas for future research were specified. Future research should focus on: the use of systems approaches within health economic modelling; approaches to assist the systematic consideration of the social determinants of health; methods for incorporating models of behaviour and social interactions; consideration of equity; and methodology to help modellers develop valid, credible and transparent public health economic model structures.

  19. FOCAL: an experimental design tool for systematizing metabolic discoveries and model development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Current computational tools can generate and improve genome-scale models based on existing data; however, for many organisms, the data needed to test and refine such models are not available. To facilitate model development, we created the forced coupling algorithm, FOCAL, to identify genetic and environmental conditions such that a reaction becomes essential for an experimentally measurable phenotype. This reaction's conditional essentiality can then be tested experimentally to evaluate whether network connections occur or to create strains with desirable phenotypes. FOCAL allows network connections to be queried, which improves our understanding of metabolism and accuracy of developed models. PMID:23236964

  20. FOCAL: an experimental design tool for systematizing metabolic discoveries and model development.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Christopher J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-12-13

    Current computational tools can generate and improve genome-scale models based on existing data; however, for many organisms, the data needed to test and refine such models are not available. To facilitate model development, we created the forced coupling algorithm, FOCAL, to identify genetic and environmental conditions such that a reaction becomes essential for an experimentally measurable phenotype. This reaction's conditional essentiality can then be tested experimentally to evaluate whether network connections occur or to create strains with desirable phenotypes. FOCAL allows network connections to be queried, which improves our understanding of metabolism and accuracy of developed models.

  1. Development, homology and systematics.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ranhy; Schultz, Ted R; DeSalle, Rob

    2002-01-01

    The basic issue of recognizing and delimiting characters derived from different levels of biological organization, including molecular, cellular, morphological and behavioral levels, has been addressed previously in the cladistic literature. But when considering new sources of information (such as the proliferating Evo-Devo data), it is critical to review traditional theoretical and methodological approaches to their interpretation. This is especially important because the conclusions of a phylogenetic analysis are dependent upon the initial recognition and definition of the characters, the basic units of comparison in phylogeny reconstruction. This chapter explores the role of recent Evo-Devo studies in systematics and attempts to place the Evo-Devo literature into a systematics context.

  2. A Systematic Review of Conceptual Frameworks of Medical Complexity and New Model Development.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Leah L; Whitson, Heather E; Hastings, Susan N; Beadles, Chris; Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2016-03-01

    Patient complexity is often operationalized by counting multiple chronic conditions (MCC) without considering contextual factors that can affect patient risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to develop a conceptual model of complexity addressing gaps identified in a review of published conceptual models. We searched for English-language MEDLINE papers published between 1 January 2004 and 16 January 2014. Two reviewers independently evaluated abstracts and all authors contributed to the development of the conceptual model in an iterative process. From 1606 identified abstracts, six conceptual models were selected. One additional model was identified through reference review. Each model had strengths, but several constructs were not fully considered: 1) contextual factors; 2) dynamics of complexity; 3) patients' preferences; 4) acute health shocks; and 5) resilience. Our Cycle of Complexity model illustrates relationships between acute shocks and medical events, healthcare access and utilization, workload and capacity, and patient preferences in the context of interpersonal, organizational, and community factors. This model may inform studies on the etiology of and changes in complexity, the relationship between complexity and patient outcomes, and intervention development to improve modifiable elements of complex patients.

  3. Systematic Review of Health Economic Impact Evaluations of Risk Prediction Models: Stop Developing, Start Evaluating.

    PubMed

    van Giessen, Anoukh; Peters, Jaime; Wilcher, Britni; Hyde, Chris; Moons, Carl; de Wit, Ardine; Koffijberg, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Although health economic evaluations (HEEs) are increasingly common for therapeutic interventions, they appear to be rare for the use of risk prediction models (PMs). To evaluate the current state of HEEs of PMs by performing a comprehensive systematic review. Four databases were searched for HEEs of PM-based strategies. Two reviewers independently selected eligible articles. A checklist was compiled to score items focusing on general characteristics of HEEs of PMs, model characteristics and quality of HEEs, evidence on PMs typically used in the HEEs, and the specific challenges in performing HEEs of PMs. After screening 791 abstracts, 171 full texts, and reference checking, 40 eligible HEEs evaluating 60 PMs were identified. In these HEEs, PM strategies were compared with current practice (n = 32; 80%), to other stratification methods for patient management (n = 19; 48%), to an extended PM (n = 9; 23%), or to alternative PMs (n = 5; 13%). The PMs guided decisions on treatment (n = 42; 70%), further testing (n = 18; 30%), or treatment prioritization (n = 4; 7%). For 36 (60%) PMs, only a single decision threshold was evaluated. Costs of risk prediction were ignored for 28 (46%) PMs. Uncertainty in outcomes was assessed using probabilistic sensitivity analyses in 22 (55%) HEEs. Despite the huge number of PMs in the medical literature, HEE of PMs remains rare. In addition, we observed great variety in their quality and methodology, which may complicate interpretation of HEE results and implementation of PMs in practice. Guidance on HEE of PMs could encourage and standardize their application and enhance methodological quality, thereby improving adequate use of PM strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systematic Change Process: The School Development Model in Benton Harbor, Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erma; Hawkins, James

    1985-01-01

    Describes the goals and methods of the School Development Program, a model for improving academic achievement in the elementary grades, which has been implemented in a Michigan school district as part of a court-ordered desegregation plan. Emphasizes the importance of parent participation. (RDN)

  5. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews.

    PubMed

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to 'think' conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions.

  6. Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, Linda M; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Stolk, Ronald P; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Moons, Karel G M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beulens, Joline W J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify existing prediction models for the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and to externally validate them in a large independent cohort. Data sources Systematic search of English, German, and Dutch literature in PubMed until February 2011 to identify prediction models for diabetes. Design Performance of the models was assessed in terms of discrimination (C statistic) and calibration (calibration plots and Hosmer-Lemeshow test).The validation study was a prospective cohort study, with a case cohort study in a random subcohort. Setting Models were applied to the Dutch cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study (EPIC-NL). Participants 38 379 people aged 20-70 with no diabetes at baseline, 2506 of whom made up the random subcohort. Outcome measure Incident type 2 diabetes. Results The review identified 16 studies containing 25 prediction models. We considered 12 models as basic because they were based on variables that can be assessed non-invasively and 13 models as extended because they additionally included conventional biomarkers such as glucose concentration. During a median follow-up of 10.2 years there were 924 cases in the full EPIC-NL cohort and 79 in the random subcohort. The C statistic for the basic models ranged from 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.75) to 0.84 (0.82 to 0.85) for risk at 7.5 years. For prediction models including biomarkers the C statistic ranged from 0.81 (0.80 to 0.83) to 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94). Most prediction models overestimated the observed risk of diabetes, particularly at higher observed risks. After adjustment for differences in incidence of diabetes, calibration improved considerably. Conclusions Most basic prediction models can identify people at high risk of developing diabetes in a time frame of five to 10 years. Models including biomarkers classified cases slightly better than basic ones. Most models overestimated the actual risk of diabetes. Existing

  7. Modeling Agrilus planipennis within-tree colonization patterns and development of a systematic subsampling plan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees, Fraxinus spp., throughout eastern North America. Here, we use generalized linear mixed models to predict the presence or a...

  8. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  9. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  10. Identification of risk factors by systematic review and development of risk-adjusted models for surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C; Bruce, J; Carpenter, J; Wilson, A P; Wilson, J; Pearson, A; Lamping, D L; Krukowski, Z H; Reeves, B C

    2011-09-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are complications of surgery that cause significant postoperative morbidity. SSI has been proposed as a potential indicator of the quality of care in the context of clinical governance and monitoring of the performance of NHS organisations against targets. We aimed to address a number of objectives. Firstly, identify risk factors for SSI, criteria for stratifying surgical procedures and evidence about the importance of postdischarge surveillance (PDS). Secondly, test the importance of risk factors for SSI in surveillance databases and investigate interactions between risk factors. Thirdly, investigate and validate different definitions of SSI. Lastly, develop models for making risk-adjusted comparisons between hospitals. A single hospital surveillance database was used to address objectives 2 and 3 and the UK Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Service database to address objective 4. There were four elements to the research: (1) systematic reviews of risk factors for SSI (two reviewers assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy and the quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale); (2) assessment of agreement between four SSI definitions; (3) validation of definitions of SSI, quantifying their ability to predict clinical outcomes; and (4) development of operation-specific risk models for SSI, with hospitals fitted as random effects. Reviews of SSI risk factors other than established SSI risk indices identified other risk; some were operation specific, but others applied to multiple operations. The factor most commonly identified was duration of preoperative hospital stay. The review of PDS for SSI confirmed the need for PDS if SSIs are to be compared meaningfully over time within an institution. There was wide variation in SSI rate (SSI%) using different definitions. Over twice as many wounds were classified as infected by one definition only as were classified as infected by both

  11. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  12. Systematic errors in temperature estimates from MODIS data covering the western Palearctic and their impact on a parasite development model.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Carné, Jorge; García-Martín, Alberto; Estrada-Peña, Agustin

    2013-11-01

    The modelling of habitat suitability for parasites is a growing area of research due to its association with climate change and ensuing shifts in the distribution of infectious diseases. Such models depend on remote sensing data and require accurate, high-resolution temperature measurements. The temperature is critical for accurate estimation of development rates and potential habitat ranges for a given parasite. The MODIS sensors aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution temperature data for remote sensing applications. This paper describes comparative analysis of MODIS-derived temperatures relative to ground records of surface temperature in the western Palaearctic. The results show that MODIS overestimated maximum temperature values and underestimated minimum temperatures by up to 5-6 °C. The combined use of both Aqua and Terra datasets provided the most accurate temperature estimates around latitude 35-44° N, with an overestimation during spring-summer months and an underestimation in autumn-winter. Errors in temperature estimation were associated with specific ecological regions within the target area as well as technical limitations in the temporal and orbital coverage of the satellites (e.g. sensor limitations and satellite transit times). We estimated error propagation of temperature uncertainties in parasite habitat suitability models by comparing outcomes of published models. Error estimates reached 36% of annual respective measurements depending on the model used. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of adequate image processing and points out the limitations of MODIS temperature data as inputs into predictive models concerning parasite lifecycles.

  13. A Comprehensive and Systematic Approach to Developing and Documenting Conceptual Models of Contaminant Release and Migration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Schelling, F J.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Delamare, Michael A.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Hildebrand, R D.; Morse, John G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Riley, Robert G.; Soler, Luis; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy?s Richland Operations Office has initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) methodology (used in scenario development for nuclear waste disposal programs) to the environmental management and remediation problems facing the Hanford Site. These efforts have shown that modification of the FEPs methodology to incorporate the use of Process Relationship Diagrams (PRD) is effective in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of potentially relevant factors to be incorporated into a specific performance assessment. In developing this methodology for Hanford, a master PRD was created to provide an organization structure for identifying the potentially relevant factors (i.e. FEPs) and for illustrating the relationships between these factors. This organizational framework was developed to match the organization of current Hanford site-wide performance assessment activities and to facilitate screening of the FEPs relevant to the problems (and conceptual models) that need to be addressed at the site. However, the link between Hanford specific FEPs and the international list of FEPs was maintained to demonstrate completeness and perhaps to expand the usefulness of the international list for other environmental programs.

  14. Towards Systematic Benchmarking of Climate Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The process by which climate models are evaluated has evolved substantially over the past decade, with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) serving as a centralizing activity for coordinating model experimentation and enabling research. Scientists with a broad spectrum of expertise have contributed to the CMIP model evaluation process, resulting in many hundreds of publications that have served as a key resource for the IPCC process. For several reasons, efforts are now underway to further systematize some aspects of the model evaluation process. First, some model evaluation can now be considered routine and should not require "re-inventing the wheel" or a journal publication simply to update results with newer models. Second, the benefit of CMIP research to model development has not been optimal because the publication of results generally takes several years and is usually not reproducible for benchmarking newer model versions. And third, there are now hundreds of model versions and many thousands of simulations, but there is no community-based mechanism for routinely monitoring model performance changes. An important change in the design of CMIP6 can help address these limitations. CMIP6 will include a small set standardized experiments as an ongoing exercise (CMIP "DECK": ongoing Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima), so that modeling groups can submit them at any time and not be overly constrained by deadlines. In this presentation, efforts to establish routine benchmarking of existing and future CMIP simulations will be described. To date, some benchmarking tools have been made available to all CMIP modeling groups to enable them to readily compare with CMIP5 simulations during the model development process. A natural extension of this effort is to make results from all CMIP simulations widely available, including the results from newer models as soon as the simulations become available for research. Making the results from routine

  15. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C Anthony; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kim, Sean H J; Ropella, Glen E P

    2013-01-01

    A crisis continues to brew within the pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) enterprise: productivity continues declining as costs rise, despite ongoing, often dramatic scientific and technical advances. To reverse this trend, we offer various suggestions for both the expansion and broader adoption of modeling and simulation (M&S) methods. We suggest strategies and scenarios intended to enable new M&S use cases that directly engage R&D knowledge generation and build actionable mechanistic insight, thereby opening the door to enhanced productivity. What M&S requirements must be satisfied to access and open the door, and begin reversing the productivity decline? Can current methods and tools fulfill the requirements, or are new methods necessary? We draw on the relevant, recent literature to provide and explore answers. In so doing, we identify essential, key roles for agent-based and other methods. We assemble a list of requirements necessary for M&S to meet the diverse needs distilled from a collection of research, review, and opinion articles. We argue that to realize its full potential, M&S should be actualized within a larger information technology framework—a dynamic knowledge repository—wherein models of various types execute, evolve, and increase in accuracy over time. We offer some details of the issues that must be addressed for such a repository to accrue the capabilities needed to reverse the productivity decline. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23737142

  16. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C Anthony; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kim, Sean H J; Ropella, Glen E P

    2013-01-01

    A crisis continues to brew within the pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) enterprise: productivity continues declining as costs rise, despite ongoing, often dramatic scientific and technical advances. To reverse this trend, we offer various suggestions for both the expansion and broader adoption of modeling and simulation (M&S) methods. We suggest strategies and scenarios intended to enable new M&S use cases that directly engage R&D knowledge generation and build actionable mechanistic insight, thereby opening the door to enhanced productivity. What M&S requirements must be satisfied to access and open the door, and begin reversing the productivity decline? Can current methods and tools fulfill the requirements, or are new methods necessary? We draw on the relevant, recent literature to provide and explore answers. In so doing, we identify essential, key roles for agent-based and other methods. We assemble a list of requirements necessary for M&S to meet the diverse needs distilled from a collection of research, review, and opinion articles. We argue that to realize its full potential, M&S should be actualized within a larger information technology framework--a dynamic knowledge repository--wherein models of various types execute, evolve, and increase in accuracy over time. We offer some details of the issues that must be addressed for such a repository to accrue the capabilities needed to reverse the productivity decline. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    PubMed

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  18. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  19. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  20. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  1. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    PubMed

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-08-15

    There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children

  2. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  3. Systematic errors in detecting biased agonism: Analysis of current methods and development of a new model-free approach.

    PubMed

    Onaran, H Ongun; Ambrosio, Caterina; Uğur, Özlem; Madaras Koncz, Erzsebet; Grò, Maria Cristina; Vezzi, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-03-14

    Discovering biased agonists requires a method that can reliably distinguish the bias in signalling due to unbalanced activation of diverse transduction proteins from that of differential amplification inherent to the system being studied, which invariably results from the non-linear nature of biological signalling networks and their measurement. We have systematically compared the performance of seven methods of bias diagnostics, all of which are based on the analysis of concentration-response curves of ligands according to classical receptor theory. We computed bias factors for a number of β-adrenergic agonists by comparing BRET assays of receptor-transducer interactions with Gs, Gi and arrestin. Using the same ligands, we also compared responses at signalling steps originated from the same receptor-transducer interaction, among which no biased efficacy is theoretically possible. In either case, we found a high level of false positive results and a general lack of correlation among methods. Altogether this analysis shows that all tested methods, including some of the most widely used in the literature, fail to distinguish true ligand bias from "system bias" with confidence. We also propose two novel semi quantitative methods of bias diagnostics that appear to be more robust and reliable than currently available strategies.

  4. Systematic errors in detecting biased agonism: Analysis of current methods and development of a new model-free approach

    PubMed Central

    Onaran, H. Ongun; Ambrosio, Caterina; Uğur, Özlem; Madaras Koncz, Erzsebet; Grò, Maria Cristina; Vezzi, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Discovering biased agonists requires a method that can reliably distinguish the bias in signalling due to unbalanced activation of diverse transduction proteins from that of differential amplification inherent to the system being studied, which invariably results from the non-linear nature of biological signalling networks and their measurement. We have systematically compared the performance of seven methods of bias diagnostics, all of which are based on the analysis of concentration-response curves of ligands according to classical receptor theory. We computed bias factors for a number of β-adrenergic agonists by comparing BRET assays of receptor-transducer interactions with Gs, Gi and arrestin. Using the same ligands, we also compared responses at signalling steps originated from the same receptor-transducer interaction, among which no biased efficacy is theoretically possible. In either case, we found a high level of false positive results and a general lack of correlation among methods. Altogether this analysis shows that all tested methods, including some of the most widely used in the literature, fail to distinguish true ligand bias from “system bias” with confidence. We also propose two novel semi quantitative methods of bias diagnostics that appear to be more robust and reliable than currently available strategies. PMID:28290478

  5. A Systematic Review of Whole School Improvement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Yael; Darwin, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review of widely implemented, externally developed whole school improvement models. The models serve elementary, middle, and high schools and schools operated by education service providers. A systematic review of the research was conducted using rigorous evidence standards. Across models, the whole school improvement…

  6. Development of a Systematic Stakeholder Identification System for 3VS Modeling in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models, social, economic and environmental indicators are utilized to understand the interrelated impacts of programs and regulations on ecosystems and human communities. Critical to identifying the app...

  7. Development of a Systematic Stakeholder Identification System for 3VS Modeling in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models, social, economic and environmental indicators are utilized to understand the interrelated impacts of programs and regulations on ecosystems and human communities. Critical to identifying the app...

  8. Pharmacokinetic models of morphine and its metabolites in neonates:: Systematic comparisons of models from the literature, and development of a new meta-model.

    PubMed

    Knøsgaard, Katrine Rørbæk; Foster, David John Richard; Kreilgaard, Mads; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Upton, Richard Neil; van den Anker, Johannes N

    2016-09-20

    Morphine is commonly used for pain management in preterm neonates. The aims of this study were to compare published models of neonatal pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites with a new dataset, and to combine the characteristics of the best predictive models to design a meta-model for morphine and its metabolites in preterm neonates. Moreover, the concentration-analgesia relationship for morphine in this clinical setting was also investigated. A population of 30 preterm neonates (gestational age: 23-32weeks) received a loading dose of morphine (50-100μg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion (5-10μg/kg/h) until analgesia was no longer required. Pain was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Five published population models were compared using numerical and graphical tests of goodness-of-fit and predictive performance. Population modelling was conducted using NONMEM® and the $PRIOR subroutine to describe the time-course of plasma concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide, and the concentration-analgesia relationship for morphine. No published model adequately described morphine concentrations in this new dataset. Previously published population pharmacokinetic models of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were combined into a meta-model. The meta-model provided an adequate description of the time-course of morphine and the concentrations of its metabolites in preterm neonates. Allometric weight scaling was applied to all clearance and volume terms. Maturation of morphine clearance was described as a function of postmenstrual age, while maturation of metabolite elimination was described as a function of postnatal age. A clear relationship between morphine concentrations and pain score was not established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interruptions in the wild: Development of a sociotechnical systems model of interruptions in the emergency department through a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Holden, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Interruptions are unavoidable in the "interrupt driven" Emergency Department (ED). A critical review and synthesis of the literature on interruptions in the ED can offer insight into the nature of interruptions in complex real-world environments. Fifteen empirical articles on interruptions in the ED were identified through database searches. Articles were reviewed, critiqued, and synthesized. There was little agreement and several gaps in conceptualizing sociotechnical system factors, process characteristics, and interruption outcomes. While multiple outcomes of interruptions were mentioned, few were measured, and the relationship between multiple outcomes was rarely assessed. Synthesizing the literature and drawing on ergonomic concepts, we present a sociotechnical model of interruptions in complex settings that motivates new directions in research and design. The model conceptualizes interruptions as a process, not a single event, that occurs within and is shaped by an interacting socio-technical system and that results in a variety of interrelated outcomes.

  10. Developing a systematic evaluation approach for training programs within a train-the-trainer model for youth cognitive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Brad J; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra; Okamura, Kelsie; Chang, Jaime; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this small pilot study was three-fold: (a) to begin development of a coding scheme for supervisor and therapist skill acquisition, (b) to preliminarily investigate a pilot train-the-trainer paradigm for skill development, and (c) to evaluate self-reported versus observed indicators of skill mastery in that pilot program. Participants included four supervisor-therapist dyads (N = 8) working with public mental health sector youth. Master trainers taught cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques to supervisors, who in turn trained therapists on these techniques. Supervisor and therapist skill acquisition and supervisor use of teaching strategies were repeatedly assessed through coding of scripted role-plays with a multiple-baseline across participants and behaviors design. The coding system, the Practice Element Train the Trainer - Supervisor/Therapist Versions of the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy, was developed and evaluated though the course of the investigation. The coding scheme demonstrated excellent reliability (ICCs [1,2] = 0.81-0.91) across 168 video recordings. As calculated through within-subject effect sizes, supervisor and therapist participants, respectively, evidenced skill improvements related to teaching and performing therapy techniques. Self-reported indicators of skill mastery were inflated in comparison to observed skill mastery. Findings lend initial support for further developing an evaluative approach for a train-the-trainer effort focused on disseminating evidence-based practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Usability in product design--the importance and need for systematic assessment models in product development--Usa-Design Model (U-D) ©.

    PubMed

    Merino, Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz; Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Schoenardie, Rodrigo Petry; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Diáz; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    In product design, human factors are considered as an element of differentiation given that today's consumer demands are increasing. Safety, wellbeing, satisfaction, health, effectiveness, efficiency, and other aspects must be effectively incorporated into the product development process. This work proposes a usability assessment model that can be incorporated as an assessment tool. The methodological approach is settled in two stages. First a literature review focus specifically on usability and developing user-centred products. After this, a model of usability named Usa-Design (U-D©) is presented. Consisted of four phases: understanding the use context, pre-preliminary usability assessment (efficiency/effectiveness/satisfaction); assessment of usability principles and results, U-D© features are modular and flexible, allowing principles used in Phase 3 to be changed according to the needs and scenario of each situation. With qualitative/quantitative measurement scales of easy understanding and application, the model results are viable and applicable throughout all the product development process.

  12. Systematic Error Modeling and Bias Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feihu; Knoll, Alois

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistic properties of the systematic error in terms of range and bearing during the transformation process. Furthermore, we rely on a weighted nonlinear least square method to calculate the biases based on the proposed models. The results show the high performance of the proposed approach for error modeling and bias estimation. PMID:27213386

  13. Systematic Error Modeling and Bias Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feihu; Knoll, Alois

    2016-05-19

    This paper analyzes the statistic properties of the systematic error in terms of range and bearing during the transformation process. Furthermore, we rely on a weighted nonlinear least square method to calculate the biases based on the proposed models. The results show the high performance of the proposed approach for error modeling and bias estimation.

  14. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-07-16

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network.

  15. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  16. Systematic Independent Validation of Inner Heliospheric Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, P. J.; Takakishvili, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is the first in a series which will provide independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. In this work we establish a set of measures to be used in validating this group of models. We use these procedures to generate a comprehensive set of results from the Wang- Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model which will be used as a baseline, or reference, against which to compare all other models. We also run a test of the validation procedures by applying them to a small set of results produced by the ENLIL Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. In future presentations we will validate other models currently hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center(CCMC), including a comprehensive validation of the ENLIL model. The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model is widely used to model the Solar wind, and is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth as much as four days into the future. Because it is so important to both the research and space weather forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically, and independently. In this paper we offer just such an independent and systematic validation. We report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and IMF polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests line of sight magnetograms. For this study we generated model results for monthly magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (SOLIS), Mount Wilson Observatory and the GONG network, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2068. We compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources, performance at quiet and active times, and estimate the effect of different empirical wind speed tunings. We also consider the ability of the WSA model to identify sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future

  17. [A systematic review of worldwide natural history models of colorectal cancer: classification, transition rate and a recommendation for developing Chinese population-specific model].

    PubMed

    Li, Z F; Huang, H Y; Shi, J F; Guo, C G; Zou, S M; Liu, C C; Wang, Y; Wang, L; Zhu, S L; Wu, S L; Dai, M

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To review the worldwide studies on natural history models among colorectal cancer (CRC), and to inform building a Chinese population-specific CRC model and developing a platform for further evaluation of CRC screening and other interventions in population in China. Methods: A structured literature search process was conducted in PubMed and the target publication dates were from January 1995 to December 2014. Information about classification systems on both colorectal cancer and precancer on corresponding transition rate, were extracted and summarized. Indicators were mainly expressed by the medians and ranges of annual progression or regression rate. Results: A total of 24 studies were extracted from 1 022 studies, most were from America (n=9), but 2 from China including 1 from the mainland area, mainly based on Markov model (n=22). Classification systems for adenomas included progression risk (n=9) and the sizes of adenoma (n=13, divided into two ways) as follows: 1) Based on studies where adenoma was risk-dependent, the median annual transition rates, from ' normal status' to ' non-advanced adenoma', 'non-advanced' to ' advanced' and ' advanced adenoma' to CRC were 0.016 0 (range: 0.002 2-0.020 0), 0.020 (range: 0.002-0.177) and 0.044 (range: 0.005-0.063), respectively. 2) Median annual transition rates, based on studies where adenoma were classified by sizes, into <10 mm and ≥10 mm (n=7), from ' normal' to adenoma <10 mm, from adenoma <10 mm to adenoma ≥10 mm and adenoma ≥ 10 mm to CRC, were 0.016 7 (range: 0.015 0-0.037 0), 0.020 (range: 0.015-0.035) and 0.040 0 (range: 0.008 5-0.050 0), respectively. 3) Median annual transition rates, based on studies where adenoma, were classified by sizes into diminutive (≤5 mm), small (6-9 mm) and large adenoma (≥10 mm) (n=6), from ' normal' to diminutive adenoma,'diminutive' to ' small','small' to ' large', and large adenoma to CRC were 0.013 (range: 0.009-0.019), 0.043 (range: 0.020-0.085), 0

  18. Systematic errors in strong lens modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Traci Lin; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2015-08-01

    The lensing community has made great strides in quantifying the statistical errors associated with strong lens modeling. However, we are just now beginning to understand the systematic errors. Quantifying these errors is pertinent to Frontier Fields science, as number counts and luminosity functions are highly sensitive to the value of the magnifications of background sources across the entire field of view. We are aware that models can be very different when modelers change their assumptions about the parameterization of the lensing potential (i.e., parametric vs. non-parametric models). However, models built while utilizing a single methodology can lead to inconsistent outcomes for different quantities, distributions, and qualities of redshift information regarding the multiple images used as constraints in the lens model. We investigate how varying the number of multiple image constraints and available redshift information of those constraints (ex., spectroscopic vs. photometric vs. no redshift) can influence the outputs of our parametric strong lens models, specifically, the mass distribution and magnifications of background sources. We make use of the simulated clusters by M. Meneghetti et al. and the first two Frontier Fields clusters, which have a high number of multiply imaged galaxies with spectroscopically-measured redshifts (or input redshifts, in the case of simulated clusters). This work will not only inform upon Frontier Field science, but also for work on the growing collection of strong lensing galaxy clusters, most of which are less massive and are capable of lensing a handful of galaxies, and are more prone to these systematic errors.

  19. Developing a library systematic review service: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Emilie; Downton, Katherine; Shipper, Andrea Goldstein; Fu, Yunting

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review searching is a standard job responsibility for many health sciences librarians. The strategies a library uses to market its expertise may affect the number of researchers requesting librarian assistance as well as how researchers perceive librarians as systematic review collaborators. This article describes how one health sciences library developed, launched, and promoted its systematic review service to researchers on campus.

  20. Antenna pointing systematic error model derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Lansing, F. L.; Riggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The pointing model used to represent and correct systematic errors for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas is presented. Analytical expressions are given in both azimuth-elevation (az-el) and hour angle-declination (ha-dec) mounts for RF axis collimation error, encoder offset, nonorthogonality of axes, axis plane tilt, and structural flexure due to gravity loading. While the residual pointing errors (rms) after correction appear to be within the ten percent of the half-power beamwidth criterion commonly set for good pointing accuracy, the DSN has embarked on an extensive pointing improvement and modeling program aiming toward an order of magnitude higher pointing precision.

  1. Systematic Problems With Stellar Halo Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    Stellar halos contain a small fraction of the stellar mass of a galaxy. The dynamic range required to model the substructure within this small component while simultaneously modeling the main galaxy is currently unobtainable, which has lead to the prevalence of stellar halo models that tag stellar content onto dark matter particles in pure dark matter simulations, making it computationally feasible (e.g. Bullock & Johnston 2005; Cooper et al. 2010). Using paired simulations with identical initial conditions, we estimate the magnitude of the systematic effects these simplifications have on the structure of the halos. We find that (1) "painting" and (2) neglecting baryonic processes each introduce factor-of-several changes to the amount of substructure predicted. We therefore urge caution when interpreting differences between models and observations that are at this level.

  2. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    PubMed

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.

  4. Animal models in surgical lymphedema research--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Florian S; Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Rezaeian, Farid; Menger, Michael D; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic secondary lymphedema is a well-known complication in oncologic surgery. Autologous lymph node transplantation, lymphovenous anastomosis, and other lymphatic surgeries have been developed in the last decades with rising clinical application. Animal models to explore the pathophysiology of lymphedema and microsurgical interventions have reached great popularity, although the induction of stable lymphedema in animals is still challenging. The aim of this review was to systematically assess lymphedema animal models and their potential use to study surgical interventions. A systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed without time or language restriction. Studies describing new or partially new models were included in chronological order. Models for primary and secondary lymphedema were assessed, and their potential for surgical procedures was evaluated. The systematic search yielded 8590 discrete articles. Of 180 articles included on basis of title, 84 were excluded after abstract review. Ninety-six were included in the final analysis with 24 key articles. No animal model is perfect, and many models show spontaneous lymphedema resolution. The rodent limb appears to be the most eligible animal model for experimental reconstruction of the lymphatic function as it is well accessible for vascularized tissue transfer. There is a need for standardized parameters in experimental lymphedema quantification. Also, more permanent models to study the effect of free vascularized lymph node transfer are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using data assimilation for systematic model improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Matthew S.; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Browne, Phil

    2016-04-01

    In Numerical Weather Prediction parameterisations are used to simulate missing physics in the model. These can be due to a lack of scientific understanding or a lack of computing power available to address all the known physical processes. Parameterisations are sources of large uncertainty in a model as parameter values used in these parameterisations cannot be measured directly and hence are often not well known, and the parameterisations themselves are approximations of the processes present in the true atmosphere. Whilst there are many efficient and effective methods for combined state/parameter estimation in data assimilation, such as state augmentation, these are not effective at estimating the structure of parameterisations. A new method of parameterisation estimation is proposed that uses sequential data assimilation methods to estimate errors in the numerical models at each space-time point for each model equation. These errors are then fitted to predetermined functional forms of missing physics or parameterisations, that are based upon prior information. The method picks out the functional form, or that combination of functional forms, that bests fits the error structure. The prior information typically takes the form of expert knowledge. We applied the method to a one-dimensional advection model with additive model error, and it is shown that the method can accurately estimate parameterisations, with consistent error estimates. It is also demonstrated that state augmentation is not successful. The results indicate that this new method is a powerful tool in systematic model improvement.

  6. Improved Systematic Pointing Error Model for the DSN Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Withington, Philip M.; Richter, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    New pointing models have been developed for large reflector antennas whose construction is founded on elevation over azimuth mount. At JPL, the new models were applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-meter antenna s subnet for corrections of their systematic pointing errors; it achieved significant improvement in performance at Ka-band (32-GHz) and X-band (8.4-GHz). The new models provide pointing improvements relative to the traditional models by a factor of two to three, which translate to approximately 3-dB performance improvement at Ka-band. For radio science experiments where blind pointing performance is critical, the new innovation provides a new enabling technology. The model extends the traditional physical models with higher-order mathematical terms, thereby increasing the resolution of the model for a better fit to the underlying systematic imperfections that are the cause of antenna pointing errors. The philosophy of the traditional model was that all mathematical terms in the model must be traced to a physical phenomenon causing antenna pointing errors. The traditional physical terms are: antenna axis tilts, gravitational flexure, azimuth collimation, azimuth encoder fixed offset, azimuth and elevation skew, elevation encoder fixed offset, residual refraction, azimuth encoder scale error, and antenna pointing de-rotation terms for beam waveguide (BWG) antennas. Besides the addition of spherical harmonics terms, the new models differ from the traditional ones in that the coefficients for the cross-elevation and elevation corrections are completely independent and may be different, while in the traditional model, some of the terms are identical. In addition, the new software allows for all-sky or mission-specific model development, and can utilize the previously used model as an a priori estimate for the development of the updated models.

  7. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-01-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  8. Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model.

    PubMed

    Insinga, Ralph P; Dasbach, Erik J; Elbasha, Elamin H

    2009-07-29

    Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs. The objectives of this study are to: (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context; (2) Identify areas where additional studies are particularly needed. Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts. Between October 2005 and January 2006, data were gathered from the published English language medical literature through a search of the PubMed database and references were examined from prior HPV natural history models and review papers. Study design and data quality from individual studies were compared and analyses meeting pre-defined criteria were selected. Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking. Epidemiologic evidence to support age-dependency in the risk of progression and regression of HPV disease was found to be weak, and an alternative hypothesis concerning the time-dependence of transition rates is explored. No data were found on the duration of immunity following HPV infection. In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer cases that become

  9. Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs. The objectives of this study are to: (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context; (2) Identify areas where additional studies are particularly needed. Methods Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts. Between October 2005 and January 2006, data were gathered from the published English language medical literature through a search of the PubMed database and references were examined from prior HPV natural history models and review papers. Study design and data quality from individual studies were compared and analyses meeting pre-defined criteria were selected. Results Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking. Epidemiologic evidence to support age-dependency in the risk of progression and regression of HPV disease was found to be weak, and an alternative hypothesis concerning the time-dependence of transition rates is explored. No data were found on the duration of immunity following HPV infection. In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer

  10. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW, were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystem. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base, and to assess the cooperation between the rule-bases. Each AUTOCREW subsystem is composed of several expert systems that perform specific tasks. AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR was analyzed in detail to understand the difficulties involved in designing the system and to identify tools and methodologies that ease development. The NAVIGATOR determines optimal navigation strategies from a set of available sensors. A Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) expert system was systematically designed from Kalman filter covariance data; four ground-based, a satellite-based, and two on-board INS-aiding sensors were modeled and simulated to aid an INS. The NSM Expert was developed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. Navigation strategy selection is based on an RSS position error decision metric, which is computed from the covariance data. Results show that the NSM Expert predicts position error correctly between 45 and 100 percent of the time for a specified navaid configuration and aircraft trajectory. The NSM Expert adapts to new situations, and provides reasonable estimates of hybrid performance. The systematic nature of the ANOVA/ID3 method makes it broadly applicable to expert system design when experimental or simulation data is available.

  11. Systematic reduction of a detailed atrial myocyte model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Daniel M.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a major health concern and often involve poorly understood mechanisms. Mathematical modeling is able to provide insights into these mechanisms which might result in better treatment options. A key element of this modeling is a description of the electrophysiological properties of cardiac cells. A number of electrophysiological models have been developed, ranging from highly detailed and complex models, containing numerous parameters and variables, to simplified models in which variables and parameters no longer directly correspond to electrophysiological quantities. In this study, we present a systematic reduction of the complexity of the detailed model of Koivumaki et al. using the recently developed manifold boundary approximation method. We reduce the original model, containing 42 variables and 37 parameters, to a model with only 11 variables and 5 parameters and show that this reduced model can accurately reproduce the action potential shape and restitution curve of the original model. The reduced model contains only five currents and all variables and parameters can be directly linked to electrophysiological quantities. Due to its reduction in complexity, simulation times of our model are decreased more than three-fold. Furthermore, fitting the reduced model to clinical data is much more efficient, a potentially important step towards patient-specific modeling.

  12. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no

    2013-04-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.

  13. Simulation models in population breast cancer screening: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koleva-Kolarova, Rositsa G; Zhan, Zhuozhao; Greuter, Marcel J W; Feenstra, Talitha L; De Bock, Geertruida H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review was to critically evaluate published simulation models for breast cancer screening of the general population and provide a direction for future modeling. A systematic literature search was performed to identify simulation models with more than one application. A framework for qualitative assessment which incorporated model type; input parameters; modeling approach, transparency of input data sources/assumptions, sensitivity analyses and risk of bias; validation, and outcomes was developed. Predicted mortality reduction (MR) and cost-effectiveness (CE) were compared to estimates from meta-analyses of randomized control trials (RCTs) and acceptability thresholds. Seven original simulation models were distinguished, all sharing common input parameters. The modeling approach was based on tumor progression (except one model) with internal and cross validation of the resulting models, but without any external validation. Differences in lead times for invasive or non-invasive tumors, and the option for cancers not to progress were not explicitly modeled. The models tended to overestimate the MR (11-24%) due to screening as compared to optimal RCTs 10% (95% CI - 2-21%) MR. Only recently, potential harms due to regular breast cancer screening were reported. Most scenarios resulted in acceptable cost-effectiveness estimates given current thresholds. The selected models have been repeatedly applied in various settings to inform decision making and the critical analysis revealed high risk of bias in their outcomes. Given the importance of the models, there is a need for externally validated models which use systematical evidence for input data to allow for more critical evaluation of breast cancer screening.

  14. Microenterprise Development Interventions for Sexual Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies. PMID:23963497

  15. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation <33 wks) and identify neonatal and family predictors. Peer-reviewed original articles were extracted from PubMed and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria included children born VPT and comparison children born at term, sample born after 1990, and children assessed between 0 and 17 years on at least one measure of social competence spanning social adjustment, performance, and/or social skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  16. A systematic development process for patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including

  17. Systematic Uncertainties in High-Energy Hadronic Interaction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, M.; Knapp, J.; Ostapchenko, S.

    2003-07-01

    Hadronic interaction models for cosmic ray energies are uncertain since our knowledge of hadronic interactions is extrap olated from accelerator experiments at much lower energies. At present most high-energy models are based on Grib ov-Regge theory of multi-Pomeron exchange, which provides a theoretical framework to evaluate cross-sections and particle production. While experimental data constrain some of the model parameters, others are not well determined and are therefore a source of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we evaluate the variation of results obtained with the QGSJET model, when modifying parameters relating to three ma jor sources of uncertainty: the form of the parton structure function, the role of diffractive interactions, and the string hadronisation. Results on inelastic cross sections, on secondary particle production and on the air shower development are discussed.

  18. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene

    2017-04-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/) is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/CW-articles.php). This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  19. Application of high-throughput mini-bioreactor system for systematic scale-down modeling, process characterization, and control strategy development.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput systems and processes have typically been targeted for process development and optimization in the bioprocessing industry. For process characterization, bench scale bioreactors have been the system of choice. Due to the need for performing different process conditions for multiple process parameters, the process characterization studies typically span several months and are considered time and resource intensive. In this study, we have shown the application of a high-throughput mini-bioreactor system viz. the Advanced Microscale Bioreactor (ambr15(TM) ), to perform process characterization in less than a month and develop an input control strategy. As a pre-requisite to process characterization, a scale-down model was first developed in the ambr system (15 mL) using statistical multivariate analysis techniques that showed comparability with both manufacturing scale (15,000 L) and bench scale (5 L). Volumetric sparge rates were matched between ambr and manufacturing scale, and the ambr process matched the pCO2 profiles as well as several other process and product quality parameters. The scale-down model was used to perform the process characterization DoE study and product quality results were generated. Upon comparison with DoE data from the bench scale bioreactors, similar effects of process parameters on process yield and product quality were identified between the two systems. We used the ambr data for setting action limits for the critical controlled parameters (CCPs), which were comparable to those from bench scale bioreactor data. In other words, the current work shows that the ambr15(TM) system is capable of replacing the bench scale bioreactor system for routine process development and process characterization.

  20. Modelling the transmission of healthcare associated infections: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field. This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL plus and Global Health databases were systematically searched for dynamic mathematical models of HCAI transmission and/or the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings. Results In total, 96 papers met the eligibility criteria. The main research themes considered were evaluation of infection control effectiveness (64%), variability in transmission routes (7%), the impact of movement patterns between healthcare institutes (5%), the development of antimicrobial resistance (3%), and strain competitiveness or co-colonisation with different strains (3%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly modelled HCAI (34%), followed by vancomycin resistant enterococci (16%). Other common HCAIs, e.g. Clostridum difficile, were rarely investigated (3%). Very few models have been published on HCAI from low or middle-income countries. The first HCAI model has looked at antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings using compartmental deterministic approaches. Stochastic models (which include the role of chance in the transmission process) are becoming increasingly common. Model calibration (inference of unknown parameters by fitting models to data) and sensitivity analysis are comparatively uncommon, occurring in 35% and 36% of studies respectively, but their application is increasing. Only 5% of models compared their predictions to external data. Conclusions Transmission models have been used to understand complex systems and to predict the impact of control policies. Methods have generally improved, with an increased use of stochastic models, and

  1. Modelling the transmission of healthcare associated infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Esther; Robotham, Julie V; Jit, Mark; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, William J

    2013-06-28

    Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field. This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL plus and Global Health databases were systematically searched for dynamic mathematical models of HCAI transmission and/or the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings. In total, 96 papers met the eligibility criteria. The main research themes considered were evaluation of infection control effectiveness (64%), variability in transmission routes (7%), the impact of movement patterns between healthcare institutes (5%), the development of antimicrobial resistance (3%), and strain competitiveness or co-colonisation with different strains (3%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly modelled HCAI (34%), followed by vancomycin resistant enterococci (16%). Other common HCAIs, e.g. Clostridum difficile, were rarely investigated (3%). Very few models have been published on HCAI from low or middle-income countries.The first HCAI model has looked at antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings using compartmental deterministic approaches. Stochastic models (which include the role of chance in the transmission process) are becoming increasingly common. Model calibration (inference of unknown parameters by fitting models to data) and sensitivity analysis are comparatively uncommon, occurring in 35% and 36% of studies respectively, but their application is increasing. Only 5% of models compared their predictions to external data. Transmission models have been used to understand complex systems and to predict the impact of control policies. Methods have generally improved, with an increased use of stochastic models, and more advanced methods for formal model

  2. Systematic approach for modeling tetrachloroethene biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, D.M.

    1998-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a reasonably well understood process. Specific organisms capable of using PCE as an electron acceptor for growth require the addition of an electron donor to remove PCE from contaminated ground waters. However, competition from other anaerobic microorganisms for added electron donor will influence the rate and completeness of PCE degradation. The approach developed here allows for the explicit modeling of PCE and byproduct biodegradation as a function of electron donor and byproduct concentrations, and the microbiological ecology of the system. The approach is general and can be easily modified for ready use with in situ ground-water models or ex situ reactor models. Simulations conducted with models developed from this approach show the sensitivity of PCE biodegradation to input parameter values, in particular initial biomass concentrations. Additionally, the dechlorination rate will be strongly influenced by the microbial ecology of the system. Finally, comparison with experimental acclimation results indicates that existing kinetic constants may not be generally applicable. Better techniques for measuring the biomass of specific organisms groups in mixed systems are required.

  3. Systematic, Systemic and Motivating: The K-12 Career Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Deborah; Jackson, Sherry

    2006-01-01

    In Butler County, Ohio, Butler Technology and Career Development Schools (Butler Tech) firmly believes that systematic delivery of career development theory and practice integrated with academic content standards will enable students to do all of the above. Because of this, Butler Tech's Career Initiatives division delivers a countywide career…

  4. Systematic botany: Science to develop language facility.

    PubMed

    Carter, C G

    1990-01-01

    Classification is a fundamental skill that impacts on our abilities to read and to write text. The structure and sequence inherent in the science of taxonomy can be used as the basis for instruction in reading comprehension and in writing. The use of concrete, readily manipulated materials enhances vocabulary development by allowing the teacher to label objects and processes as the student experiences them. There are numerous activities which can be employed to enrich experiential learning; these can be directly related to reading and writing exercises. Processes learned with simple materials can be generalized to more abstract content as the students' proficiency improves. The instructor can control the level of difficulty of the class by writing or selecting materials appropriate to the skills levels of the students involved. Language facility is developed as students progress from the known to the less well known in a series of carefully constructed steps.

  5. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: I. Theory and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a project that proposes and tests a comprehensive and systematic model of user evaluation of Web search engines. This article describes the model, including a set of criteria and measures and a method for implementation. A literature review portrays settings for developing the model and places applications of the model in contemporary…

  6. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Results Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Conclusions Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system. PMID:21114840

  7. Systematics of the models of immune response and autoimmune disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1990-05-01

    A dynamical model of normal immune response has been formulated in terms of cellular automata by Kaufman et al. We generalize this model incorporating the antigens as a dynamical variable. This generalized model not only describes the kinetics of primary and secondary responses of humoral immunity, together with the appropriate memory cells, but also describes the vaccinated state as well as the states of low-dose and high-dose paralysis. Recently models of autoimmune response have also been developed in terms of discrete automata. But the models are underdetermined by the experimental facts, i.e., several models can account for the same set of observed biological facts. With an aim to find out how large this underdeterminacy is and how it can be reduced systematically, we have carried out an exhaustive computer-aided search of all those discrete three-cell and five-cell models of autoimmune response which at present cannot be ruled out by the existing biological informations. Out of the 325 possible five-cell models, only one fulfilled our criteria. We also carried out simulations of the dynamics of some of these models on a discrete lattice. We discuss the relevance of random interactions in the context of autoimmune disease.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Risk assessment is a crucial component of the site remediation decision-making process. Some current EPA methods do not have detection limits low enough for risk assessment of many VOCs (e.g., EPA Region 3 Risk Based Concentration levels, EPA Region 9 Preliminary Remediation Goals, state-specified concentration levels). The magnitude of this problem was described in a paper recently presented at a University of Massachusetts Remediation Conference with the conclusion that the resolution of this issue is critical for valid human health and ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the difficulty of obtaining complete extraction of water-soluble VOCs and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) makes the generation of reliable and reproducible data a serious concern in site characterization and risk assessment programs.This poster presents findings of the development of an analytical method which uses thermal desorption combined with dual gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to extract and accurately measure low levels of VOCs and SVOCs in soil and sediment samples with medium to high moisture content. Thermal extraction was selected for examination because the technique is simpler and more efficient than the present EPA purge-and-trap methods, and all water-soluble compounds are amenable to the procedure. Efforts were made to modify commonly used instrumentation (e.g., Archon

  9. A Systematic Approach for Developing Bacteria-Specific Imaging Tracers.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Alvaro A; Weinstein, Edward A; Bambarger, Lauren E; Saini, Vikram; Chang, Yong S; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah H; Urbanowski, Michael E; Moulton, Kimberly L; Murawski, Allison M; Pokkali, Supriya; Kalinda, Alvin S; Jain, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    The modern patient is increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections including those due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Noninvasive whole-body analysis with pathogen-specific imaging technologies can significantly improve patient outcomes by rapidly identifying a source of infection and monitoring the response to treatment, but no such technology exists clinically. We systematically screened 961 random radiolabeled molecules in silico as substrates for essential metabolic pathways in bacteria, followed by in vitro uptake in representative bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mycobacteria. Fluorine-labeled analogs, that could be developed as PET-based imaging tracers, were evaluated in a murine myositis model. We identified 3 novel, nontoxic molecules demonstrating selective bacterial uptake: para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), with uptake in all representative bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mannitol, with selective uptake in S. aureus and E. coli; and sorbitol, accumulating only in E. coli None accumulated in mammalian cells or heat-killed bacteria, suggesting metabolism-derived specificity. In addition to an extended bacterial panel of laboratory strains, all 3 molecules rapidly accumulated in respective clinical isolates of interest including MDROs such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In a murine myositis model, fluorine-labeled analogs of all 3 molecules could rapidly detect and differentiate infection sites from sterile inflammation in mice (P = 0.03). Finally, 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-d-sorbitol ((18)F-FDS) can be easily synthesized from (18)F-FDG. PET, with (18)F-FDS synthesized using current good manufacturing practice, could rapidly differentiate true infection from sterile inflammation to selectively localize E. coli infection in mice. We have developed a systematic approach that exploits unique

  10. Systematic multiscale models for deep convection on mesoscales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Rupert; Majda, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    This paper builds on recent developments of a unified asymptotic approach to meteorological modeling [ZAMM, 80: 765 777, 2000, SIAM Proc. App. Math. 116, 227 289, 2004], which was used successfully in the development of Systematic multiscale models for the tropics in Majda and Klein [J. Atmosph. Sci. 60: 393 408, 2003] and Majda and Biello [PNAS, 101: 4736 4741, 2004]. Biello and Majda [J. Atmosph. Sci. 62: 1694 1720, 2005]. Here we account for typical bulk microphysics parameterizations of moist processes within this framework. The key steps are careful nondimensionalization of the bulk microphysics equations and the choice of appropriate distinguished limits for the various nondimensional small parameters that appear. We are then in a position to study scale interactions in the atmosphere involving moist physics. We demonstrate this by developing two systematic multiscale models that are motivated by our interest in mesoscale organized convection. The emphasis here is on multiple length scales but common time scales. The first of these models describes the short-time evolution of slender, deep convective hot towers with horizontal scale ~ 1 km interacting with the linearized momentum balance on length and time scales of (10 km/3 min). We expect this model to describe how convective inhibition may be overcome near the surface, how the onset of deep convection triggers convective-scale gravity waves, and that it will also yield new insight into how such local convective events may conspire to create larger-scale strong storms. The second model addresses the next larger range of length and time scales (10 km, 100 km, and 20 min) and exhibits mathematical features that are strongly reminiscent of mesoscale organized convection. In both cases, the asymptotic analysis reveals how the stiffness of condensation/evaporation processes induces highly nonlinear dynamics. Besides providing new theoretical insights, the derived models may also serve as a theoretical devices

  11. Systematic Product Development of Control and Diagnosis Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the scientific field of systematic product development a wide range of helpful methods, guidelines and tools were generated and published in recent years. Until now little special attention was given to design guidelines aiming at supporting product development engineers to design products that allow and support control or diagnosis functions. The general trend to ubiquitous computing and the first development steps towards cognitive systems as well as a general trend toward higher product safety, reliability and reduced total cost of ownership (TCO) in many engineering fields lead to a higher importance of control and diagnosis. In this paper a first attempt is made to formulate general valid guidelines how products can be developed in order to allow and to achieve effective and efficient control and diagnosis. The guidelines are elucidated on the example of an automated guided vehicle. One main concern of this paper is the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of systematic product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The paper starts with a background describing Systematic Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part clarifies the notions monitoring, control and diagnosis. The following parts summarize some insights and formulate first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Systematic Product Development.

  12. Systematic assignment of thermodynamic constraints in metabolic network models

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Anne; Panke, Sven; Heinemann, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Background The availability of genome sequences for many organisms enabled the reconstruction of several genome-scale metabolic network models. Currently, significant efforts are put into the automated reconstruction of such models. For this, several computational tools have been developed that particularly assist in identifying and compiling the organism-specific lists of metabolic reactions. In contrast, the last step of the model reconstruction process, which is the definition of the thermodynamic constraints in terms of reaction directionalities, still needs to be done manually. No computational method exists that allows for an automated and systematic assignment of reaction directions in genome-scale models. Results We present an algorithm that – based on thermodynamics, network topology and heuristic rules – automatically assigns reaction directions in metabolic models such that the reaction network is thermodynamically feasible with respect to the production of energy equivalents. It first exploits all available experimentally derived Gibbs energies of formation to identify irreversible reactions. As these thermodynamic data are not available for all metabolites, in a next step, further reaction directions are assigned on the basis of network topology considerations and thermodynamics-based heuristic rules. Briefly, the algorithm identifies reaction subsets from the metabolic network that are able to convert low-energy co-substrates into their high-energy counterparts and thus net produce energy. Our algorithm aims at disabling such thermodynamically infeasible cyclic operation of reaction subnetworks by assigning reaction directions based on a set of thermodynamics-derived heuristic rules. We demonstrate our algorithm on a genome-scale metabolic model of E. coli. The introduced systematic direction assignment yielded 130 irreversible reactions (out of 920 total reactions), which corresponds to about 70% of all irreversible reactions that are required to

  13. Path integration mediated systematic search: a Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Vickerstaff, Robert J; Merkle, Tobias

    2012-08-21

    The systematic search behaviour is a backup system that increases the chances of desert ants finding their nest entrance after foraging when the path integrator has failed to guide them home accurately enough. Here we present a mathematical model of the systematic search that is based on extensive behavioural studies in North African desert ants Cataglyphis fortis. First, a simple search heuristic utilising Bayesian inference and a probability density function is developed. This model, which optimises the short-term nest detection probability, is then compared to three simpler search heuristics and to recorded search patterns of Cataglyphis ants. To compare the different searches a method to quantify search efficiency is established as well as an estimate of the error rate in the ants' path integrator. We demonstrate that the Bayesian search heuristic is able to automatically adapt to increasing levels of positional uncertainty to produce broader search patterns, just as desert ants do, and that it outperforms the three other search heuristics tested. The searches produced by it are also arguably the most similar in appearance to the ant's searches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benzo[e]pyrimido[5,4-b][1,4]diazepin-6(11H)-one derivatives as Aurora A kinase inhibitors: LQTA-QSAR analysis and detailed systematic validation of the developed model.

    PubMed

    Kanhed, Ashish M; Dash, Radha Charan; Parmar, Nishant; Das, Tarun Kumar; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-11-01

    Aurora kinases are sub-divided into Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C kinases that are considered as prospective targets for a new class of anticancer drugs. In this work, a 4-D-QSAR model using an LQTA-QSAR approach with previously reported 31 derivatives of benzo[e]pyrimido[5,4 -b][1,4]diazepin -6(11H)-one as potent Aurora kinase A inhibitors has been created. Instead of single conformation, the conformational ensemble profile generated for each ligand by using trajectories and topology information retrieved from molecular dynamics simulations from GROMACS package were aligned and used for the calculation of intermolecular interaction energies at each grid point. The descriptors generated on the basis of these Coulomb and Lennard-Jones potentials as independent variables were used to perform a PLS analysis using biological activity as dependent variable. A good predictive model was generated with nine field descriptors and five latent variables. The model showed [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. This model was further validated systematically by using different validation parameters. This 4D-QSAR model gave valuable information to recognize features essential to adapt and develop novel potential Aurora kinase inhibitors.

  15. A systematic review of predictive modeling for bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Gesteland, Per H; Glasgow, Tiffany S; Stone, Bryan L

    2014-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of illness leading to hospitalization in young children. At present, many bronchiolitis management decisions are made subjectively, leading to significant practice variation among hospitals and physicians caring for children with bronchiolitis. To standardize care for bronchiolitis, researchers have proposed various models to predict the disease course to help determine a proper management plan. This paper reviews the existing state of the art of predictive modeling for bronchiolitis. Predictive modeling for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is covered whenever appropriate, as RSV accounts for about 70% of bronchiolitis cases. A systematic review was conducted through a PubMed search up to April 25, 2014. The literature on predictive modeling for bronchiolitis was retrieved using a comprehensive search query, which was developed through an iterative process. Search results were limited to human subjects, the English language, and children (birth to 18 years). The literature search returned 2312 references in total. After manual review, 168 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in this paper. We identify several limitations and open problems in predictive modeling for bronchiolitis, and provide some preliminary thoughts on how to address them, with the hope to stimulate future research in this domain. Many problems remain open in predictive modeling for bronchiolitis. Future studies will need to address them to achieve optimal predictive models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of uncertainty and systematic errors in hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsland, I.; Engeland, K.; Johansen, S. S.; Øverleir-Petersen, A.; Kolberg, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The aims of hydrological model identification and calibration are to find the best possible set of process parametrization and parameter values that transform inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperature) to outputs (e.g. streamflow). These models enable us to make predictions of streamflow. Several sources of uncertainties have the potential to hamper the possibility of a robust model calibration and identification. In order to grasp the interaction between model parameters, inputs and streamflow, it is important to account for both systematic and random errors in inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperatures) and streamflows. By random errors we mean errors that are independent from time step to time step whereas by systematic errors we mean errors that persists for a longer period. Both random and systematic errors are important in the observation and interpolation of precipitation and temperature inputs. Important random errors comes from the measurements themselves and from the network of gauges. Important systematic errors originate from the under-catch in precipitation gauges and from unknown spatial trends that are approximated in the interpolation. For streamflow observations, the water level recordings might give random errors whereas the rating curve contributes mainly with a systematic error. In this study we want to answer the question "What is the effect of random and systematic errors in inputs and observed streamflow on estimated model parameters and streamflow predictions?". To answer we test systematically the effect of including uncertainties in inputs and streamflow during model calibration and simulation in distributed HBV model operating on daily time steps for the Osali catchment in Norway. The case study is based on observations from, uncertainty carefullt quantified, and increased uncertainties and systmatical errors are done realistically by for example removing a precipitation gauge from the network.We find that the systematical errors in

  17. Systematic Characterization of Cyclogenesis in High Resolution Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Rao, P.; Kashinath, K.; Prabhat, M.; O'Brien, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we develop a systematic methodology to analyze cyclogenesis in high resolution climate model simulations. The motivation for this study is to understand how cyclones develop in simulations with the objective of improving the theoretical foundations of cyclogenesis. We use the toolkit for extreme climate analysis (TECA) [Prabhat et al., ICCS 2012] to detect and track cyclones (TCs) in recent high resolution simulations (25km) of current day and climate change scenarios [Wehner et al, J Climate 2015], as well as reanalyses. We systematically adjust the tracking criteria to identify developing and non-developing TCs. The detection and tracking criteria are based on (i) the local relative vorticity maximum being above a certain value, (ii) the colocation of vorticity maximum, surface pressure minimum and warm core temperature maximum, (iii) surface pressure gradient around the storm center to be above a certain value, and (iv) temperature gradient around the warm core center to be above a certain value. To identify non-developing TCs, we systematically characterize the sensitivity of cyclone detection to these criteria using a principal component analysis on the criteria. First, we composite vorticity, pressure and temperature fields around the start of each cyclone's trajectory. Second, we find the covariance of pairs of thresholded variables, for example, vorticity and pressure gradient. Finally, we construct a cross-correlation matrix with these covariances and find the eigenvectors. The eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue describes the direction of maximum sensitivity.We simultaneously lower thresholds along the direction of maximum sensitivity, which results in an increase in the number of TC-like systems and trajectory lengths compared to the baseline case. We contrast the behavior of developing and non-developing TCs by constructing multivariate joint PDFs of various environmental conditions along their trajectories. We also compute

  18. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  19. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  20. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews. PMID:24050381

  1. Risk prediction models for contrast induced nephropathy: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Samuel A; Shah, Prakesh M; Chertow, Glenn M; Wald, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To look at the available literature on validated prediction models for contrast induced nephropathy and describe their characteristics. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline, Embase, and CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature) databases. Review methods Databases searched from inception to 2015, and the retrieved reference lists hand searched. Dual reviews were conducted to identify studies published in the English language of prediction models tested with patients that included derivation and validation cohorts. Data were extracted on baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modelling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness. Eligible studies evaluated characteristics of predictive models that identified patients at risk of contrast induced nephropathy among adults undergoing a diagnostic or interventional procedure using conventional radiocontrast media (media used for computed tomography or angiography, and not gadolinium based contrast). Results 16 studies were identified, describing 12 prediction models. Substantial interstudy heterogeneity was identified, as a result of different clinical settings, cointerventions, and the timing of creatinine measurement to define contrast induced nephropathy. Ten models were validated internally and six were validated externally. Discrimination varied in studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.61-0.95) and externally (0.57-0.86). Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of higher performing models included measures of pre-existing chronic kidney disease, age, diabetes, heart failure or impaired ejection fraction, and hypotension or shock. No prediction model evaluated its effect on clinical decision making or patient outcomes. Conclusions Most predictive models for contrast induced nephropathy in clinical use have modest ability, and are only relevant to patients receiving contrast for

  2. Systematic review of risk prediction models for falls after stroke.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mary E; Horgan, N Frances; Walsh, Cathal D; Galvin, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity after stroke. The aim of this review was to identify, critically appraise and summarise risk prediction models for the occurrence of falling after stroke. A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2014 and repeated in June 2015. Studies that used multivariable analysis to build risk prediction models for falls early after stroke were included. 2 reviewers independently assessed methodological quality. Data relating to model calibration, discrimination (C-statistic) and clinical utility (sensitivity and specificity) were extracted. A narrative review of models was conducted. PROSPERO reference: CRD42014015612. The 12 included articles presented 18 risk prediction models. 7 studies predicted falls among inpatients only and 5 recorded falls in the community. Methodological quality was variable. A C-statistic was reported for 7 models and values ranged from 0.62 to 0.87. Models for use in the inpatient setting most frequently included measures of hemi-inattention, while those predicting community events included falls (or near-falls) history and balance measures most commonly. Only 2 studies reported any form of validation, and none presented a validated model with acceptable performance. A number of falls-risk prediction models have been developed for use in the acute and subacute stages of stroke. Future research should focus on validating and improving existing models, with reference to the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines to ensure quality reporting and expedite clinical implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    PubMed

    Lizio, Marina; Deviatiiarov, Ruslan; Nagai, Hiroki; Galan, Laura; Arner, Erik; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Kasukawa, Takeya; Hasegawa, Akira; Ros, Marian A; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Gusev, Oleg; Sheng, Guojun

    2017-09-01

    Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs) and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM]) were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals). By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic manipulation, our work

  4. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF AN ANISOTROPIC UNIVERSE MODEL: SYSTEMATICS AND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Ackerman, Lotty; Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.n E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.n

    2010-10-10

    We revisit the anisotropic universe model previously developed by Ackerman, Carroll, and Wise (ACW), and generalize both the theoretical and computational framework to include polarization and various forms of systematic effects. We apply our new tools to simulated Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data in order to understand the potential impact of asymmetric beams, noise misestimation, and potential zodiacal light emission. We find that neither has any significant impact on the results. We next show that the previously reported ACW signal is also present in the one-year WMAP temperature sky map presented by Liu and Li, where data cuts are more aggressive. Finally, we re-analyze the five-year WMAP data taking into account a previously neglected (-i){sup l-l'}-term in the signal covariance matrix. We still find a strong detection of a preferred direction in the temperature map. Including multipoles up to l = 400, the anisotropy amplitude for the W band is found to be g = 0.29 {+-} 0.031, nonzero at 9{sigma}. However, the corresponding preferred direction is also shifted very close to the ecliptic poles at (l, b) = (96, 30), in agreement with the analysis of Hanson and Lewis, indicating that the signal is aligned along the plane of the solar system. This strongly suggests that the signal is not of cosmological origin, but most likely is a product of an unknown systematic effect. Determining the nature of the systematic effect is of vital importance, as it might affect other cosmological conclusions from the WMAP experiment. Finally, we provide a forecast for the Planck experiment including polarization.

  5. A systematic review of strong gravitational lens modeling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefor, Alan T.; Futamase, Toshifumi; Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Despite expanding research activity in gravitational lens modeling, there is no particular software which is considered a standard. Much of the gravitational lens modeling software is written by individual investigators for their own use. Some gravitational lens modeling software is freely available for download but is widely variable with regard to ease of use and quality of documentation. This review of 13 software packages was undertaken to provide a single source of information. Gravitational lens models are classified as parametric models or non-parametric models, and can be further divided into research and educational software. Software used in research includes the GRAVLENS package (with both gravlens and lensmodel), Lenstool, LensPerfect, glafic, PixeLens, SimpLens, Lensview, and GRALE. In this review, GravLensHD, G-Lens, Gravitational Lensing, lens and MOWGLI are categorized as educational programs that are useful for demonstrating various aspects of lensing. Each of the 13 software packages is reviewed with regard to software features (installation, documentation, files provided, etc.) and lensing features (type of model, input data, output data, etc.) as well as a brief review of studies where they have been used. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of strong gravitational lensing data for mass mapping, and suggest increased use of these techniques in the future. Coupled with the advent of greatly improved imaging, new approaches to modeling of strong gravitational lens systems are needed. This is the first systematic review of strong gravitational lens modeling software, providing investigators with a starting point for future software development to further advance gravitational lens modeling research. http://www.ephysics.org/mowgli/

  6. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    PubMed Central

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

  7. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  8. Three Models for the Curriculum Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James

    1973-01-01

    Presents descriptions of the management, systematic, and open-access curriculum development models to identify the decisionmaking bases, operational processes, evaluation requirements, and curriculum control methods of each model. A possible relationship among these models is then suggested. (Author/DN)

  9. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohini; Dent, Tom; Meads, Catherine; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes and inform selection and implementation of these in practice. Design Systematic review using standard (quantitative) and realist (mainly qualitative) methodology. Inclusion criteria Papers in any language describing the development or external validation, or both, of models and scores to predict the risk of an adult developing type 2 diabetes. Data sources Medline, PreMedline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. Included studies were citation tracked in Google Scholar to identify follow-on studies of usability or impact. Data extraction Data were extracted on statistical properties of models, details of internal or external validation, and use of risk scores beyond the studies that developed them. Quantitative data were tabulated to compare model components and statistical properties. Qualitative data were analysed thematically to identify mechanisms by which use of the risk model or score might improve patient outcomes. Results 8864 titles were scanned, 115 full text papers considered, and 43 papers included in the final sample. These described the prospective development or validation, or both, of 145 risk prediction models and scores, 94 of which were studied in detail here. They had been tested on 6.88 million participants followed for up to 28 years. Heterogeneity of primary studies precluded meta-analysis. Some but not all risk models or scores had robust statistical properties (for example, good discrimination and calibration) and had been externally validated on a different population. Genetic markers added nothing to models over clinical and sociodemographic factors. Most authors described their score as “simple” or “easily implemented,” although few were specific about the intended users and under what circumstances. Ten mechanisms were identified by which measuring diabetes risk might improve outcomes. Follow-on studies that applied a risk score as part of an

  10. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  11. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code

  12. Systematic training model for teaching, development and training of instructors in inguinal hernia treatment using the Lichtenstein technique. Hernia campaign 2014 & 2015.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini-Mendes, Carlos José; Pacheco, Adhemar Monteiro; Destro, Bárbara Bozzoli; Tamaro, Caroline; Nogueira, Fábio Antonio Del Picchia DE Araújo; Chen, David; Reinpold, Wolfgang; Bruscagin, Vitor; Roll, Sergio; Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the method of training and continuing education of 18 surgeons in 2014, and 28 surgeons in 2015, in the Holy Homes of Ribeirao Preto, Araraquara, Franca and San Carlos of São Paulo, in the performance of Lichtenstein inguinal herniorrhaphy, tutored by the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the São Paulo Holy Home and the organization HERNIA HELP - "Hernia Repair for the Underserved". the training was tutored and systematized through an active methodology of teaching and learning, aiming to offer competence, skills and attitudes, measured by a previously validated Qualification Form, qualifying leaders in trainees' improvement. in 2014 the outcomes were: the difficulty of the case, direction, incision, dissection, mesh preparation, mesh cutting, mesh setting, closing, instruments, respect to tissues, flow, time and motion, and performance, all presented change in the general rating (p=0.000002); there was greater confidence in the execution of the procedure in 80% of trainees, considered "very valuable" in 93.3% of the interventions. In 2015, 28 surgeons were trained by ten surgeons previously qualified in 2014. The nerve identification rate, a relevant time the Lichtenstein technique, was 95.5% for the Iliohypogastric, 98.5% for the ilioinguinal and 89.4% for the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. the applied teaching method is possible, reproducible, reliable and valid. The joint efforts offer enormous opportunity of directed education, reaching underserved populations, revealing the great teacher-student social responsibility. avaliar resultados do método de treinamento e educação continuada de 18 cirurgiões, em 2014, e 28 cirurgiões, em 2015, nas Santas Casas de Ribeirão Preto, Araraquara, Franca e São Carlos do Estado de São Paulo, na realização da Herniorrafia Inguinal à Lichtenstein, tutorados pela Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo e pela organização HERNIA HELP - "Hernia Repair for the Underserved

  13. PARAGON: A Systematic, Integrated Approach to Aerosol Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Braverman, Amy J.; Davies, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Menzies, Robert T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Seinfeld, John H.; Anderson, Theodore L.; Charlson, Robert J.; Bosenberg, Jens; Collins, William D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Holben, Brent N.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Miller, Mark A.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Ogren, John A.; Penner, Joyce E.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Torres, Omar; Travis, Larry D.; Yu, Bin

    2004-01-01

    Aerosols are generated and transformed by myriad processes operating across many spatial and temporal scales. Evaluation of climate models and their sensitivity to changes, such as in greenhouse gas abundances, requires quantifying natural and anthropogenic aerosol forcings and accounting for other critical factors, such as cloud feedbacks. High accuracy is required to provide sufficient sensitivity to perturbations, separate anthropogenic from natural influences, and develop confidence in inputs used to support policy decisions. Although many relevant data sources exist, the aerosol research community does not currently have the means to combine these diverse inputs into an integrated data set for maximum scientific benefit. Bridging observational gaps, adapting to evolving measurements, and establishing rigorous protocols for evaluating models are necessary, while simultaneously maintaining consistent, well understood accuracies. The Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) concept represents a systematic, integrated approach to global aerosol Characterization, bringing together modern measurement and modeling techniques, geospatial statistics methodologies, and high-performance information technologies to provide the machinery necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding of how aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative processes impact the Earth system. We outline a framework for integrating and interpreting observations and models and establishing an accurate, consistent and cohesive long-term data record.

  14. PARAGON: A Systematic, Integrated Approach to Aerosol Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Braverman, Amy J.; Davies, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Menzies, Robert T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Seinfeld, John H.; Anderson, Theodore L.; Charlson, Robert J.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Aerosols are generated and transformed by myriad processes operating across many spatial and temporal scales. Evaluation of climate models and their sensitivity to changes, such as in greenhouse gas abundances, requires quantifying natural and anthropogenic aerosol forcings and accounting for other critical factors, such as cloud feedbacks. High accuracy is required to provide sufficient sensitivity to perturbations, separate anthropogenic from natural influences, and develop confidence in inputs used to support policy decisions. Although many relevant data sources exist, the aerosol research community does not currently have the means to combine these diverse inputs into an integrated data set for maximum scientific benefit. Bridging observational gaps, adapting to evolving measurements, and establishing rigorous protocols for evaluating models are necessary, while simultaneously maintaining consistent, well understood accuracies. The Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) concept represents a systematic, integrated approach to global aerosol Characterization, bringing together modern measurement and modeling techniques, geospatial statistics methodologies, and high-performance information technologies to provide the machinery necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding of how aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative processes impact the Earth system. We outline a framework for integrating and interpreting observations and models and establishing an accurate, consistent and cohesive long-term data record.

  15. Alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robyn A; Conway, Aaron; Poulsen, Vanessa; Keech, Wendy; Tirimacco, Rosy; Tideman, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The traditional hospital-based model of cardiac rehabilitation faces substantial challenges, such as cost and accessibility. These challenges have led to the development of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify and critique evidence for the effectiveness of these alternative models. A total of 22 databases were searched to identify quantitative studies or systematic reviews of quantitative studies regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation. Included studies were appraised using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's designations for Level of Evidence. The 83 included articles described interventions in the following broad categories of alternative models of care: multifactorial individualized telehealth, internet based, telehealth focused on exercise, telehealth focused on recovery, community- or home-based, and complementary therapies. Multifactorial individualized telehealth and community- or home-based cardiac rehabilitation are effective alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, as they have produced similar reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with hospital-based programmes. While further research is required to address the paucity of data available regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in rural, remote, and culturally and linguistically diverse populations, our review indicates there is no need to rely on hospital-based strategies alone to deliver effective cardiac rehabilitation. Local healthcare systems should strive to integrate alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, such as brief telehealth interventions tailored to individual's risk factor profiles as well as community- or home-based programmes, in order to ensure there are choices available for patients that best fit their needs, risk factor profile, and preferences. © The European

  16. The effectiveness of early childhood development programs. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laurie M; Shinn, Carolynne; Fullilove, Mindy T; Scrimshaw, Susan C; Fielding, Jonathan E; Normand, Jacques; Carande-Kulis, Vilma G

    2003-04-01

    Early childhood development is influenced by characteristics of the child, the family, and the broader social environment. Physical health, cognition, language, and social and emotional development underpin school readiness. Publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs are a community resource that promotes the well-being of young children. Programs such as Head Start are designed to close the gap in readiness to learn between poor children and their more economically advantaged peers. Systematic reviews of the scientific literature demonstrate effectiveness of these programs in preventing developmental delay, as assessed by reductions in retention in grade and placement in special education.

  17. A systematic approach to behavior change interventions for the water and sanitation sector in developing countries: a conceptual model, a review, and a guideline.

    PubMed

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Public health practitioners increasingly agree that it is not enough to provide people with water and sanitation hardware. Numerous approaches are used to tackle the "software" which means to ensure behavior change necessary to come along with the sanitation hardware. A review of these approaches reveals several shortcomings, most importantly that they do not provide behavioral change interventions which correspond to psychological factors to be changed. This article presents a sound psychological model, which postulates that for the formation of new habitual behavior, five blocks of factors must be positive with regard to the new behavior: risk factors, attitudinal factors, normative factors, ability factors, and self-regulation factors. Standardized tools for measuring the factors in face-to-face interviews are presented, and behavioral interventions are provided for each factor block. A statistical analysis method is presented, which allows the determination of the improvement potential of each factor.

  18. A Demonstration of a Systematic Item-Reduction Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Harvey, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Establishing model parsimony is an important component of structural equation modeling (SEM). Unfortunately, little attention has been given to developing systematic procedures to accomplish this goal. To this end, the current study introduces an innovative application of the jackknife approach first presented in Rensvold and Cheung (1999). Unlike…

  19. Systematic parameter inference in stochastic mesoscopic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Yang, Xiu; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-02-01

    We propose a method to efficiently determine the optimal coarse-grained force field in mesoscopic stochastic simulations of Newtonian fluid and polymer melt systems modeled by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD). The response surfaces of various target properties (viscosity, diffusivity, pressure, etc.) with respect to model parameters are constructed based on the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion using simulation results on sampling points (e.g., individual parameter sets). To alleviate the computational cost to evaluate the target properties, we employ the compressive sensing method to compute the coefficients of the dominant gPC terms given the prior knowledge that the coefficients are "sparse". The proposed method shows comparable accuracy with the standard probabilistic collocation method (PCM) while it imposes a much weaker restriction on the number of the simulation samples especially for systems with high dimensional parametric space. Fully access to the response surfaces within the confidence range enables us to infer the optimal force parameters given the desirable values of target properties at the macroscopic scale. Moreover, it enables us to investigate the intrinsic relationship between the model parameters, identify possible degeneracies in the parameter space, and optimize the model by eliminating model redundancies. The proposed method provides an efficient alternative approach for constructing mesoscopic models by inferring model parameters to recover target properties of the physics systems (e.g., from experimental measurements), where those force field parameters and formulation cannot be derived from the microscopic level in a straight forward way.

  20. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  1. Defining "innovativeness" in drug development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, A S; Wang, B; Avorn, J

    2013-09-01

    Some observers of drug development argue that the pace of pharmaceutical innovation is declining, but others deny that contention. This controversy may be due to different methods of defining and assessing innovation. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to develop a taxonomy of methods for measuring innovation in drug development. The 42 studies fell into four main categories: counts of new drugs approved, assessments of therapeutic value, economic outcomes, and patents issued. The definition determined whether a study found a positive or negative trend in innovative drug development. Of 21 studies that relied on counts, 9 (43%) concluded that the trend for drug discovery was favorable, 11 (52%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 1 reached no conclusion. By contrast, of 21 studies that used other measures of innovation, 0 concluded that the trend was favorable, 8 (47%) concluded that the trend was not favorable, and 13 reached no conclusion (P = 0.03).

  2. Supervising emotionally focused therapists: a systematic research-based model.

    PubMed

    Palmer-Olsen, Lisa; Gold, Lisa L; Woolley, Scott R

    2011-10-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is an empirically validated relational therapy that recognizes the complexity of couple's therapy and supports the need for specialized training of therapists. Until now, there has been little research on effective methods for EFT supervision and no systematic model for conducting EFT supervision. The findings of a qualitative study of certified EFT therapists' experiences with EFT supervision and training are presented in this study, along with a systematic model of EFT supervision. The model of EFT supervision is based on the findings of this study, relevant research regarding effective clinical supervision, and the authors' experiences with EFT supervision. This model of EFT supervision is isomorphic to the clinical practice of EFT, in that it is theoretically grounded in attachment theory and emphasizes experiential and emotionally based processes.

  3. [Dynamic modeling of potato phenological development].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongping; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Aihua; Hu, Bingmin; Yang, Jingping

    2004-07-01

    By means of systematic demonstration, this study found the mathematical relationship among several temperature driven nonlinear models for crop growth, and amended the limitation of the past nonlinear model in biological usage and the improved model with more general definition. Integrated with four years' field experimental data and Gauss function based temperature effectiveness model submitted in this study, the phenological development model for potato crop was established under different ecological conditions. The phenological development model explained the digital contribution of soil temperature increment on potato growth, and verified by the experimental data from different years and different conditions. There were strict co-relationships between modeling data and experimental data.

  4. Interdependence of Model Systematic Biases in the Tropical Atlantic and the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Teferi; Shonk, Jon; Toniazzo, Thomas; Woolnough, Steve Steve; Guilyardi, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The tropical climatology represented in simulations with General Circulation Models (GCMs) is affected by significant systematic biases despite the huge investments in model devlopment over the past 20 years. In this study, coupled seasonal hindcasts performed with EC-Earth and ECMWF System 4 are analyzed to understand the development of systematic biases in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These models use similar atmosphere and ocean components (IFS and NEMO, respectively). We focus on hindcasts initialized in February and May. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolution and origin of rapidly developing systematic biases over the tropical Atlantic during boreal spring. In addition, we look for evidence of the interrelation of systematic biases in the Atlantic and Pacific, and investigate if the errors in one ocean basin affect those in the other. We perform an upper-atmosphere wave analysis by Fourier filtering for certain ranges of temporal frequencies and zonal wavenumbers. Our results identicate common systematic biases in EC-Earth and System 4 purely attributable to the atmosphere component. Biases develop in the Atlantic basin independently of external influences, while a possible effect of such biases on the eastern Pacific is found.

  5. Flipping the classroom to teach systematic reviews: the development of a continuing education course for librarians.

    PubMed

    Conte, Marisa L; MacEachern, Mark P; Mani, Nandita S; Townsend, Whitney A; Smith, Judith E; Masters, Chase; Kelley, Caitlin

    2015-04-01

    The researchers used the flipped classroom model to develop and conduct a systematic review course for librarians. The research took place at an academic health sciences library. A team of informationists developed and conducted a pilot course. Assessment informed changes to both course components; a second course addressed gaps in the pilot. Both the pilot and subsequent course received positive reviews. Changes based on assessment data will inform future iterations. The flipped classroom model can be successful in developing and implementing a course that is well rated by students.

  6. Flipping the classroom to teach systematic reviews: the development of a continuing education course for librarians*

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Marisa L.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Mani, Nandita S.; Townsend, Whitney A.; Smith, Judith E.; Masters, Chase; Kelley, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The researchers used the flipped classroom model to develop and conduct a systematic review course for librarians. Setting: The research took place at an academic health sciences library. Method: A team of informationists developed and conducted a pilot course. Assessment informed changes to both course components; a second course addressed gaps in the pilot. Main Results: Both the pilot and subsequent course received positive reviews. Changes based on assessment data will inform future iterations. Conclusion: The flipped classroom model can be successful in developing and implementing a course that is well rated by students. PMID:25918484

  7. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  8. The systematic investigation and development of the histamine radioenzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Verburg, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    The radioenzymatic assay for histamine is a widely used analytical procedure based on the enzymatic conversion of histamine to ({sup 3}H)tele-methylhistamine utilizing histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and S-adenosyl-L-({sup 3}H-methyl) methionine (({sup 3}H)SAME). Despite numerous modifications of this method, the assay lacks the sensitivity and specificity required to quantify histamine from many important biologic samples such as human plasma. The objective of this study was to investigate systematically the radioenzymatic assay for histamine and develop a highly sensitive and specific assay for use in basic or clinical studies. HNMT was purified 260-fold from rat kidney and the use of purified HNMT in the histamine radioenzymatic assay improved specificity of this method and also improved sensitivity by eliminating the enzyme-dependent blank and permitting the inclusion of high specific activity ({sup 3}H)SAME. The adsorption of histamine to glass surfaces was characterized and strategies were developed to prevent binding. Finally, optimization of the reaction allowed the development of a simplified product isolation procedure. The histamine radioenzymatic assay developed in this study has a sensitivity of 2.0 pg and is specific for histamine as judged by direct product identification and cross-contamination studies. The assay was utilized to establish reference values for the concentration of histamine in human plasma and the 24-hour urinary excretion of histamine for normal human subjects. In summary, a sensitive and specific radioenzymatic assay for histamine was developed as a result of the systematic investigation of this methodology.

  9. Risk Prediction Models for Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Eoin P; Teare, M Dawn; Stevens, John; Archer, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    Many lung cancer risk prediction models have been published but there has been no systematic review or comprehensive assessment of these models to assess how they could be used in screening. We performed a systematic review of lung cancer prediction models and identified 31 articles that related to 25 distinct models, of which 11 considered epidemiological factors only and did not require a clinical input. Another 11 articles focused on models that required a clinical assessment such as a blood test or scan, and 8 articles considered the 2-stage clonal expansion model. More of the epidemiological models had been externally validated than the more recent clinical assessment models. There was varying discrimination, the ability of a model to distinguish between cases and controls, with an area under the curve between 0.57 and 0.879 and calibration, the model's ability to assign an accurate probability to an individual. In our review we found that further validation studies need to be considered; especially for the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial 2012 Model Version (PLCOM2012) and Hoggart models, which recorded the best overall performance. Future studies will need to focus on prediction rules, such as optimal risk thresholds, for models for selective screening trials. Only 3 validation studies considered prediction rules when validating the models and overall the models were validated using varied tests in distinct populations, which made direct comparisons difficult. To improve this, multiple models need to be tested on the same data set with considerations for sensitivity, specificity, model accuracy, and positive predictive values at the optimal risk thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) for the Malaysian Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment is recognized as a powerful and important tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development. However, most of the sustainability measurement tools emphasize on environmental, economy and governance aspects. Some of the companies also implement different of sustainability indicators to evaluate the performance of economy, social and environmental separately. In this research, a new methodology for assessing sustainability in the context of Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration Matrix, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This systematic assessment will help the engineers or project managers measure the critical element of sustainability compliance.

  11. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobin; Mao, Fanzhen; Zhou, Zi; Zhao, Qinjian; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness.

  12. Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Sophie; Kohler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Future population growth will take place predominantly in cities of the developing world. The impact of urbanization on health is discussed controversially. We review recent research on urban-rural and intra-urban health differences in developing countries and investigate whether a health advantage was found for urban areas. We systematically searched the databases JSTOR, PubMed, ScienceDirect and SSRN for studies that compare health status in urban and rural areas. The studies had to examine selected World Health Organization health indicators. Eleven studies of the association between urbanization and the selected health indicators in developing countries met our selection criteria. Urbanization was associated with a lower risk of undernutrition but a higher risk of overweight in children. A lower total fertility rate and lower odds of giving birth were found for urban areas. The association between urbanization and life expectancy was positive but insignificant. Common risk factors for chronic diseases were more prevalent in urban areas. Urban-rural differences in mortality from communicable diseases depended on the disease studied. Several health outcomes were correlated with urbanization in developing countries. Urbanization may improve some health problems developing countries face and worsen others. Therefore, urbanization itself should not be embraced as a solution to health problems but should be accompanied by an informed and reactive health policy. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  13. Analysis and Correction of Systematic Height Model Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    The geometry of digital height models (DHM) determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP), but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital surface model (DSM) or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS PRISM images, are

  14. Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

  15. Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

  16. Voyager Development Test Model

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-05

    This archival photo shows the encapsulation of the Voyager Development Test Model at NASA's Kennedy Space Center's Eastern Test Range. The picture was taken on October 8, 1976. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21730

  17. Voyager Development Test Model

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-05

    This archival photo shows the encapsulation of the Voyager Development Test Model at NASA's Kennedy Space Center's Eastern Test Range. The picture was taken on October 8, 1976. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21731

  18. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  19. Animal Models Used to Explore Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lysgaard Poulsen, J; Stubbe, J; Lindholt, J S

    2016-10-01

    Experimental animal models have been used to investigate the formation, development, and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) for decades. New models are constantly being developed to imitate the mechanisms of human AAAs and to identify treatments that are less risky than those used today. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is no model identical to the human AAA. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the different types of animal models used to investigate the development, progression, and treatment of AAA and to highlight their advantages and limitations. A search protocol was used to perform a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase. A total of 2,830 records were identified. After selection of the relevant articles, 564 papers on animal AAA models were included. The most common models in rodents, including elastase, calcium chloride, angiotensin II, xenograft, and transgenic models, and the most common models in non-rodents, including chemically induced, graft models, and patch models, all have limitations with regard to the pathological interpretation of human AAA. Although findings from animal models of AAAs cannot be directly translated to human AAAs, the identification and awareness of animal models of AAA will provide knowledge for further investigation and insight into human AAA disease. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic Reconstruction of Molecular Cascades Regulating GP Development Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxiang; Luo, Haofei; Wang, Rui; Lang, Jidong; Zhu, Siyu; Zhang, Zhenming; Fang, Jianhuo; Qu, Keke; Lin, Yuting; Long, Haizhou; Yao, Yi; Tian, Geng; Wu, Qiong

    2016-05-17

    The growth plate (GP) comprising sequentially differentiated cell layers is a critical structure for bone elongation and regeneration. Although several key regulators in GP development have been identified using genetic perturbation, systematic understanding is still limited. Here, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the gene expression profiles of 217 single cells from GPs and developed a bioinformatics pipeline named Sinova to de novo reconstruct physiological GP development in both temporal and spatial high resolution. Our unsupervised model not only confirmed prior knowledge, but also enabled the systematic discovery of genes, potential signal pathways, and surface markers CD9/CD200 to precisely depict development. Sinova further identified the effective combination of transcriptional factors (TFs) that regulates GP maturation, and the result was validated using an in vitro EGFP-Col10a screening system. Our case systematically reconstructed molecular cascades in GP development through single-cell profiling, and the bioinformatics pipeline is applicable to other developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  1. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  2. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  3. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Helen W

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to provide an introduction into the variety of animal models available for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to provide a concise systematic review of the general materials and methods involved in each model. Materials and methods were obtained from a literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles. Strengths and weaknesses of each animal choice were presented to include relative cost, anatomical and physiological features, and mechanism of injury desired. Further, a variety of homologous, isomorphic/induced, and predictive animal models were defined, described, and compared with respect to their relative ease of use, characteristics, range, adjustability (e.g., amplitude, duration, mass/size, velocity, and pressure), and rough order of magnitude cost. Just as the primary mechanism of action of TBI is limitless, so are the animal models available to study TBI. With such a wide variety of available animals, types of injury models, along with the research needs, there exists no single "gold standard" model of TBI rendering cross-comparison of data extremely difficult. Therefore, this chapter reflects a representative sampling of the TBI animal models available and is not an exhaustive comparison of every possible model and associated parameters. Throughout this chapter, special considerations for animal choice and TBI animal model classification are discussed. Criteria central to choosing appropriate animal models of TBI include ethics, funding, complexity (ease of use, safety, and controlled access requirements), type of model, model characteristics, and range of control (scope).

  4. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation Approaches: A Systematic Review of Published Models, Applications, and Model Verification.

    PubMed

    Sager, Jennifer E; Yu, Jingjing; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Isoherranen, Nina

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and simulation of drug disposition has emerged as an important tool in drug development, clinical study design and regulatory review, and the number of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling related publications and regulatory submissions have risen dramatically in recent years. However, the extent of use of PBPK modeling by researchers, and the public availability of models has not been systematically evaluated. This review evaluates PBPK-related publications to 1) identify the common applications of PBPK modeling; 2) determine ways in which models are developed; 3) establish how model quality is assessed; and 4) provide a list of publically available PBPK models for sensitive P450 and transporter substrates as well as selective inhibitors and inducers. PubMed searches were conducted using the terms "PBPK" and "physiologically based pharmacokinetic model" to collect published models. Only papers on PBPK modeling of pharmaceutical agents in humans published in English between 2008 and May 2015 were reviewed. A total of 366 PBPK-related articles met the search criteria, with the number of articles published per year rising steadily. Published models were most commonly used for drug-drug interaction predictions (28%), followed by interindividual variability and general clinical pharmacokinetic predictions (23%), formulation or absorption modeling (12%), and predicting age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and disposition (10%). In total, 106 models of sensitive substrates, inhibitors, and inducers were identified. An in-depth analysis of the model development and verification revealed a lack of consistency in model development and quality assessment practices, demonstrating a need for development of best-practice guidelines.

  5. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  6. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation Approaches: A Systematic Review of Published Models, Applications, and Model Verification

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Jennifer E.; Yu, Jingjing; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of drug disposition has emerged as an important tool in drug development, clinical study design and regulatory review, and the number of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling related publications and regulatory submissions have risen dramatically in recent years. However, the extent of use of PBPK modeling by researchers, and the public availability of models has not been systematically evaluated. This review evaluates PBPK-related publications to 1) identify the common applications of PBPK modeling; 2) determine ways in which models are developed; 3) establish how model quality is assessed; and 4) provide a list of publically available PBPK models for sensitive P450 and transporter substrates as well as selective inhibitors and inducers. PubMed searches were conducted using the terms “PBPK” and “physiologically based pharmacokinetic model” to collect published models. Only papers on PBPK modeling of pharmaceutical agents in humans published in English between 2008 and May 2015 were reviewed. A total of 366 PBPK-related articles met the search criteria, with the number of articles published per year rising steadily. Published models were most commonly used for drug-drug interaction predictions (28%), followed by interindividual variability and general clinical pharmacokinetic predictions (23%), formulation or absorption modeling (12%), and predicting age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and disposition (10%). In total, 106 models of sensitive substrates, inhibitors, and inducers were identified. An in-depth analysis of the model development and verification revealed a lack of consistency in model development and quality assessment practices, demonstrating a need for development of best-practice guidelines. PMID:26296709

  7. Drug development from natural resource: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Gupta, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Modern research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multidimensional approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biochemical combinatorial chemistry and bioassay-guided fractionation approaches. Natural sources continue to provide an alternative as pharmacological leads against various devastating diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer etc. Nowadays, there is enormous requirement of safe and effective drugs in the world. This has prompted scientists to revert back towards natural resources as a potential source of therapeutics for treatment and management of such chronic and fatal diseases. However, there are certain serious challenges and limitations in this field including scale up and commercialization of active compounds which allow only one in thousand lead molecules to be developed as drug. A systematic and scientific approach is an essential requirement for drug development from natural resource. This mini review provides an overview of the methods involved in natural product research starting from crude plant extract to bioactive pharmacological lead. Moreover, it also discusses the limitations of working concerning the bioactivity of medicinal plants.

  8. Leadership development programs for physicians: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frich, Jan C; Brewster, Amanda L; Cherlin, Emily J; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-05-01

    Physician leadership development programs typically aim to strengthen physicians' leadership competencies and improve organizational performance. We conducted a systematic review of medical literature on physician leadership development programs in order to characterize the setting, educational content, teaching methods, and learning outcomes achieved. Articles were identified through a search in Ovid MEDLINE from 1950 through November 2013. We included articles that described programs designed to expose physicians to leadership concepts, outlined teaching methods, and reported evaluation outcomes. A thematic analysis was conducted using a structured data entry form with categories for setting/target group, educational content, format, type of evaluation and outcomes. We identified 45 studies that met eligibility criteria, of which 35 reported on programs exclusively targeting physicians. The majority of programs focused on skills training and technical and conceptual knowledge, while fewer programs focused on personal growth and awareness. Half of the studies used pre/post intervention designs, and four studies used a comparison group. Positive outcomes were reported in all studies, although the majority of studies relied on learner satisfaction scores and self-assessed knowledge or behavioral change. Only six studies documented favorable organizational outcomes, such as improvement in quality indicators for disease management. The leadership programs examined in these studies were characterized by the use of multiple learning methods, including lectures, seminars, group work, and action learning projects in multidisciplinary teams. Physician leadership development programs are associated with increased self-assessed knowledge and expertise; however, few studies have examined outcomes at a system level. Our synthesis of the literature suggests important gaps, including a lack of programs that integrate non-physician and physician professionals, limited use of more

  9. Statistical Inference Models for Image Datasets with Systematic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Hwa; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Chung, Moo K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal or cross sectional brain imaging data to identify effects of neurodegenerative diseases is a fundamental task in various studies in neuroscience. However, when there are systematic variations in the images due to parameter changes such as changes in the scanner protocol, hardware changes, or when combining data from multi-site studies, the statistical analysis becomes problematic. Motivated by this scenario, the goal of this paper is to develop a unified statistical solution to the problem of systematic variations in statistical image analysis. Based in part on recent literature in harmonic analysis on diffusion maps, we propose an algorithm which compares operators that are resilient to the systematic variations. These operators are derived from the empirical measurements of the image data and provide an efficient surrogate to capturing the actual changes across images. We also establish a connection between our method to the design of wavelets in non-Euclidean space. To evaluate the proposed ideas, we present various experimental results on detecting changes in simulations as well as show how the method offers improved statistical power in the analysis of real longitudinal PIB-PET imaging data acquired from participants at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:26989336

  10. Statistical Inference Models for Image Datasets with Systematic Variations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Bendlin, Barbara B; Chung, Moo K; Johnson, Sterling C; Singh, Vikas

    2015-06-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal or cross sectional brain imaging data to identify effects of neurodegenerative diseases is a fundamental task in various studies in neuroscience. However, when there are systematic variations in the images due to parameter changes such as changes in the scanner protocol, hardware changes, or when combining data from multi-site studies, the statistical analysis becomes problematic. Motivated by this scenario, the goal of this paper is to develop a unified statistical solution to the problem of systematic variations in statistical image analysis. Based in part on recent literature in harmonic analysis on diffusion maps, we propose an algorithm which compares operators that are resilient to the systematic variations. These operators are derived from the empirical measurements of the image data and provide an efficient surrogate to capturing the actual changes across images. We also establish a connection between our method to the design of wavelets in non-Euclidean space. To evaluate the proposed ideas, we present various experimental results on detecting changes in simulations as well as show how the method offers improved statistical power in the analysis of real longitudinal PIB-PET imaging data acquired from participants at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  11. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  12. Agent-Based Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the use of agent-based modeling (ABM), a systems science method, in understanding noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their public health risk factors. We systematically reviewed studies in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Sciences published from January 2003 to July 2014. We retrieved 22 relevant articles; each had an observational or interventional design. Physical activity and diet were the most-studied outcomes. Often, single agent types were modeled, and the environment was usually irrelevant to the studied outcome. Predictive validation and sensitivity analyses were most used to validate models. Although increasingly used to study NCDs, ABM remains underutilized and, where used, is suboptimally reported in public health studies. Its use in studying NCDs will benefit from clarified best practices and improved rigor to establish its usefulness and facilitate replication, interpretation, and application. PMID:25602871

  13. Agent-based modeling of noncommunicable diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nianogo, Roch A; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-03-01

    We reviewed the use of agent-based modeling (ABM), a systems science method, in understanding noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their public health risk factors. We systematically reviewed studies in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Sciences published from January 2003 to July 2014. We retrieved 22 relevant articles; each had an observational or interventional design. Physical activity and diet were the most-studied outcomes. Often, single agent types were modeled, and the environment was usually irrelevant to the studied outcome. Predictive validation and sensitivity analyses were most used to validate models. Although increasingly used to study NCDs, ABM remains underutilized and, where used, is suboptimally reported in public health studies. Its use in studying NCDs will benefit from clarified best practices and improved rigor to establish its usefulness and facilitate replication, interpretation, and application.

  14. Care models in the management of haemophilia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C H T; Santesso, N; Pai, M; Kessler, C; Key, N S; Makris, M; Navarro-Ruan, T; Soucie, J M; Schünemann, H J; Iorio, A

    2016-07-01

    Haemophilia care is commonly provided via multidisciplinary specialized management. To date, there has been no systematic assessment of the impact of haemophilia care delivery models on patient-important outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of published studies assessing the effects of the integrated care model for persons with haemophilia (PWH). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to April 22, 2015, contacted experts in the field, and reviewed reference lists. Randomized and non-randomized studies of PWH or carriers, focusing mainly on the assessment of care models on delivery. Two investigators independently screened title, abstract, and full text of retrieved articles for inclusion. Risk of bias and overall quality of evidence was assessed using Cochrane's ACROBAT-NRSI tool and GRADE respectively. Relative risks, mean differences, proportions, and means and their variability were calculated as appropriate. 27 non-randomized studies were included: eight comparative and 19 non-comparative studies. We found low- to very low-quality evidence that in comparison to other models of care, integrated care may reduce mortality, hospitalizations and emergency room visits, may lead to fewer missed days of school and work, and may increase knowledge seeking. Our comprehensive review found low- to very low-quality evidence from a limited number of non-randomized studies assessing the impact of haemophilia care models on some patient-important outcomes. While the available evidence suggests that adoption of the integrated care model may provide benefit to PWH, further high-quality research in the field is needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  16. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words:Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer. PMID:27957281

  17. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words:Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer.

  18. Probabilistic Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  19. Bantam: A Systematic Approach to Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn; Lyles, Garry

    1999-01-01

    The Bantam technology project is focused on providing a low cost launch capability for very small (100 kilogram) NASA and University science payloads. The cost goal has been set at one million dollars per launch. The Bantam project, however, represents much more than a small payload launch capability. Bantam represents a unique, systematic approach to reusable launch vehicle technology development. This technology maturation approach will enable future highly reusable launch concepts in any payload class. These launch vehicle concepts of the future could deliver payloads for hundreds of dollars per pound, enabling dramatic growth in civil and commercial space enterprise. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated a better, faster, and cheaper approach to science discovery in recent years. This approach is exemplified by the successful Mars Exploration Program lead by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the NASA Space Science Enterprise. The Bantam project represents an approach to space transportation technology maturation that is very similar to the Mars Exploration Program. The NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) and Future X Pathfinder Program will combine to systematically mature reusable space transportation technology from low technology readiness to system level flight demonstration. New reusable space transportation capability will be demonstrated at a small (Bantam) scale approximately every two years. Each flight demonstration will build on the knowledge derived from the previous flight tests. The Bantam scale flight demonstrations will begin with the flights of the X-34. The X-34 will demonstrate reusable launch vehicle technologies including; flight regimes up to Mach 8 and 250,000 feet, autonomous flight operations, all weather operations, twenty-five flights in one year with a surge capability of two flights in less than twenty-four hours and safe abort. The Bantam project will build on this initial

  20. RSMASS system model development

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  1. Multipath signal model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghais, A. F.; Wachsman, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development and use of mathematical models of signals received through the multipath environmental of a TDRS-to-user spacecraft link and vice versa are discussed. The TDRS (tracking and data relay satellite) will be in synchronous orbit. The user spacecraft will be in a low altitude orbit between 200 and 4000 km.

  2. Systematic Review of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Berger, Sarah Shafer; Scaletti, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous research found that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may increase children's vulnerability to behavior and cognition problems. Maturational changes in brain and social development make adolescence an ideal time to reexamine associations. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of published studies examining associations between PCE and adolescent development (behavior, cognition/school outcomes, physiologic responses, and brain morphology/functioning). METHODS: Articles were obtained from PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases through July 2012 with search terms: prenatal drug, substance, or cocaine exposure; adolescence/adolescent; and in utero substance/drug exposure. Criteria for inclusion were nonexposed comparison group, human adolescents aged 11 to 19, peer-reviewed, English-language, and adolescent outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies representing 9 cohorts met the criteria. Four outcome categories were identified: behavior, cognition/school performance, brain structure/function, and physiologic responses. Eleven examined behavior; 7 found small but significant differences favoring nonexposed adolescents, with small effect sizes. Eight examined cognition/school performance; 6 reported significantly lower scores on language and memory tasks among adolescents with PCE, with varying effect sizes varied. Eight examined brain structure/function and reported morphologic differences with few functional differences. Three examined physiologic responses with discordant findings. Most studies controlled for other prenatal exposures, caregiving environment, and violence exposure; few examined mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings among younger children, PCE increases the risk for small but significantly less favorable adolescent functioning. Although the clinical importance of differences is often unknown, the caregiving environment and violence exposure pose additional threats. Future research

  3. A systematic model specification procedure for an illness-death model without recovery.

    PubMed

    Eulenburg, Christine; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn; Wegscheider, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Multi-state models are a flexible tool for analyzing complex time-to-event problems with multiple endpoints. Compared to the Cox regression model with a single endpoint or a summarizing composite endpoint, they can provide a more detailed insight into the disease process. Furthermore, prognosis can be improved by including information from intermediate events occurring during the course of the disease. Different model variants, options and additional assumptions provide many possibilities, but at the same time complicate the implementation of multi-state techniques. So far, no guiding literature is available to specify a multi-state model systematically. The objective of this work was to set up a general specification procedure for an illness-death model that optimizes the model fit and predictive accuracy by stepwise reduction of the model. As an application example, we reanalyzed data from an observational study of 434 ovarian cancer patients with progression as intermediate and death as absorbing state. The technique is described in general terms and can be applied to other illness-death models without recovery. The clock-reset approach was used, implicating that the time was reset to zero after progression. The non-homogeneous semi-Markov characteristic stated that the present time as well as the time between surgery and progression influenced survival after progression. Covariate effects on transitions were estimated and proportionality of transition baseline hazards was tested. The finally developed model optimized the accuracy of predictions for two simulated patients. This stepwise procedure yields parsimonious but targeted multi-state models with well interpretable coefficients and optimized predictive ability, even for smaller data sets.

  4. A systematic model of the LC-MS proteomics pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Mass spectrometry is a complex technique used for large-scale protein profiling with clinical and pharmaceutical applications. While individual components in the system have been studied extensively, little work has been done to integrate various modules and evaluate them from a systems point of view. Results In this work, we investigate this problem by putting together the different modules in a typical proteomics work flow, in order to capture and analyze key factors that impact the number of identified peptides and quantified proteins, protein quantification error, differential expression results, and classification performance. The proposed proteomics pipeline model can be used to optimize the work flow as well as to pinpoint critical bottlenecks worth investing time and resources into for improving performance. Using the model-based approach proposed here, one can study systematically the critical problem of proteomic biomarker discovery, by means of simulation using ground-truthed synthetic MS data. PMID:23134670

  5. A systematic development of a polarizable potential of water.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Péter T; Baranyai, András

    2013-05-28

    Based on extensive studies of existing potentials we propose a new molecular model for water. The new model is rigid and contains three Gaussian charges. Contrary to other models, all charges take part in the polarization of the molecule. They are connected by harmonic springs to their gas-phase positions: the negative charge to a prescribed point on the main axis of the molecule; the positive charges to the hydrogens. The mechanical equilibrium between the electrostatic forces and the spring forces determines the polarization of the molecule which is established by iteration at every timestep. The model gives excellent estimates for ambient liquid properties and reasonably good results from high-pressure solids to gas-phase clusters. We present a detailed description of the development of this model and a large number of calculated properties compared to the estimates of the nonpolarizable TIP4P∕2005 [J. L. F. Abascal and C. Vega, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 234505 (2005)], the polarizable GCPM [P. Paricaud, M. Predota, A. A. Chialvo, and P. T. Cummings, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244511 (2005)], and our earlier BKd3 model [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 084506 (2012)]. The best overall performance is shown by the new model.

  6. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Reizner, W.; Hunter, J.G.; O’Malley, N.T.; Southgate, R.D.; Schwarz, E.M.; Kates, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed & Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorized by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarized and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting. PMID:24668594

  7. Analysis and reduction of tropical systematic errors through a unified modelling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copsey, D.; Marshall, A.; Martin, G.; Milton, S.; Senior, C.; Sellar, A.; Shelly, A.

    2009-04-01

    Systematic errors in climate models are usually addressed in a number of ways, but current methods often make use of model climatological fields as a starting point for model modification. This approach has limitations due to non-linear feedback mechanisms which occur over longer timescales and make the source of the errors difficult to identify. In a unified modelling environment, short-range (1-5 day) weather forecasts are readily available from NWP models with very similar dynamical and physical formulations to the climate models, but often increased horizontal (and vertical) resolution. Where such forecasts exhibit similar systematic errors to their climate model counterparts, there is much to be gained from combined analysis and sensitivity testing. For example, the Met Office Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM1 (Johns et al 2007) exhibits precipitation errors in the Asian summer monsoon, with too little rainfall over the Indian peninsula and too much over the equatorial Indian Ocean to the southwest of the peninsula (Martin et al., 2004). Examination of the development of precipitation errors in the Asian summer monsoon region in Met Office NWP forecasts shows that different parts of the error pattern evolve on different timescales. Excessive rainfall over the equatorial Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Indian peninsula develops rapidly, over the first day or two of the forecast, while a dry bias over the Indian land area takes ~10 days to develop. Such information is invaluable for understanding the processes involved and how to tackle them. Other examples of the use of this approach will be discussed, including analysis of the sensitivity of the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) to the convective parametrisation, and the reduction of systematic tropical temperature and moisture biases in both climate and NWP models through improved representation of convective detrainment.

  8. Clinical prediction models for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff; Macdonald, R Loch

    2013-02-01

    Clinical prediction models can enhance clinical decision-making and research. However, available prediction models in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are rarely used. We evaluated the methodological validity of SAH prediction models and the relevance of the main predictors to identify potentially reliable models and to guide future attempts at model development. We searched the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases from January 1995 to June 2012 to identify studies that reported clinical prediction models for mortality and functional outcome in aSAH. Validated methods were used to minimize bias. Eleven studies were identified; 3 developed models from datasets of phase 3 clinical trials, the others from single hospital records. The median patient sample size was 340 (interquartile range 149-733). The main predictors used were age (n = 8), Fisher grade (n = 6), World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade (n = 5), aneurysm size (n = 5), and Hunt and Hess grade (n = 3). Age was consistently dichotomized. Potential predictors were prescreened by univariate analysis in 36 % of studies. Only one study was penalized for model optimism. Details about model development were often insufficiently described and no published studies provided external validation. While clinical prediction models for aSAH use a few simple predictors, there are substantial methodological problems with the models and none have had external validation. This precludes the use of existing models for clinical or research purposes. We recommend further studies to develop and validate reliable clinical prediction models for aSAH.

  9. Application of a systematic finite-element model modification technique to dynamic analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic finite-element model modification technique has been applied to two small problems and a model of the main wing box of a research drone aircraft. The procedure determines the sensitivity of the eigenvalues and eigenvector components to specific structural changes, calculates the required changes and modifies the finite-element model. Good results were obtained where large stiffness modifications were required to satisfy large eigenvalue changes. Sensitivity matrix conditioning problems required the development of techniques to insure existence of a solution and accelerate its convergence. A method is proposed to assist the analyst in selecting stiffness parameters for modification.

  10. Systematic Analysis of Hollow Fiber Model of Tuberculosis Experiments.

    PubMed

    Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Nuermberger, Eric; Romero, Klaus; Hanna, Debra; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2015-08-15

    The in vitro hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis (HFS-TB), in tandem with Monte Carlo experiments, was introduced more than a decade ago. Since then, it has been used to perform a large number of tuberculosis pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) studies that have not been subjected to systematic analysis. We performed a literature search to identify all HFS-TB experiments published between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012. There was no exclusion of articles by language. Bias minimization was according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Steps for reporting systematic reviews were followed. There were 22 HFS-TB studies published, of which 12 were combination therapy studies and 10 were monotherapy studies. There were 4 stand-alone Monte Carlo experiments that utilized quantitative output from the HFS-TB. All experiments reported drug pharmacokinetics, which recapitulated those encountered in humans. HFS-TB studies included log-phase growth studies under ambient air, semidormant bacteria at pH 5.8, and nonreplicating persisters at low oxygen tension of ≤ 10 parts per billion. The studies identified antibiotic exposures associated with optimal kill of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and suppression of acquired drug resistance (ADR) and informed predictions about optimal clinical doses, expected performance of standard doses and regimens in patients, and expected rates of ADR, as well as a proposal of new susceptibility breakpoints. The HFS-TB model offers the ability to perform PK/PD studies including humanlike drug exposures, to identify bactericidal and sterilizing effect rates, and to identify exposures associated with suppression of drug resistance. Because of the ability to perform repetitive sampling from the same unit over time, the HFS-TB vastly improves statistical power and facilitates the execution of time-to-event analyses and repeated event analyses, as well as dynamic system pharmacology mathematical

  11. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  12. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  13. Systematic review of mortality risk prediction models in the era of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Lijftogt, N; Luijnenburg, T W F; Vahl, A C; Wilschut, E D; Leijdekkers, V J; Fiocco, M F; Wouters, M W J M; Hamming, J F

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has reduced perioperative mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery. The objective of this systematic review was to assess existing mortality risk prediction models, and identify which are most useful for patients undergoing AAA repair by either EVAR or open surgical repair. A systematic search of the literature was conducted for perioperative mortality risk prediction models for patients with AAA published since 2006. PRISMA guidelines were used; quality was appraised, and data were extracted and interpreted following the CHARMS guidelines. Some 3903 studies were identified, of which 27 were selected. A total of 13 risk prediction models have been developed and directly validated. Most models were based on a UK or US population. The best performing models regarding both applicability and discrimination were the perioperative British Aneurysm Repair score (C-statistic 0·83) and the preoperative Vascular Biochemistry and Haematology Outcome Model (C-statistic 0·85), but both lacked substantial external validation. Mortality risk prediction in AAA surgery has been modelled extensively, but many of these models are weak methodologically and have highly variable performance across different populations. New models are unlikely to be helpful; instead case-mix correction should be modelled and adapted to the population of interest using the relevant mortality predictors. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  15. Developing the Counsellor as Teacher: A Systematic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Judy H.; Ivey, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of counsellor-as-teacher has gained popularity as a developmental approach to helping people achieve interpersonal competence. This article describes a systematic training program designed to help counsellors transfer their skills to the classroom and thus become teachers of interpersonal effectiveness. (Author)

  16. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  17. Clinical information modeling processes for semantic interoperability of electronic health records: systematic review and inductive analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Moner, David; Cruz, Wellington Dimas da; Santos, Marcelo R; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review aims to identify and compare the existing processes and methodologies that have been published in the literature for defining clinical information models (CIMs) that support the semantic interoperability of electronic health record (EHR) systems. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses systematic review methodology, the authors reviewed published papers between 2000 and 2013 that covered that semantic interoperability of EHRs, found by searching the PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and ScienceDirect databases. Additionally, after selection of a final group of articles, an inductive content analysis was done to summarize the steps and methodologies followed in order to build CIMs described in those articles. Three hundred and seventy-eight articles were screened and thirty six were selected for full review. The articles selected for full review were analyzed to extract relevant information for the analysis and characterized according to the steps the authors had followed for clinical information modeling. Most of the reviewed papers lack a detailed description of the modeling methodologies used to create CIMs. A representative example is the lack of description related to the definition of terminology bindings and the publication of the generated models. However, this systematic review confirms that most clinical information modeling activities follow very similar steps for the definition of CIMs. Having a robust and shared methodology could improve their correctness, reliability, and quality. Independently of implementation technologies and standards, it is possible to find common patterns in methods for developing CIMs, suggesting the viability of defining a unified good practice methodology to be used by any clinical information modeler. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Economic evaluation in chronic pain: a systematic review and de novo flexible economic model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, W; Hirst, M; Beard, S; Gladwell, D; Fagnani, F; López Bastida, J; Phillips, C; Dunlop, W C N

    2016-07-01

    There is unmet need in patients suffering from chronic pain, yet innovation may be impeded by the difficulty of justifying economic value in a field beset by data limitations and methodological variability. A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarise the key areas of variability and limitations in modelling approaches in the economic evaluation of treatments for chronic pain. The results of the literature review were then used to support the development of a fully flexible open-source economic model structure, designed to test structural and data assumptions and act as a reference for future modelling practice. The key model design themes identified from the systematic review included: time horizon; titration and stabilisation; number of treatment lines; choice/ordering of treatment; and the impact of parameter uncertainty (given reliance on expert opinion). Exploratory analyses using the model to compare a hypothetical novel therapy versus morphine as first-line treatments showed cost-effectiveness results to be sensitive to structural and data assumptions. Assumptions about the treatment pathway and choice of time horizon were key model drivers. Our results suggest structural model design and data assumptions may have driven previous cost-effectiveness results and ultimately decisions based on economic value. We therefore conclude that it is vital that future economic models in chronic pain are designed to be fully transparent and hope our open-source code is useful in order to aspire to a common approach to modelling pain that includes robust sensitivity analyses to test structural and parameter uncertainty.

  19. Recent development of feature extraction and classification multispectral/hyperspectral images: a systematic literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyoko, A.; Dharma, I. G. W. S.; Haryanto, T.

    2017-01-01

    Multispectral data and hyperspectral data acquired from satellite sensor have the ability in detecting various objects on the earth ranging from low scale to high scale modeling. These data are increasingly being used to produce geospatial information for rapid analysis by running feature extraction or classification process. Applying the most suited model for this data mining is still challenging because there are issues regarding accuracy and computational cost. This research aim is to develop a better understanding regarding object feature extraction and classification applied for satellite image by systematically reviewing related recent research projects. A method used in this research is based on PRISMA statement. After deriving important points from trusted sources, pixel based and texture-based feature extraction techniques are promising technique to be analyzed more in recent development of feature extraction and classification.

  20. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  1. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  2. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  3. Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.

    PubMed

    Bailo, M; Baena, S; Marín, J J; Arredondo, J M; Auría, J M; Sánchez, B; Tardío, E; Falcón, L

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of bony pieces requires that they are oriented systematically to ensure that homologous regions are compared. Few orientation methods are highly accurate; this is particularly true for methods applied to three-dimensional models obtained by surface scanning, a technique whose special features make it a powerful tool in forensic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a systematic, assisted orientation method for aligning three-dimensional cranial models relative to the Frankfurt Plane, which would be produce accurate orientations independent of operator and anthropological expertise. The study sample comprised four crania of known age and sex. All the crania were scanned and reconstructed using an Eva Artec™ portable 3D surface scanner and subsequently, the position of certain characteristic landmarks were determined by three different operators using the Rhinoceros 3D surface modelling software. Intra-observer analysis showed a tendency for orientation to be more accurate when using the assisted method than when using conventional manual orientation. Inter-observer analysis showed that experienced evaluators achieve results at least as accurate if not more accurate using the assisted method than those obtained using manual orientation; while inexperienced evaluators achieved more accurate orientation using the assisted method. The method tested is a an innovative system capable of providing very precise, systematic and automatised spatial orientations of virtual cranial models relative to standardised anatomical planes independent of the operator and operator experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What should be considered if you decide to build your own mathematical model for predicting the development of bacterial resistance? Recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arepeva, Maria; Kolbin, Alexey; Kurylev, Alexey; Balykina, Julia; Sidorenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Acquired bacterial resistance is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. Mathematical modeling allows us to predict the spread of resistance and to some extent to control its dynamics. The purpose of this review was to examine existing mathematical models in order to understand the pros and cons of currently used approaches and to build our own model. During the analysis, seven articles on mathematical approaches to studying resistance that satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria were selected. All models were classified according to the approach used to study resistance in the presence of an antibiotic and were analyzed in terms of our research. Some models require modifications due to the specifics of the research. The plan for further work on model building is as follows: modify some models, according to our research, check all obtained models against our data, and select the optimal model or models with the best quality of prediction. After that we would be able to build a model for the development of resistance using the obtained results. PMID:25972847

  5. What should be considered if you decide to build your own mathematical model for predicting the development of bacterial resistance? Recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arepeva, Maria; Kolbin, Alexey; Kurylev, Alexey; Balykina, Julia; Sidorenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Acquired bacterial resistance is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. Mathematical modeling allows us to predict the spread of resistance and to some extent to control its dynamics. The purpose of this review was to examine existing mathematical models in order to understand the pros and cons of currently used approaches and to build our own model. During the analysis, seven articles on mathematical approaches to studying resistance that satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria were selected. All models were classified according to the approach used to study resistance in the presence of an antibiotic and were analyzed in terms of our research. Some models require modifications due to the specifics of the research. The plan for further work on model building is as follows: modify some models, according to our research, check all obtained models against our data, and select the optimal model or models with the best quality of prediction. After that we would be able to build a model for the development of resistance using the obtained results.

  6. Mathematical Modeling in Tobacco Control Research: Initial Results From a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Feirman, Shari P; Donaldson, Elisabeth; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Niaura, Ray; Rose, Shyanika W; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has expressed interest in using mathematical models to evaluate potential tobacco policies. The goal of this systematic review was to synthesize data from tobacco control studies that employ mathematical models. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 to identify published studies that used a mathematical model to project a tobacco-related outcome and developed a data extraction form based on the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices. We developed an organizational framework to categorize these studies and identify models employed across multiple papers. We synthesized results qualitatively, providing a descriptive synthesis of included studies. The 263 studies in this review were heterogeneous with regard to their methodologies and aims. We used the organizational framework to categorize each study according to its objective and map the objective to a model outcome. We identified two types of study objectives (trend and policy/intervention) and three types of model outcomes (change in tobacco use behavior, change in tobacco-related morbidity or mortality, and economic impact). Eighteen models were used across 118 studies. This paper extends conventional systematic review methods to characterize a body of literature on mathematical modeling in tobacco control. The findings of this synthesis can inform the development of new models and the improvement of existing models, strengthening the ability of researchers to accurately project future tobacco-related trends and evaluate potential tobacco control policies and interventions. These findings can also help decision-makers to identify and become oriented with models relevant to their work. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Communication for Development Interventions in Fragile States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Andrew; Rodger, Dianne; Power, Gerry; Mbus, Domenic Friguglietti; Brimacombe, Tait

    2013-01-01

    factors that affect C4D implementation is critical to effective practice, this systematic review also highlights a need for early, more thorough and longer-term C4D interventions within fragile states (especially those that can be characterised by latent conflict and chronic instability). Early communication intervention can help reduce tension and promote reconciliation, but also enable development and humanitarian agencies to be better placed to address situations that may escalate into open conflict. Implications for policy and practice A wide range of contextual and programmatic factors combine to both constrain and provide opportunities for C4D initiatives in fragile states. Such factors need to be recognised, negotiated and addressed by practitioners in design, implementation and evaluation in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of C4D initiatives. Implications for research The quality of the evidence base relating to C4D interventions in fragile states is relatively weak. The difficultly of conducting rigorous evaluation and research in conflict-affected contexts should not be underestimated. This highlights a need to improve our understanding of communications environments within fragile states and the related need to develop appropriate methodological frameworks and tools that enable effective mapping and the identification of appropriate communication interventions to occur.

  8. Testing flow diversion in animal models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Raymond, Jean; Ducroux, Célina; Gentric, Jean-Christophe; Salazkin, Igor; Ziegler, Daniela; Gevry, Guylaine; Darsaut, Tim E

    2016-04-01

    Flow diversion (FD) is increasingly used to treat intracranial aneurysms. We sought to systematically review published studies to assess the quality of reporting and summarize the results of FD in various animal models. Databases were searched to retrieve all animal studies on FD from 2000 to 2015. Extracted data included species and aneurysm models, aneurysm and neck dimensions, type of flow diverter, occlusion rates, and complications. Articles were evaluated using a checklist derived from the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Forty-two articles reporting the results of FD in nine different aneurysm models were included. The rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model was the most commonly used, with 3-month occlusion rates of 73.5%, (95%CI [61.9-82.6%]). FD of surgical sidewall aneurysms, constructed in rabbits or canines, resulted in high occlusion rates (100% [65.5-100%]). FD resulted in modest occlusion rates (15.4% [8.9-25.1%]) when tested in six complex canine aneurysm models designed to reproduce more difficult clinical contexts (large necks, bifurcation, or fusiform aneurysms). Adverse events, including branch occlusion, were rarely reported. There were no hemorrhagic complications. Articles complied with 20.8 ± 3.9 of 41 ARRIVE items; only a small number used randomization (3/42 articles [7.1%]) or a control group (13/42 articles [30.9%]). Preclinical studies on FD have shown various results. Occlusion of elastase-induced aneurysms was common after FD. The model is not challenging but standardized in many laboratories. Failures of FD can be reproduced in less standardized but more challenging surgical canine constructions. The quality of reporting could be improved.

  9. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  10. A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning.

  11. Stem cells in animal asthma models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srour, Nadim; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Asthma control frequently falls short of the goals set in international guidelines. Treatment options for patients with poorly controlled asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists are limited, and new therapeutic options are needed. Stem cell therapy is promising for a variety of disorders but there has been no human clinical trial of stem cell therapy for asthma. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the potential benefits of stem cell therapy in animal models of asthma to determine whether a human trial is warranted. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for original studies of stem cell therapy in animal asthma models. Nineteen studies were selected. They were found to be heterogeneous in their design. Mesenchymal stromal cells were used before sensitization with an allergen, before challenge with the allergen and after challenge, most frequently with ovalbumin, and mainly in BALB/c mice. Stem cell therapy resulted in a reduction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammation and eosinophilia as well as Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-5. Improvement in histopathology such as peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, epithelial thickness, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle layer thickening was universal. Several studies showed a reduction in airway hyper-responsiveness. Stem cell therapy decreases eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation and is effective in several phases of the allergic response in animal asthma models. Further study is warranted, up to human clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoding {beta}-decay systematics: A global statistical model for {beta}{sup -} half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Costiris, N. J.; Mavrommatis, E.; Gernoth, K. A.; Clark, J. W.

    2009-10-15

    Statistical modeling of nuclear data provides a novel approach to nuclear systematics complementary to established theoretical and phenomenological approaches based on quantum theory. Continuing previous studies in which global statistical modeling is pursued within the general framework of machine learning theory, we implement advances in training algorithms designed to improve generalization, in application to the problem of reproducing and predicting the half-lives of nuclear ground states that decay 100% by the {beta}{sup -} mode. More specifically, fully connected, multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network models are developed using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm together with Bayesian regularization and cross-validation. The predictive performance of models emerging from extensive computer experiments is compared with that of traditional microscopic and phenomenological models as well as with the performance of other learning systems, including earlier neural network models as well as the support vector machines recently applied to the same problem. In discussing the results, emphasis is placed on predictions for nuclei that are far from the stability line, and especially those involved in r-process nucleosynthesis. It is found that the new statistical models can match or even surpass the predictive performance of conventional models for {beta}-decay systematics and accordingly should provide a valuable additional tool for exploring the expanding nuclear landscape.

  13. Decoding β-decay systematics: A global statistical model for β- half-lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costiris, N. J.; Mavrommatis, E.; Gernoth, K. A.; Clark, J. W.

    2009-10-01

    Statistical modeling of nuclear data provides a novel approach to nuclear systematics complementary to established theoretical and phenomenological approaches based on quantum theory. Continuing previous studies in which global statistical modeling is pursued within the general framework of machine learning theory, we implement advances in training algorithms designed to improve generalization, in application to the problem of reproducing and predicting the half-lives of nuclear ground states that decay 100% by the β- mode. More specifically, fully connected, multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network models are developed using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm together with Bayesian regularization and cross-validation. The predictive performance of models emerging from extensive computer experiments is compared with that of traditional microscopic and phenomenological models as well as with the performance of other learning systems, including earlier neural network models as well as the support vector machines recently applied to the same problem. In discussing the results, emphasis is placed on predictions for nuclei that are far from the stability line, and especially those involved in r-process nucleosynthesis. It is found that the new statistical models can match or even surpass the predictive performance of conventional models for β-decay systematics and accordingly should provide a valuable additional tool for exploring the expanding nuclear landscape.

  14. Veterans' informal caregivers in the "sandwich generation": a systematic review toward a resilience model.

    PubMed

    Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Felderhoff, Brandi

    2014-01-01

    Social work theory advanced the formulation of the construct of the sandwich generation to apply to the emerging generational cohort of caregivers, most often middle-aged women, who were caring for maturing children and aging parents simultaneously. This systematic review extends that focus by synthesizing the literature on sandwich generation caregivers for the general aging population with dementia and for veterans with dementia and polytrauma. It develops potential protective mechanisms based on empirical literature to support an intervention resilience model for social work practitioners. This theoretical model addresses adaptive coping of sandwich- generation families facing ongoing challenges related to caregiving demands.

  15. Cellular models to study bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Jose, Sam P; Squassina, Alessio; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Purushottam, Meera; Mukherjee, Odity; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Patrinos, George P; Del Zompo, Maria; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-09-15

    There is an emerging interest in the use of cellular models to study psychiatric disorders. We have systematically reviewed the application of cellular models to understand the biological basis of bipolar disorder (BD). Published scientific literature in MEDLINE, PsychINFO and SCOPUS databases were identified with the following search strategy: [(Lymphoblastoid OR Lymphoblast OR Fibroblast OR Pluripotent OR Olfactory epithelium OR Olfactory mucosa) AND (Bipolar disorder OR Lithium OR Valproate OR Mania)]. Studies were included if they had used cell cultures derived from BD patients. There were 65 articles on lymphoblastoid cell lines, 14 articles on fibroblasts, 4 articles on olfactory neuronal epithelium (ONE) and 2 articles on neurons reprogrammed from induced pluripotent stem cell lines (IPSC). Several parameters have been studied, and the most replicated findings are abnormalities in calcium signaling, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, mitochondrial oxidative pathway, membrane ion channels, circadian system and apoptosis related genes. These, although present in basal state, seem to be accentuated in the presence of cellular stressors (e.g. oxidative stress--rotenone; ER stress--thapsigargin), and are often reversed with in-vitro lithium. Cellular modeling has proven useful in BD, and potential pathways, especially in cellular resilience related mechanisms have been identified. These findings show consistency with other study designs (genome-wide association, brain-imaging, and post-mortem brain expression). ONE cells and IPSC reprogrammed neurons represent the next generation of cell models in BD. Future studies should focus on family-based study designs and combine cell models with deep sequencing and genetic manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vognsen, Mikael; Fabian-Jessing, Bjørn K; Secher, Niels; Løfgren, Bo; Dezfulian, Cameron; Andersen, Lars W; Granfeldt, Asger

    2017-04-01

    Animal models are widely used in cardiac arrest research. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest. Using a comprehensive research strategy, we searched PubMed and EMBASE from March 8, 2011 to March 8, 2016 for cardiac arrest animal models. Two investigators reviewed titles and abstracts for full text inclusion from which data were extracted according to pre-defined definitions. Search criteria yielded 1741 unique titles and abstracts of which 490 full articles were included. The most common animals used were pigs (52%) followed by rats (35%) and mice (6%). Studies favored males (52%) over females (16%); 17% of studies included both sexes, while 14% omitted to report on sex. The most common methods for induction of cardiac arrest were either electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation (54%), asphyxia (25%), or potassium (8%). The median no-flow time was 8min (quartiles: 5, 8, range: 0-37min). The majority of studies used adrenaline during resuscitation (64%), while bicarbonate (17%), vasopressin (8%) and other drugs were used less prevalently. In 53% of the studies, the post-cardiac arrest observation time was ≥24h. Neurological function was an outcome in 48% of studies while 43% included assessment of a cardiac outcome. Multiple animal models of cardiac arrest exist. The great heterogeneity of these models along with great variability in definitions and reporting make comparisons between studies difficult. There is a need for standardization of animal cardiac arrest research and reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  18. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Results Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. Conclusions We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents. PMID:21955914

  19. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ardal, Christine; Alstadsæter, Annette; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2011-09-28

    Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  20. Systematic Professional Development Training and Its Impact on Teachers' Attitudes toward ELLs: SIOP and Guided Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kim Hyunsook

    2016-01-01

    This study examined systematic professional development (PD) training and its impact on teachers' roles for and attitudes toward English language learners (ELLs). Systematic PD should compensate for theories and pedagogies not obtained during teacher education programs yet needed for content teachers with ELLs. A study was conducted to examine…

  1. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    SciTech Connect

    Calore, Francesca; Weniger, Christoph; Cholis, Ilias E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E{sub break} = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of b-bar b final states a dark matter mass of m{sub χ}=49{sup +6.4}{sub −5.4}  GeV.

  2. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    SciTech Connect

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  3. Systematic Reduced Stochastic Climate Models of Atmospheric Low-Frequency Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, C.; Majda, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    This study applies a new systematic, mathematical strategy for stochastic climate modeling for atmospheric low-frequency variability. This strategy is motivated by the fact that atmospheric low-frequency variability can be efficiently described by only a few dominant teleconnection patterns or basis functions. The stochastic modeling strategy is applied to a set of global circulation models with increasing complexity which simulate the observed winter circulation well. In particular, results from a global barotropic model and a global 3 layer quasi-geostrophic model will be presented. The systematic strategy, developed by Majda et al. (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) and Franzke et al. (2005) consists first of the identification of slowly evolving climate modes and faster evolving non-climate modes by use of an empirical orthogonal function decomposition and by minimal regression fitting of the unresolved modes. The stochastic climate model predicts the evolution of these climate modes only. Since the climate system is governed by nonlinear equations the interactions of the resolved climate modes with the unresolved non-climate modes have to be taken into account. The low-order stochastic climate model predicts the evolution of these climate modes a priori without any regression fitting of the resolved modes. The systematic stochastic mode reduction strategy determines all correction terms and noises with minimal regression fitting of the variances and correlation times of the unresolved modes. These correction terms and noises account for the neglected interactions between the resolved climate modes and the unresolved non-climate modes. No ad hoc damping is necessary as in previous studies. All additional interaction terms are predicted which include constant forcing terms, linear terms, quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms, as well as additive and multiplicative (state dependent) noises. These additional interaction terms describe the interaction of the resolved with the

  4. Effectiveness of chronic care models: opportunities for improving healthcare practice and health outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Davy, Carol; Bleasel, Jonathan; Liu, Hueiming; Tchan, Maria; Ponniah, Sharon; Brown, Alex

    2015-05-10

    The increasing prevalence of chronic disease and even multiple chronic diseases faced by both developed and developing countries is of considerable concern. Many of the interventions to address this within primary healthcare settings are based on a chronic care model first developed by MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation at Group Health Cooperative. This systematic literature review aimed to identify and synthesise international evidence on the effectiveness of elements that have been included in a chronic care model for improving healthcare practices and health outcomes within primary healthcare settings. The review broadens the work of other similar reviews by focusing on effectiveness of healthcare practice as well as health outcomes associated with implementing a chronic care model. In addition, relevant case series and case studies were also included. Of the 77 papers which met the inclusion criteria, all but two reported improvements to healthcare practice or health outcomes for people living with chronic disease. While the most commonly used elements of a chronic care model were self-management support and delivery system design, there were considerable variations between studies regarding what combination of elements were included as well as the way in which chronic care model elements were implemented. This meant that it was impossible to clearly identify any optimal combination of chronic care model elements that led to the reported improvements. While the main argument for excluding papers reporting case studies and case series in systematic literature reviews is that they are not of sufficient quality or generalizability, we found that they provided a more detailed account of how various chronic care models were developed and implemented. In particular, these papers suggested that several factors including supporting reflective healthcare practice, sending clear messages about the importance of chronic disease care and ensuring that leaders

  5. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  6. Does Bariatric Surgery Affect the Incidence of Breast Cancer Development? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Winder, Alec A; Kularatna, Malsha; MacCormick, Andrew D

    2017-08-24

    We reviewed the evidence for bariatric surgery reducing the risk of breast cancer. Data was extracted from multiple libraries, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline, to perform a systematic review. Abstracts were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Thirty-eight full-text articles were identified from 1171 abstracts. Four studies were included for meta-analysis; 114 of 10,533 (1.1%) patients receiving bariatric surgery versus 516 of 20,130 (2.6%) controls developed breast cancer, odds ratio 0.564 (95% CI 0.453 to 0.702) using a fixed effects model (P < 0.001) and odds ratio 0.585 (95% CI 0.247 to 1.386) using a random effects model (P 0.223). Bariatric surgery may reduce the risk of breast cancer. More research is required due to heterogeneity of studies, difficulty in identifying accurate controls, and limited follow-up.

  7. Contribution of animal models to the understanding of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic overview.

    PubMed

    Varga, O; Harangi, M; Olsson, I A S; Hansen, A K

    2010-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most important challenges to public health and biomedical research. Animal models of MetS, such as leptin-deficient obese mice, obese spontaneously hypertensive rats, JCR: LA-cp rats and the Ossabaw and Göttingen minipigs, have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiological basis and the development of novel therapies. For a complex disease syndrome, no animal model can be expected to serve all needs of research. Although each animal model has limitations and strengths, used together in a complementary fashion, they are essential for research on the MetS and for rapid progress in understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis towards a cure. The purpose of this review is to assess how current animal models contributed to our knowledge of the human MetS, and to systematically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available 78 animal models from 11 species.

  8. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kristine; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Fullam, James; Doyle, Gerardine; Pelikan, Jürgen; Slonska, Zofia; Brand, Helmut

    2012-01-25

    Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  9. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings. PMID:22276600

  10. SCID: A Competency-Based Curriculum Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    To provide structure for developing curriculum for Competency Based Education (CBE), an effective and efficient model, Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), has been devised. SCID has five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Each of 23 components involves several steps, some optional. Phase…

  11. Cellular models to study schizophrenia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Manasa; Banerjee, Debanjan; Viswanath, Biju; Ramakrishnan, K; Purushottam, Meera; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Jain, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    Advancements in cellular reprogramming techniques have made it possible to directly study brain cells from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. We have systematically reviewed the applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) and their neural derivatives in understanding the biological basis of schizophrenia. We searched the scientific literature published in MEDLINE with the following search strategy: (Pluripotent) AND (Schizophrenia OR Antipsychotic OR Psychosis). Studies written in English that used IPSCs derived from patients with schizophrenia were included. Out of 23 articles, which had used IPSCs from patients with schizophrenia, neurons or neural stem cells had been derived from them in a majority. Several parameters had been studied; the key cellular phenotypes identified included those of synaptic pathology, neural migration/proliferation deficits, and abnormal oxidative phosphorylation. Cellular modelling using IPSCs could improve the biological understanding of schizophrenia. Emerging findings are consistent with those of other study designs (post-mortem brain expression, animal studies, genome-wide association, brain imaging). Future studies should focus on refined study designs (family-based, pharmacogenomics, gene editing) and a combination of cellular studies with deep clinical phenotyping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic flood modelling to support flood-proof urban design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruwier, Martin; Mustafa, Ahmed; Aliaga, Daniel; Archambeau, Pierre; Erpicum, Sébastien; Nishida, Gen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Pirotton, Michel; Teller, Jacques; Dewals, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Urban flood risk is influenced by many factors such as hydro-meteorological drivers, existing drainage systems as well as vulnerability of population and assets. The urban fabric itself has also a complex influence on inundation flows. In this research, we performed a systematic analysis on how various characteristics of urban patterns control inundation flow within the urban area and upstream of it. An urban generator tool was used to generate over 2,250 synthetic urban networks of 1 km2. This tool is based on the procedural modelling presented by Parish and Müller (2001) which was adapted to generate a broader variety of urban networks. Nine input parameters were used to control the urban geometry. Three of them define the average length, orientation and curvature of the streets. Two orthogonal major roads, for which the width constitutes the fourth input parameter, work as constraints to generate the urban network. The width of secondary streets is given by the fifth input parameter. Each parcel generated by the street network based on a parcel mean area parameter can be either a park or a building parcel depending on the park ratio parameter. Three setback parameters constraint the exact location of the building whithin a building parcel. For each of synthetic urban network, detailed two-dimensional inundation maps were computed with a hydraulic model. The computational efficiency was enhanced by means of a porosity model. This enables the use of a coarser computational grid , while preserving information on the detailed geometry of the urban network (Sanders et al. 2008). These porosity parameters reflect not only the void fraction, which influences the storage capacity of the urban area, but also the influence of buildings on flow conveyance (dynamic effects). A sensitivity analysis was performed based on the inundation maps to highlight the respective impact of each input parameter characteristizing the urban networks. The findings of the study pinpoint

  13. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  14. Comparison of two stochastic techniques for reliable urban runoff prediction by modeling systematic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, Dario; Löwe, Roland; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rieckermann, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    In urban rainfall-runoff, commonly applied statistical techniques for uncertainty quantification mostly ignore systematic output errors originating from simplified models and erroneous inputs. Consequently, the resulting predictive uncertainty is often unreliable. Our objective is to present two approaches which use stochastic processes to describe systematic deviations and to discuss their advantages and drawbacks for urban drainage modeling. The two methodologies are an external bias description (EBD) and an internal noise description (IND, also known as stochastic gray-box modeling). They emerge from different fields and have not yet been compared in environmental modeling. To compare the two approaches, we develop a unifying terminology, evaluate them theoretically, and apply them to conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling in the same drainage system. Our results show that both approaches can provide probabilistic predictions of wastewater discharge in a similarly reliable way, both for periods ranging from a few hours up to more than 1 week ahead of time. The EBD produces more accurate predictions on long horizons but relies on computationally heavy MCMC routines for parameter inferences. These properties make it more suitable for off-line applications. The IND can help in diagnosing the causes of output errors and is computationally inexpensive. It produces best results on short forecast horizons that are typical for online applications.

  15. Patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal cancer in pre-clinical research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kai M.; Xue, Aiqun; Mittal, Anubhav; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Smith, Ross; Hugh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS We sought to objectively assess the internal and external validity of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models as a platform in pre-clinical research into colorectal cancer (CRC). Metastatic disease is the most common cause of death from CRC, and despite significant research, the results of current combination chemotherapy and targeted therapies have been underwhelming for most of this patient group. One of the key factors limiting the success of translational CRC research is the biologically inaccurate models in which new therapies are developed. METHODS We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist and SYRCLE (Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation) guidelines to search Ovid MEDLINE and Embase databases up to July 2015 to identify studies involving PDX models of CRC where the model had been validated across multiple parameters. Data was extracted including host mouse strain, engraftment rate, site of engraftment, donor tumour source and development of metastases in the model. RESULTS Thirteen articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was significant heterogeneity amongst the included studies, but overall the median engraftment rate was high (70%) and PDX models faithfully recapitulated the characteristics of their patient tumours on the microscopic, genetic and functional levels. CONCLUSIONS PDX models of CRC have a reasonable internal validity and a high external validity. Developments in xenografting technology are broadening the applications of the PDX platform. However, the included studies could be improved by standardising reporting standards and closed following the ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. PMID:27517155

  16. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers. PMID:26723631

  17. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik

    2015-12-28

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.

  18. Stochastic development in biologically structured population models.

    PubMed

    De Valpine, Perry

    2009-10-01

    Variation in organismal development is ubiquitous in nature but omitted from most age- and stage-structured population models. I give a general approach for formulating and analyzing its role in density-independent population models using the framework of integral projection models. The approach allows flexible assumptions, including correlated development times among multiple life stages. I give a new Monte Carlo numerical integration approach to calculate long-term growth rate, its sensitivities, stable age-stage distributions and reproductive value. This method requires only simulations of individual life schedules, rather than iteration of full population dynamics, and has practical and theoretical appeal because it ties easily implemented simulations to numerical solution of demographic equations. I show that stochastic development is demographically important using two examples. For a desert cactus, many stochastic development models, with independent or correlated stage durations, can generate the same stable stage distribution (SSD) as the real data, but stable age-within-stage distributions and sensitivities of growth rate to demographic rates differ greatly among stochastic development scenarios. For Mediterranean fruit flies, empirical variation in maturation time has a large impact on population growth. The systematic model formulation and analysis approach given here should make consideration of variable development models widely accessible and readily extendible.

  19. Risk Models to Predict Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika; Kengne, Andre P.

    2013-01-01

    Background As well as being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, hypertension is also a health condition in its own right. Risk prediction models may be of value in identifying those individuals at risk of developing hypertension who are likely to benefit most from interventions. Methods and Findings To synthesize existing evidence on the performance of these models, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE; examined bibliographies of retrieved articles; contacted experts in the field; and searched our own files. Dual review of identified studies was conducted. Included studies had to report on the development, validation, or impact analysis of a hypertension risk prediction model. For each publication, information was extracted on study design and characteristics, predictors, model discrimination, calibration and reclassification ability, validation and impact analysis. Eleven studies reporting on 15 different hypertension prediction risk models were identified. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, and blood pressure variables were the most common predictor variables included in models. Most risk models had acceptable-to-good discriminatory ability (C-statistic>0.70) in the derivation sample. Calibration was less commonly assessed, but overall acceptable. Two hypertension risk models, the Framingham and Hopkins, have been externally validated, displaying acceptable-to-good discrimination, and C-statistic ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. Lack of individual-level data precluded analyses of the risk models in subgroups. Conclusions The discrimination ability of existing hypertension risk prediction tools is acceptable, but the impact of using these tools on prescriptions and outcomes of hypertension prevention is unclear. PMID:23861760

  20. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    PubMed

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  1. A Novel, Physics-Based Data Analytics Framework for Reducing Systematic Model Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Knievel, J. C.; Hacker, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most climate and weather models exhibit systematic biases, such as under predicted diurnal temperatures in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. General approaches to alleviate the systematic biases include improving model physics and numerics, improving data assimilation, and bias correction through post-processing. In this study, we developed a novel, physics-based data analytics framework in post processing by taking advantage of ever-growing high-resolution (spatial and temporal) observational and modeling data. In the framework, a spatiotemporal PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is first applied on the observational data to filter out noise and information on scales that a model may not be able to resolve. The filtered observations are then used to establish regression relationships with archived model forecasts in the same spatiotemporal domain. The regressions along with the model forecasts predict the projected observations in the forecasting period. The pre-regression PCA procedure strengthens regressions, and enhances predictive skills. We then combine the projected observations with the past observations to apply PCA iteratively to derive the final forecasts. This post-regression PCA reconstructs variances and scales of information that are lost in the regression. The framework was examined and validated with 24 days of 5-minute observational data and archives from the WRF model at 27 stations near Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The validation shows significant bias reduction in the diurnal cycle of predicted surface air temperature compared to the direct output from the WRF model. Additionally, unlike other post-processing bias correction schemes, the data analytics framework does not require long-term historic data and model archives. A week or two of the data is enough to take into account changes in weather regimes. The program, written in python, is also computationally efficient.

  2. School Libraries: A Systematic Approach to Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptist, Jean; Brown, Gerald R.

    This paper on professional development activities in the Winnipeg (Canada) School Division No. 1 begins with background on population, staffing, and budgeting in the district, a list of principles of effective staff development, and historical perspectives on the division's staff development program from 1962 to 1988. Activities discussed include…

  3. Issues in Continuing Professional Development: Towards a Systematic Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeke, Graham

    In the context of the United Kingdom's further education (FE) system, continuous professional development (CPD) can be considered to include study for further qualifications and formal and informal in-college development programs. The tradition has been for teachers to determine their own development. In situations where resources to support…

  4. Systematic evaluation of biofilm models for engineering practice: components and critical assumptions.

    PubMed

    Boltz, J P; Morgenroth, E; Brockmann, D; Bott, C; Gellner, W J; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm models are valuable tools for the design and evaluation of biofilm-based processes despite several uncertainties including the dynamics and rate of biofilm detachment, concentration gradients external to the biofilm surface, and undefined biofilm reactor model calibration protocol. The present investigation serves to (1) systematically evaluate critical biofilm model assumptions and components and (2) conduct a sensitivity analysis with the aim of identifying parameter subsets for biofilm reactor model calibration. AQUASIM was used to describe submerged-completely mixed combined carbon oxidation and nitrification IFAS and MBBR systems, and tertiary nitrification and denitrification MBBRs. The influence of uncertainties in model parameters on relevant model outputs was determined for simulated scenarios by means of a local sensitivity analysis. To obtain reasonable simulation results for partially penetrated biofilms that accumulated a substantial thickness in the modelled biofilm reactor (e.g. 1,000 microm), an appropriate biofilm discretization was applied to properly model soluble substrate concentration gradients and, consistent with the assumed mechanism for describing biofilm biomass distribution, biofilm biomass spatial variability. The MTBL thickness had a significant impact on model results for each of the modelled reactor configurations. Further research is needed to develop a mathematical description (empirical or otherwise) of the MTBL thickness that is relevant to modern biofilm reactors. No simple recommendations for a generally applicable calibration protocol are provided, but sensitivity analysis has been proven to be a powerful tool for the identification of highly sensitive parameter subsets for biofilm (reactor) model calibration.

  5. Development of an integrated surface stimulation device for systematic evaluation of wound electrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Howe, D S; Dunning, J; Zorman, C; Garverick, S L; Bogie, K M

    2015-02-01

    Ideally, all chronic wounds would be prevented as they can become life threatening complications. The concept that a wound produces a 'current of injury' due to the discontinuity in the electrical field of intact skin provides the basis for the concept that electrical stimulation (ES) may provide an effective treatment for chronic wounds. The optimal stimulation waveform parameters are unknown, limiting the reliability of achieving a successful clinical therapeutic outcome. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of ES for chronic wound therapy, systematic evaluation using a valid in vivo model is required. The focus of the current paper is development of the flexible modular surface stimulation (MSS) device by our group. This device can be programed to deliver a variety of clinically relevant stimulation paradigms and is essential to facilitate systematic in vivo studies. The MSS version 2.0 for small animal use provides all components of a single-channel, programmable current-controlled ES system within a lightweight, flexible, independently-powered portable device. Benchtop testing and validation indicates that custom electronics and control algorithms support the generation of high-voltage, low duty-cycle current pulses in a power-efficient manner, extending battery life and allowing ES therapy to be delivered for up to 7 days without needing to replace or disturb the wound dressing.

  6. The Analysis on Systematic Development of College Microlecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Lisi

    2013-01-01

    In order to apply micro lectures to college education successfully, construct new teaching and learning strategies and teaching model, this paper proposes characteristics of college microlecture based on the college education features and construct microlecture structure model based on the definitions by the experts and scholars. Microlecture's…

  7. Protocol: a systematic review of studies developing and/or evaluating search strategies to identify prognosis studies.

    PubMed

    Corp, Nadia; Jordan, Joanne L; Hayden, Jill A; Irvin, Emma; Parker, Robin; Smith, Andrea; van der Windt, Danielle A

    2017-04-20

    Prognosis research is on the rise, its importance recognised because chronic health conditions and diseases are increasingly common and costly. Prognosis systematic reviews are needed to collate and synthesise these research findings, especially to help inform effective clinical decision-making and healthcare policy. A detailed, comprehensive search strategy is central to any systematic review. However, within prognosis research, this is challenging due to poor reporting and inconsistent use of available indexing terms in electronic databases. Whilst many published search filters exist for finding clinical trials, this is not the case for prognosis studies. This systematic review aims to identify and compare existing methodological filters developed and evaluated to identify prognosis studies of any of the three main types: overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and prognostic [risk prediction] models. Primary studies reporting the development and/or evaluation of methodological search filters to retrieve any type of prognosis study will be included in this systematic review. Multiple electronic bibliographic databases will be searched, grey literature will be sought from relevant organisations and websites, experts will be contacted, and citation tracking of key papers and reference list checking of all included papers will be undertaken. Titles will be screened by one person, and abstracts and full articles will be reviewed for inclusion independently by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality assessment will also be undertaken independently by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion or by a third reviewer if necessary. Filters' characteristics and performance metrics reported in the included studies will be extracted and tabulated. To enable comparisons, filters will be grouped according to database, platform, type of prognosis study, and type of filter for which it was intended. This systematic review will identify all existing validated

  8. Assessing Empathy Development in Medical Education: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, Sandra H.; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Wendland, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Empathy in doctor-patient relationships is a familiar topic for medical scholars, and a crucial goal for medical educators. Nonetheless, there are persistent disagreements in the research literature concerning how best to evaluate empathy among physicians, and whether empathy declines or increases across medical education. Some researchers have argued that the instruments used to study “empathy” may not be measuring anything meaningful to clinical practice or to patient satisfaction. Methods We performed a systematic review to learn how empathy is conceptualized in medical education research. How do researchers define the central construct of empathy, and what do they choose to measure? How well do definitions and operationalizations match? Results Among the 109 studies that met our search criteria, 20% failed to define the central construct of empathy at all, and only 13% had an operationalization that was well-matched to the definition provided. The majority of studies were characterized by internal inconsistencies and vagueness in both the conceptualization and operationalization of empathy, constraining the validity and usefulness of the research. The methods most commonly used to measure empathy relied heavily on self-report and cognition divorced from action, and may therefore have limited power to predict the presence or absence of empathy in clinical settings. Finally, the large majority of studies treated empathy itself as a black box, using global construct measurements that are unable to shed light on the underlying processes that produce empathic response. Discussion We suggest that future research should follow the lead of basic scientific research that conceptualizes empathy as relational—an engagement between a subject and an object—rather than a personal quality that may be modified wholesale through appropriate training. PMID:26896015

  9. Assessing empathy development in medical education: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, Sandra H; Feinstein, Noah W; Wendland, Claire L

    2016-03-01

    Empathy in doctor-patient relationships is a familiar topic for medical scholars and a crucial goal for medical educators. Nonetheless, there are persistent disagreements in the research literature concerning how best to evaluate empathy among physicians, and whether empathy declines or increases across medical education. Some researchers have argued that the instruments used to study 'empathy' may not measure anything meaningful to clinical practice or patient satisfaction. We performed a systematic review to learn how empathy is conceptualised in medical education research. We examined how researchers define the central construct of empathy and what they choose to measure, and investigated how well definitions and operationalisations match. Among the 109 studies that met our search criteria, 20% failed to define the central construct of empathy at all and only 13% used an operationalisation that was well matched to the definition provided. The majority of studies were characterised by internal inconsistencies and vagueness in both the conceptualisation and operationalisation of empathy, constraining the validity and usefulness of the research. The methods most commonly used to measure empathy relied heavily on self-report and cognition divorced from action, and may therefore have limited power to predict the presence or absence of empathy in clinical settings. Finally, the large majority of studies treated empathy itself as a 'black box', using global construct measurements that are unable to shed light on the underlying processes that produce an empathic response. We suggest that future research should follow the lead of basic scientific research that conceptualises empathy as relational - an engagement between a subject and an object - rather than as a personal quality that may be modified wholesale through appropriate training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  11. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  12. Participatory operations model for cost-efficient monitoring and modeling of river basins--A systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Malve, Olli; Hjerppe, Turo; Tattari, Sirkka; Väisänen, Sari; Huttunen, Inese; Kotamäki, Niina; Kallio, Kari; Taskinen, Antti; Kauppila, Pirkko

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic downturn and the climate change in the beginning of 21st century have stressed the need for cost efficient and systematic operations model for the monitoring and management of surface waters. However, these processes are still all too fragmented and incapable to respond these challenges. For example in Finland, the estimation of the costs and benefits of planned management measures is insufficient. On this account, we present a new operations model to streamline these processes and to ensure the lucid decision making and the coherent implementation which facilitate the participation of public and all the involved stakeholders. The model was demonstrated in the real world management of a lake. The benefits, pitfalls and development needs were identified. After the demonstration, the operations model was put into operation and has been actively used in several other management projects throughout Finland.

  13. Systematic Development of Special Educators as Facilitators of Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peryon, Charleen Dolphin

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the knowledge and skills helpful to special educators in their role as consulting teachers in mainstreaming. A parallel is drawn between adult development phases and career development. Sources of resistance to mainstreaming are cited. Three modes of consulting (provision, prescriptive, and mediation) are described.…

  14. Systematic Development of Special Educators as Facilitators of Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peryon, Charleen Dolphin

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the knowledge and skills helpful to special educators in their role as consulting teachers in mainstreaming. A parallel is drawn between adult development phases and career development. Sources of resistance to mainstreaming are cited. Three modes of consulting (provision, prescriptive, and mediation) are described.…

  15. Modeling Systematic Differences In Photometry by Different Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Photometric monitoring campaigns commonly increase their cadence and length of coverage by combining measurements from multiple observers (typically using different telescope/detector systems). However, systematic offsets between the calibration of different contributors can cause problems which may threaten to degrade the quality of an effort when analyzing the results. This is particularly common when the collaboration is put together post-hoc after the campaign but it can also be an unwelcome surprise for even the most carefully planned joint efforts. Here we will explore some of the issues and explore solutions which can be helpful for identifying and mitigating systematic offsets between observers during post-hoc analysis.

  16. An analysis of the least-squares problem for the DSN systematic pointing error model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic pointing error model is used to calibrate antennas in the Deep Space Network. The least squares problem is described and analyzed along with the solution methods used to determine the model's parameters. Specifically studied are the rank degeneracy problems resulting from beam pointing error measurement sets that incorporate inadequate sky coverage. A least squares parameter subset selection method is described and its applicability to the systematic error modeling process is demonstrated on Voyager 2 measurement distribution.

  17. Dynamic Epidemiological Models for Dengue Transmission: A Systematic Review of Structural Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Andraud, Mathieu; Hens, Niel; Marais, Christiaan; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component). For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems. PMID:23139836

  18. Systematic review and retrospective validation of prediction models for weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Alistair J; Mahawar, Kamal; Cheruvu, Chandra V N

    2017-08-12

    Patients often have less than realistic expectations of the weight loss they are likely to achieve after bariatric surgery. It would be useful to have a well-validated prediction tool that could give patients a realistic estimate of their expected weight loss. To perform a systematic review of the literature to identify existing prediction models and attempt to validate these models. University hospital, United Kingdom. A systematic review was performed. All English language studies were included if they used data to create a prediction model for postoperative weight loss after bariatric surgery. These models were then tested on patients undergoing bariatric surgery between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 within our unit. An initial literature search produced 446 results, of which only 4 were included in the final review. Our study population included 317 patients. Mean preoperative body mass index was 46.1 ± 7.1. For 257 (81.1%) patients, 12-month follow-up was available, and mean body mass index and percentage excess weight loss at 12 months was 33.0 ± 6.7 and 66.1% ± 23.7%, respectively. All 4 of the prediction models significantly overestimated the amount of weight loss achieved by patients. The best performing prediction model in our series produced a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of .61 and an area under the curve of .71 on receiver operating curve analysis. All prediction models overestimated weight loss after bariatric surgery in our cohort. There is a need to develop better procedures and patient-specific models for better patient counselling. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constraints and Opportunities in GCM Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. A.; Clune, T.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 30 years climate models have evolved from relatively simple representations of a few atmospheric processes to complex multi-disciplinary system models which incorporate physics from bottom of the ocean to the mesopause and are used for seasonal to multi-million year timescales. Computer infrastructure over that period has gone from punchcard mainframes to modern parallel clusters. Constraints of working within an ever evolving research code mean that most software changes must be incremental so as not to disrupt scientific throughput. Unfortunately, programming methodologies have generally not kept pace with these challenges, and existing implementations now present a heavy and growing burden on further model development as well as limiting flexibility and reliability. Opportunely, advances in software engineering from other disciplines (e.g. the commercial software industry) as well as new generations of powerful development tools can be incorporated by the model developers to incrementally and systematically improve underlying implementations and reverse the long term trend of increasing development overhead. However, these methodologies cannot be applied blindly, but rather must be carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of scientific software development. We will discuss the need for close integration of software engineers and climate scientists to find the optimal processes for climate modeling.

  20. Assessing the complexity of interventions within systematic reviews: development, content and use of a new tool (iCAT_SR).

    PubMed

    Lewin, Simon; Hendry, Maggie; Chandler, Jackie; Oxman, Andrew D; Michie, Susan; Shepperd, Sasha; Reeves, Barnaby C; Tugwell, Peter; Hannes, Karin; Rehfuess, Eva A; Welch, Vivien; Mckenzie, Joanne E; Burford, Belinda; Petkovic, Jennifer; Anderson, Laurie M; Harris, Janet; Noyes, Jane

    2017-04-26

    Health interventions fall along a spectrum from simple to more complex. There is wide interest in methods for reviewing 'complex interventions', but few transparent approaches for assessing intervention complexity in systematic reviews. Such assessments may assist review authors in, for example, systematically describing interventions and developing logic models. This paper describes the development and application of the intervention Complexity Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews (iCAT_SR), a new tool to assess and categorise levels of intervention complexity in systematic reviews. We developed the iCAT_SR by adapting and extending an existing complexity assessment tool for randomized trials. We undertook this adaptation using a consensus approach in which possible complexity dimensions were circulated for feedback to a panel of methodologists with expertise in complex interventions and systematic reviews. Based on these inputs, we developed a draft version of the tool. We then invited a second round of feedback from the panel and a wider group of systematic reviewers. This informed further refinement of the tool. The tool comprises ten dimensions: (1) the number of active components in the intervention; (2) the number of behaviours of recipients to which the intervention is directed; (3) the range and number of organizational levels targeted by the intervention; (4) the degree of tailoring intended or flexibility permitted across sites or individuals in applying or implementing the intervention; (5) the level of skill required by those delivering the intervention; (6) the level of skill required by those receiving the intervention; (7) the degree of interaction between intervention components; (8) the degree to which the effects of the intervention are context dependent; (9) the degree to which the effects of the interventions are changed by recipient or provider factors; (10) and the nature of the causal pathway between intervention and outcome. Dimensions 1

  1. An Overview of Chronic Disease Models: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The objective of our study was to examine various existing chronic disease models, their elements and their role in the management of Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and CINHAL during a period of January 2003- March 2011. Following key terms were used either in single or in combination such as “Chronic Disease Model” AND “Diabetes Mellitus” OR “COPD” OR ‘CVD”. Results: A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis. Majority of the studies were US-based. Five chronic disease models included Chronic Care Model (CCM), Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), and Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC), Stanford Model (SM) and Community based Transition Model (CBTM). CCM was the most studied model. Elements studied included delivery system design and self-management support (87%), clinical information system and decision support (57%) and health system organization (52%). Elements including center care on the patient and family (13%), patient safety (4%), community policies (4%), built integrated health care (4%) and remote patient monitoring (4%) have not been well studied. Other elements including support paradigm shift, manage political environment, align sectoral policies for health, use healthcare personnel more effectively, support patients in their communities, emphasize prevention, identify patient specific concerns related to the transition process, and health literacy between visits and treatments have also not been well studied in the existing literature. Conclusions: It was unclear to what extent the results generated is applicable to different populations and locations and therefore is an area of future research. Future studies are also needed to test chronic disease models in settings where more racially and ethnically representative patients receive chronic care. Future program development should also

  2. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  3. Arms race modeling: systematic analysis and synthesis. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant proliferation of arms race models in journals and books across many disciplines. Numerous factors have been put forth as relevant by arms race modelers and diverse analytical and explanatory approaches have been employed. This indicates that arms race modeling can be advanced by a systematic analysis (review) and synthesis. This is the purpose of this thesis). Part I discusses the perspective, purposes, and organization of this thesis, definitions of arms race, and mathematical modeling as a tool of arms race research. Parts II-VI review in detail over 125 arms race models and numerous other defense determination models. Part VII synthesizes arms race modeling factors and approaches from the perspective of economics. Each side in an arms race is viewed as facing an economic choice problem of how to allocate scarce resources between defense and nondefense goods. Part VIII undertakes policy analysis using the models developed in Part VII. The three issues investigated are (1) nuclear-conventional substitutability in the European theater, (2) the Strategic Defense Initiative, and (3) the impact of arms races on outputs and factor rewards. Part IX discusses future research avenues related to arms race modeling.

  4. Equation-free analysis of agent-based models and systematic parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Spencer A.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Skeldon, Anne C.

    2016-12-01

    Agent based models (ABM)s are increasingly used in social science, economics, mathematics, biology and computer science to describe time dependent systems in circumstances where a description in terms of equations is difficult. Yet few tools are currently available for the systematic analysis of ABM behaviour. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis is a well-established tool for the study of deterministic systems. Recently, equation-free (EF) methods have been developed to extend numerical continuation techniques to systems where the dynamics are described at a microscopic scale and continuation of a macroscopic property of the system is considered. To date, the practical use of EF methods has been limited by; (1) the over-head of application-specific implementation; (2) the laborious configuration of problem-specific parameters; and (3) large ensemble sizes (potentially) leading to computationally restrictive run-times. In this paper we address these issues with our tool for the EF continuation of stochastic systems, which includes algorithms to systematically configuration problem specific parameters and enhance robustness to noise. Our tool is generic and can be applied to any 'black-box' simulator and determines the essential EF parameters prior to EF analysis. Robustness is significantly improved using our convergence-constraint with a corrector-repeat (C3R) method. This algorithm automatically detects outliers based on the dynamics of the underlying system enabling both an order of magnitude reduction in ensemble size and continuation of systems at much higher levels of noise than classical approaches. We demonstrate our method with application to several ABM models, revealing parameter dependence, bifurcation and stability analysis of these complex systems giving a deep understanding of the dynamical behaviour of the models in a way that is not otherwise easily obtainable. In each case we demonstrate our systematic parameter determination stage for

  5. Development (design and systematization) of HMS Group pump ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Yamburenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The article reveals the need for pump range charts development for different applications and describes main principles used by HMS Group. Some modern approaches to pump selection are reviewed and highlighted the need for pump compliance with international standards and modern customer requirements. Even though pump design types are similar for different applications they need adjustment to specific requirements, which gets manufacturers develop their particular design for each pump range. Having wide pump ranges for different applications enables to create pump selection software, facilitating manufacturers to prepare high quality quotations in shortest time.

  6. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  7. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    PubMed

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.

  8. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  9. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Ip, Stanley; Lee, Jounghee; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Raman, Gowri; Trikalinos, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lau, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization suggested that incorporating systematic (evidence) reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would provide a comprehensive and distilled evidence document to decision makers and enhance the transparency of the decision-making process the IOM used in recommending the Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) for US and Canadian populations. At the request of the US and Canadian government sponsors of the ongoing review of the 1997 vitamin D and calcium DRI values, the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center performed a systematic review for the current DRI Committee to use early in its deliberations. We described the approach used to include systematic review into the IOM process for updating nutrient reference values and highlighted major challenges encountered along with the solutions used. The challenges stemmed from the need to review and synthesize a large number of primary studies covering a broad range of outcomes. We resolved these challenges by 1) working with a technical expert panel to prioritize and select outcomes of interest, 2) developing methods to use existing systematic reviews and documenting the limitations by doing so, 3) translating results from studies not designed to address issues of interest by using a transparent process, and 4) establishing tailored quality-assessment tools to assist in decision making. The experiences described in this article can serve as a basis for future improvements in systematic reviews of nutrients and to better integrate systematic review into development of future nutrient reference values.

  10. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750

  11. Development of a Systematic Automotive Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Peter B.; And Others

    As part of a project to provide techniques for developing and implementing realistic vocational training and placement programs for prisoner rehabilitation, an Automotive Trades Council (ATC) was established to test the concept of using a citizens' council to function as a bridge between correctional and training personnel and the using society.…

  12. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of reviews synthesize and report the results of primary outcome prediction studies. Methods Outcome prediction reviews published in MEDLINE between October 2005 and March 2011 were eligible and 127 Systematic reviews with the aim to summarize outcome prediction studies written in English were identified for inclusion. Characteristics of the reviews and the primary studies that were included were independently assessed by 2 review authors, using standardized forms. Results After consensus meetings a total of 50 systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria were included. The type of primary studies included (prognostic factor or outcome prediction) was unclear in two-thirds of the reviews. A minority of the reviews reported univariable or multivariable point estimates and measures of dispersion from the primary studies. Moreover, the variables considered for outcome prediction model development were often not reported, or were unclear. In most reviews there was no information about model performance. Quantitative analysis was performed in 10 reviews, and 49 reviews assessed the primary studies qualitatively. In both analyses types a range of different methods was used to present the results of the outcome prediction studies. Conclusions Different methods are applied to synthesize primary study results but quantitative analysis is rarely performed. The description of its objectives and of the primary studies is suboptimal and performance parameters of the outcome prediction models are rarely mentioned. The poor reporting and the wide variety of data synthesis strategies are prone to influence the conclusions of outcome prediction reviews. Therefore, there is much room for improvement

  14. Validation of Ultrafilter Performance Model Based on Systematic Simulant Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Billing, Justin M.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-11-18

    Because of limited availability of test data with actual Hanford tank waste samples, a method was developed to estimate expected filtration performance based on physical characterization data for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A test with simulated waste was analyzed to demonstrate that filtration of this class of waste is consistent with a concentration polarization model. Subsequently, filtration data from actual waste samples were analyzed to demonstrate that centrifuged solids concentrations provide a reasonable estimate of the limiting concentration for filtration.

  15. A Systematic Review of Health Economics Simulation Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Zafari, Zafar; Bryan, Stirling; Sin, Don D; Conte, Tania; Khakban, Rahman; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Many decision-analytic models with varying structures have been developed to inform resource allocation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To review COPD models for their adherence to the best practice modeling recommendations and their assumptions regarding important aspects of the natural history of COPD. A systematic search of English articles reporting on the development or application of a decision-analytic model in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and citations within reviewed articles. Studies were summarized and evaluated on the basis of their adherence to the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. They were also evaluated for the underlying assumptions about disease progression, heterogeneity, comorbidity, and treatment effects. Forty-nine models of COPD were included. Decision trees and Markov models were the most popular techniques (43 studies). Quality of reporting and adherence to the guidelines were generally high, especially in more recent publications. Disease progression was modeled through clinical staging in most studies. Although most studies (n = 43) had incorporated some aspects of COPD heterogeneity, only 8 reported the results across subgroups. Only 2 evaluations explicitly considered the impact of comorbidities. Treatment effect had been mostly modeled (20) as both reduction in exacerbation rate and improvement in lung function. Many COPD models have been developed, generally with similar structural elements. COPD is highly heterogeneous, and comorbid conditions play an important role in its burden. These important aspects, however, have not been adequately addressed in most of the published models. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using a Systematic Approach to Develop a Chemistry Course Introducing Students to Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Shen, Bo; Hardacre, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach to develop the teaching of instrumental analytical chemistry is discussed, as well as a conceptual framework for organizing and executing lectures and a laboratory course. Three main components are used in this course: theoretical knowledge developed in the classroom, simulations via a virtual laboratory, and practical…

  17. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  18. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  19. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  20. Development of a systematic procedure for analyzing bus service cutback programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tadi, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this era of shrinking public resources and mounting operating costs, it is becoming increasingly important to operate public transit as efficiently as possible. The primary purpose of this thesis is to develop a systematic procedure (planning tool) that will enable transit operators to quickly and efficiently evaluate transit routes in order to minimize the total operating deficit while responding to service cutbacks or modifications. As a part of this research, a computer model called Transit Route Evaluation Model (TREM) is developed that can evaluate each transit route both at the system level and at the route level based upon a set of pre-specified criteria such as revenue/operating cost ratio, transit demand, population density, subsidy, and income. The unproductive routes, thus identified, are reviewed to analyze if service cutbacks or service modifications can be considered along those routes so that total operating deficit can be minimized. The alternative which yields the minimum operating deficit is considered as the optimal alternative. A case study example (Flint, Michigan) consisting of 12 routes is used to demonstrate the applicability of the research methodology. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted by changing the various input parameters in order to judge the viability of the methodology.

  1. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved.

  3. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  4. Towards the systematic development of medical networking technology.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Shetty, Ravindra; Sree, S Vinitha; Acharya, Sripathi; Acharya U, Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Poo, Chua Kok; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-12-01

    Currently, there is a disparity in the availability of doctors between urban and rural areas of developing countries. Most experienced doctors and specialists, as well as advanced diagnostic technologies, are available in urban areas. People living in rural areas have less or sometimes even no access to affordable healthcare facilities. Increasing the number of doctors and charitable medical hospitals or deploying advanced medical technologies in these areas might not be economically feasible, especially in developing countries. We need to mobilize science and technology to master this complex, large scale problem in an objective, logical, and professional way. This can only be achieved with a collaborative effort where a team of experts works on both technical and non-technical aspects of this health care divide. In this paper we use a systems engineering framework to discuss hospital networks which might be solution for the problem. We argue that with the advancement in communication and networking technologies, economically middle class people and even some rural poor have access to internet and mobile communication systems. Thus, Hospital Digital Networking Technologies (HDNT), such as telemedicine, can be developed to utilize internet, mobile and satellite communication systems to connect primitive rural healthcare centers to well advanced modern urban setups and thereby provide better consultation and diagnostic care to the needy people. This paper describes requirements and limitations of the HDNTs. It also presents the features of telemedicine, the implementation issues and the application of wireless technologies in the field of medical networking.

  5. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  6. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  7. Neighborhood Development: Issues and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that Neighborhood Development Organization (NDO) staffs and volunteers have a faulty understanding of the political economies of poor urban communities, and have adopted a free market orientation. Recommends an alternative "organizing-driven" model of community development. (FMW)

  8. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten; Dekker, Joost; Steultjens, Martijn; Lund, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. Methods and analysis Cohort, cross-sectional and case–control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical factor with (the development of) KOA will be included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus will be searched from their inception until August 2015. 2 reviewers will independently screen articles obtained by the search for eligibility, extract data and score risk of bias. Quality of evidence will be evaluated. Meta-analysis using random effects model will be applied in each of the biomechanical factors, if possible. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis does not require ethical approval. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at (inter)national conferences. Trial registration number CRD42015025092. PMID:27311908

  9. Models and Data Sources Used in Systems Medicine. A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gietzelt, M; Löpprich, M; Karmen, C; Knaup, P; Ganzinger, M

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine is a new approach for the development and selection of treatment strategies for patients with complex diseases. It is often referred to as the application of systems biology methods for decision making in patient care. For systems medicine computer applications, many different data sources have to be integrated and included into models. This is a challenging task for Medical Informatics since the approach exceeds traditional systems like Electronic Health Records. To prioritize research activities for systems medicine applications, it is necessary to get an overview over modelling methods and data sources already used in this field. We performed a systematic literature review with the objective to capture current use of 1) modelling methods and 2) data sources in systems medicine related research projects. We queried the MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases for papers associated with the search term systems medicine and related terms. Papers were screened and assessed in full text in a two-step process according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines. The queries returned 698 articles of which 34 papers were finally included into the study. A multitude of modelling approaches such as machine learning and network analysis was identified and classified. Since these approaches are also used in other domains, no methods specific for systems medicine could be identified. Omics data are the most widely used data types followed by clinical data. Most studies only include a rather limited number of data sources. Currently, many different modelling approaches are used in systems medicine. Thus, highly flexible modular solutions are necessary for systems medicine clinical applications. However, the number of data sources included into the models is limited and most projects currently focus on prognosis. To leverage the potential of systems medicine further, it will be necessary to focus on

  10. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW which were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystems, are discussed. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base and to assess the cooperation between the rule bases. Simulation and comparative workload results for two mission scenarios are given. The scenarios are inbound surface-to-air-missile attack on the aircraft and pilot incapacitation. The methodology used to develop the AUTOCREW knowledge bases is summarized. Issues involved in designing the navigation sensor selection expert in AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR knowledge base are discussed in detail. The performance of seven navigation systems aiding a medium-accuracy INS was investigated using Kalman filter covariance analyses. A navigation sensor management (NSM) expert system was formulated from covariance simulation data using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and the ID3 algorithm. ANOVA results show that statistically different position accuracies are obtained when different navaids are used, the number of navaids aiding the INS is varied, the aircraft's trajectory is varied, and the performance history is varied. The ID3 algorithm determines the NSM expert's classification rules in the form of decision trees. The performance of these decision trees was assessed on two arbitrary trajectories, and the results demonstrate that the NSM expert adapts to new situations and provides reasonable estimates of the expected hybrid performance.

  11. Systematic Assessment of Terrestrial Biogeochemistry in Coupled Climate-Carbon Models

    SciTech Connect

    Randerson, Jim; Hoffman, Forrest M; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Lindsay, Keith; Lee, Jeff; Nevison, Cynthia; Doney, Scott C.; Bonan, Gordon; Stockli, Reto; Covey, Curtis; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    With representation of the global carbon cycle becoming increasingly complex in climate models, it is important to develop ways to quantitatively evaluate model performance against in situ and remote sensing observations. Here we present a systematic framework, the Carbon-LAnd Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), for assessing terrestrial biogeochemistry models coupled to climate models using observations that span a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As an example of the value of such comparisons, we used this framework to evaluate two biogeochemistry models that are integrated within the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) and carbon-nitrogen (CN). Both models underestimated the magnitude of net carbon uptake during the growing season in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, based on comparison with atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements and eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange. Comparison with MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements show that this low bias in model fluxes was caused, at least in part, by 1-3 month delays in the timing of maximum leaf area. In the tropics, the models overestimated carbon storage in woody biomass based on comparison with datasets from the Amazon. Reducing this model bias will probably weaken the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon fluxes to both atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate. Global carbon sinks during the 1990s differed by a factor of two (2.4 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CASA vs. 1.2 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CN), with fluxes from both models compatible with the atmospheric budget given uncertainties in other terms. The models captured some of the timing of interannual global terrestrial carbon exchange during 1988-2004 based on comparison with atmospheric inversion results from TRANSCOM (r=0.66 for CASA and r=0.73 for CN). Adding (CASA) or improving (CN) the representation of deforestation fires may further increase agreement with the

  12. Orthodontic measurements on digital study models compared with plaster models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P S; Marinho, V; Johal, A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the use of digital models to assess tooth size, arch length, irregularity index, arch width and crowding versus measurements generated on hand-held plaster models with digital callipers in patients with and without malocclusion. Studies comparing linear and angular measurements obtained on digital and standard plaster models were identified by searching multiple databases including MEDLINE, LILACS, BBO, ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register and Pro-Quest Dissertation Abstracts and Thesis database, without restrictions relating to publication status or language of publication. Two authors were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Items from the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Reviews checklist were used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. No meta-analysis was conducted. Comparisons between measurements of digital and plaster models made directly within studies were reported, and the difference between the (repeated) measurement means for digital and plaster models were considered as estimates. Seventeen relevant studies were included. Where reported, overall, the absolute mean differences between direct and indirect measurements on plaster and digital models were minor and clinically insignificant. Orthodontic measurements with digital models were comparable to those derived from plaster models. The use of digital models as an alternative to conventional measurement on plaster models may be recommended, although the evidence identified in this review is of variable quality. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Implications for nursing managers from a systematic review of practice development.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Jan

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers some of the implications for Nursing Managers arising from a recent systematic review of practice development carried out in the UK by McCormack et al. (2007a, b). The paper begins by offering some background to practice development (PD). It then summarizes the methodology and method of the systematic review before moving on to discuss, what it is suggested, are the main implications Nursing Managers need to focus on. Finally, 10 points or key messages from the review, relevant for Nursing Managers, are offered. This paper is relevant not only to managers in older people's services but to all services.

  14. Causes of Child and Youth Homelessness in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Lonnie; Lee, Hana; Gunn, Jayleen; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-05-01

    A systematic compilation of children and youth's reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex. Electronic searches of Scopus, PsychINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and the Social Sciences Citation Index were conducted from January 1, 1990, to the third week of July 2013. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for studies that reported quantitative reasons for street involvement. The following broad search strategy was used to search the databases: "street children" OR "street youth" OR "homeless youth" OR "homeless children" OR "runaway children" OR "runaway youth" or "homeless persons." Studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants were 24 years of age or younger, (2) participants met our definition of street-connected children and youth, and (3) the quantitative reasons for street involvement were reported. We reviewed 318 full texts and identified 49 eligible studies. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. We fit logistic mixed-effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of each reason and to estimate subgroup pooled prevalence by development level or geographic region. The meta-analysis was conducted from February to August 2015. We created the following categories based on the reported reasons in the literature: poverty, abuse, family conflict, delinquency, psychosocial health, and other. In total, there were 13 559 participants from 24 countries, of which 21 represented developing countries. The most commonly reported reason for street involvement was poverty, with a pooled-prevalence estimate of 39% (95% CI, 29

  15. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted.

  16. Nonstandard working schedules and health: the systematic search for a comprehensive model.

    PubMed

    Merkus, Suzanne L; Holte, Kari Anne; Huysmans, Maaike A; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-10-23

    Theoretical models on shift work fall short of describing relevant health-related pathways associated with the broader concept of nonstandard working schedules. Shift work models neither combine relevant working time characteristics applicable to nonstandard schedules nor include the role of rest periods and recovery in the development of health complaints. Therefore, this paper aimed to develop a comprehensive model on nonstandard working schedules to address these shortcomings. A literature review was conducted using a systematic search and selection process. Two searches were performed: one associating the working time characteristics time-of-day and working time duration with health and one associating recovery after work with health. Data extracted from the models were used to develop a comprehensive model on nonstandard working schedules and health. For models on the working time characteristics, the search strategy yielded 3044 references, of which 26 met the inclusion criteria that contained 22 distinctive models. For models on recovery after work, the search strategy yielded 896 references, of which seven met the inclusion criteria containing seven distinctive models. Of the models on the working time characteristics, three combined time-of-day with working time duration, 18 were on time-of-day (i.e. shift work), and one was on working time duration. The model developed in the paper has a comprehensive approach to working hours and other work-related risk factors and proposes that they should be balanced by positive non-work factors to maintain health. Physiological processes leading to health complaints are circadian disruption, sleep deprivation, and activation that should be counterbalanced by (re-)entrainment, restorative sleep, and recovery, respectively, to maintain health. A comprehensive model on nonstandard working schedules and health was developed. The model proposes that work and non-work as well as their associated physiological processes need

  17. Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-11-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a

  18. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel

    2017-07-24

    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  19. Systematic Assessment Through Mathematical Model For Sustainability Reporting In Malaysia Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability assessment have been studied and increasingly recognized as a powerful and valuable tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. Nowadays, there are many existing tools that the users can use for sustainable development. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development, though most of the tools focused on environmental, economy and social aspects. Using the Green Project Management (GPM) P5 concept that suggests the firms not only needs to engage in mainly 3Ps principle: planet, profit, people responsible behaviours, but also, product and process need to be included in the practices, this study will introduce a new mathematical model for assessing the level of sustainability practice in the company. Based on multiple case studies, involving in-depth interviews with senior directors, feedback from experts, and previous engineering report, a systematic approach is done with the aims to obtain the respective data from the feedbacks and to be developed into a new mathematical model. By reviewing on the methodology of this research it comprises of several phases where it starts with the analyzation of the parameters and criteria selection according to the Malaysian context of industry. Moving on to the next step is data analysis involving regression and finally the normalisation process will be done to determine the result of this research either succeeded or not. Lastly, this study is expected to provide a clear guideline to any company or organization to assimilate the sustainability assessment in their development stage. In future, the better understanding towards the sustainability assessment is attained to be aligned unitedly in order to integrated the process approach into the systematic approach for the sustainability assessment.

  20. A Systematic Composite Service Design Modeling Method Using Graph-Based Theory

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system. PMID:25928358

  1. A systematic composite service design modeling method using graph-based theory.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Arafat Abdulgader Mohammed; Mohamad, Radziah; Aziz, Muhammad Waqar; Zeshan, Furkh

    2015-01-01

    The composite service design modeling is an essential process of the service-oriented software development life cycle, where the candidate services, composite services, operations and their dependencies are required to be identified and specified before their design. However, a systematic service-oriented design modeling method for composite services is still in its infancy as most of the existing approaches provide the modeling of atomic services only. For these reasons, a new method (ComSDM) is proposed in this work for modeling the concept of service-oriented design to increase the reusability and decrease the complexity of system while keeping the service composition considerations in mind. Furthermore, the ComSDM method provides the mathematical representation of the components of service-oriented design using the graph-based theoryto facilitate the design quality measurement. To demonstrate that the ComSDM method is also suitable for composite service design modeling of distributed embedded real-time systems along with enterprise software development, it is implemented in the case study of a smart home. The results of the case study not only check the applicability of ComSDM, but can also be used to validate the complexity and reusability of ComSDM. This also guides the future research towards the design quality measurement such as using the ComSDM method to measure the quality of composite service design in service-oriented software system.

  2. Strategies for developing competency models.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.

  3. An information theory approach to minimise correlated systematic uncertainty in modelling resonance parameters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P T Krishna; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Covariance matrix elements depict the statistical and systematic uncertainties in reactor parameter measurements. All the efforts have so far been devoted only to minimise the statistical uncertainty by repeated measurements but the dominant systematic uncertainty has either been neglected or randomized. In recent years efforts has been devoted to simulate the resonance parameter uncertainty information through covariance matrices in code SAMMY. But, the code does not have any provision to check the reliability of the simulated covariance data. We propose a new approach called entropy based information theory to reduce the systematic uncertainty in the correlation matrix element so that resonance parameters with minimum systematic uncertainty can be modelled. We apply our information theory approach in generating the resonance parameters of (156)Gd with reduced systematic uncertainty and demonstrate the superiority of our technique over the principal component analysis method.

  4. Computer simulation models of pre-diabetes populations: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Leal, Jose; Khurshid, Waqar; Pagano, Eva; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-10-05

    Diabetes is a major public health problem and prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycaemia) is associated with a high risk of developing diabetes. With evidence supporting the use of preventive interventions for prediabetes populations and the discovery of novel biomarkers stratifying the risk of progression, there is a need to evaluate their cost-effectiveness across jurisdictions. In diabetes and prediabetes, it is relevant to inform cost-effectiveness analysis using decision models due to their ability to forecast long-term health outcomes and costs beyond the time frame of clinical trials. To support good implementation and reimbursement decisions of interventions in these populations, models should be clinically credible, based on best available evidence, reproducible and validated against clinical data. Our aim is to identify recent studies on computer simulation models and model-based economic evaluations of populations of individuals with prediabetes, qualify them and discuss the knowledge gaps, challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed for future evaluations. A systematic review will be conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, EconLit and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. We will extract peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2016 that describe computer simulation models of the natural history of individuals with prediabetes and/or decision models to evaluate the impact of interventions, risk stratification and/or screening on these populations. Two reviewers will independently assess each study for inclusion. Data will be extracted using a predefined pro forma developed using best practice. Study quality will be assessed using a modelling checklist. A narrative synthesis of all studies will be presented, focussing on model structure, quality of models and input data, and validation status. This systematic review is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. The findings of the review

  5. Development of Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Doulabi, Mahbobeh ahmadi; Vameghi, Roshanak; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali; Mahmodi, Zohreh; Ghasemi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to gain a better perspective of the developmental status of children in different regions of Iran, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the factors impacting child development in Iranian studies. Materials and Methods: Articles published in Iranian and international journals indexed in the SID, PubMed, Scopus and Magiran databases from 2001-2015 were systematically reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords. After evaluating the quality of 155 articles in the initial search, 26 articles were analyzed according to the inclusion criteria. After investigations, meta-analysis was done for six studies and the results were combined using Random Effects model, and the heterogeneity of studies was evaluated using the I2 index. Data analysis was performed using STATA version 11.2. Results: Eagger & Beggs tests, respectively with 0/273 & 0/260 did not confirm the probability of publication bias in the data, but heterogeneity in studies was confirmed (p<0/001). On such basis, the pooled prevalence of developmental disorder based on Random Effect model was calculated to be 0.146, CI (0/107-0/184). The prevalence of developmental disorders in children in the studies reviewed was reported between 7 to 22.4%. The most important risk factors were in SES (Socio Economic Status) and Prenatal, Perinatal, Neonatal &Child groups. Conclusion: More extensive studies and early intervention with respect to causes of developmental delay in children seems necessary. PMID:27045395

  6. Information Processing and Risk Perception: An Adaptation of the Heuristic-Systematic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes heuristic-systematic information-processing model and risk perception--the two major conceptual areas of the analysis. Discusses the proposed model, describing the context of the data collections (public health communication involving cancer epidemiology) and providing the results of a set of three replications using the proposed model.…

  7. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  8. Classroom Crisis Intervention through Contracting: A Moral Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1981-01-01

    A counselor can arbitrate problem situations using a systematic approach to classroom intervention which includes meetings with the teacher and students. This crisis intervention model based on moral development can be more effective than reliance on guidance activities disconnected from the actual classroom settings where the problems arise.…

  9. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  10. Development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: methodology and main issues.

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso, G. A.; March, A. D.; Berra, C. M.; Strobietto, R. P.; Barani, M.; Iubatti, M.; Chiaradio, M. P.; Serebrisky, D.; Kahn, A.; Vaccarezza, O. A.; Leguiza, J. L.; Ceitlin, M.; Luna, D. A.; Bernaldo de Quirós, F. G.; Otegui, M. I.; Puga, M. C.; Vallejos, M.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation features linguistic and terminology management issues related to the development of the Spanish version of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). It aims at describing the aspects of translating and the difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and consistent medical nomenclature. Bunge's three-layered model is referenced to analyze the sequence of symbolic concept representations. It further explains how a communicative translation based on a concept-to-concept approach was used to achieve the highest level of flawlessness and naturalness for the Spanish rendition of SNOMED. Translation procedures and techniques are described and exemplified. Both the computer-aided and human translation methods are portrayed. The scientific and translation team tasks are detailed, with focus on Newmark's four-level principle for the translation process, extended with a fifth further level relevant to the ontology to control the consistency of the typology of concepts. Finally the convenience for a common methodology to develop non-English versions of SNOMED is suggested. PMID:11079973

  11. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    PubMed

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  12. Primary health care delivery models in rural and remote Australia – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wakerman, John; Humphreys, John S; Wells, Robert; Kuipers, Pim; Entwistle, Philip; Jones, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background One third of all Australians live outside of its major cities. Access to health services and health outcomes are generally poorer in rural and remote areas relative to metropolitan areas. In order to improve access to services, many new programs and models of service delivery have been trialled since the first National Rural Health Strategy in 1994. Inadequate evaluation of these initiatives has resulted in failure to garner knowledge, which would facilitate the establishment of evidence-based service models, sustain and systematise them over time and facilitate transfer of successful programs. This is the first study to systematically review the available published literature describing innovative models of comprehensive primary health care (PHC) in rural and remote Australia since the development of the first National Rural Health Strategy (1993–2006). The study aimed to describe what health service models were reported to work, where they worked and why. Methods A reference group of experts in rural health assisted in the development and implementation of the study. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from the relevant electronic databases. 'Grey' literature was identified pragmatically from works known to the researchers, reference lists and from relevant websites. Data were extracted and synthesised from papers meeting inclusion criteria. Results A total of 5391 abstracts were reviewed. Data were extracted finally from 76 'rural' and 17 'remote' papers. Synthesis of extracted data resulted in a typology of models with five broad groupings: discrete services, integrated services, comprehensive PHC, outreach models and virtual outreach models. Different model types assume prominence with increasing remoteness and decreasing population density. Whilst different models suit different locations, a number of 'environmental enablers' and 'essential service requirements' are common across all model types. Conclusion Synthesised data suggest that

  13. Systematic Screening Children at Risk for Developing SED: Initial Results from a Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, James D.; Montague, Marjorie; Hocutt, Anne M.

    This paper reports on the first year's results of a screening procedure used to identify kindergarten and first grade children at risk of developing serious emotional disturbance. The Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) is a three-stage, multiple-gated procedure for mass screening to determine whether a child should be referred for…

  14. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supervisors, managers, and executives. 412.202 Section 412.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... § 412.202 Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives. All agencies... manager additional training on the use of appropriate actions, options, and strategies to: (1) Mentor...

  15. "Learning to Play with New Friends": Systematic Quality Development Work in a Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the recontextualisation of systematic quality development work (Sqdw) in a leisure-time centre. Two teachers' processes of planning, organisation, documentation and evaluation were investigated, the aim being to explore the recontextualisation of Sqdw in practice. The study is thus a case study of these teachers' practice…

  16. A Systematic Literature Review of Funding for Higher Education Institutions in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Ning, Kang; Barnes, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation and funding in higher education is crucial to the success of reform and transformation of our higher education system. With a view to identifying trends and best practices in the area, utilizing a method of systematic literature review, we have critically reviewed relevant theories and practices from developed counties that are…

  17. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  18. "Learning to Play with New Friends": Systematic Quality Development Work in a Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the recontextualisation of systematic quality development work (Sqdw) in a leisure-time centre. Two teachers' processes of planning, organisation, documentation and evaluation were investigated, the aim being to explore the recontextualisation of Sqdw in practice. The study is thus a case study of these teachers' practice…

  19. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  20. Systematic Quality Development Work in a Swedish Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin; Sheridan, Sonja; Gustafsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing activity in the area of quality issues in education in Europe. Diverse discourses of policy for quality are encountered in daily practice. This article explores systematic quality development work in a Swedish educational setting: the leisure-time centre. By following 2 teachers' enactments of policy in planning, organising,…

  1. Systematic Quality Development Work in a Swedish Leisure-Time Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Karin; Sheridan, Sonja; Gustafsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing activity in the area of quality issues in education in Europe. Diverse discourses of policy for quality are encountered in daily practice. This article explores systematic quality development work in a Swedish educational setting: the leisure-time centre. By following 2 teachers' enactments of policy in planning, organising,…

  2. Toward a Systematic and Intentional Approach to Leadership Development for the Early Childhood Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the literature indicated that the field of early childhood would benefit from a more systematic and intentional approach to developing leadership for professionals at all levels, including those with a range of training/education across a diversity of program types and professional positions. The intent of the present study was…

  3. Understanding Systematics in ZZ Ceti Model Fitting to Enable Differential Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, J. T.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C.; Meza, J. A.; Dennihy, E.; Koester, D.

    2017-03-01

    We are conducting a large spectroscopic survey of over 130 Southern ZZ Cetis with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR Telescope. Because it employs a single instrument with high UV throughput, this survey will both improve the signal-to-noise of the sample of SDSS ZZ Cetis and provide a uniform dataset for model comparison. We are paying special attention to systematics in the spectral fitting and quantify three of those systematics here. We show that relative positions in the log g -Teff plane are consistent for these three systematics.

  4. Developing a model: an illustration.

    PubMed

    Havenga, Yolanda; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Model development may seem a daunting task for the novice. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the steps of model development applied to a real-life phenomenon using an inductive theory-generating research approach. The value of the illustration is that nurse researchers can follow the application of the process as a point of departure for their own work. A logical stepwise discussion is followed for empirical theory development. The logical thought process from identifying the phenomenon to describing the model as a visual metaphor of the phenomenon is illustrated.

  5. Interventions Used by Nurse Preceptors to Develop Critical Thinking of New Graduate Nurses: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schuelke, Sue; Barnason, Susan

    Healthcare complexity and patient acuity necessitate competent nurses with critical thinking abilities. However, these skill sets are less developed among newly hired graduate nurses. The overall purpose of this systematic review was to examine interventions/strategies implemented by preceptors in healthcare organizations to promote critical thinking of new graduate nurses. A systematic search of the literature resulted in 602 citations, with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Educational interventions were varied and will be described in this article. Preceptor education was a key component in the studies reviewed.

  6. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  7. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    These sensors were defined using basic unclassified information from several different sources [15] [16] [17]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal ...unclassified information from several different sources [19] [20] [21]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February...Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 – 27 – 5758-001 Version 01 platform from a couple of different perspectives

  8. Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study.

    PubMed

    Ramspek, Chava L; Voskamp, Pauline Wm; van Ittersum, Frans J; Krediet, Raymond T; Dekker, Friedo W; van Diepen, Merel

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities. A systematic review was performed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To account for missing data, multiple imputation was performed. The original prediction formulae were extracted from selected studies. The probability of death per model was calculated for each individual within the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD). The predictive performance of the models was assessed based on their discrimination and calibration. In total, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. External validation was performed in 1,943 dialysis patients from NECOSAD for a total of seven models. The models performed moderately to well in terms of discrimination, with C-statistics ranging from 0.710 (interquartile range 0.708-0.711) to 0.752 (interquartile range 0.750-0.753) for a time frame of 1 year. According to the calibration, most models overestimated the probability of death. Overall, the performance of the models was poorer in the external validation than in the original population, affirming the importance of external validation. Floege et al's models showed the highest predictive performance. The present study is a step forward in the use of a prediction model as a useful tool for nephrologists, using evidence-based medicine that

  9. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  10. Summarizing systematic reviews: methodological development, conduct and reporting of an umbrella review approach.

    PubMed

    Aromataris, Edoardo; Fernandez, Ritin; Godfrey, Christina M; Holly, Cheryl; Khalil, Hanan; Tungpunkom, Patraporn

    2015-09-01

    With the increase in the number of systematic reviews available, a logical next step to provide decision makers in healthcare with the evidence they require has been the conduct of reviews of existing systematic reviews. Syntheses of existing systematic reviews are referred to by many different names, one of which is an umbrella review. An umbrella review allows the findings of reviews relevant to a review question to be compared and contrasted. An umbrella review's most characteristic feature is that this type of evidence synthesis only considers for inclusion the highest level of evidence, namely other systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A methodology working group was formed by the Joanna Briggs Institute to develop methodological guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review, including diverse types of evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. The aim of this study is to describe the development and guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review. Discussion and testing of the elements of methods for the conduct of an umbrella review were held over a 6-month period by members of a methodology working group. The working group comprised six participants who corresponded via teleconference, e-mail and face-to-face meeting during this development period. In October 2013, the methodology was presented in a workshop at the Joanna Briggs Institute Convention. Workshop participants, review authors and methodologists provided further testing, critique and feedback on the proposed methodology. This study describes the methodology and methods developed for the conduct of an umbrella review that includes published systematic reviews and meta-analyses as the analytical unit of the review. Details are provided regarding the essential elements of an umbrella review, including presentation of the review question in a Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome format, nuances of the inclusion criteria and search strategy. A critical appraisal tool with 10 questions to

  11. Management Model for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Edward

    An economic development model was formulated to foster and strengthen commerce and industry retention and expansion in the state of Illinois. The main thrust of the model was on increasing productivity, decreasing business failures, encouraging entrepreneurship, and creating a favorable business climate through community support. To meet these…

  12. Kantian Model of Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Hyun Sub

    A Kantian model of moral development already tested on adolescents was further tested on normal and delinquent Korean adults. The model, based on the philosophy of Kant, starts its causality from the self, moves from the self to parental images, advances from parental images to duty and legality, and moves from duty and legality to a moral…

  13. P300 Development across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The P300 component of the event-related potential is a large positive waveform that can be extracted from the ongoing electroencephalogram using a two-stimuli oddball paradigm, and has been associated with cognitive information processing (e.g. memory, attention, executive function). This paper reviews the development of the auditory P300 across the lifespan. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review and meta-analysis on the P300 was performed including 75 studies (n = 2,811). Scopus was searched for studies using healthy subjects and that reported means of P300 latency and amplitude measured at Pz and mean age. These findings were validated in an independent, existing cross-sectional dataset including 1,572 participants from ages 6–87. Curve-fitting procedures were applied to obtain a model of P300 development across the lifespan. In both studies logarithmic Gaussian models fitted the latency and amplitude data best. The P300 latency and amplitude follow a maturational path from childhood to adolescence, resulting in a period that marks a plateau, after which degenerative effects begin. We were able to determine ages that mark a maximum (in P300 amplitude) or trough (in P300 latency) segregating maturational from degenerative stages. We found these points of deflection occurred at different ages. Conclusions/Significance It is hypothesized that latency and amplitude index different aspects of brain maturation. The P300 latency possibly indexes neural speed or brain efficiency. The P300 amplitude might index neural power or cognitive resources, which increase with maturation. PMID:24551055

  14. Energy interventions that facilitate sustainable development and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-04-01

    Objective To inform policy by providing an overview of systematic reviews on interventions that facilitate sustainable energy use and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 13 databases and nine websites based on a pre-defined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during the 17 years from January 1997 - January 2014 was included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Five systematic reviews and one economic evaluation met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions that impacted health were electricity for lighting and other uses (developing countries); improved stoves for cooking and health and/or cleaner fuels for cooking (developing countries); and household energy efficiency measures (developed countries). These interventions also had potential environmental and economic impacts. Their cost-effectiveness is not known, nor is their impact on health inequalities. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions where the impacts are likely to be positive but their implementation needs to be rigorously evaluated, including possible adverse impacts. Care needs to be taken not to exacerbate health inequalities and to consider context, human behavior and cultural factors so that the potential health benefits are realized in real-life implementation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured in future primary studies and systematic reviews.

  15. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. Results The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Conclusions Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations. PMID:23915274

  16. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  17. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  18. Prognosis model for stand development

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage

    1973-01-01

    Describes a set of computer programs for developing prognoses of the development of existing stand under alternative regimes of management. Calibration techniques, modeling procedures, and a procedure for including stochastic variation are described. Implementation of the system for lodgepole pine, including assessment of losses attributed to an infestation of mountain...

  19. Devices for In situ Development of Non-disturbed Oral Biofilm. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prada-López, Isabel; Quintas, Víctor; Vilaboa, Carlos; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to assess the types of devices used for in situ development of oral biofilm analyzed microbiologically. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all in situ studies of oral biofilm which used an oral device; the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases complemented with manual search were used. Specific devices used to microbiologically analyze oral biofilm in adults were included. After reading of the selected full texts, devices were identified and classified according to the oral cavity zone and manufacturing material. The “ideal” characteristics were analyzed in every group. Results: The search provided 787 abstracts, of which 111 papers were included. The devices used in these studies were classified as palatal, lingual or buccal. The last group was sub-classified in six groups based on the material of the device. Considering the analyzed characteristics, the thermoplastic devices and the Intraoral Device of Overlaid Disk-holding Splints (IDODS) presented more advantages than limitations. Conclusions: Buccal devices were the most commonly used for the study of in situ biofilm. The majority of buccal devices seemed to slightly affect the volunteer's comfort, the IDODS being the closest to the “ideal” model. Clinical Relevance: New devices for in situ oral biofilm microbiological studies should take into account the possible effect of their design on the volunteer's comfort and biofilm formation. PMID:27486437

  20. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of health belief model interventions in improving adherence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina Jane; Smith, Helen; Llewellyn, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Lack of adherence to health-promoting advice challenges the successful prevention and management of many conditions. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was developed in 1966 to predict health-promoting behaviour and has been used in patients with wide variety of disease. The HBM has also been used to inform the development of interventions to improve health behaviours. Several reviews have documented the HBM's performance in predicting behaviour, but no review has addressed its utility in the design of interventions or the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventional studies which use the HBM as the theoretical basis for intervention design. The HBM has been used continuously in the development of behaviour change interventions for 40 years. Of 18 eligible studies, 14 (78%) reported significant improvements in adherence, with 7 (39%) showing moderate to large effects. However, only six studies used the HBM in its entirety and five different studies measured health beliefs as outcomes. Intervention success appeared to be unrelated to HBM construct addressed challenging the utility of this model as the theoretical basis for adherence-enhancing interventions. Interventions need to be described in full to allow for the identification of effective components and replication of studies.

  2. Systematic assessment of decision-analytic models for chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rochau, Ursula; Schwarzer, Ruth; Jahn, Beate; Sroczynski, Gaby; Kluibenschaedl, Martina; Wolf, Dominik; Radich, Jerald; Brixner, Diana; Gastl, Guenther; Siebert, Uwe

    2014-04-01

    Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Decision-analytic modeling can help to extrapolate data from short-term clinical trials and also consider quality of life when evaluating different treatment strategies. Our goal was to describe and analyze the structural and methodological approaches of published decision-analytic models for various treatment strategies in CML and to derive recommendations for the development of future CML models. We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PreMEDLINE, EconLit, EMBASE, NHS EED, and Tuft's CEA Registry) to identify published studies evaluating CML treatment strategies using mathematical models. The search was updated in August 2013. The models were required to compare different treatment strategies in relation to relevant clinical and patient-relevant health outcomes [e.g., life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years] over a defined time horizon and population. We used standardized forms for data extraction, description of study design, methodological framework, and data sources for each model. We identified 18 different decision-analytic modeling studies. Of these, 17 included economic evaluations. Modeling approaches included decision trees, Markov cohort models, state-transition models with individual (Monte Carlo) simulations, and mathematical equations. Analytic time horizons ranged from 2 years to a lifetime. Treatment strategies compared included bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, conventional chemotherapy, interferon-α, and TKIs. Only one model evaluated a second-generation TKI. Most models did not report a model validation. All models conducted deterministic sensitivity analyses and four reported a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Articles that were not published in English or German were not included in this review. Our literature search was restricted to published full-text articles in certain

  3. A Systematic Ecological Model for Adapting Physical Activities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task…

  4. A Digital Tool Set for Systematic Model Design in Process-Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Hylke; Tramper, Johannes; Hartog, Rob J.M.; Vermue, Marian

    2006-01-01

    One of the objectives of the process technology curriculum at Wageningen University is that students learn how to design mathematical models in the context of process engineering, using a systematic problem analysis approach. Students find it difficult to learn to design a model and little material exists to meet this learning objective. For these…

  5. A Digital Tool Set for Systematic Model Design in Process-Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Hylke; Tramper, Johannes; Hartog, Rob J.M.; Vermue, Marian

    2006-01-01

    One of the objectives of the process technology curriculum at Wageningen University is that students learn how to design mathematical models in the context of process engineering, using a systematic problem analysis approach. Students find it difficult to learn to design a model and little material exists to meet this learning objective. For these…

  6. Systematic review of positive youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Gary R; Chung, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The Positive Youth Development (PYD) framework has been successfully used to support at-risk youth. However, its effectiveness in fostering positive outcomes for adolescents with chronic illness has not been established. We performed a systematic review of PYD-consistent programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Data sources included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Guided by an analytic framework, we searched for studies of PYD-consistent programs serving adolescents and young adults aged 13 through 24 with chronic illness. References were screened iteratively with increasing depth until a focused cohort was obtained and reviewed in full. The authors separately reviewed the studies using structured analysis forms. Relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Fifteen studies describing 14 programs were included in the analysis. Three comprehensive programs included all 3 core components of a PYD program, including opportunities for youth leadership, skill building, and sustained connections between youth and adults. Four programs were primarily mentoring programs, and 7 others focused on youth leadership. Programs served youth with a variety of chronic illnesses. The quality and type of evaluation varied considerably, with most reporting psychosocial outcomes but only a few including medical outcomes. The PYD-consistent programs identified in this review can serve as models for the development of youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Additional study is needed to evaluate such programs rigorously with respect to both psychosocial and health-related outcomes. PYD-consistent programs have the potential to reach youth with chronic illness and promote positive adult outcomes broadly.

  7. Behavioural interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Medley, Amy M; Sweat, Michael D; O'Reilly, Kevin R

    2010-08-01

    To assess the evidence for a differential effect of positive prevention interventions among individuals infected and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries, and to assess the effectiveness of interventions targeted specifically at people living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers on positive prevention behavioural interventions in developing countries published between January 1990 and December 2006. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random effects models. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis, behavioural interventions had a stronger impact on condom use among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals (odds ratio, OR: 3.61; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.61-4.99) than among HIV-negative individuals (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 0.77-2.26). Interventions specifically targeting HIV+ individuals also showed a positive effect on condom use (OR: 7.84; 95% CI: 2.82-21.79), which was particularly strong among HIV-serodiscordant couples (OR: 67.38; 95% CI: 36.17-125.52). Interventions included in this review were limited both in scope (most were HIV counselling and testing interventions) and in target populations (most were conducted among heterosexual adults or HIV-serodiscordant couples). Current evidence suggests that interventions targeting people living with HIV in developing countries increase condom use, especially among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Comprehensive positive prevention interventions targeting diverse populations and covering a range of intervention modalities are needed to keep HIV+ individuals physically and mentally healthy, prevent transmission of HIV infection and increase the agency and involvement of people living with HIV.

  8. Systematic parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis using a multidimensional PEMFC model coupled with DAKOTA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao Yang; Luo, Gang; Jiang, Fangming; Carnes, Brian; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-05-01

    Current computational models for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) include a large number of parameters such as boundary conditions, material properties, and numerous parameters used in sub-models for membrane transport, two-phase flow and electrochemistry. In order to successfully use a computational PEMFC model in design and optimization, it is important to identify critical parameters under a wide variety of operating conditions, such as relative humidity, current load, temperature, etc. Moreover, when experimental data is available in the form of polarization curves or local distribution of current and reactant/product species (e.g., O2, H2O concentrations), critical parameters can be estimated in order to enable the model to better fit the data. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation are typically performed using manual adjustment of parameters, which is also common in parameter studies. We present work to demonstrate a systematic approach based on using a widely available toolkit developed at Sandia called DAKOTA that supports many kinds of design studies, such as sensitivity analysis as well as optimization and uncertainty quantification. In the present work, we couple a multidimensional PEMFC model (which is being developed, tested and later validated in a joint effort by a team from Penn State Univ. and Sandia National Laboratories) with DAKOTA through the mapping of model parameters to system responses. Using this interface, we demonstrate the efficiency of performing simple parameter studies as well as identifying critical parameters using sensitivity analysis. Finally, we show examples of optimization and parameter estimation using the automated capability in DAKOTA.

  9. Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through systematic model-to-data comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Marcy, Peter W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We systematically compare an event-by-event heavy-ion collision model to data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Using a general Bayesian method, we probe multiple model parameters including fundamental quark-gluon plasma properties such as the specific shear viscosity η/s, calibrate the model to optimally reproduce experimental data, and extract quantitative constraints for all parameters simultaneously. Furthermore, the method is universal and easily extensible to other data and collision models.

  10. Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through systematic model-to-data comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Marcy, Peter W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Huzurbazar, Snehalata; Wolpert, Robert L.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-05-22

    We systematically compare an event-by-event heavy-ion collision model to data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Using a general Bayesian method, we probe multiple model parameters including fundamental quark-gluon plasma properties such as the specific shear viscosity η/s, calibrate the model to optimally reproduce experimental data, and extract quantitative constraints for all parameters simultaneously. Furthermore, the method is universal and easily extensible to other data and collision models.

  11. Quantifying properties of hot and dense QCD matter through systematic model-to-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Marcy, Peter W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Huzurbazar, Snehalata; Wolpert, Robert L.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-05-01

    We systematically compare an event-by-event heavy-ion collision model to data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Using a general Bayesian method, we probe multiple model parameters including fundamental quark-gluon plasma properties such as the specific shear viscosity η /s , calibrate the model to optimally reproduce experimental data, and extract quantitative constraints for all parameters simultaneously. The method is universal and easily extensible to other data and collision models.

  12. Neural Systems Language: A Formal Modeling Language for the Systematic Description, Unambiguous Communication, and Automated Digital Curation of Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramsay A.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL’s development. We explore NSyL’s potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. PMID:23787962

  13. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Systematic Parameterization of Monovalent Ions Employing the Nonbonded Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Song, Lin Frank; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-04-14

    Monovalent ions play fundamental roles in many biological processes in organisms. Modeling these ions in molecular simulations continues to be a challenging problem. The 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) nonbonded model is widely used to model monovalent ions in classical molecular dynamics simulations. A lot of parameterization efforts have been reported for these ions with a number of experimental end points. However, some reported parameter sets do not have a good balance between the two Lennard-Jones parameters (the van der Waals (VDW) radius and potential well depth), which affects their transferability. In the present work, via the use of a noble gas curve we fitted in former work (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 2733), we reoptimized the 12-6 LJ parameters for 15 monovalent ions (11 positive and 4 negative ions) for three extensively used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P(EW)). Since the 12-6 LJ nonbonded model performs poorly in some instances for these ions, we have also parameterized the 12-6-4 LJ-type nonbonded model (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2014, 10, 289) using the same three water models. The three derived parameter sets focused on reproducing the hydration free energies (the HFE set) and the ion-oxygen distance (the IOD set) using the 12-6 LJ nonbonded model and the 12-6-4 LJ-type nonbonded model (the 12-6-4 set) overall give improved results. In particular, the final parameter sets showed better agreement with quantum mechanically calculated VDW radii and improved transferability to ion-pair solutions when compared to previous parameter sets.

  15. Risk prediction models for hospital readmission: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kansagara, Devan; Englander, Honora; Salanitro, Amanda; Kagen, David; Theobald, Cecelia; Freeman, Michele; Kripalani, Sunil

    2011-10-19

    Predicting hospital readmission risk is of great interest to identify which patients would benefit most from care transition interventions, as well as to risk-adjust readmission rates for the purposes of hospital comparison. To summarize validated readmission risk prediction models, describe their performance, and assess suitability for clinical or administrative use. The databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through March 2011, the EMBASE database was searched through August 2011, and hand searches were performed of the retrieved reference lists. Dual review was conducted to identify studies published in the English language of prediction models tested with medical patients in both derivation and validation cohorts. Data were extracted on the population, setting, sample size, follow-up interval, readmission rate, model discrimination and calibration, type of data used, and timing of data collection. Of 7843 citations reviewed, 30 studies of 26 unique models met the inclusion criteria. The most common outcome used was 30-day readmission; only 1 model specifically addressed preventable readmissions. Fourteen models that relied on retrospective administrative data could be potentially used to risk-adjust readmission rates for hospital comparison; of these, 9 were tested in large US populations and had poor discriminative ability (c statistic range: 0.55-0.65). Seven models could potentially be used to identify high-risk patients for intervention early during a hospitalization (c statistic range: 0.56-0.72), and 5 could be used at hospital discharge (c statistic range: 0.68-0.83). Six studies compared different models in the same population and 2 of these found that functional and social variables improved model discrimination. Although most models incorporated variables for medical comorbidity and use of prior medical services, few examined variables associated with overall health and function, illness severity, or social

  16. [Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise].

    PubMed

    Morgano, Gian Paolo; Davoli, Marina; Moja, Lorenzo; Amato, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Tirani, Marcello

    2015-06-01

    Guideline developers worldwide are struggling with the lack of guidance for the practical steps in the guideline enterprise. Our objective was to systematically compile a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers would consider for development and support of implementation. Data sources included manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines with a focus on international and national guideline agencies, professional societies, and recent systematic guidance articles. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics that are relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions. We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers (http://cebgrade.mcmaster.ca/guidecheck.html). The topics and items included cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from planning to formulating recommendations, to dissemination and evaluation. The final itemized guideline development checklist (GDC) includes links to training material and resources for methodology. The GDC will serve as a resource for those involved in guideline development and we will use crowdsourcing to keep the checklist up to date and enhance it.

  17. Training models in laparoscopy: a systematic review comparing their effectiveness in learning surgical skills.

    PubMed

    Willaert, W; Van De Putte, D; Van Renterghem, K; Van Nieuwenhove, Y; Ceelen, W; Pattyn, P

    2013-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been learned on patients in the operating room, which is time-consuming, can have an impact on the patient outcomes, and is of variable effectiveness. As a result, surgical training models have been developed, which are compared in this systematic review. We searched Pubmed, CENTRAL, and Science Citation index expanded for randomised clinical trials and randomised cross-over studies comparing laparoscopic training models. Studies comparing one model with no training were also included. The reference list of identified trials was searched for further relevant studies. Fifty-eight trials evaluating several training forms and involving 1591 participants were included (four studies with a low risk of bias). Training (virtual reality (VR) or video trainer (VT)) versus no training improves surgical skills in the majority of trials. Both VR and VT are as effective in most studies. VR training is superior to traditional laparoscopic training in the operating room. Outcome results for VR robotic simulations versus robot training show no clear difference in effectiveness for either model. Only one trial included human cadavers and observed better results versus VR for one out of four scores. Contrasting results are observed when robotic technology is compared with manual laparoscopy. VR training and VT training are valid teaching models. Practicing on these models similarly improves surgical skills. A combination of both methods is recommended in a surgical curriculum. VR training is superior to unstructured traditional training in the operating room. The reciprocal effectiveness of the other models to learn surgical skills has not yet been established.

  18. Markov modeling and discrete event simulation in health care: a systematic comparison.

    PubMed

    Standfield, Lachlan; Comans, Tracy; Scuffham, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the use of Markov modeling (MM) or discrete event simulation (DES) for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) may alter healthcare resource allocation decisions. A systematic literature search and review of empirical and non-empirical studies comparing MM and DES techniques used in the CEA of healthcare technologies was conducted. Twenty-two pertinent publications were identified. Two publications compared MM and DES models empirically, one presented a conceptual DES and MM, two described a DES consensus guideline, and seventeen drew comparisons between MM and DES through the authors' experience. The primary advantages described for DES over MM were the ability to model queuing for limited resources, capture individual patient histories, accommodate complexity and uncertainty, represent time flexibly, model competing risks, and accommodate multiple events simultaneously. The disadvantages of DES over MM were the potential for model overspecification, increased data requirements, specialized expensive software, and increased model development, validation, and computational time. Where individual patient history is an important driver of future events an individual patient simulation technique like DES may be preferred over MM. Where supply shortages, subsequent queuing, and diversion of patients through other pathways in the healthcare system are likely to be drivers of cost-effectiveness, DES modeling methods may provide decision makers with more accurate information on which to base resource allocation decisions. Where these are not major features of the cost-effectiveness question, MM remains an efficient, easily validated, parsimonious, and accurate method of determining the cost-effectiveness of new healthcare interventions.

  19. Using mass measurements in tracer studies--a systematic approach to efficient modeling.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Ramakrishnan, Janak D

    2008-08-01

    Tracer enrichment data are fitted by multicompartmental models to estimate rate constants and fluxes or transport rates. In apolipoprotein turnover studies, mass measurements are also available, for example, apolipoprotein B levels in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein, and are often essential to calculate some of the rate constants. The usual method to use mass measurements is to estimate pool masses along with rate constants. A systematic alternative approach is developed to use flux balances around pools to express some rate constants in terms of the other rate constants and the measured masses. The resulting reduction in the number of parameters to be estimated makes the modeling more efficient. In models that would be unidentifiable without mass measurements, the usual approach and the proposed approach yield identical results. In a simple two-pool model, the number of unknown parameters is reduced from 4 to 2. In a published five-pool model for apolipoprotein B kinetics with three mass measurements, the number of parameters is reduced from 12 to 9. With m mass measurements, the number of responses to be fitted and the number of parameters to be estimated are each reduced by m, a simplification by 1/4 to 1/3 in a typical pool model. Besides a proportionate reduction in computational effort, there is a further benefit because the dimensionality of the problem is also decreased significantly, which means ease of convergence and a smaller likelihood of suboptimal solutions. Although our approach is conceptually straightforward, the dependencies get considerably more complex with increasing model size. To generate dependency definitions automatically, a Web-accessible program is available at http://biomath.info/poolfit/constraints.

  20. Promoting Early Child Development With Interventions in Health and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Evidence synthesis in international development: a critique of systematic reviews and a pragmatist alternative

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an instrument of Evidence-Based Policy designed to produce comprehensive, unbiased, transparent and clear assessments of interventions’ effectiveness. From their origins in medical fields, systematic reviews have recently been promoted as offering important advances in a range of applied social science fields, including international development. Drawing on a case study of a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilisation as an intervention to tackle HIV/AIDS, this article problematises the use of systematic reviews to summarise complex and context-specific bodies of evidence. Social development interventions, such as ‘community mobilisation’ often take different forms in different interventions; are made successful by their situation in particular contexts, rather than being successful or unsuccessful universally; and have a rhetorical value that leads to the over-application of positively valued terms (e.g. ‘community mobilisation’), invalidating the keyword search process of a systematic review. The article suggests that the policy interest in definitive summary statements of ‘the evidence’ is at odds with academic assessments that evidence takes multiple, contradictory and complex forms, and with practitioner experience of the variability of practice in context. A pragmatist philosophy of evidence is explored as an alternative. Taking this approach implies expanding the definition of forms of research considered to be ‘useful evidence’ for evidence-based policy-making; decentralising decisions about ‘what works’ to allow for the use of local practical wisdom; and prioritising the establishment of good processes for the critical use of evidence, rather than producing context-insensitive summaries of ‘the evidence’. PMID:26426502

  2. Text mining for search term development in systematic reviewing: A discussion of some methods and challenges.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Claire; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James

    2017-09-01

    Using text mining to aid the development of database search strings for topics described by diverse terminology has potential benefits for systematic reviews; however, methods and tools for accomplishing this are poorly covered in the research methods literature. We briefly review the literature on applications of text mining for search term development for systematic reviewing. We found that the tools can be used in 5 overarching ways: improving the precision of searches; identifying search terms to improve search sensitivity; aiding the translation of search strategies across databases; searching and screening within an integrated system; and developing objectively derived search strategies. Using a case study and selected examples, we then reflect on the utility of certain technologies (term frequency-inverse document frequency and Termine, term frequency, and clustering) in improving the precision and sensitivity of searches. Challenges in using these tools are discussed. The utility of these tools is influenced by the different capabilities of the tools, the way the tools are used, and the text that is analysed. Increased awareness of how the tools perform facilitates the further development of methods for their use in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Systematic review of mathematical models exploring the epidemiological impact of future TB vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca C.; Sumner, Tom; Knight, Gwenan M.; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mathematical models are useful for assessing the potential epidemiological impact of future tuberculosis (TB) vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of mathematical models estimating the epidemiological impact of future human TB vaccines. PubMed, Embase and WHO Global Health Library were searched, 3-stage manual sifted, and citation- and reference-tracked, identifying 23 papers. An adapted quality assessment tool was developed, with a resulting median study quality score of 20/28. The literature remains divided as to whether vaccines effective pre- or post-infection would provide greatest epidemiological impact. However, all-age or adolescent/adult targeted prevention of disease vaccines achieve greater and more rapid impact than neonatal vaccines. Mass campaigns alongside routine neonatal vaccination can have profound additional impact. Economic evaluations found TB vaccines overwhelmingly cost-effective, particularly when targeted to adolescents/adults. The variability of impact by setting, age group and vaccine characteristics must be accounted for in the development and delivery of future TB vaccines. PMID:27448625

  4. Development of quality of care indicators from systematic reviews: the case of hospital delivery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this research is to generate quality of care indicators from systematic reviews to assess the appropriateness of obstetric care in hospitals. Methods A search for systematic reviews about hospital obstetric interventions, conducted in The Cochrane Library, clinical evidence and practice guidelines, identified 303 reviews. We selected 48 high-quality evidence reviews, which resulted in strong clinical recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The 255 remaining reviews were excluded, mainly due to a lack of strong evidence provided by the studies reviewed. Results A total of 18 indicators were formulated from these clinical recommendations, on antepartum care (8), care during delivery and postpartum (9), and incomplete miscarriage (1). Authors of the systematic reviews and specialists in obstetrics were consulted to refine the formulation of indicators. Conclusions High-quality systematic reviews, whose conclusions clearly claim in favour or against an intervention, can be a source for generating quality indicators of delivery care. To make indicators coherent, the nuances of clinical practice should be considered. Any attempt made to evaluate the extent to which delivery care in hospitals is based on scientific evidence should take the generated indicators into account. PMID:23574918

  5. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  6. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. Methods This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. Results The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. Conclusions The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. Trial registration number PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037. PMID:24885751

  7. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Etxeandia, Itziar; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem; Ventresca, Matthew; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Kowalski, Sérgio; Baldeh, Tejan; Zhang, Yuan; Raid, Ulla; Neumann, Ignacio; Norris, Susan L.; Thornton, Judith; Harbour, Robin; Treweek, Shaun; Guyatt, Gordon; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Reinap, Marge; Brožek, Jan; Oxman, Andrew; Akl, Elie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although several tools to evaluate the credibility of health care guidelines exist, guidance on practical steps for developing guidelines is lacking. We systematically compiled a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers could consider, without the expectation that every guideline would address each item. Methods: We searched data sources, including manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines (with a focus on methodology reports from international and national agencies, and professional societies) and recent articles providing systematic guidance. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items for the checklist using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions and suggestions for items to be added. Results: We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers. The topics and included items cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from the planning and formulation of guidelines, to their implementation and evaluation. The final checklist includes links to training materials as well as resources with suggested methodology for applying the items. Interpretation: The checklist will serve as a resource for guideline developers. Consideration of items on the checklist will support the development, implementation and evaluation of guidelines. We will use crowdsourcing to revise the checklist and keep it up to date. PMID:24344144

  8. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise.

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Holger J; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Etxeandia, Itziar; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem; Ventresca, Matthew; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Kowalski, Sérgio; Baldeh, Tejan; Zhang, Yuan; Raid, Ulla; Neumann, Ignacio; Norris, Susan L; Thornton, Judith; Harbour, Robin; Treweek, Shaun; Guyatt, Gordon; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Reinap, Marge; Brozek, Jan; Oxman, Andrew; Akl, Elie A

    2014-02-18

    Although several tools to evaluate the credibility of health care guidelines exist, guidance on practical steps for developing guidelines is lacking. We systematically compiled a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers could consider, without the expectation that every guideline would address each item. We searched data sources, including manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines (with a focus on methodology reports from international and national agencies, and professional societies) and recent articles providing systematic guidance. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items for the checklist using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions and suggestions for items to be added. We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers. The topics and included items cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from the planning and formulation of guidelines, to their implementation and evaluation. The final checklist includes links to training materials as well as resources with suggested methodology for applying the items. The checklist will serve as a resource for guideline developers. Consideration of items on the checklist will support the development, implementation and evaluation of guidelines. We will use crowdsourcing to revise the checklist and keep it up to date.

  9. A systematic review of screening tools for predicting the development of dementia.

    PubMed

    Lischka, Andrea R; Mendelsohn, Marissa; Overend, Tom; Forbes, Dorothy

    2012-09-01

    Early detection of dementia is essential to guide front-line health care practitioners in further clinical evaluations and treatments. There is a paucity of literature assessing the effectiveness of screening tools to predict the development of dementia, thus we conducted a systematic review to fill this gap. The purpose of the systematic review was to make recommendations to health care practitioners on which screening tool best predicts the development of dementia and is most feasible in the primary care setting. Ten databases were searched for relevant articles, yielding 751 papers. Of these, 12 met relevance criteria for inclusion. Screening tools were assessed for test accuracy, cognitive domain coverage, predictive ability, and feasibility. Four screening tools were recommended. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) was considered to be the ideal tool. A revised version of this tool is now used in clinical practice but the psychometric properties of the ACE-R remain to be established.

  10. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.

  11. Systematic parameter estimation for PEM fuel cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, Brian; Djilali, Ned

    The problem of parameter estimation is considered for the case of mathematical models for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). An algorithm for nonlinear least squares constrained by partial differential equations is defined and applied to estimate effective membrane conductivity, exchange current densities and oxygen diffusion coefficients in a one-dimensional PEMFC model for transport in the principal direction of current flow. Experimental polarization curves are fitted for conventional and low current density PEMFCs. Use of adaptive mesh refinement is demonstrated to increase the computational efficiency.

  12. Root Caries Risk Indicators: A Systematic Review of Risk Models

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, André V.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Bader, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify risk indicators that are associated with root caries incidence in published predictive risk models. Methods Abstracts (n=472) identified from a MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane registry search were screened independently by two investigators to exclude articles not in English (n=39), published prior to 1970 (none), or containing no information on either root caries incidence, risk indicators, or risk models (n=209). A full-article duplicate review of the remaining articles (n=224) selected those reporting predictive risk models based on original/primary longitudinal root caries incidence studies. The quality of the included articles was assessed based both on selected criteria of methodological standards for observational studies and on the statistical quality of the modeling strategy. Data from these included studies were extracted and compiled into evidence tables, which included information about the cohort location, incidence period, sample size, age of the study participants, risk indicators included in the model, root caries incidence, modeling strategy, significant risk indicators/predictors, and parameter estimates and statistical findings. Results Thirteen articles were selected for data extraction. The overall quality of the included articles was poor to moderate. Root caries incidence ranged fro m 12%–77% (mean±SD=45%±17%); follow-up time of the published studies was ≤10 years (range=9; median=3); sample size ranged from 23–723 (mean±SD=264±203; median=261); person-years ranged from 23–1540 (mean±SD=760±556; median=746). Variables most frequently tested and significantly associated with root caries incidence were (times tested; % significant; directionality): baseline root caries (12; 58%; positive); number of teeth (7; 71%; 3 times positive, twice negative), and plaque index (4; 100%; positive). Ninety-two other clinical and non-clinical variables were tested: 27 were tested 3 times or more and were significant between 9

  13. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  14. ROBIS: A new tool to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews was developed

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny; Savović, Jelena; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Caldwell, Deborah M.; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Davies, Philippa; Kleijnen, Jos; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). Study Design and Setting We used four-stage approach to develop ROBIS: define the scope, review the evidence base, hold a face-to-face meeting, and refine the tool through piloting. Results ROBIS is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within health care settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews (“reviews of reviews”), and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in three phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process, and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the phase 2 domains. Signaling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results, and conclusions. Conclusions ROBIS is the first rigorously developed tool designed specifically to assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews. PMID:26092286

  15. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  16. Development of an Expert System Based on the Systematic Approach To Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    assist the forecaster to accomplish each task. The formulation of an accurate TC forecast represents a highly complex information management problem that...1 Development Of An Expert System Based On The Systematic Approach To Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasting Lester E. Carr III Department of Meteorology...are to improve the quantitative accuracy and interpretative utility of official tropical cyclone (TC) track forecasts by enabling forecasters to

  17. ROBIS: A new tool to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews was developed.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Penny; Savović, Jelena; Higgins, Julian P T; Caldwell, Deborah M; Reeves, Barnaby C; Shea, Beverley; Davies, Philippa; Kleijnen, Jos; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To develop ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). We used four-stage approach to develop ROBIS: define the scope, review the evidence base, hold a face-to-face meeting, and refine the tool through piloting. ROBIS is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within health care settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews ("reviews of reviews"), and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in three phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process, and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the phase 2 domains. Signaling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results, and conclusions. ROBIS is the first rigorously developed tool designed specifically to assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. VARTM Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Technical Monitor); Dowling, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform.

  19. Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunling; Schneider, Matthew T; Gubbins, Paul; Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Jamison, Dean; Murray, Christopher J L

    2010-04-17

    Government spending on health from domestic sources is an important indicator of a government's commitment to the health of its people, and is essential for the sustainability of health programmes. We aimed to systematically analyse all data sources available for government spending on health in developing countries; describe trends in public financing of health; and test the extent to which they were related to changes in gross domestic product (GDP), government size, HIV prevalence, debt relief, and development assistance for health (DAH) to governmental and non-governmental sectors. We did a systematic analysis of all data sources available for government expenditures on health as agent (GHE-A) in developing countries, including government reports and databases from WHO and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). GHE-A consists of domestically and externally financed public health expenditures. We assessed the quality of these sources and used multiple imputation to generate a complete sequence of GHE-A. With these data and those for DAH to governments, we estimated government spending on health from domestic sources. We used panel-regression methods to estimate the association between government domestic spending on health and GDP, government size, HIV prevalence, debt relief, and DAH disbursed to governmental and non-governmental sectors. We tested the robustness of our conclusions using various models and subsets of countries. In all developing countries, public financing of health in constant US$ from domestic sources increased by nearly 100% (IMF 120%; WHO 88%) from 1995 to 2006. Overall, this increase was the product of rising GDP, slight decreases in the share of GDP spent by government, and increases in the share of government spending on health. At the country level, while shares of government expenditures to health increased in many regions, they decreased in many sub-Saharan African countries. The statistical analysis showed that DAH to government had

  20. Testing Measurement Models for Factorial Invariance: A Systematic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensvold, Rover B.; Cheung, Gordon W.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the problem of factorial invariance in between-group difference studies, proposes a simplified notation intended to facilitate discussion of the problem, and suggests a structured approach for testing large models. Two computer programs are offered to help with the computation. (SLD)

  1. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment.

  2. Community Disaster Resilience: a Systematic Review on Assessment Models and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ostadtaghizadeh, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas; Jabbari, Hossain; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    we summarize the models identified in the literature and suggest that, as a starting point for the systematic operationalization of CDR, that existing indicators of community disaster resilience be classified in five domains. These are social, economic, institutional, physical and natural domains. A need to use appropriate and effective methods to quantify and weigh them with regard to their relative contributions to resilience is identified, as is a need to consider how these levels interrelate to influence resilience. Although assessment of disaster resilience especially at the community level will inform disaster risk reduction strategies, attempts to systematically do so are in preliminary phases. Further empirical investigation is needed to develop a operational and measurable CDR model. PMID:25905026

  3. Community disaster resilience: a systematic review on assessment models and tools.

    PubMed

    Ostadtaghizadeh, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas; Jabbari, Hossain; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-08

    literature and suggest that, as a starting point for the systematic operationalization of CDR, that existing indicators of community disaster resilience be classified in five domains. These are social, economic, institutional, physical and natural domains. A need to use appropriate and effective methods to quantify and weigh them with regard to their relative contributions to resilience is identified, as is a need to consider how these levels interrelate to influence resilience. Although assessment of disaster resilience especially at the community level will inform disaster risk reduction strategies, attempts to systematically do so are in preliminary phases. Further empirical investigation is needed to develop a operational and measurable CDR model.

  4. Developing + Using Models in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Neilson, Drew; Oh, Phil Seok

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight practices of science identified in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012), helping students develop and use models has been identified by many as an anchor (Schwarz and Passmore 2012; Windschitl 2012). In instruction, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices can be meaningfully…

  5. Developing + Using Models in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Neilson, Drew; Oh, Phil Seok

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight practices of science identified in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012), helping students develop and use models has been identified by many as an anchor (Schwarz and Passmore 2012; Windschitl 2012). In instruction, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices can be meaningfully…

  6. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  7. USEPA Resistance Management Model development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA requires registrants of plant incorporated protectant (PIP) crops to provide information relating to the time frame for pest resistance development related to the control traits of the crop. Simulation models are used to evaluate the future conditions for resistance de...

  8. USEPA Resistance Management Model development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA requires registrants of plant incorporated protectant (PIP) crops to provide information relating to the time frame for pest resistance development related to the control traits of the crop. Simulation models are used to evaluate the future conditions for resistance de...

  9. Modeling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2004-02-01

    Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form.

  10. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Decision-Analytic Models in Atopic Eczema: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal.

    PubMed

    McManus, Emma; Sach, Tracey; Levell, Nick

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of published economic decision-analytic models within atopic eczema against best practice guidelines, with the intention of informing future decision-analytic models within this condition. A systematic search of the following online databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they described a decision-analytic model evaluating both the costs and benefits associated with an intervention or prevention for atopic eczema. Data were extracted using a standardised form by two independent reviewers, whilst quality was assessed using the model-specific Philips criteria. Twenty-four models were identified, evaluating either preventions (n = 12) or interventions (n = 12): 14 reported using a Markov modelling approach, four utilised decision trees and one a discrete event simulation, whilst five did not specify the approach. The majority, 22 studies, reported that the intervention was dominant or cost effective, given the assumptions and analytical perspective taken. Notably, the models tended to be short-term (16 used a time horizon of ≤1 year), often providing little justification for the limited time horizon chosen. The methodological and reporting quality of the studies was generally weak, with only seven studies fulfilling more than 50% of their applicable Philips criteria. This is the first systematic review of decision models in eczema. Whilst the majority of models reported favourable outcomes in terms of the cost effectiveness of the new intervention, the usefulness of these findings for decision-making is

  12. Raynaud's syndrome in children: systematic review and development of recommendations for assessment and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pain, Clare E; Constantin, Tamás; Toplak, Natasa; Moll, Monica; Iking-Konert, Christof; Piotto, Daniella P; Aktay Ayaz, Nuray; Nemcova, Dana; Hoeger, Peter H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Smith, Vanessa; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    To develop recommendations for investigation and monitoring of children with Raynaud's syndrome, based on paediatric evidence collated by a systematic review. A systematic review was undertaken to establish the paediatric evidence for assessment and monitoring of Raynaud's syndrome. An expert panel including members of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) Scleroderma Working Group, were invited to a consensus meeting where recommendations were developed based on evidence graded by the systematic review and where evidence was lacking, consensus opinion. A nominal technique was used where 75% consensus was taken as agreement. The expert panel recommended testing anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), more specific antibodies associated with connective tissue disease and nail-fold capillaroscopy in all children presenting with Raynaud's syndrome as data suggests these can be risk factors for evolution into a connective tissue disease. The frequency of follow-up recommended depends on presence of these risk factors with the aim to detect evolving connective tissue disease early in high risk individuals. Those with no abnormalities on capillaroscopy and negative autoantibodies were deemed low risk of progression, whereas those with ANA positivity, specific autoantibodies and/or nailfold capillary changes were deemed high risk and more frequent follow-up was recommended. Recommendations, primarily based on consensus opinion, were agreed regarding investigation and monitoring of children who present with Raynaud's syndrome. Further prospective studies are needed to better define the risk factors for progression to connective tissue disease.

  13. Systematic optimization of a detailed kinetic model using a methane ignition example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.

    1984-01-01

    An approach to the systematic optimization of a large-scale dynamic model is proposed which consists in parameterization of simulation results as response surfaces. The optimization procedure is carried out using a second-order orthogonal design. The approach proposed here is demonstrated by an example involving the shock-initiated ignition of methane.

  14. A Systematic Comparison between Classical Optimal Scaling and the Two-Parameter IRT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; de Gruijter, Dato N. M.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two alternative methods for the analysis of multivariate categorical data is systematically explored. It is shown that the person score of the first dimension of classical optimal scaling correlates strongly with the latent variable for the two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. Next, under the…

  15. Cluster Monte Carlo: Scaling of systematic errors in the two-dimensional Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Shchur, L.N.; Bloete, H.W.

    1997-05-01

    We present an extensive analysis of systematic deviations in Wolff cluster simulations of the critical Ising model, using random numbers generated by binary shift registers. We investigate how these deviations depend on the lattice size, the shift-register length, and the number of bits correlated by the production rule. They appear to satisfy scaling relations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Prognostic Models in Adults Undergoing Physical Therapy for Rotator Cuff Disorders: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Braun, Cordula; Hanchard, Nigel C; Batterham, Alan M; Handoll, Helen H; Betthäuser, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Rotator cuff-related disorders represent the largest subgroup of shoulder complaints. Despite the availability of various conservative and surgical treatment options, the precise indications for these options remain unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available research on prognostic models for predicting outcomes in adults undergoing physical therapy for painful rotator cuff disorders. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PEDro databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to October 2015 were searched. The review included primary studies exploring prognostic models in adults undergoing physical therapy, with or without other conservative measures, for painful rotator cuff disorders. Primary outcomes were pain, disability, and adverse events. Inclusion was limited to prospective investigations of prognostic factors elicited at the baseline assessment. Study selection was independently performed by 2 reviewers. A pilot-tested form was used to extract data on key aspects of study design, characteristics, analyses, and results. Risk of bias and applicability were independently assessed by 2 reviewers using the Prediction Study Risk of Bias Assessment tool (PROBAST). Five studies were included in the review. These studies were extremely heterogeneous in many aspects of design, conduct, and analysis. The findings were analyzed narratively. All included studies were rated as at high risk of bias, and none of the resulting prognostic models was found to be usable in clinical practice. There are no prognostic models ready to inform clinical practice in the context of the review question, highlighting the need for further research on prognostic models for predicting outcomes in adults who undergo physical therapy for painful rotator cuff disorders. The design and conduct of future studies should be receptive to developing methods. © 2016 American Physical Therapy

  17. Using Latent Class Analysis to Model Preference Heterogeneity in Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Thayer, Winter Maxwell; Bridges, John F P

    2017-10-03

    Latent class analysis (LCA) has been increasingly used to explore preference heterogeneity, but the literature has not been systematically explored and hence best practices are not understood. We sought to document all applications of LCA in the stated-preference literature in health and to inform future studies by identifying current norms in published applications. We conducted a systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases. We included stated-preference studies that used LCA to explore preference heterogeneity in healthcare or public health. Two co-authors independently evaluated titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Abstracted key outcomes included segmentation methods, preference elicitation methods, number of attributes and levels, sample size, model selection criteria, number of classes reported, and hypotheses tests. Study data quality and validity were assessed with the Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, and Significance (PREFS) quality checklist. We identified 2560 titles, 99 of which met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two-thirds of the studies focused on the preferences of patients and the general population. In total, 80% of the studies used discrete choice experiments. Studies used between three and 20 attributes, most commonly four to six. Sample size in LCAs ranged from 47 to 2068, with one-third between 100 and 300. Over 90% of the studies used latent class logit models for segmentation. Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and log-likelihood (LL) were commonly used for model selection, and class size and interpretability were also considered in some studies. About 80% of studies reported two to three classes. The number of classes reported was not correlated with any study characteristics or study population characteristics (p > 0.05). Only 30% of the studies reported using statistical tests to detect significant variations in preferences

  18. Developing Behavioral Theory With the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl R Dennison

    2014-08-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory. Fifty-three studies tested associations between community social capital concepts and physical activity (38 studies), smoking (19 studies), and diet (2 studies). Trustworthiness of community members was consistently associated with more health-promoting and less disease-promoting behaviors in 19 studies. Neighborly reciprocity showed mixed results in 10 studies. Reporting a good sense of community was associated with more physical activity in only 5 of 16 studies. Neighborhood collective efficacy, which includes social cohesion and informal social control, was inconsistently associated with behaviors in 22 studies. Behavioral social norms were associated with smoking and physical activity in 2 of 6 studies, and neighborhood modeling of physical activity was associated with increased activity in 12 of 17 studies, with 1 opposing result. This review identifies several community social capital-related concepts that are, at times, associated with both health-promoting and disease-promoting behaviors and often have no associations. Theory explains these findings by describing the relationships and interactions among these concepts. Using these findings, this article proposes a conceptual framework that integrates community social capital concepts into existing behavioral theory. Iterative empirically based theory development is needed to address these concepts, which affect behaviors. These results can also inform theoretically based community-based and socially tailored interventions.

  19. Developing Behavioral Theory With the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory. Fifty-three studies tested associations between community social capital concepts and physical activity (38 studies), smoking (19 studies), and diet (2 studies). Trustworthiness of community members was consistently associated with more health-promoting and less disease-promoting behaviors in 19 studies. Neighborly reciprocity showed mixed results in 10 studies. Reporting a good sense of community was associated with more physical activity in only 5 of 16 studies. Neighborhood collective efficacy, which includes social cohesion and informal social control, was inconsistently associated with behaviors in 22 studies. Behavioral social norms were associated with smoking and physical activity in 2 of 6 studies, and neighborhood modeling of physical activity was associated with increased activity in 12 of 17 studies, with 1 opposing result. This review identifies several community social capital–related concepts that are, at times, associated with both health-promoting and disease-promoting behaviors and often have no associations. Theory explains these findings by describing the relationships and interactions among these concepts. Using these findings, this article proposes a conceptual framework that integrates community social capital concepts into existing behavioral theory. Iterative empirically based theory development is needed to address these concepts, which affect behaviors. These results can also inform theoretically based community-based and socially tailored interventions. PMID:24092886

  20. Developing models in virtual cell.

    PubMed

    Neves, Susana R

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a two-part lecture on mathematical modeling using the Virtual Cell environment. The lectures discuss the steps involved in developing and running simulations using Virtual Cell, with particular focus on spatial partial differential equation models. We discuss how to construct both ordinary differential equation models, in which the cytoplasm is considered a well-mixed cellular compartment, and partial differential equation models, which calculate how chemical species change as a function of both time and location. The Virtual Cell environment is especially well suited for models that explore spatial specificity of cellular reactions. Partial differential equation models in Virtual Cell can give rise to simulations using predefined cellular geometries, which enable direct comparison with imaging data. These models address questions regarding the regulatory capability arising from spatial organization of the cell. Examples are provided of studies that have successfully exploited the Virtual Cell software to address the spatial contribution to signaling.

  1. Approaches to health-care provider education and professional development in perinatal depression: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Legere, Laura E; Wallace, Katherine; Bowen, Angela; McQueen, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Evans, Marilyn

    2017-07-24

    Perinatal depression is the most common mental illness experienced by pregnant and postpartum women, yet it is often under-detected and under-treated. Some researchers suggest this may be partly influenced by a lack of education and professional development on perinatal depression among health-care providers, which can negatively affect care and contribute to stigmatization of women experiencing altered mood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of educational and professional development needs and strategies for health-care providers in perinatal depression. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in seven academic health databases using selected keywords. The search was limited to primary studies and reviews published in English between January 2006 and May/June 2015, with a focus on perinatal depression education and professional development for health-care providers. Studies were screened for inclusion by two reviewers and tie-broken by a third. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised and data extracted. Results from the studies are reported through narrative synthesis. Two thousand one hundred five studies were returned from the search, with 1790 remaining after duplicate removal. Ultimately, 12 studies of moderate and weak quality met inclusion criteria. The studies encompassed quantitative (n = 11) and qualitative (n = 1) designs, none of which were reviews, and addressed educational needs identified by health-care providers (n = 5) and strategies for professional development in perinatal mental health (n = 7). Consistently, providers identified a lack of formal education in perinatal mental health and the need for further professional development. Although the professional development interventions were diverse, the majority focused on promoting identification of perinatal depression and demonstrated modest effectiveness in improving various outcomes. This systematic review reveals a

  2. The JOINT model of nurse absenteeism and turnover: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Anouze, Abdel-Latef; Otaki, Farah; Dumit, Nuhad Yazbik; Osman, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Absenteeism and turnover among healthcare workers have a significant impact on overall healthcare system performance. The literature captures variables from different levels of measurement and analysis as being associated with attendance behavior among nurses. Yet, it remains unclear how variables from different contextual levels interact to impact nurses' attendance behaviors. The purpose of this review is to develop an integrative multilevel framework that optimizes our understanding of absenteeism and turnover among nurses in hospital settings. We therefore systematically examine English-only studies retrieved from two major databases, PubMed and CINAHL Plus and published between January, 2007 and January, 2013 (inclusive). Our review led to the identification of 7619 articles out of which 41 matched the inclusion criteria. The analysis yielded a total of 91 antecedent variables and 12 outcome variables for turnover, and 29 antecedent variables and 9 outcome variables for absenteeism. The various manifested variables were analyzed using content analysis and grouped into 11 categories, and further into five main factors: Job, Organization, Individual, National and inTerpersonal (JOINT). Thus, we propose the JOINT multilevel conceptual model for investigating absenteeism and turnover among nurses. The JOINT model can be adapted by researchers for fitting their hypothesized multilevel relationships. It can also be used by nursing managers as a lens for holistically managing nurses' attendance behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Neurobiological Model of Borderline Personality Disorder: Systematic and Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging. We consolidate the results of these studies and provide an integrative model that attempts to incorporate the heterogeneous findings. The model specifies interactions among endogenous stress hormones, neurometabolism, and brain structures and circuits involved in emotion and cognition. The role of the amygdala in BPD is expanded to consider its functions in coordinating the brain's dynamic evaluation of the relevance of emotional stimuli in the context of an individual's goals and motivations. Future directions for neurobiological research on BPD are discussed, including implications for the Research Domain Criteria framework, accelerating genetics research by incorporating endophenotypes and gene × environment interactions, and exploring novel applications of neuroscience findings to treatment research.

  4. Systematic optimization model and algorithm for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Kehang; Zhu, Yushan

    2013-01-01

    A systematic optimization model for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design was developed based on the transition state theory of enzyme catalysis and graph-theoretical modeling. The saddle point on the free energy surface of the reaction system was represented by catalytic geometrical constraints, and the binding energy between the active site and transition state was minimized to reduce the activation energy barrier. The resulting hyperscale combinatorial optimization problem was tackled using a novel heuristic global optimization algorithm, which was inspired and tested by the protein core sequence selection problem. The sequence recapitulation tests on native active sites for two enzyme catalyzed hydrolytic reactions were applied to evaluate the predictive power of the design methodology. The results of the calculation show that most of the native binding sites can be successfully identified if the catalytic geometrical constraints and the structural motifs of the substrate are taken into account. Reliably predicting active site sequences may have significant implications for the creation of novel enzymes that are capable of catalyzing targeted chemical reactions. PMID:23649589

  5. Beyond frontier molecular orbital theory: a systematic electron transfer model (ETM) for polar bimolecular organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Katharine J; Johnson, Richard P

    2013-03-01

    Polar bimolecular reactions often begin as charge-transfer complexes and may proceed with a high degree of electron transfer character. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory is predicated in part on this concept. We have developed an electron transfer model (ETM) in which we systematically transfer one electron between reactants and then use density functional methods to model the resultant radical or radical ion intermediates. Sites of higher reactivity are revealed by a composite spin density map (SDM) of odd electron character on the electron density surface, assuming that a new two-electron bond would occur preferentially at these sites. ETM correctly predicts regio- and stereoselectivity for a broad array of reactions, including Diels-Alder, dipolar and ketene cycloadditions, Birch reduction, many types of nucleophilic additions, and electrophilic addition to aromatic rings and polyenes. Conformational analysis of radical ions is often necessary to predict reaction stereochemistry. The electronic and geometric changes due to one-electron oxidation or reduction parallel the reaction coordinate for electrophilic or nucleophilic addition, respectively. The effect is more dramatic for one-electron reduction.

  6. Systematic optimization model and algorithm for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Kehang; Zhu, Yushan

    2013-07-01

    A systematic optimization model for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design was developed based on the transition state theory of enzyme catalysis and graph-theoretical modeling. The saddle point on the free energy surface of the reaction system was represented by catalytic geometrical constraints, and the binding energy between the active site and transition state was minimized to reduce the activation energy barrier. The resulting hyperscale combinatorial optimization problem was tackled using a novel heuristic global optimization algorithm, which was inspired and tested by the protein core sequence selection problem. The sequence recapitulation tests on native active sites for two enzyme catalyzed hydrolytic reactions were applied to evaluate the predictive power of the design methodology. The results of the calculation show that most of the native binding sites can be successfully identified if the catalytic geometrical constraints and the structural motifs of the substrate are taken into account. Reliably predicting active site sequences may have significant implications for the creation of novel enzymes that are capable of catalyzing targeted chemical reactions.

  7. Tsunami Modeling: Development of Benchmarked Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the progress towards the development of benchmarked models for forecasting tsunami inundation. Tsunami hydrodynamics has progressed slower than research in other natural hazards, because for several decades only the largest tsunamis were being reported. With the exception of the 1960 and 1964 events, there had been only qualitative information on inundation. While the basic equations for analysis have been known for decades, the existing synthesis leading to real time forecasts as currently available had to await the development of sophisticated modeling tools, the large-scale laboratory experiments in the 1980s-1990s and the tsunameter recordings of 2003 and since. The field survey results in the 1990s (Synolakis and Okal, 2005) served as crude proxies to free-field tsunami recordings and allowed for the validation and verification of numerical procedures. State-of-the-art inundation and forecasting codes have evolved through a painstaking process of careful validation and verification which can be traced back to the 1990 NSF Catalina workshop on Long-Wave Runup Models (Liu et al., 1991). Operational tsunami forecasting was only made possible through the availability of deep ocean measurements. We will describe this journey from development of the basic field equations to forecasts, through the scientific milestones that served as benchmarks and reality checks. In summary, as research in live networks -where problems and solution ideas arise spontaneously- tsunami hydrodynamic modeling was driven by milestone scientific meetings, and post tsunami surveys that kept identifying novel problem geometries and previously unrecognized phenomena. We discuss necessary validation and verification steps for numerical codes to be used for inundation mapping, design and operations (Synolakis et al., 2007). Liu, P. L.-F., C. E. Synolakis and H. H. Yeh, 1991. Report on the International Workshop on Long-Wave Run- up. J. Fluid Mech., 229, 675-688. Synolakis, C. E. and

  8. Systematic Parameter Estimation of a Density-Dependent Groundwater-Flow and Solute-Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z.; Nishikawa, T.; Traum, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A SEAWAT-based, flow and transport model of seawater-intrusion was developed for the Santa Barbara groundwater basin in southern California that utilizes dual-domain porosity. Model calibration can be difficult when simulating flow and transport in large-scale hydrologic systems with extensive heterogeneity. To facilitate calibration, the hydrogeologic properties in this model are based on the fraction of coarse and fine-grained sediment interpolated from drillers' logs. This approach prevents over-parameterization by assigning one set of parameters to coarse material and another set to fine material. Estimated parameters include boundary conditions (such as areal recharge and surface-water seepage), hydraulic conductivities, dispersivities, and mass-transfer rate. As a result, the model has 44 parameters that were estimated by using the parameter-estimation software PEST, which uses the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm, along with various features such as singular value decomposition to improve calibration efficiency. The model is calibrated by using 36 years of observed water-level and chloride-concentration measurements, as well as first-order changes in head and concentration. Prior information on hydraulic properties is also provided to PEST as additional observations. The calibration objective is to minimize the squared sum of weighted residuals. In addition, observation sensitivities are investigated to effectively calibrate the model. An iterative parameter-estimation procedure is used to dynamically calibrate steady state and transient simulation models. The resulting head and concentration states from the steady-state-model provide the initial conditions for the transient model. The transient calibration provides updated parameter values for the next steady-state simulation. This process repeats until a reasonable fit is obtained. Preliminary results from the systematic calibration process indicate that tuning PEST by using a set of synthesized

  9. A Model of the Temporal Dynamics of Knowledge Brokerage in Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukkinen, Janne I.

    2016-01-01

    I develop a conceptual model of the temporal dynamics of knowledge brokerage for sustainable development. Brokerage refers to efforts to make research and policymaking more accessible to each other. The model enables unbiased and systematic consideration of knowledge brokerage as part of policy evolution. The model is theoretically grounded in…

  10. A Model of the Temporal Dynamics of Knowledge Brokerage in Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukkinen, Janne I.

    2016-01-01

    I develop a conceptual model of the temporal dynamics of knowledge brokerage for sustainable development. Brokerage refers to efforts to make research and policymaking more accessible to each other. The model enables unbiased and systematic consideration of knowledge brokerage as part of policy evolution. The model is theoretically grounded in…

  11. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; E Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; E Brau, J.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; E Broida, J.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; E Cowan, E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; E Creighton, J. D.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; E Dwyer, S.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; E Gossan, S.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; E Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; E Holz, D.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; E Lord, J.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; E McClelland, D.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; E Mikhailov, E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; E Pace, A.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; E Smith, R. J.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; E Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; E Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; E Zucker, M.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Boyle, M.; Chu, T.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; E Kidder, L.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vano Vinuales, A.

    2017-05-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein’s equations, any such calibration is accurate only to some non-zero tolerance and is limited by the accuracy of the underlying phenomenology, availability, quality, and parameter-space coverage of numerical simulations. This paper complements the original analyses of GW150914 with an investigation of the effects of possible systematic errors in the waveform models on estimates of its source parameters. To test for systematic errors we repeat the original Bayesian analysis on mock signals from numerical simulations of a series of binary configurations with parameters similar to those found for GW150914. Overall, we find no evidence for a systematic bias relative to the statistical error of the original parameter recovery of GW150914 due to modeling approximations or modeling inaccuracies. However, parameter biases are found to occur for some configurations disfavored by the data of GW150914: for binaries inclined edge-on to the detector over a small range of choices of polarization angles, and also for eccentricities greater than  ˜0.05. For signals with higher signal-to-noise ratio than GW150914, or in other regions of the binary parameter space (lower masses, larger mass ratios, or higher spins), we expect that systematic errors in current waveform models may impact gravitational-wave measurements, making more accurate models desirable for future observations.

  12. Systematic U(1 ) B - L extensions of loop-induced neutrino mass models with dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shu-Yu; Toma, Takashi; Tsumura, Koji

    2016-08-01

    We study the gauged U(1 ) B - L extensions of the models for neutrino masses and dark matter. In this class of models, tiny neutrino masses are radiatively induced through the loop diagrams, while the origin of the dark matter stability is guaranteed by the remnant of the gauge symmetry. Depending on how the lepton number conservation is violated, these models are systematically classified. We present complete lists for the one-loop Z2 and the two-loop Z3 radiative seesaw models as examples of the classification. The anomaly cancellation conditions in these models are also discussed.

  13. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  14. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  15. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  17. The role of psychosocial stress at work for the development of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Backé, Eva-Maria; Seidler, Andreas; Latza, Ute; Rossnagel, Karin; Schumann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out to assess evidence for the association between different models of stress at work, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A literature search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX and PsycINFO). Inclusion criteria for studies were the following: self-reported stress for individual workplaces, prospective study design and incident disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, high blood pressure). Evaluation, according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, was done by two readers. In case of disagreement, a third reader was involved. Twenty-six publications were included, describing 40 analyses out of 20 cohorts. The risk estimates for work stress were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease in 13 out of the 20 cohorts. Associations were significant for 7 out of 13 cohorts applying the demand-control model, all three cohorts using the effort-reward model and 3 out of 6 cohorts investigating other models. Most significant results came from analyses considering only men. Results for the association between job stress and cardiovascular diseases in women were not clear. Associations were weaker in participants above the age of 55. In accordance with other systematic reviews, this review stresses the importance of psychosocial factors at work in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases. Besides individual measures to manage stress and to cope with demanding work situations, organisational changes at the workplace need to be considered to find options to reduce occupational risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  19. Redox systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Ward, C.C.

    1993-12-31

    At a processing temperature of 1150{degrees}C for model West Valley glass composition, the prescribed range of oxygen fugacities needed to achieve an [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] of 0.1 to 0.5 is 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -7} atm. Establishment of the Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 0} equilibrium, resulting in metal precipitation from the melt, occurs at oxygen fugacities lower than 10{sup -11} atm at this temperature. The target processing range as defined by the iron redox ratio is equally valid at both lower and higher temperatures ({+-}100{degrees}C). Elevations of the concentrations of redox-active components to 1 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 1 wt% NiO, 1 wt% CeO{sub 2}, and 4 wt% Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the waste glass will not affect the redox limits as established by the iron redox ratio of 0.1 to 0.5; these limits provide sufficiently large margins of safety to assure no stabilization of reduced or oxidized forms of these elements.

  20. Sulfur systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Sisk, E.D.; Kozak, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur is incorporated into model glass melts, representative of West Valley compositions for the vitrification of high level nuclear waste, as the sulfate ion under oxidizing conditions and as the sulfide ion under reducing conditions. A narrow range of oxygen fugacities, around 10{sup {minus}8.8} atm at 1150{degrees}C, under which the two redox forms of sulfur coexist is also the minimum in the sulfur solubility. Under the redox conditions prescribed for waste processing, sulfur dissolves as the sulfate ion. The capacity to dissolve sulfur as sulfate is about 1 to 2.5 wt% sulfur; an immiscible sulfate layer floats on the glass melt if waste loading introduces sulfur contents greater than this under oxidizing conditions. If the waste/melt system is exposed to sufficiently reducing conditions, the first phase to separate from the melt is likely nickel sulfide. The presence of the immiscible sulfate or sulfide layer buffers the iron redox ratio of the resulting glass.

  1. Criteria and models for the distribution of casualties in trauma-related mass casualty incidents: a systematic literature review protocol.

    PubMed

    Khajehaminian, Mohammad Reza; Ardalan, Ali; Hosseini Boroujeni, Sayed Mohsen; Nejati, Amir; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ebadati E, Omid Mahdi

    2017-07-12

    One of the most critical practices in mass casualty incident management is vacating the victims from scene of the incident and transporting them to proper healthcare facilities. Decision on distribution of casualties needs to be taken on pre-developed policies and structured decision support mechanisms. While many studies tried to present models for the distribution of casualties, no systematic review has yet been conducted to evaluate the existing models on casualty distribution following mass casualty incidents. A systematic review is therefore needed to examine the existing models of patient distribution and to provide a summary of the models. This systematic review protocol is aimed to examine the existing models and extracting rules and principles of mass casualty distribution. This study will comprehensively investigate existing papers with search phrases and terms including "mass casualty incident", distribution, evacuation, and Mesh terms directly corresponding to search phrases. No limitations on the type of studies, date of publication, or language of the relevant documents will be imposed. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar will be searched to access the relevant documents. Included papers will be critically appraised by two independent reviewers. The data including incidents type, scene characteristics, patient features, pre-hospital resources, and hospital resources will be categorized. Subgroup analysis will be conducted when possible. To the best of our knowledge, no study has yet addressed the effects and interaction of contributing factors on the decision-making processes for casualty's distribution. This is the first study that comprehensively assesses and critically appraises the current models of casualty distribution. This study will provide evidences about models and criteria for casualty distribution following mass casualty incidents. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42016049115.

  2. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  3. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  4. A systematic review of specialised palliative care for terminal patients: which model is better?

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, L; Linertová, R; Martín-Olivera, R; Serrano-Aguilar, P; Benítez-Rosario, M A

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence of improved effectiveness of specialised palliative care for terminally ill patients in comparison to conventional care. However, there is uncertainty about which model is better. The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies that compare specialised palliative care models between them assessing their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. We searched studies published between 2003 and 2006 in several electronic databases and updated the search in MEDLINE up to 2008. Papers published before 2003 were identified by means of previous systematic reviews and manual search. Studies with broad designs comparing two or more specialised palliative care programmes in adults with terminal illness were selected. Six systematic reviews, three studies on effectiveness and one cost study were included. All systematic reviews drew the conclusion that specialised palliative care is more effective than conventional care. The methodological limitations of the original studies and the heterogeneity of programmes did not allow to draw conclusions about whether a specific model of specialised palliative care is more or less effective or cost-effective than other.

  5. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10 June 2016 - 27 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...component analysis (PCA), tile- based Fisher Ratio (F-ratio) analysis, and partial least squares (PLS) analysis] were applied to multivariate datasets...Unlimited. Public Affairs Clearance Number 16290 Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of HBV and HCV Screening Strategies – A Systematic Review of Existing Modelling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geue, Claudia; Wu, Olivia; Xin, Yiqiao; Heggie, Robert; Hutchinson, Sharon; Martin, Natasha K.; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of screening for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are generally heterogeneous in terms of risk groups, settings, screening intervention, outcomes and the economic modelling framework. It is therefore difficult to compare cost-effectiveness results between studies. This systematic review aims to summarise and critically assess existing economic models for HBV and HCV in order to identify the main methodological differences in modelling approaches. Methods A structured search strategy was developed and a systematic review carried out. A critical assessment of the decision-analytic models was carried out according to the guidelines and framework developed for assessment of decision-analytic models in Health Technology Assessment of health care interventions. Results The overall approach to analysing the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies was found to be broadly consistent for HBV and HCV. However, modelling parameters and related structure differed between models, producing different results. More recent publications performed better against a performance matrix, evaluating model components and methodology. Conclusion When assessing screening strategies for HBV and HCV infection, the focus should be on more recent studies, which applied the latest treatment regimes, test methods and had better and more complete data on which to base their models. In addition to parameter selection and associated assumptions, careful consideration of dynamic versus static modelling is recommended. Future research may want to focus on these methodological issues. In addition, the ability to evaluate screening strategies for multiple infectious diseases, (HCV and HIV at the same time) might prove important for decision makers. PMID:26689908

  7. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  8. Calcium Isotope Systematics During Development of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    Calcium isotope distributions have been recognized as showing systematic and predictable fractionation in nature. However, most of the observed calcium isotope fractionation to date is due to biological processes. The presence of abundant amounts of calcium in mineralized tissues makes the isotopic system of calcium particularly valuable in biological and paleobiological questions involving biomineralization. In order to apply calcium isotope systematics to paleobiological questions the changes in the calcium isotope signatures of mineralized tissue in modern animals should be studied. My study observed the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) through embryologic ontogeny. This was accomplished by obtaining fertilized eggs staged in a growth series from day 12 to day 20. The eggs were dissected and shell, embryonic bone, albumen, and yolk were analyzed in order to characterize the calcium isotopic composition of the individual components over the course of the growth series. Several systematic changes in the isotopic signatures of various tissues were observed during the course of the development of the embryos. In general, mineralization in biological systems preferentially partitions the lighter isotopes of calcium into hard parts. As a result of this fractionation during mineralization, partitioning of light isotopes of calcium into the mineralized tissues may result in residual tissues being enriched in the heavier isotopes as ontogeny progresses. Better understanding of the behavior of calcium in modern biological systems will improve its application to fossils and expand the number of paleobiological and evolutionary questions that can be addressed using calcium isotopic data.

  9. Environmental and genomic factors as well as interventions influencing smoking cessation: a systematic review of reviews and a proposed working model.

    PubMed

    de Viron, S; Malats, N; Van der Heyden, J; Van Oyen, H; Brand, A

    2013-01-01

    Smoking behaviour is a major public health problem worldwide. Several sources have confirmed the implication of genomic factors in smoking behaviour. These factors interact both with environmental factors and interventions to develop a certain behaviour. Describing the environmental and genomic factors as well as the interventions influencing smoking cessation (SC) and developing a working model incorporating the different factors influencing SC were our main objectives. Two systematic reviews were conducted using articles in English from the Cochrane library, PubMed and HuGENet from January 2000 to September 2012: (1) a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and (2) a systematic review of original research for genomic factors. The proposed working model was developed by making use of previous models of SC and applying an iterative process of discussion and re-examination by the authors. We confirmed the importance of the 4 main factors influencing SC: (1) environmental factors, (2) genomic factors, (3) gene-environment interactions, and (4) evidence-based interventions. The model demonstrates the complex network of factors influencing SC. The working model of SC proposed a global view of factors influencing SC, warranting future research in this area. Future testing of the model will consolidate the understanding of the different factors affecting SC and will help to improve interventions in this field. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  11. The effect of horizontal resolution on systematic errors of the GLA forecast model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Chen, Jau-Ming; Pfaendtner, James

    1990-01-01

    Systematic prediction errors of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) forecast system are reduced when the higher-resolution (2 x 2.5 deg) model version is used. Based on a budget analysis of the 200-mb eddy streamfunction, the improvement of stationary eddy forecasting is seen to be caused by the following mechanism: by increasing the horizontal spatial resolution of the forecast model, atmospheric diabatic heating over the three tropical continents is changed in a way that intensifies the planetary-scale divergent circulations associated with the three pairs of divergent-convergent centers over these continents. The intensified divergent circulation results in an enhancement of vorticity sources in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional vorticity is advected eastward by a stationary wave train along 30 deg N, thereby reducing systematic errors in the lower-resolution (4 x 5 deg) GLA model.

  12. Developing Models for Predictive Climate Science

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Jones, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration designed to construct cutting-edge climate science simulation models for a broad research community. Predictive climate simulations are currently being prepared for the petascale computers of the near future. Modeling capabilities are continuously being improved in order to provide better answers to critical questions about Earth's climate. Climate change and its implications are front page news in today's world. Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should more resources be devoted to preparing for an increase in the frequency of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina? Will coastal cities be flooded due to a rise in sea level? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), which archives all weather data for the nation, reports that global surface temperatures have increased over the last century, and that the rate of increase is three times greater since 1976. Will temperatures continue to climb at this rate, will they decline again, or will the rate of increase become even steeper? To address such a flurry of questions, scientists must adopt a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the DOE is dedicated to advancing climate research in order to elucidate the causes of climate change, including the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use. Thus, climate science--which by nature involves advanced computing technology and methods--has been the focus of a number of DOE's SciDAC research projects. Dr. John Drake (ORNL) and Dr. Philip Jones (LANL) served as principal investigators on the SciDAC project, 'Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers.' The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled global system that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the

  13. A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only physics but also electrical engineering and computer engineering because of the advent of new nanoelectronics devices. The model suggests that curriculum development tends to follow one of three major tracks: physics; electrical engineering; computer engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model presented may provide guidelines for a systematic selection of topics in the university programmes.

  14. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  15. Interventions that facilitate sustainable development by preventing toxic exposure to chemicals: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Soares, Agnes; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Korc, Marcelo; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-06-01

    Objective To identify interventions that 1) facilitate sustainable development by preventing toxic exposure to chemicals, including pesticides, and 2) have a positive impact on health. Methods This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including clear inclusion criteria. To be classified as "sustainable" interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to 1) have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the United Nations integrated framework for sustainable development and 2) include measures of health impact. Results Thirteen systematic reviews and two economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. The interventions that were most likely to have a positive impact on health included 1) legislation to ban Endosulfan pesticide to prevent fatal poisonings; 2) testing of drinking water for contamination with arsenic, and dissemination of the results to households; and 3) implementation of organic farming / diet to reduce exposure to pesticides. However, the cost-effectiveness of these three interventions and their impact(s) on health inequalities is not known. Strict enforcement of interventions to reduce lead in houses with children was cost-beneficial. Education and dust control interventions performed by cleaning professionals to reduce blood lead levels in children were ineffective. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of the interventions whose impacts are likely to be positive. Ineffective interventions need to be replaced with more effective and cost-effective interventions. Finally, more and better-quality research on the prevention of toxic exposure to chemicals is needed to better support policy development.

  16. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations. To address the lack of evidence to support the

  17. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  18. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5.

  19. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among People Living with HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sivaraj; Ponnampalvanar, Sasheela; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search. Articles were restricted to English language studies reporting on the prevalence of MS among PLWH in developing countries. Eighteen articles were included in the review. The studies were divided into Africa, South America, and Asia regions. The most frequent criterion used in the review was the National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Program III 2001 definition. The prevalence of MS among PLWH ranged from 8.4% to 47% across the developing regions and comparable to the overall prevalence across the developed regions (7.8-52.2%). The mean prevalence was 30.5%, 21.5%, and 21.4% in Africa, Asia, and South America, respectively. The most frequent component observed was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (50.1%). This systematic review provides an essential overview on the distribution of MS in the HIV population across the developing regions. As these prevalences were comparably high in the developed regions, this review highlights the need for more robust research in developing countries.

  20. User-centered design and the development of patient decision aids: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly O; Dansokho, Selma Chipenda; Colquhoun, Heather; Coulter, Angela; Dugas, Michèle; Fagerlin, Angela; Giguere, Anik Mc; Glouberman, Sholom; Haslett, Lynne; Hoffman, Aubri; Ivers, Noah; Légaré, France; Légaré, Jean; Levin, Carrie; Lopez, Karli; Montori, Victor M; Provencher, Thierry; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Sparling, Kerri; Stacey, Dawn; Vaisson, Gratianne; Volk, Robert J; Witteman, William

    2015-01-26

    Providing patient-centered care requires that patients partner in their personal health-care decisions to the full extent desired. Patient decision aids facilitate processes of shared decision-making between patients and their clinicians by presenting relevant scientific information in balanced, understandable ways, helping clarify patients' goals, and guiding decision-making processes. Although international standards stipulate that patients and clinicians should be involved in decision aid development, little is known about how such involvement currently occurs, let alone best practices. This systematic review consisting of three interlinked subreviews seeks to describe current practices of user involvement in the development of patient decision aids, compare these to practices of user-centered design, and identify promising strategies. A research team that includes patient and clinician representatives, decision aid developers, and systematic review method experts will guide this review according to the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA reporting guidelines. A medical librarian will hand search key references and use a peer-reviewed search strategy to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the ACM library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. We will identify articles across all languages and years describing the development or evaluation of a patient decision aid, or the application of user-centered design or human-centered design to tools intended for patient use. Two independent reviewers will assess article eligibility and extract data into a matrix using a structured pilot-tested form based on a conceptual framework of user-centered design. We will synthesize evidence to describe how research teams have included users in their development process and compare these practices to user-centered design methods. If data permit, we will develop a measure of the user-centeredness of development processes and identify practices that are likely

  1. National prevalence of coronary heart disease and its relationship with human development index: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhou, Qin-Yi; Wang, Ning-Fu

    2016-03-01

    Coronary heart disease has become a major health concern over the past several decades. Several reviews have assessed the effects of socioeconomic status on the coronary heart disease epidemic in communities and countries, but only a few reviews have been performed at a global level. This study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of coronary heart disease and socioeconomic development worldwide using the Human Development Index. Systematic review. The data in this study were collected from the MEDLINE database. Cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of coronary heart disease until November 2014 were collected. The Human Development Index was sourced from the United Nations Development Programme Database and was used to measure the socioeconomic achievements of countries. Each country was classified as a developing or developed country based on its level of development according to the Human Development Index value. Based on the data analysis on the global level, coronary heart disease prevalence had no association with the national Human Development Index (rho = 0.07). However, there was a positive association between coronary heart disease prevalence and the national Human Development Index in developing countries, although a negative association existed in developed countries (rho = 0.47 and -0.34, respectively). In addition, the past decades have witnessed a growing coronary heart disease epidemic in developing countries, with reverse trends observed in developed countries (P = 0.021 and 0.002, respectively). With the development of socioeconomic status, as measured by the Human Development Index, the prevalence of coronary heart disease is growing in developing countries, while declining in developed countries. Future research needs to pay more attention to the reasonable allocation of medical resources and control of coronary heart disease risk factors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  2. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  3. Systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing students' and nurses' writing skills.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Leonardelli, Adrianne K; Turner, Kathleen M; Hawks, Sharon J; Derouin, Anne L; Hueckel, Rémi M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a systematic review of educational programs and strategies for developing the writing skills of nursing students and nurses. Of 728 screened citations, 80 articles were included in the review. Writing assignments in nursing courses were the most common, followed by strategies for writing across the curriculum and specific courses to improve the writing skills of nursing students. To improve nurses' writing skills, workshops were used most frequently. Only 28 (35%) of the articles were data based, and most articles described the writing program, strategy, or assignment but did not evaluate its effectiveness. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Systematical development of an autonomous HPF driven and controlled inspection robot

    SciTech Connect

    Niewels, J.; Jorden, W.

    1994-12-31

    Autonomous service robots represent currently one of the technically most demanding robot systems. The paper describes the development of such a system for under water internal pipe inspection. Starting off from a brief look at current rends in robot design the authors approach the problem by taking a close look at the internal structure of autonomous robots. They then concentrate on a systematical modularized approach in designing the hardware unit of an inspection system. Employed test facilities within the process of system optimization like six axes force/torque senor, smart skin etc. are described as well. Finally, the paper will present first results gained from the design study.

  5. Course Seven: Education and Development Unit 2. Basic Training Course in Systematic Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenya Inst. of Education, Nairobi.

    The linkage between formal education and the development efforts of third world nations is examined. Consideration is given to the fields in which education may be most helpful, such as social, political, and cultural. The extent to which the development of education itself is a part of the total national development effort is also discussed. A…

  6. Hypothetical model in testing integrated development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children.

  7. The effect of docetaxel on developing oedema in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hugenholtz-Wamsteker, W; Robbeson, C; Nijs, J; Hoelen, W; Meeus, M

    2016-03-01

    Docetaxel is extensively used in chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Little attention has been given to oedema as a possible side effect of docetaxel-containing therapies. Until now, no review was conducted to evaluate docetaxel-containing therapies versus docetaxel-free therapies on the magnitude of the risk of developing oedema. In this systematic review, we investigated the risk of developing oedema in patients being treated for breast cancer with or without docetaxel. In this systematic literature review, we searched PubMed and Web of Knowledge for studies on breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy containing docetaxel. We included clinical trials comparing docetaxel versus docetaxel-free chemotherapy. Oedema had to be reported and measured as a key outcome or an adverse effect. Methodological checklists were used to assess the risk of bias within the selected studies. Seven randomised clinical trials were included. Six trials were of moderate methodological quality. All trials showed an increased rate of oedema in the docetaxel-treatment arm. The trial of weakest methodological quality reported the highest incidence of oedema. The results moderately suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy containing docetaxel is related to a significantly increased risk of developing oedema, compared with docetaxel-free chemotherapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Bibha; Teijlingen, Edwin R van; Porter, Maureen; Simkhada, Padam

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to identify and analyse the main factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries. Antenatal care is a key strategy for reducing maternal mortality, but millions of women in developing countries do not receive it. A range of electronic databases was searched for studies conducted in developing countries and published between 1990 and 2006. English-language publications were searched using relevant keywords, and reference lists were hand-searched. A systematic review was carried out and both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Twenty-eight papers were included in the review. Studies most commonly identified the following factors affecting antenatal care uptake: maternal education, husband's education, marital status, availability, cost, household income, women's employment, media exposure and having a history of obstetric complications. Cultural beliefs and ideas about pregnancy also had an influence on antenatal care use. Parity had a statistically significant negative effect on adequate attendance. Whilst women of higher parity tend to use antenatal care less, there is interaction with women's age and religion. Only one study examined the effect of the quality of antenatal services on utilization. None identified an association between the utilization of such services and satisfaction with them. More qualitative research is required to explore the effect of women's satisfaction, autonomy and gender role in the decision-making process. Adequate utilization of antenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing health centres; women's overall (social, political and economic) status needs to be considered.

  9. Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Stephanie; Kleve, Suzanne; McKechnie, Rebecca; Palermo, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is a salient health issue comprised of four dimensions - food access, availability, utilization and stability over time. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify all multi-item tools that measure food insecurity and explore which of the dimensions they assess. Five databases were searched (CENTRAL, CINAHL plus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, TRIP) for studies published in English since 1999. Inclusion criteria included human studies using multi-item tools to measure food security and studies conducted in developed countries. Manuscripts describing the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module, that measures 'food access', were excluded due to wide acceptance of the validity and reliability of this instrument. Two authors extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Data were summarized against the dimensions of food insecurity. A systematic review of the literature. The majority of tools were developed in the USA and had been used in different age groups and cultures. Eight multi-item tools were identified. All of the tools assessed the 'food access' dimension and two partially assessed the dimensions 'food utilization' and 'stability over time', respectively. 'Food availability' was not assessed by existing tools. Current tools available for measuring food insecurity are subjective, limited in scope, with a majority assessing only one dimension of food insecurity (access). To more accurately assess the true burden of food insecurity, tools should be adapted or developed to assess all four dimensions of food insecurity.

  10. Impacts on prenatal development of the human cerebellum: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koning, Irene V; Tielemans, Myrte J; Hoebeek, Freek E; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Reiss, Irwin K M; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P M; Dudink, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The cerebellum is essential for normal neurodevelopment and is particularly susceptible for intra-uterine disruptions. Although some causal prenatal exposures have been identified, the origin of neurodevelopmental disorders remains mostly unclear. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted to provide an overview of parental environmental exposures and intrinsic factors influencing prenatal cerebellar growth and development in humans. The literature search was limited to human studies in the English language and was conducted in Embase, Medline, Cochrane, Web of Science, Pubmed and GoogleScholar. Eligible studies were selected by three independent reviewers and study quality was scored by two independent reviewers. The search yielded 3872 articles. We found 15 eligible studies reporting associations between cerebellar development and maternal smoking (4), use of alcohol (3), in vitro fertilization mediums (1), mercury (1), mifepristone (2), aminopropionitriles (1), ethnicity (2) and cortisol levels (1). No studies reported on paternal factors. Current literature on associations between parental environmental exposures, intrinsic factors and human cerebellar development is scarce. Yet, this systematic review provided an essential overview of human studies demonstrating the vulnerability of the cerebellum to the intra-uterine environment.

  11. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Models in Breast Cancer Screening in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schiller-Frühwirth, Irmgard C; Jahn, Beate; Arvandi, Marjan; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Many Western countries have long-established population-based mammography screening programs. Prior to implementing these programs, decision-analytic modeling was widely used to inform decisions. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of cost-effectiveness models in breast cancer screening in the general population to analyze their structural and methodological approaches. A systematic literature search for health economic models was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CRD Databases, Cochrane Library, and EconLit in August 2011 with updates in June 2013, April 2015, and November 2016. To assess studies systematically, a standardized form was applied to extract relevant information that was then summarized in evidence tables. Thirty-five studies were included; 27 state-transition models were analyzed using cohort (n = 12) and individual-level simulation (n = 15). Twenty-one studies modeled the natural history of breast cancer and predicted mortality as a function of the early detection modality. The models employed different assumptions regarding ductal carcinoma in situ. Thirteen studies performed cost-utility analyses with different sources for utility values, but assumptions were often made about utility weights. Twenty-two models did not report any validation. State-transition modeling was the most frequently applied analytic approach. Different methods in modeling the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer were identified because there is currently no agreement on the biological behavior of noninvasive breast cancer. Main weaknesses were the lack of precise utility estimates and insufficient reporting of validation. Sensitivity analyses of assumptions regarding ductal carcinoma in situ and in particular adequate validation are critical to minimize the risk of biased model outcomes.

  13. The psychoneuroimmunological effects of music: a systematic review and a new model.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, Daisy; Ockelford, Adam; Belai, Abi

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest over the past decade into the health benefits of music, in particular examining its psychological and neurological effects. Yet this is the first attempt to systematically review publications on the psychoneuroimmunology of music. Of the selected sixty-three studies published over the past 22 years, a range of effects of music on neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, lymphocytes, vital signs and immunoglobulins as well as psychological assessments are cataloged. Research so far points to the pivotal role of stress pathways in linking music to an immune response. However, several challenges to this research are noted: (1) there is very little discussion on the possible mechanisms by which music is achieving its neurological and immunological impact; (2) the studies tend to examine biomarkers in isolation, without taking into consideration the interaction of the biomarkers in question with other physiological or metabolic activities of the body, leading to an unclear understanding of the impact that music may be having; (3) terms are not being defined clearly enough, such as distinctions not being made between different kinds of stress and 'music' being used to encompass a broad spectrum of activities without determining which aspects of musical engagement are responsible for alterations in biomarkers. In light of this, a new model is presented which provides a framework for developing a taxonomy of musical and stress-related variables in research design, and tracing the broad pathways that are involved in its influence on the body.

  14. Development of relaxation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    Relaxation turbulence models have been intensively studied. The complete time dependent mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for flow into a two dimensional compression corner. A new numerical scheme has been incorporated into the developed computed code with an attendant order of magnitude reduction in computation time. Computed solutions are compared with experimental measurements of Law for supersonic flow. Details of the relaxation process have been studied; several different relaxation models, including different relaxation processes and varying relaxation length, are tested and compared. Then a parametric study has been conducted in which both Reynolds number and wedge angle are varied. To assess effects of Reynolds number and wedge angle, the parametric study includes the comparison of computed separation location and upstream extent of pressure rise; numerical results are also compared with the measurements of surface pressure, skin friction and mean velocity field.

  15. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  16. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies. Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory’ and 'highly desirable’ standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard

  17. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  18. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  19. The Impact of Official Development Aid on Maternal and Reproductive Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emma Michelle; Hayman, Rachel; Crawford, Fay; Jeffery, Patricia; Smith, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate) and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning). Discussion This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid. PMID:23468860

  20. A Synergistic Model of Organizational Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernes, K. B.; Magnusson, K. C.

    The Synergistic Model of Organizational Career Development is a new model of organizational career development that combines the best of career development practice and organizational development into a unified, coherent model. The model has three levels of organization: philosophical, strategic, and practical. Expanding circles are used to…

  1. An attempt to lower sources of systematic measurement error using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM).

    PubMed

    Sideridis, George D; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Katsis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of systematic sources of measurement error on the parameter estimates of scales using the Rasch model. Studies 1 and 2 tested the effects of mood and affectivity. Study 3 evaluated the effects of fatigue. Last, studies 4 and 5 tested the effects of motivation on a number of parameters of the Rasch model (e.g., ability estimates). Results indicated that (a) the parameters of interest and the psychometric properties of the scales were substantially distorted in the presence of all systematic sources of error, and, (b) the use of HGLM provides a way of adjusting the parameter estimates in the presence of these sources of error. It is concluded that validity in measurement requires a thorough evaluation of potential sources of error and appropriate adjustments based on each occasion.

  2. Developing Rapport with Children in Forensic Interviews: Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

    PubMed

    Saywitz, Karen J; Larson, Rakel P; Hobbs, Sue D; Wells, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of guidelines recommend that developing rapport with children is essential for successful forensic child interviewing; however, the question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to generate evidence-based guidelines for developing rapport with children in legal contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify experimental studies of the effects of rapport-building methods on the reliability of children's reports. Independent raters applied 12 exclusion criteria to the 2,761 potentially relevant articles located by electronic and hand searches of the literature. Experimental studies were few. Although studies to date are a beginning, the overall scientific base is weak regarding even basic issues such as how to best define rapport and the efficacy of common rapport-building techniques. This systematic review highlights what we know, what we do not know, and how much more we need to know to create evidence-based best practice. Recommendations for reshaping the research agenda are discussed.

  3. Primary care strategies to improve childhood immunisation uptake in developed countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nia; Woodward, Helen; Majeed, Azeem; Saxena, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of strategies to optimize immunisation uptake within preschool children in developed countries. Design Systematic review. Setting Developed countries Participants Preschool children who were due, or overdue, one or more of their routine primary immunisations. Main outcome measures Increase in the proportion of the target population up to date with standard recommended universal vaccinations. Results Forty-six studies were included for analysis, published between 1980 and 2009. Twenty-six studies were randomized controlled trials, 11 were before and after trials, and nine were controlled intervention trials. Parental reminders showed a statistically significant increase in immunisation rates in 34% of included intervention arms. These effects were reported with both generic and specific reminders and with all methods of reminders and recall. Strategies aimed at immunisation providers were also shown to improve immunisation rates with a median change in immunisation rates of 7% when reminders were used, 8% when educational programmes were used and 19% when feedback programmes were used. Conclusion General practitioners are uniquely positioned to influence parental decisions on childhood immunisation. A variety of strategies studied in primary care settings have been shown to improve immunisation rates, including parental and healthcare provider reminders. PMID:22046500

  4. Logarithmic discretization and systematic derivation of shell models in two-dimensional turbulence.

    PubMed

    Gürcan, Ö D; Morel, P; Kobayashi, S; Singh, Rameswar; Xu, S; Diamond, P H

    2016-09-01

    A detailed systematic derivation of a logarithmically discretized model for two-dimensional turbulence is given, starting from the basic fluid equations and proceeding with a particular form of discretization of the wave-number space. We show that it is possible to keep all or a subset of the interactions, either local or disparate scale, and recover various limiting forms of shell models used in plasma and geophysical turbulence studies. The method makes no use of the conservation laws even though it respects the underlying conservation properties of the fluid equations. It gives a family of models ranging from shell models with nonlocal interactions to anisotropic shell models depending on the way the shells are constructed. Numerical integration of the model shows that energy and enstrophy equipartition seem to dominate over the dual cascade, which is a common problem of two-dimensional shell models.

  5. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  6. Statistical methods and modelling techniques for analysing hospital readmission of discharged psychiatric patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Urach, Christoph; Zauner, Günther; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Haaramo, Peija; Popper, Niki

    2016-11-18

    Psychiatric services have undergone profound changes over the last decades. CEPHOS-LINK is an EU-funded study project with the aim to compare readmission of patients discharged with psychiatric diagnoses using a registry-based observational record linkage study design and to analyse differences in the findings for five different countries. A range of different approaches is available for analysis of the available data. Although there are some studies that compare selected methods for evaluating questions on readmission, there are to our knowledge no published systematic literature reviews on commonly used methods and their comparison. This work shall therefore provide an overview of the methods in use, their evolution throughout history and new developments which can further improve the research quality in this area. Based on systematic literature reviews realized in the course of the CEPHOS-LINK study, this work is a systematic evaluation of mathematical (statistical and modelling) methods used in studies examining psychiatric readmission. The starting point were 502 papers, of which 407 were analysed in detail; Methods used were assigned to one of five categories with subcategories and analysed accordingly. Our particular interest next to survival analysis and regression models is modelling and simulation. As population sizes and follow-up times in the included studies varied widely, a range of methods was applied. Studies with bigger sample sizes conducted survival and regression analysis more often than studies with fewer patients did. These latter relied more on classical statistical tests (e.g. t-tests and Student Newman Keuls). Statistical strategies were often insufficiently described, posing a major problem for the evaluation. Almost all cases failed to provide and explanation of the rationale behind using certain methods. There is a discernible trend from classical parametric/nonparametric tests in older studies towards regression and survival analyses in

  7. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error. Method The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion criteria of reporting primary data on the occurrence or causes of patient neglect. Qualitative and quantitative data extraction investigated (1) the definition of patient neglect, (2) the forms of behaviour associated with neglect, (3) the reported frequency of neglect, and (4) the causes of neglect. Results Patient neglect is found to have two aspects. First, procedure neglect, which refers to failures of healthcare staff to achieve objective standards of care. Second, caring neglect, which refers to behaviours that lead patients and observers to believe that staff have uncaring attitudes. The perceived frequency of neglectful behaviour varies by observer. Patients and their family members are more likely to report neglect than healthcare staff, and nurses are more likely to report on the neglectful behaviours of other nurses than on their own behaviour. The causes of patient neglect frequently relate to organisational factors (e.g. high workloads that constrain the behaviours of healthcare staff, burnout), and the relationship between carers and patients. Conclusion A social psychology-based conceptual model is developed to explain the occurrence and nature of patient neglect. This model will facilitate investigations of i) differences between patients and healthcare staff in how they perceive neglect, ii) the association with patient neglect and health outcomes, iii) the relative importance of system and organisational factors in causing neglect, and iv) the design of interventions and

  8. Systematic Approach to the Development of Microfabricated Biosensors: Relationship between Gold Surface Pretreatment and Thiolated Molecule Binding.

    PubMed

    Makaraviciute, Asta; Xu, Xingxing; Nyholm, Leif; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-08-09

    Despite the increasing popularity of microfabricated biosensors due to advances in technologic and surface functionalization strategies, their successful implementation is partially inhibited by the lack of consistency in their analytical characteristics. One of the main causes for the discrepancies is the absence of a systematic and comprehensive approach to surface functionalization. In this article microfabricated gold electrodes aimed at biosensor development have been systematically characterized in terms of surface pretreatment, thiolated molecule binding, and reproducibility by means of X-ray photoelectron scattering (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that after SU-8 photolithography gold surfaces were markedly contaminated, which decreased the effective surface area and surface coverage of a model molecule mercaptohexanol (MCH). Three surface pretreatment methods compatible with microfabricated devices were compared. The investigated methods were (i) cyclic voltammetry in dilute H2SO4, (ii) gentle basic piranha followed by linear sweep voltammetry in dilute KOH, and (iii) oxygen plasma treatment followed by incubation in ethanol. It was shown that all three methods significantly decreased the contamination and increased MCH surface coverage. Most importantly, it was also revealed that surface pretreatments may induce structural changes to the gold surfaces. Accordingly, these alterations influence the characteristics of MCH functionalization.

  9. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  10. Oro-facial functions in experimental models of cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, D C; Ferraz-Pereira, K N; Bezerra de Morais, A T; Costa-de-Santana, B J R; Quevedo, O G; Manhães-de-Castro, R; Toscano, A E

    2017-04-01

    Children who suffer from cerebral palsy (CP) often present comorbidities in the form of oro-facial dysfunctions. Studies in animals have contributed to elaborate potential therapies aimed at minimising the chronic disability of the syndrome. To systematically review the scientific literature regarding the possible effects that experimental models of CP can have on oro-facial functions. Two independent authors conducted a systematic review in the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Lilacs, using Mesh and Decs terms in animal models. The motor and sensory parameters of sucking, chewing and swallowing were considered as primary outcomes; reactivity odour, controlled salivation, postural control, head mobility during feeding and the animal's ability to acquire food were secondary outcomes. Ten studies were included in the present review. Most studies used rabbits as experimental models of CP, which was induced by either hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation or intraventricular haemorrhage. Oro-facial functions were altered in all experimental models of CP. However, we found more modifications in hypoxia-ischemia models overall. On the other hand, the model of inflammation was more effective to reproduce higher damage for coordinating sucking and swallowing. All of the CP experimental models that were assessed modified the oral functions in different animal species. However, further studies should be conducted in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying oro-facial damage in order to optimise treatment strategies for children who suffer from CP.

  11. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of