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Sample records for systems northeast brazil

  1. Evaluation of anthropogenic contamination using sterol markers in a tropical estuarine system of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frena, Morgana; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Madureira, Luiz A S; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-08-15

    The São Francisco River estuarine system, located in the Northeast coast of Brazil, has great economic, tourist and social importance. Its waters are used for activities such as agriculture, aquaculture, navigation and fishery, which supplies the surrounding communities. In this study, sterols markers were determined in twenty-eight sediment samples from São Francisco River estuary by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sterol analysis was useful to distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic organic matter (OM) sources in the studied area. Six sterols were quantified, suggesting different sources. Concentrations of fecal sterol (coprostanol) were lower than 500ngg(-1), suggesting no indicative of severe sewage contamination.However, two stations showed concentrations around 100ngg(-1) and the values for the coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol ratios indicates sewage contamination. The results in this study may be considered as baseline concentrations to be used as future reference for monitoring programs to prevent anthropogenic impacts.

  2. Evaluation of anthropogenic contamination using sterol markers in a tropical estuarine system of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frena, Morgana; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Madureira, Luiz A S; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-08-15

    The São Francisco River estuarine system, located in the Northeast coast of Brazil, has great economic, tourist and social importance. Its waters are used for activities such as agriculture, aquaculture, navigation and fishery, which supplies the surrounding communities. In this study, sterols markers were determined in twenty-eight sediment samples from São Francisco River estuary by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sterol analysis was useful to distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic organic matter (OM) sources in the studied area. Six sterols were quantified, suggesting different sources. Concentrations of fecal sterol (coprostanol) were lower than 500ngg(-1), suggesting no indicative of severe sewage contamination.However, two stations showed concentrations around 100ngg(-1) and the values for the coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol ratios indicates sewage contamination. The results in this study may be considered as baseline concentrations to be used as future reference for monitoring programs to prevent anthropogenic impacts. PMID:27207024

  3. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented.

  4. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels. PMID:24196907

  5. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  6. Back to basics: does decentralization improve health system performance? Evidence from Ceara in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sarah; Haran, Dave

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether decentralization has improved health system performance in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. METHODS: Ceara is strongly committed to decentralization. A survey across 45 local (municipio) health systems collected data on performance and formal organization, including decentralization, informal management and local political culture. The indicators for informal management and local political culture were based on prior ethnographic research. Data were analysed using analysis of variance, Duncan's post-hoc test and multiple regression. FINDINGS: Decentralization was associated with improved performance, but only for 5 of our 22 performance indicators. Moreover, in the multiple regression, decentralization explained the variance in only one performance indicator; indicators for informal management and political culture appeared to be more important influences. However, some indicators for informal management were themselves associated with decentralization but not any of the political culture indicators. CONCLUSION: Good management practices in the study led to decentralized local health systems rather than vice versa. Any apparent association between decentralization and performance seems to be an artefact of the informal management, and the wider political culture in which a local health system is embedded strongly influences the performance of local health systems. PMID:15640917

  7. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions. PMID:25501194

  8. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  9. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease. PMID:27334632

  10. [Postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil and in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; de Araújo, Thelma Leite

    2007-03-01

    This descriptive-exploratory study aimed at describing the current situation of postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil, particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, in terms of trends and expansion perspectives. Statistical data of 2003 were collected using registration tool on Stricto Sensu Postgraduate Programs in Nursing, made available by official research-sponsoring agencies Coordenation for the Improvement of Undergraduate Level Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The results indicated extensive asymmetriesin the Brazilian Post-Graduation System, showing that the expansion of postgraduate programs in nursing in the Northeast of Brazil results from the response capacity to the official demands of the present national post-graduation system.

  11. Regional Climate Change Projections over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassain Sales, Domingo; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; Cavalcante, Arnóbio M. B.; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco; Martins de Araújo Junior, Luiz; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and climate change impact studies often require a spatial resolution beyond the horizontal grid spacing of the data generated by Global Climate Models (GCMs). Dynamical Downscaling is one of techniques that allow regionalization of information from such models, in which the GCM data drive a Regional Climate Model (RCM) that in turn, at least theoretically, presents the climatological fields in more detail and can add value to climatic analysis. In this context, CORDEX is a coordinated experiment that standardizes dynamical downscaling simulations over continental regions, to provide a contribution from the regional climate modeling community to the IPCC/AR5 and beyond. Because computer resources are limited, a modeling group involved in CORDEX typically chooses one or few of the suggested domains, and use one or a few CMIP5 GCM data to drive its regional model. At the State University of Ceará (UECE), in Brazil, we used RAMS6.0 (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0), driven by HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Enviroment Model Version 2 - Earth System) data, over a extended CORDEX Central America domain (longitude: 124.5W to 24.5W, latitude: 33.5N to 17.5S). This work presents the evaluation of climatological features of precipitation and temperature over Northeast Brazil region (longitude: 47W to 34.5W, latitude: 2.5S to 17.5S) for 20 years of the historical period (1985-2005) evaluating short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079-2099) changes, under the RCP4.5 e RCP8.5 scenarios. For the historical period, the results were compared against several observed data sets, in order to evaluate the performance of RAMS6.0 nested to HadGEM2-ES. The correlation between the simulated and observed annual cycle of precipitation is high (above 0.93). RAMS6.0 shows a wet bias of 0.706 mm/day that is larger than HadGEM2-ES bias (0.197 mm/day), however the regional model corrects the month of maximum precipitation (the global model

  12. Aspidochirotida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, Jéssica; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2014-11-28

    This is a taxonomic work on the aspidochirotid sea cucumbers from shallow waters in Northeast Brazil. We studied 165 specimens, classified into 2 families, 3 genera, 7 subgenera and 9 species. Descriptions, illustrations and literature data are included for each species, in addition to ecological notes and information on their distribution in the northeast coast of Brazil. A taxonomic key is provided for the identification of the species.

  13. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  14. Projected Changes in Evapotranspiration Rates over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Alexandre; Guimarães, Sullyandro; Vasconcelos, Francisco, Jr.; Sales, Domingo; da Silva, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Climate simulations were performed using a regional model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS 6.0) driven by data from one of the CMIP5 models (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2 - Earth System, HadGEM2-ES) over two CORDEX domains (South America and Central America) for the heavy-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Potential evapotranspiraion data from the RCM and from the CMIP5 global models were analyzed over Northeast Brazil, a semiarid region with a short rainy season (usually February to May in its northern portion due to the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone) and over which droughts are frequent. Significant changes in the potential evapotranspiration were found, with most models showing a increasing trend along the 21st century, which are expected to alter the surface water budget, increasing the current water deficit (precipitation is currently much smaller than potential evapotranspiration). Based on the projections from the majority of the models, we expect important impacts over local agriculture and water resources over Northeast Brazil.

  15. Climate variabilty in Northeast Brazil lakes since the LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Albuquerque, A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Costa, R. L.; Sifeddine, A.; Zocatelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Glacial and Holocene climate evolution in Northeast Brazil is from different the rest of South America. We present here the results from two Northeast lakes: Caço and Boqueirão, both situated some tens of kilometers from the Atlantic coast. Although there is some indications of wetness during the LGM from stalagmite formation, the Caço lake, which is the only one where late glacial sediments have been sampled, was dry until 17 kyrs when sandy layers were deposited by flash floods. The lake developed during H1 and lake-level peaked from 16 to 12 kyrs. It has been shown that Heinrich events provoked a southward shift of ITCZ which should have enhanced rainfalls in Northeast Brazil. During the Holocene, what dominated the millenary climate trend is the change in insolation, due to the precession of equinoxes, which was increased (decreased) from January to February (June to August) from 12 to 9 kyrs. This forcing difference has been reduced progressively until now with a faster decrease around 5-4 kyrs. The insolation diminution in Austral summer provoked a drop of South American Monsoon, and associated rainfalls, which is marked in Southeast Brazil and Amazonia by savannah development and lake drying. In Northeast Brazil, on the contrary, Early to Middle Holocene climate (12 to 4 kyrs) is markedly wetter. Climate simulations by AOGCM indicate that it is due to a more southern position of ITCZ during austral summers. Analysis with IPSL AOGCM show that this situation lasted until at least 4 kyrs. The two lakes have almost completely dried around 3 kyrs for lake Caço and 1550 AD for Boqueirão. This is in agreement with what we know of Holocene paleoclimate and the diminishing presence of ITCZ in the region. What is surprising is the reappearance of both lakes, very recently, probably during the last 100 yrs. Another striking feature is the great decenal to centennial variability of lake-level observed between 3 and 2 kyrs at lake Boqueirão. Lake Caço was

  16. Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for

  17. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. An endemic area?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Coêlho, T D; Coêlho, M D

    1996-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, procedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraiba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  18. Pseudopregnancy in Saanen goats (Capra hircus) raised in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes Júnior, E S; Cruz, J F; Teixeira, D I A; Lima Verde, J B; Paula, N R O; Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence of pseudopregnancy over 44 months was investigated in 23 Saanen goats raised in Northeast Brazil during continuous oestrous cycling (cyclic group) or after synchronization of oestrus (synchronized group). The goats were monitored by ultrasonography and their plasma progesterone profile. The overall prevalence of pseudopregnancy was 30.4% (7/23). In the cyclic group, 28.6% (4/14) of goats showed pseudopregnancy, while in the synchronized group the prevalence was 33.3% (3/9). There was no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). The mean (+/- SD) length of pseudopregnancy, as shown by the progesterone profile, was 121.6 +/- 33.5 days, ranging from 70 to 155 days. The study defined the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in Saanen goats raised in Northeast Brazil for the first time. This finding identified a major problem for this breed, as without treatment such animals remain unproductive until the spontaneous resolution of the condition. More research seems desirable to ascertain the prevalence of this condition in other breeds in this region of Brazil.

  19. Persistent diarrhea in northeast Brazil: etiologies and interactions with malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Lima, A A; Fang, G; Schorling, J B; de Albuquerque, L; McAuliffe, J F; Mota, S; Leite, R; Guerrant, R L

    1992-09-01

    With the improved control of acute diarrheal illness mortality with oral rehydration therapy, persistent diarrhea is now emerging as a major cause of childhood mortality in tropical developing areas like the impoverished populations in Brazil's Northeast. "Graveyard surveillance" in the rural community of Guaiuba in northeastern Brazil revealed fully half of the 70% diarrhea mortality was due to persistent diarrheal illnesses. Furthermore, 11% of 14 or more diarrheal illnesses per child per year in an urban slum in Fortaleza persisted beyond 14 days, a definition that clearly identified the high risk children for heavy diarrhea burdens. Not only did heavy diarrhea burdens ablate the key "catch-up" growth seen in severely malnourished children and in children following previous diarrheal illnesses, but malnutrition significantly predisposed children to a greater incidence and duration of diarrhea as well as a greater incidence of persistent diarrhea. Etiologic studies of 37 children presenting with persistent diarrhea to Hospital das Clinicas in Fortaleza revealed that Cryptosporidium (in 13%) and enteroadherent E. coli (36% with aggregative, 29% with diffuse and 13% with localized adherence to HEp-2 cells) were the predominant potential pathogens found in the stool or upper small bowel. These findings suggest that persistent diarrhea is emerging as an important health problem in Brazil's Northeast, that it identifies a high risk child for heavy diarrhea burdens, that important interactions occur with malnutrition and that Cryptosporidium and enteroadherent E. coli warrant further study as potential etiologies of this major cause of morbidity and mortality.

  20. Solar Radiation Estimated Through Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio Leandro; Costa, Alexandre Araújo; Ramalho, Fernando Pinto; de Maria, Paulo Henrique Santiago

    2009-03-01

    The use of renewable energy sources, like solar, wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years, with solar radiation as a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. A proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy planning in Brazil, serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploitation. This work presents a methodology for mapping the incoming solar radiation at ground level for Northeast Brazil, using a mesoscale atmospheric model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System—RAMS), calibrated and validated using data from the network of automatic surface stations from the State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources from Ceará (Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos- FUNCEME). The results showed that the model exhibits systematic errors, overestimating surface radiation, but that, after the proper statistical corrections, using a relationship between the model-predicted cloud fraction, the ground-level observed solar radiation and the incoming solar radiation estimated at the top of the atmosphere, a correlation of 0.92 with a confidence interval of 13.5 W/m2 is found for monthly data. Using this methodology, we found an estimate for annual average incoming solar radiation over Ceará of 215 W/m2 (maximum in October: 260 W/m2).

  1. The Anticholinesterase Properties of Plants from the Northeast of Brazil Selected by an Ethnopharmacological Study for Disorders Relating to the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida e Castro, Valerium Thijan Nobre; Sobrinho, Tadeu Jose da Silva Peixoto; Corrêa, Allan Jonathan Chernichiarro; de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antonio; Da Silva, Terezinha Gonçalves; de Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various factors may trigger Alzheimer's disease and the cholinergic hypothesis, which is one of the most widely accepted, argues damage to the brain nuclei, may reduce the production of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme, and cause a decline in the synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh). Studies have thus focused on discovering molecules that are capable of inhibiting the action of cholinesterase enzymes that degrade ACh, thereby preventing the evolution of the disease. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the anticholinesterase properties of extracts of medicinal plants in a semi-arid region of Northeast of Brazil. Materials and Methods: The species were selected by way of an ethnobotanical study and were collected if there were some indications that they are related to the nervous system. The plant samples were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Anticholinesterase activity in vitro was assessed by way of bioautography in thin layer chromatography and microassays in 96-well plates. Results: Twenty-three species of plant were collected, and 75 extracts were analyzed. The bioautography revealed that 26.7% of the samples showed inhibitory activity against the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. After the test for false positives, 8% of the samples were found to inhibit AChE. Thirty samples were analyzed by microassay (500 μg/mL), on which 86.7% showed moderate to powerful anticholinesterase activity. Conclusion: Of the extracts tested, Citrus limonum, Ricinus communis, and Senna occidentalis stand out as was the most promising in terms of anticholinesterase activity and may serve as a guide for the discovery and development of new substances for the treatment of AD. SUMMARY The bioautography revealed that 26.7% of the samples showed inhibitory activity against the acetylcholinesterase enzymeSamples were analyzed by microassay (500 μg/mL), upon which 86.7% showed moderate to powerful anticholinesterase activityCitrus limonum

  2. New species of Polycentropodidae (Trichoptera: Annulipalpia) from Northeast Region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilarino, Albane; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-08-26

    Three new species of Polycentropodidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Northeast Region of Brazil are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Polycentropus brevicornutus n. sp. of the Polycentropus gertschi Group can be diagnosed mainly by its much reduced, almost vestigial intermediate appendages, and by the inferior appendages, which are deltoid and very linear in lateral aspect. The two new species of Polyplectropus are P. anchorus n. sp. and P. auriplicatus n. sp. in the P. annulicornis and P. bredini Groups, respectively. Polyplectropus anchorus n. sp. is very similar to P. annulicornis Ulmer 1905, but can be distinguished from its congener mainly by the endothecal spines without setae and with their apices directed dorsolaterad. Polyplectropus auriplicatus n. sp. resembles P. brasilensis but can be distinguished mainly by the shorter and deltoid intermediate appendages, the straighter dorsolateral processes of the preanal appendages, and the inferior appendages each with its mesoventral branch more developed and rounded.

  3. [Access to continuous-use medication among adults and the elderly in South and Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silva da Silveira, Denise; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of access to continuous-use medicines for treatment of systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and/or mental health problems, and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was developed under the Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Program in 41 cities in South and Northeast Brazil. The sample included 4,060 adults and 4,003 elderly living in the coverage areas for primary health care clinics. Prevalence of access to continuous-use medicines was 81% in non-elderly adults and 87% in the elderly. Greater access was associated with the following factors: adults in South Brazil - older age, higher socioeconomic status, type of chronic disease, and participation in support groups in the primary health clinic area; adults in the Northeast - systemic arterial hypertension with or without diabetes mellitus; elderly in the South - more schooling; and elderly in the Northeast - older age, more schooling, non-smoking, enrollment in the primary health care clinic coverage area, and the family health care model. The results show important inequity in health, reinforcing the need for policies to expand access, mainly for lower-income population groups.

  4. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system.

  5. Association of environmental and climatic factors in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil using remote sensing and geographical information system methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Roland Alexander

    This study associated climatic and environmental factors with the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (calazar) in Northeast Brazil. Remote sensing (RS) techniques permitted evaluation of spatial and temporal landscape features to stratify the region and define the target population for this vector-borne disease. The Municipality of Caninde, Ceara, Brazil was divided into 873-- 2 x 2 km2 squares centered on coordinates from a Universal Transverse Mercator projection (scale 1:100,000, 1994) and geo-referenced with 2 Landsat T.M. (TM) scenes (September 26, 1976 and July 2, 1996). The assignment of squares into foothills, plains or city strata was based on vegetative categories determined from TM scenes (Bands: 4,5,3) with ERDAS Imagine ISODATA classification procedures. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were determined for the juveniles less than age 10 based on 17 years of demographic, calazar incidence and rainfall information supplied by: Fundacao Nacional de Saude, Fundacao Cearense do Metorologia e Recurso Hidricos, and Fundacao Instituto de Planejamento do Ceara. The population and number of calazar cases were determined for each 2 x 2 km 2 square. The odds ratio of calazar for a Caninde juvenile in the foothills relative to the city was OR = 4.11 CI (3.2, 5.3). The calazar odds ratio for juveniles living in years with 3-year rainfall average between 60--90 cm was OR = 3.07 CI (1.3, 7.2), the rainfall average between 40--60 cm had OR = 9.12 CI (4.4, 23.3), and with less than 40 cm OR = 9.23 CI (3.9, 25.2) relative to years with an average greater than 90 cm. The logistic regression model for Ceara comprised an ordinal-incidence-density-response variable, a 5-level region explanatory variable, and a 3-level juvenile proportion variable. The odds ratios for calazar in municipalities located in the interior high plains was OR = 1.94 CI (1.6, 2.4) relative to location in the littoral and for a municipality with less than 26% juvenile population

  6. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health.

  7. Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii". PMID:25800099

  8. Oral Mucosal Lesions in Indians From Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; e Ribeiro, Livia Silva Figueiredo; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96–4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:25501053

  9. Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii".

  10. A Program of Entrepreneurial Education for Economic Development: The Case of Northeast Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, John Miles

    A cross-cultural comparative analysis was made of managerial education programs in the United States and Brazil and, based on the findings, an entrepreneurial education program was designed for underdeveloped Northeast Brazil. Persons were found in this region who could act as entrepreneurs except for a lack of fundamental knowledge and skills;…

  11. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cecili B; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Norenburg, Jon L

    2016-01-05

    Of 45 species of nemerteans reported for the Brazilian coast, only two were recorded from Brazil's Northeast coast. Here we report seven new records for the state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil: Tubulanus rhabdotus Côrrea, 1954, Carinomella cf. lactea Coe, 1905, Baseodiscus delineatus (Delle-Chiaje 1825), Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus Coe, 1905, Cerebratulus sp. 1, Cerebratulus sp. 2 and Lineidae sp. 1. Specimens were collected at the following beaches: Praia dos Dois Coqueiros, Praia do Pacheco, Pecém harbor, Praia da Pedra Rachada and Praia do Guajiru. T. rhabdotus is a new record for Northeast Brazil, Carinomella cf. lactea and Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus are new records for the South Atlantic Ocean and both genera are new records for Brazil.

  12. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cecili B; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Norenburg, Jon L

    2016-01-01

    Of 45 species of nemerteans reported for the Brazilian coast, only two were recorded from Brazil's Northeast coast. Here we report seven new records for the state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil: Tubulanus rhabdotus Côrrea, 1954, Carinomella cf. lactea Coe, 1905, Baseodiscus delineatus (Delle-Chiaje 1825), Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus Coe, 1905, Cerebratulus sp. 1, Cerebratulus sp. 2 and Lineidae sp. 1. Specimens were collected at the following beaches: Praia dos Dois Coqueiros, Praia do Pacheco, Pecém harbor, Praia da Pedra Rachada and Praia do Guajiru. T. rhabdotus is a new record for Northeast Brazil, Carinomella cf. lactea and Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus are new records for the South Atlantic Ocean and both genera are new records for Brazil. PMID:27395488

  13. Infant death and interpretive violence in Northeast Brazil: taking bereaved Cearense mothers' narratives to heart.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K

    2008-10-01

    This study investigates bereaved mothers' ethnoetiologies of avoidable infant deaths in Northeast Brazil. It critically examines the anthropological debate concerning "selective maternal negligence" as a relevant explanation for high infant mortality, based on an analysis of preexisting data. From 2003 to 2006, 316 ethnographic interviews collected by the author from 1979 to 1989 in six communities in Ceará State were retrieved. Forty-five narratives of fatal illness and death of 56 children < 5 years of age were identified for in-depth analysis. Despite their low income and schooling, grieving mothers constructed their own explanations for early death. The most common causes were infectious-contagious diseases (37.9%) and dehumanized care by the attending health professional (24.1%). No mother reported maternal carelessness, detachment, or negligence. If there is any "disregard" in the context of poverty, it is by the unjust economic, political, and social system and inhumane public health practice which violates their rights as citizens. To characterize a bereaved mother as "negligent", or worse, as accomplices in her child's death, is an act of interpretive violence, unfairly blaming and demoraling mother-caregivers in Northeast Brazil.

  14. Crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the Potiguar basin - Northeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R.M.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The combined analysis of potential field and seismic reflection data suggest that the Potiguar basin of northeast Brazil developed as a consequence of northwest-southeast extension, resolved in the upper crust by hanging-wall block rotation along a system of linked faults. This extension developed during the Early Cretaceous rifting associated with the separation of South America and Africa. The basic basin architecture includes two main parallel northeast-trending half-grabens (Umbuzeiro and Boa Vista) separated by intervening basement highs and northwest-trending transfer faults. A three-dimensional crustal-scale model of the basin was generated by combining deep and shallow seismic reflection data, borehole and outcrop information, and potential field data. The deep seismic profiles reveal a highly reflective crust underlain by a high-amplitude reflection Moho around 10 seconds (roughly 30 km depth). Moreover, it seems that the basin-bounding normal faults terminate at a mid-crustal detachment surface, suggesting that the basin architecture is mainly controlled by two parallel listric normal fault ones that follow pre-existing upepr crustal weaknesses, partially reactived during the main rift episode (Neocomian). Whereas the pre-existing northeast-trending planar fabrics within the basement (schistosities, gneissosity, and shear zones) apparently controlled the main normal faults, internal conjugate and synthetic transfer faults are probably related to major discontinuities in basement rock fabrics. Seismic reflection data together with gravity and magnetic modeling, show that the basin architecture is directly related to a linked system of northeast-trending listric normal faults and a mid-crustal detachment surface.

  15. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martinez, A S; Mendes, L F; Leite, T S

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity) in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  16. [Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

  17. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot). Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  18. Change of "Habitus": The Young People and the Free Public University in Northeast of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandeira de Melo, Patricia; Romani Campos, Luís Henrique; Zarias, Alexandre; Gonçalves Ferreira, Suzy Luna Nobre

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the results of the research "A interiorização recente das Instituições públicas e gratuitas de ensino superior no Nordeste: efeitos e mudanças" [The recent implementation of new federal universities in the Northeast of Brazil: effects and changes], performed by the Joaquim Nabuco Foundation. One of its main mottos is…

  19. Biodiversity of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillina) from northeast Brazil: new species and notes on systematics.

    PubMed

    Nicacio, Gilberto; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-07-03

    Systematics and distribution of freshwater sponges is still poorly understood worldwide. This may be due to the scarcity of records, and the limited information about morphological traits used for taxonomy. Brazil has reportedly high species richness in the Neotropical Region; however, this diversity is likely to be significantly underestimated given that there are still many unexplored and poorly sampled areas, mainly in the north and northeast regions. We present here new locality records and taxonomic notes on three families and ten species of freshwater Porifera from northeast Brazil: Metaniidae (1), Potamolepidae (2) and Spongillidae (7). A new species of freshwater sponge is described here (Ephydatia caatingae sp.nov.). Additional notes on the systematics and biogeography of most of these species are also presented.

  20. Hydrodynamic characterization of soils within a representative watershed in northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, E. G.; Almeida, C. D. N.; Farias, A. S.; Coelho, V. H. R.

    2014-09-01

    Studies about the infiltration of water in the soil, based on hydraulic conductivity and retention curve, are important to simulate hydrological processes and pollution fluxes. This paper aims to present the hydrodynamic soil behaviour of the Gramame watershed, located in northeast Brazil. This basin is representative of several other watersheds located on the coastal region of northeast Brazil, where sugarcane crops constitute the main land use. For this study, three different land uses and land covers were considered: sugarcane crops, pineapple crops and Atlantic Forest, which is the native forest of this region. The Beerkan method and the BEST program were used in order to get retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. The results show that the highest values of hydraulic conductivity were obtained at points located in native vegetation and deforestation impacts the soil hydrodynamic characteristics.

  1. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  2. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  3. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Neto, M P; Sabry, R C; Ferreira, L P; Romão, L S; Maggioni, R

    2015-11-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará), Camurupim (Piauí) and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão) (n= 150 specimens/site). The samples were submitted to Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%). The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide) to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2). The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable.

  4. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  5. Dead-baby dreams, transfiguration and recovery from infant death trauma in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Maternal reactions to infant death in Northeast Brazil have been at the epicenter of anthropological debate since the 1980s. This ethnographic study of 45 death narratives by bereaved mothers collected from 1979-1989 in Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil, refutes existing claims of mothers' "selective neglect" and "indifference" towards sick babies and emotionally empty grief response. I argue that through dead-baby dreams--and their imaginary transfiguration-grieving mothers alleviate infant death trauma. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, definitive loss, and personal guilt-the social seeds of depression--are reframed to deny death's finality and exonerate mothers from crippling self-blame. By transfiguring lingering mental images of the tiny cold corpse, mothers remold the irreversibility and definitiveness of death, gaining a sense of control over its unpredictable "jolt." In the politically oppressive Northeast Brazil--where social justice remains "an illusion"--mothers dream to preserve their own mental sanity and to recover from death's cruel aftermath. Any interpretation of mourning behavior must be contextualized within the local moral world and its "assumed structure of reality" to avoid demoralizing grieving Brazilian mothers and compounding their suffering. "You see, the only thing a poor woman truly owns that no one can borrow, cheat, steal or rob from her … is her imagination!" (Dona Chiquinha grieving death of her 10 children, Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil).

  6. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  7. Inbreeding levels in Northeast Brazil: Strategies for the prospecting of new genetic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A new autosomal recessive genetic condition, the SPOAN syndrome (an acronym for spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy syndrome), was recently discovered in an isolated region of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast Brazil, in a population that was identified by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) as belonging to the Brazilian communities with the highest rates of “deficiencies” (Neri, 2003), a term used to describe diseases, malformations, and handicaps in general. This prompted us to conduct a study of consanguinity levels in five of its municipal districts by directly interviewing their inhabitants. Information on 7,639 couples (corresponding to about 40% of the whole population of the studied districts) was obtained. The research disclosed the existence of very high frequencies of consanguineous marriages, which varied from about 9% to 32%, suggesting the presence of a direct association between genetic diseases such as the SPOAN syndrome, genetic drift and inbreeding levels. This fact calls for the introduction of educational programs for the local populations, as well as for further studies aiming to identify and characterize other genetic conditions. Epidemiological strategies developed to collect inbreeding data, with the collaboration of health systems available in the region, might be very successful in the prospecting of genetic disorders. PMID:21637472

  8. Inbreeding levels in Northeast Brazil: Strategies for the prospecting of new genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana; Kok, Fernando; Weller, Mathias; de Paiva, Francisco Rennan Lopes; Otto, Paulo A

    2010-04-01

    A new autosomal recessive genetic condition, the SPOAN syndrome (an acronym for spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy syndrome), was recently discovered in an isolated region of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast Brazil, in a population that was identified by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) as belonging to the Brazilian communities with the highest rates of "deficiencies" (Neri, 2003), a term used to describe diseases, malformations, and handicaps in general. This prompted us to conduct a study of consanguinity levels in five of its municipal districts by directly interviewing their inhabitants. Information on 7,639 couples (corresponding to about 40% of the whole population of the studied districts) was obtained. The research disclosed the existence of very high frequencies of consanguineous marriages, which varied from about 9% to 32%, suggesting the presence of a direct association between genetic diseases such as the SPOAN syndrome, genetic drift and inbreeding levels. This fact calls for the introduction of educational programs for the local populations, as well as for further studies aiming to identify and characterize other genetic conditions. Epidemiological strategies developed to collect inbreeding data, with the collaboration of health systems available in the region, might be very successful in the prospecting of genetic disorders.

  9. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in mules and donkeys in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Elizete; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; de Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz; Faria, Eduardo Bento; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the serum of mules and donkeys bred in the northeast of Brazil. In total, 483 samples were used (395 mules and 88 donkeys) from 4 states (Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Sergipe). The indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IFI) technique was used to investigate antibodies to T. gondii with a cut-off point of 64. Positive frequencies of 23.8% and 43.2% were recorded for mules and donkeys, respectively. The state of Pernambuco had the highest prevalence of positive samples (29%) with statistically significant differences for species (P < 0.001) and state (P = 0.048). This is the first study of antibodies to T. gondii in mules and donkeys in these 4 states of the northeastern region of Brazil and serves as a warning to health authorities regarding the risks of ingesting equine meat.

  10. Meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in cattle of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Luciano A; Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system of humans and animals caused by Naegleria fowleri. This report describes a case of meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in a crossbred, one-year-old bovine with progressive neurological signs. At necropsy there was thickening of the meninges and multifocal areas of malacia in the thalamus, caudal and rostral colliculi, parietal and occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Histologically there was multifocal necrosupurative meningoencephalitis associated with areas of malacia containing amoebic trophozoites. Immunohistochemistry of the brain was positive for N. fowleri. The disease should be included among the differential diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system in cattle in areas where animals are exposed to hot, stagnant water.

  11. SNP typing reveals similarity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity between Portugal and Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joao S; Marques, Isabel; Soares, Patricia; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Costa, Joao; Miranda, Anabela; Duarte, Raquel; Alves, Adriana; Macedo, Rita; Duarte, Tonya A; Barbosa, Theolis; Oliveira, Martha; Nery, Joilda S; Boechat, Neio; Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pereira-Leal, Jose; Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda; Penha-Goncalves, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Human tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Although spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR are standard methodologies in MTBC genetic epidemiology, recent studies suggest that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are advantageous in phylogenetics and strain group/lineages identification. In this work we use a set of 79 SNPs to characterize 1987 MTBC isolates from Portugal and 141 from Northeast Brazil. All Brazilian samples were further characterized using spolygotyping. Phylogenetic analysis against a reference set revealed that about 95% of the isolates in both populations are singly attributed to bacterial lineage 4. Within this lineage, the most frequent strain groups in both Portugal and Brazil are LAM, followed by Haarlem and X. Contrary to these groups, strain group T showed a very different prevalence between Portugal (10%) and Brazil (1.5%). Spoligotype identification shows about 10% of mis-matches compared to the use of SNPs and a little more than 1% of strains unidentifiability. The mis-matches are observed in the most represented groups of our sample set (i.e., LAM and Haarlem) in almost the same proportion. Besides being more accurate in identifying strain groups/lineages, SNP-typing can also provide phylogenetic relationships between strain groups/lineages and, thus, indicate cases showing phylogenetic incongruence. Overall, the use of SNP-typing revealed striking similarities between MTBC populations from Portugal and Brazil.

  12. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  13. Soil bacterial diversity in degraded and restored lands of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Borges, Clovis Daniel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Cesarz, Simone; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Land degradation deteriorates biological productivity and affects environmental, social, and economic sustainability, particularly so in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Although some studies exist reporting gross measures of soil microbial parameters and processes, limited information is available on how land degradation and restoration strategies influence the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities. In this study we compare the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in degraded and restored lands in Northeast Brazil and determine the soil biological and chemical properties influencing bacterial communities. We found that land degradation decreased the diversity of soil bacteria as indicated by both reduced operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and Shannon index. Soils under native vegetation and restoration had significantly higher bacterial richness and diversity than degraded soils. Redundancy analysis revealed that low soil bacterial diversity correlated with a high respiratory quotient, indicating stressed microbial communities. By contrast, soil bacterial communities in restored land positively correlated with high soil P levels. Importantly, however, we found significant differences in the soil bacterial community composition under native vegetation and in restored land, which may indicate differences in their functioning despite equal levels of bacterial diversity.

  14. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Leite, Alvaro M.; Pinkerton, Relana; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Cavalcante, Paloma A.; DeBoer, Mark; Kosek, Margaret; Duggan, Christopher; Gewirtz, Andrew; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Gauthier, Anna E.; Swann, Jonathan; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Bolick, David T.; Maier, Elizabeth A.; Guedes, Marjorie M.; Moore, Sean R.; Petri, William A.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F.; Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Michaleckyj, Josyf C.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Sturgeon, Craig; Fasano, Alessio; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6–26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting) in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old), and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption); and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA) (suggesting impaired defenses). In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation). Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1) functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2) structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3) systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO) associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin) associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how we

  15. On characteristics of the Pre-Wet Season and the Wet Season on the Northern Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos Junior, F. D.; Gandu, A. W.; Costa, A. A.; Sales, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    pointed out the elongation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone northward. In the TRNS, the upper levels analysis showed weakening and tilting to west of the Northeast's trough, with additional divergence decreasing over center-western of the NNB. Furthermore, trade winds become stronger on Tropical North Atlantic (TNA), along with weakening of south wind over entire Northeast of South America, i.e. generating more convergence over 0-5°N region in the Atlantic Ocean. The results still showed a weakening of the trade winds throughout Tropical Atlantic and displacement of the divergence at Northeast's upper atmosphere from TNA to eastern Amazon and NNB region. The link between PWS and SAM could be explained by the structure found at lower and upper levels circulation over South America; during negative SAM index the summer's systems on Southern Brazil are able to go more northward and then trigger the PWS onset. WES and PWS have distinct rainfall system, which are provided by changes in circulation at upper and lower levels during austral summer and autumn, moreover the TRNS characteristics show how these changes occurs. A comprehensive understanding of what happens from one period to another could be important to improve seasonal predictability for NNB region, which is known to have a complex climate regime.

  16. Residential system designs for the northeast and southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The development of residential photovoltaic power systems as part of the United States Department of Energy photovoltaic program will begin in FY-80. Prototype residential systems for heating, cooling and electric power will be built and evaluated at regional Residential Experiment Stations (RES's). The first RES locations will be in the Northeast and Southwest. The most appropriate system designs for Northeast and Southwest residences have been identified in various studies. Photovoltaic collector systems will be fielded in both the Northeast and Southwest RES facilities. A utility-interactive direct current to alternating current power inverter will be used with no on-site electrical storage. Similar systems using either combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors or separate photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors will be fielded at the Northeast RES facility.

  17. Detection and genetic diversity of a heliothine invader (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from north and northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, T; Paulo, D F; Bergamo, L W; Morais, E G F; Silva, M; Bezerra-Silva, G; Azeredo-Espin, A M L

    2014-06-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced in Brazil. During the 2012-2013 harvest, producers reported reduced yields up to 35% on major crops. The economic losses reached US$ 1 billion only in western Bahia, triggering a phytosanitary crisis. The deficiencies in existing taxonomic keys to deal with the morphologically indistinct larvae of H. armigera and the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) constrained the detection of new incursions of this heliothine invader. This study explored the identity of heliothine larvae that were found infesting soybean- and corn-growing areas from Roraima state, northern Brazil, through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The inter- and intraspecies sequence variations of DNA barcodes in H. armigera and H. zea were analyzed. The genetic diversity and population structure of the specimens from Roraima and two populations from Piauí and Bahia states, northeastern Brazil, were assessed by adding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene to the analysis. Owing to the lack of studies on genetic introgression for the two species, the suitability of using three different nuclear genes to distinguish the two species was also investigated. The results showed strong evidence that the heliothine larvae from north and northeast of Brazil are conspecific with H. armigera, suggesting that this invasive moth has already crossed the Amazon basin. Surveys in the north of South America should start as soon as possible to monitor the entry or spread of this moth in the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States. PMID:25026655

  18. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  19. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  20. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in northeast Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, D. N.; Elsner, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season season is devided into dry and wet periods, the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLP's have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  1. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  2. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  3. Infant mortality and infant care: cultural and economic constraints on nurturing in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    1984-01-01

    The Brazilian 'Economic Miracle' has had an adverse effect on infant and childhood mortality which has been steadily rising throughout Brazil since the late 1960s. An analysis of the reproductive histories of 72 marginally employed residents of a Northeast Brazilian rural shantytown explores the economic and cultural context that inhibits these mother's abilities to rear healthy, living children and which forces them to devise 'ethnoeugenic' childrearing strategies that prejudice the life chances of those offspring judged 'less fit' for survival under the pernicious conditions of life on the Alto. it is suggested that the selective neglect of children is a direct consequence of the selective neglect of their mothers who have been excluded from participating in the national economy. The links between economic exploitation and maternal deprivation are further discussed with reference to the social causes of the 'insufficient breastmilk syndrome' and the commercial powdered milk dependency of these women. PMID:6484639

  4. Assessing Adaptation with Asymmetric Climate Information: evidence from water bargaining field experiments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Velez, M.; Taddei, R.; Broad, K.

    2011-12-01

    We assess how asymmetric climate information affects bargaining -- an adaptation institution. As often observed in the field, some actors lack information. This yields vulnerability, despite participation. We examine the loss for a participant from being uncertain about water quantity when bargaining with a fully informed participant in an ultimatum game in Northeast Brazil. When all are fully informed, our field populations in the capital city and an agricultural valley produce a typical 60-40 split between those initiating and responding in one-shot bargaining. With asymmetric information, when initiators know the water quantity is low they get 80%. Thus even within bargaining, i.e. given strong participation, better integrating climate science into water management via greater effort to communicate relevant information to all involved can help to avoid inequities that could arise despite all of the stakeholders being 'at the table', as may well occur within future water allocation along a large new canal in the case we study.

  5. Paradigms and Public Policies on Drought in Northeast Brazil: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, José Nilson B.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  6. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  7. Paradigms and public policies on drought in northeast Brazil: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Campos, José Nilson B

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum. PMID:25604214

  8. Transient convection over the Amazon-Bolivia region and the dynamics of drought over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, J.; Leitedasilvadias, P.; Moura, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    A two layer, nonlinear, equatorial beta-plane model, in p-coordinates is used to study the atmospheric response to a large scale prescribed heat source varying in time. The heat source is meant to represent a convective burst with total duration of approximately 48 hours over the Amazon/Bolivia region. The boundary conditions used are meridional velocity zero at 60 deg S, omega w = 0 at the top and zero geometric velocity at the lower boundary. Sensitivity study was done which includes initial state at rest, compared with realistic initial flow. The scale of the heat source is 1500 km in latitude and longitude and it is centered at 10 deg S. Special attention is paid to the distribution and intensity of the induced vertical motion. The model is integrated for two days and the preliminary results show agreement with the observed 200 mb flow. Of interest is the establishment of a trough and descending motion to the northeast of the heat source. A conjucture is thus made that the Amazon heat source and its fluctuations bear some relationship with the drought problem over Northeast Brazil.

  9. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  10. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-02-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the subsequent weeks after delivery, however, in the daily practicalities of feeding their infant, this theory is, to a large extent, abandoned. The present study is based on a sample of 300 mothers in the city of Aracaju in the Northeast of Brazil. Through interviews, the differences and similarities between knowledge and practice with respect to infant feeding were established. An explanation of these differences is developed on the basis of a processual analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results of the interview data. Nearly all mothers were knowledgeable of the need to breastfeed, and nearly all mothers had initiated breastfeeding. However, only a minority was exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the interview. A distinction is made between a breastfeeding process and a de-breastfeeding process. The data suggest that mothers, in general, start the de-breastfeeding process with the positive intention of ameliorating the infant's situation without realizing the negative processual consequences that most likely ends in a cessation of breastfeeding. The study supports the view that health policy should underline the processual character of both breastfeeding and de-breastfeeding when promoting the importance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  11. [Patients' complaints of verbal abuse by health professionals during hospital care in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Gomes, Annatália Meneses de Amorim

    2007-09-01

    The current anthropological study focuses on the assessment by patients/citizens concerning the conduct of health professionals in a public general hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. From January to July 2005 we tracked 13 key informants during hospitalization and analyzed their narratives of the experience. According to our observations, patients develop definite opinions of the caregivers' gestures and expressions during the entire process. In the health professionals, patients appreciate the human ability to express affect, to talk, and to include them in clinical decisions, above and beyond the professionals' technical skills. Patients criticize aloof, cold, and rude attitudes by health professionals, whom patients compare metaphorically to "human quadrupeds". They recommend an affective, empathetic, and ethical approach and clinical communications backed by straight talk, friendly conversation, and respect for daily customs related to life in Northeast Brazil. We contend that this legitimate and critical voice of the patient/citizen provides valuable clues for transforming professional conduct, rehabilitating patients' morale, and building a humane hospital within a context of social inequalities. PMID:17700945

  12. Hepatitis Delta virus genotype 8 infection in Northeast Brazil: inheritance from African slaves?

    PubMed

    Barros, L M F; Gomes-Gouvêa, M S; Pinho, J R R; Alvarado-Mora, M V; Dos Santos, A; Mendes-Corrêa, M C J; Caldas, A J M; Sousa, M T; Santos, M D C; Ferreira, A S P

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is endemic worldwide, but its prevalence varies in different geographical areas. While in the Brazilian Amazon, HDV is known to be endemic and to represent a significant public health problem, few studies have assessed its prevalence in other regions in the country. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of HDV among HBsAg chronic carriers from Maranhão state, a region located in the Northeast of Brazil. Among 133 patients, 5 had anti-HD, of whom 3 had HDV RNA. HDV genotypes were characterized by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the HDAg coding region. HDV-3 was identified in one patient who lives in Maranhão, but was born in Amazonas state (Western Amazon basin). Phylogenetic analysis shows that this HDV-3 sequence grouped with other HDV-3 sequences isolated in this state, which suggests that the patient probably contracted HDV infection there. Surprisingly, the other two patients were infected with HDV-8, an African genotype. These patients were born and have always lived in Urbano Santos, a rural county of Maranhão state, moreover they had never been to Africa and denied any contact with people from that continent. This is the first description of the HDV-8 in non-native African populations. This genotype may have been introduced to Brazil through the slaves brought to the country from the West Africa regions during the 16-18th centuries. Our results indicate that the need of clinical and epidemiological studies to investigate the presence of this infection in other areas in Brazil.

  13. Evidence of Teleconnections between the Peruvian central Andes and Northeast Brazil during extreme rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Silva, F. Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about changes in regional circulation and physical processes associated with extreme rainfall events in South America is limited. Here we investigate such events over the Mantaro basin (MB) located at (10°S-13°S; 73°W-76°W) in the central Peruvian Andes and Northeastern Brazil (NEB), located at (9°S-15°S; 39°W-46°W). Occasional dry and wet spells can be observed in both areas during the austral summer season. The main goal of this study is to investigate potential teleconnections between extreme rainfall events in MB and NEB during austral summer. We define wet (dry) spells as periods that last for at least 3 (5) consecutive days with rainfall above (below) the 70 (30) percentile. To identify the dates of ocurrence of these events, we used daily accumulated rainfall data from 14 climate stations located in the Mantaro basin for the period 1965 to 2002. In NEB we defined a rainfall index which is based on average daily gridded rainfall data within the region for the same period. Dry (wet spells) in the MB are associated with positive (negative) OLR anomalies which extend over much of the tropical Andes, indicating the large-scale nature of these events. At 200 hPa anomalous easterly (westerly) zonal winds aloft accompany wet (dry) spells. Composite anomalies of dry spells in MB reveal significant contemporaneous precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign over NEB, which suggest that intraseasonal precipitation variability over the two regions may be dynamically linked. Indeed upper-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the central Andes extend across South America and appear to be tied to an adjustment in the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system. Dry (wet) spells in NEB are equally associated with a large-scale pattern of positive (negative) OLR anomalies; however, there are no related significant OLR anomalies over the MB during these events. Dry (wet) spells are associated with robust patterns of anomalous wind fields at both low and upper

  14. "Tooth worms", poverty tattoos and dental care conflicts in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Nuto, Sharmêniade de Araújo Soares

    2002-01-01

    While medical anthropologists have studied doctor-patient clinical conflicts during the last 25-30 years, dentist-patient communication clashes have received scant attention to date. Besides structural barriers and power inequities, such conceptual differences further dehumanize dental care and lower service quality. Potential for dentist-patient discordance is greater in developing regions--such as Northeast Brazil--where there exists a wider socio-economic gap between professionals and laypersons. A critical anthropological evaluation of oral health services quality is undertaken in two rural communities in Ceará, Brazil where the PAHO-inspired Local Oral Health Inversion of Attention Program was implemented in 1994. This 6-month qualitative field study utilized ethnographic interviews with key informants, participant-observation and projective techniques to probe professionals' and patients' explanatory models (EMs) of oral health. Despite the recent expansion of services into rural regions, the authors conclude that the quality of dental care remains problematic. Patients' culturally constructed EMs of teeth rotted (estraga) by "tooth worms" (lagartas) differ substantively from dentists' model of dental decay by Streptococcus mutans. "Exploding chins" (queixo estourado), "spoiled, rotting teeth" (dente pĵdi) and "false plates" or teeth (chapas) tattoo and stigmatize the poor, reinforcing gross class inequities. Dentists' dominant discourse largely ignores lay logic, ridicules popular practices and de-legitimates, even castigates, popular healers despite their pivotal role in primary oral health care. Poor parents are not only barred from clinics but are blamed for children's rotten teeth. In sum, universal access to dental care is more a myth (even nightmare) than a reality. Dentists all too often "avert"--not "invert"--attention from poor Brazilian patients. In order to improve oral health in this setting, both "societal decay" and bacteria-laden plaque

  15. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güntner, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    Semi-arid areas are, due to their climatic setting, characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand as a consequence of population growth and economic development as well as a decreasing water availability in the course of possible climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future, which often exists already for present-day conditions in these areas. Understanding the mechanisms and feedbacks of complex natural and human systems, together with the quantitative assessment of future changes in volume, timing and quality of water resources are a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management to enhance the adaptive capacity of these regions. For this task, dynamic integrated models, containing a hydrological model as one component, are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability in view of environmental change over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceará (150 000 km2) in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Mean annual precipitation in this area is 850 mm, falling in a rainy season with duration of about five months. Being mainly characterized by crystalline bedrock and shallow soils, surface water provides the largest part of the water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. The hydrological model Wasa (Model of Water Availability in Semi-Arid Environments) developed in this study is a deterministic, spatially distributed model being composed of conceptual, process-based approaches. Water availability (river discharge, storage volumes in reservoirs, soil moisture) is determined with daily resolution. Sub-basins, grid cells or administrative units (municipalities) can be chosen as spatial target units. The administrative units enable the coupling of Wasa in

  16. Thermal history of the Pan-African/Brasiliano Borborema Province of northeast Brazil deduced from 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; de Figueiredo, L. Lambert; Caby, R.; Féraud, G.; Ruffet, G.; Vauchez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Detailed step heating 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were performed on different minerals from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Borborema Province. This region, located in northeast Brazil, belongs to the Pan-African/Brasiliano belt which is about 1000 km wide and 600 km long. Twenty-six single grains of amphibole, muscovite and biotite were extracted from eighteen samples selected in an area of about 17,500 km 2 (250 km by 70 km) in the Patos region. This region has been affected by a continental-scale shear zone system. Well-defined 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages and an U sbnd Pb analysis on zircon [Leterrier, J., Jardim de Sà, E.F, Bertrand, J.M. and Pin, C., 1994. Ages U sbnd Pb sur zircon de granitoïdes brasilianos de la ceinture du Serido (Province Borborema, NE brésil). C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 318: 1505-1511] allow the definition of a homogeneous and unusual slow cooling history (3-4°C/Ma) and suggest a rather slow uplift rate between 580 and 500 Ma, followed by a fast cooling of the whole studied area around 500 Ma. Rapid cooling is suggested by concordant plateau ages on muscovite and biotite. The existence of such an event at the end of the belt history is in agreement with data obtained on other major belts such as the Alpine-Himalayan system or the Hercynian belt.

  17. Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Santos e Silva, C. M.; Lima, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper aims of computing climatology and trend analysis of occurrence and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (NEB). We used daily rainfall data of 148 rain gauges collected from the hydrometeorological network managed by the National Water Agency during 1972 to 2002 and used quantiles technique in order to select rainfall events. Defining heavy rainfall events as those when at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above the 95th percentile, normal rainfall was between the 45th and 55th percentiles, and weak rainfall events were under the 5th percentile. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was used to calculate the linear trend of the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. The NEB was divided in five subregions using the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method: Northern coast, Northern semiarid, Northwest, Southern semiarid, and Southern coast. The results suggest that the subregions are less influenced by El Niño and La Niña, and dry areas have higher variability, with the greatest number of intense events.

  18. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fátima C. T.; Sousa, Oscarina V.; Carvalho, Edirsana M. R.; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H. S. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  20. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 the calves have been rescued (N=67), rehabilitated, and released (N=25) to supplement the small wild manatee population. The rescued calves, and those born in captivity, are typically, not released to their rescue location, mainly for logistical reasons. Therefore, phylogeographic analyses can help to identify related populations and appropriate release sites. 3. Here, mitochondrial DNA analyses identified low haplotype (h=0.08) and nucleotide (π=0.0026) genetic diversity in three closely related haplotypes. All three haplotypes (M01, M03, and a previously unidentified haplotype, M04) were found in the northern portion of the region, while only a single haplotype (M01) was represented in the south. This suggests the presence of two genetic groups with a central mixing zone. Release of rehabilitated calves to unrelated populations may result in genetic swamping of locally adapted alleles or genotypes, limiting the evolutionary potential of the population. 4. The small population size coupled with low genetic diversity indicates that the Northeast Brazil manatee population is susceptible to inbreeding depression and possible local extinction. Further conservation measures incorporating genetic information could be beneficial to the critically endangered Brazilian manatee population.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima C T; Sousa, Oscarina V; Carvalho, Edirsana M R; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  2. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. PMID:26815766

  3. [Characteristics of the patients seen in 1999 by referral centres for sexually transmitted diseases in Ceará (Northeast Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Bello, Pierre-Yves; Queiroz, Telma; Martins, Telma; Broutet, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, in the State of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, there is a public health project focusing on training and continuing education of health reference teams taking care of patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). An information system including a patient's form was worked out and established. The characteristics of the patients seen at consultation in 1999 are described. Ten units provided 1,478 filled forms. Women are more present than men (72% vs 28%). Multipartnership during the last three months is more frequent among males (52%) than among females (5%). Taking antibiotics prior to the first medical advice was frequent in the male population (17%). The main syndromes presented by women were vaginal discharge (81%) and genital warts (19%), whereas with men genital warts (47%) and urethral discharge (43%) were more frequent. The frequency of positive serology for syphilis and HIV among patients presenting an STD syndrome was 7.9% and 1.3%, respectively. It was higher among males (12% and 3%) than among females (7% and 1%). The way the referral facilities are used is different according to sex, the women corning more often spontaneously. The need for accurate etiologic data for each STD syndrome was identified. The analysis of the data resulting from these STD referral units allowed to produce relevant information whose follow-up will be of great interest for both health professionals and decision-makers.

  4. 21. Greasing System for Unit 1, view to the northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Greasing System for Unit 1, view to the northeast. This unit provides lubricating grease for all of the pins and bushings in the turbine pit through the grease lines visible in photograph MT-105-A-12 above. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  5. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  6. Satellite chlorophyll-a annual bloom characterization in Northeast Brazil, western tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampel, Milton; Rudorff, Natalia M.; Dall Cortivo, Fabio; Freitas, Lucas B.; Valerio, Larissa P.

    2014-11-01

    Time series of satellite-derived sea surface chlorophyll concentration (SSC) from 2002 to 2012 were used to investigate the phenology of phytoplankton bloom in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, Western Tropical Atlantic. The seasonal phytoplankton cycle is the dominant mode of temporal variability. The use of a Gaussian function to fit the temporal variability of SSC allowed the characterization of the timing and magnitude of the annual phytoplankton bloom in the slope and continental shelf areas. Modeled SSC showed a few differences in relation to mean MODIS-derived temporal curves. The maximum error was 0.14 mg.m-3 in September on the shelf and 0.006 mg.m- 3 in February on the slope. In both areas, SSC data showed that the maximum surface bloom occurs in June, having initiated in March. This cycle is typical of tropical waters of low latitudes where bloom is initiated at lower vertical stability of the water column allowing nutrients from deeper layers to fertilize usually poor and warm waters of the mixed layer. High rainfall increases the continental drainage into the shelf in autumn-winter, which may affect the timing of bloom. However, the flow regulation of the most important river in the region (Sao Francisco River) decreases the potential impact of river inflow in the coastal region. As the shelf and slope showed very similar patterns, it is likely that the processes of wind mixing and water heating/cooling are the most determining factors for the annual cycle of phytoplankton bloom in this region.

  7. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  8. Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Laura J; Calip, Gregory S; Novo, Patricia M; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

    2013-09-01

    In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia's Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than 5 years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P = 0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF's role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil.

  9. Survey of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese from the North-east region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A F; Franco, R C; Rosim, R E; Fernandes, A M

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 24 samples of Minas Frescal cheese and 24 samples of Minas Padrão cheese produced in the North-east region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) between March and August 2008. AFM₁ was detected in 13 (27.1%) samples at concentrations ranging from 0.037 to 0.313 ng g⁻¹. The mean concentrations of AFM₁ in positive samples of Minas Frescal and Minas Padrão cheese were 0.142 ± 0.118 and 0.118 ± 0.054 ng g⁻¹, respectively. It is concluded that the incidence of AFM₁ in Minas cheese may contribute to an increase in the overall ingestion of aflatoxins in the diet, hence indicating the need for the adoption of a tolerance limit for AFM₁ in cheese in Brazil.

  10. [The coast of Northeast Brazil as a Darwinian scientific object: the explorations of John Casper Branner, 1899-1911].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Almir Leal

    2014-01-01

    John Casper Branner, a US geologist, had a long history of research in Brazil. The article analyzes his exploration of the geology of the coast of Northeast Brazil during the Branner-Agassiz (1899) and Stanford (1911) expeditions. In the findings from both voyages, Branner characterized the geomorphology of sedimentary basins, sandstone reefs, and coral reefs from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective, blending natural history's model of field research with the practices of modern biology and dynamic geology. He based his interpretation of the evolution of the geological formation on physical and chemical factors. Zoological studies identified the place of evolutionary variation and adaptations of isolated marine species as an auxiliary factor in natural selection. PMID:25338034

  11. Economics of Rainfed Cropping Systems: Northeast Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sam H., III; Charoenwatana, Terd

    1981-06-01

    Using a computer model to simulate effective rainfall, it is shown that a flexible rainfed cropping system based on a legume crop planted before rice has a greater expected return than present subsistent rainfed cropping systems. Combining a legume crop intercropped with cassava or kenaf further increases the expected returns yet maintains the stability of the new system. Further research is required to bring the farmer's yields up to match experiment station results and to facilitate effective transfer policies.

  12. Geochemistry and geochronology of pre-Brasiliano rocks from the Transversal Zone, Borborema Province, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, J. M.; Bertrand, J. M.; Leterrier, J.; Macedo, M. H. F.

    2002-03-01

    Proterozoic metamorphosed sequences are identified in the Transversal Zone (TZ) domain of the Borborema geological province, Northeast Brazil. This TZ domain is located between the well-known E-W Patos and Pernambuco continental shear zones. In its eastern part, in the Taquaritinga region, a large mass of augen gneisses with a conspicuous horizontal to subhorizontal tectonic foliation forms one of the most important rock types in the region that displays U-Pb zircon ages ca. 1.52 Ga. Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses dated by U-Pb on zircon at ca. 1.97 Ga and older paragneisses and banded gneisses represent basement rocks, which were cross-cut by these Mesoproterozoic augen gneisses, and have been in turn intruded by plutonic rocks in upper Neoproterozoic (U-Pb and Rb-Sr, ca. 0.6 Ga) times. Chemical analyses of major, minor, and trace elements (including REE) for the basement orthogneisses indicate calcalkaline affinities and a signature very similar to volcanic arc granites, representing crustal accretion during the Paleoproterozoic Transamazonian/Eburnean orogenesis in the region. In turn, the chemical data for augen gneisses indicate that they are relatively homogeneous and evolved metaluminous metaplutonic rocks with characteristics very similar to A-type granites generated and emplaced in an extensional anorogenic setting. Relatively high 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratio and negative ɛNd( t) are signatures of crustal components in these rocks. Based on geochemical, geochronological, and structural data, the Taquaritinga region is composed of Paleoproterozoic (>1.97 Ga) rocks intruded by Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.5 Ga) anorogenic granites and Neoproterozoic granites (ca. 0.6 Ga). These data also suggest that the tectonometamorphic structures displayed by Meso and Neoproterozoic suites were developed by the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny and that the record of Transamazonian/Eburnean orogeny is restricted to basement rocks. This means that there is no evidence for a

  13. Seed Dispersal by Ants in the Semi-arid Caatinga of North-east Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Inara R.; Wirth, Rainer; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Myrmecochory is a conspicuous feature of several sclerophyll ecosystems around the world but it has received little attention in the semi-arid areas of South America. This study addresses the importance of seed dispersal by ants in a 2500-km2 area of the Caatinga ecosystem (north-east Brazil) and investigates ant-derived benefits to the plant through myrmecochory. Methods Seed manipulation and dispersal by ants was investigated during a 3-year period in the Xingó region. Both plant and ant assemblages involved in seed dispersal were described and ant behaviour was characterized. True myrmecochorous seeds of seven Euphorbiaceae species (i.e. elaiosome-bearing seeds) were used in experiments designed to: (1) quantify the rates of seed cleaning/removal and the influence of both seed size and elaiosome presence on seed removal; (2) identify the fate of seeds dispersed by ants; and (3) document the benefits of seed dispersal by ants in terms of seed germination and seedling growth. Key Results Seed dispersal by ants involved one-quarter of the woody flora inhabiting the Xingó region, but true myrmecochory was restricted to 12·8 % of the woody plant species. Myrmecochorous seeds manipulated by ants faced high levels of seed removal (38–84 %) and 83 % of removed seeds were discarded on ant nests. Moreover, seed removal positively correlated with the presence of elaiosome, and elaiosome removal increased germination success by at least 30 %. Finally, some Euphorbiaceae species presented both increased germination and seedling growth on ant-nest soils. Conclusions Myrmecochory is a relevant seed dispersal mode in the Caatinga ecosystem, and is particularly frequent among Euphorbiaceae trees and shrubs. The fact that seeds reach micro-sites suitable for establishment (ant nests) supports the directed dispersal hypothesis as a possible force favouring myrmecochory in this ecosystem. Ecosystems with a high frequency of myrmecochorous plants appear not

  14. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews were performed with fishermen with more than 20 years of fishery experience. The interviews were about fisheries (collecting spots, artefacts, etc.) and fish use. The fishes cited by the fishermen were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. Results Considered masters of fishery, they cited 162 vernacular names of fishes, which corresponded to 290 different species, also including other animals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales and manatees. The criteria for the classification of the fishes were well known and utilised by the fishermen, and they were based on morphology, behaviour, habitat and the importance of commercial and fishing activities. Four hierarchical categories were identified in their classification system: kingdom, life-form, generic and specific. The fish nomenclature created by the fishermen was mostly composed of generic and monotypic names. The main uses of fish were for food and commercial purposes. Conclusions The results stress the richness and complexity of the knowledge of the artisanal fishermen of Redonda Beach, and they provide support for the possibility of future studies and for the development of management plans and the management of wildlife resources. PMID:23497491

  15. Mycobacterium leprae in six-banded (Euphractus sexcinctus) and nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Costa; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; Suffys, Philip Noel; Rolim, Benedito Neilson; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo

    2012-12-01

    Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE), which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo). Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus) were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29) of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus) in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos. PMID:23283473

  16. Detection of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Clebert José; de Figueiredo, Salomão Moreira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Clementino, Inácio José; Keid, Lara Borges; Vasconcellos, Sílvio Arruda; de Sousa Américo Batista, Carolina; Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita; Higino, Severino Silvano

    2010-01-01

    To determine the presence of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil, 80 animals slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of Patos city were used. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected by jugular venopuncture from each animal, and after slaughter, testicles, epidydimus and uterus were aseptically collected. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis and B. abortus infections, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and Rose Bengal (RBT) tests were carried out, respectively. In addition, microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples. Six animals (7.5%) tested positive for the presence of B. ovis antibodies and all animals tested negative for the presence of B. abortus antibodies. One AGID-positive animal tested positive at uterine swab culture. PCR was able to amplify DNA of Brucella spp. from the pool of testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples from AGID-positive animals. This is the first report of isolation and detection of B. ovis DNA by PCR in ovine from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031505

  17. Coliform risk assessment through use of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as animal sentinel for shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Interaminense, Juliana A; Batista, Jacqueline E; Vaz, Renata V; Ventura, Roberta F; Oliveira, Isabella B; Soares, Roberta B; Peixoto, Sílvio M

    2015-08-01

    Outbreaks of food-borne diseases related to consumption of contaminated shellfish have been reported in many countries, but not in Brazil, possibly due to deficient reporting. Here we investigated the suitability of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as an animal sentinel for coliform monitoring in shellfish harvesting areas of Brazil's northeast. Samples of shellfish meats (40 clams per sample; n = 8 per collection) were collected at random from April 2009 through March 2010 in the bay area of Mangue Seco (state of Pernambuco). The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms were analyzed through the most probable number technique, and these contamination levels were tentatively correlated with the precipitation recorded on the day of sampling or 24 to 48 h beforehand. A. brasiliana shellfish meats from local retail shops (250 g per sample/ n = 3 per market) sold frozen were also investigated from August 2010 through June 2011. We found that the highest coliform contamination levels were correlated with recent rainfall events, limited to 24 h before sampling. However, irrespective of the rainfall level, the mean contamination above the Brazilian legal threshold of < 3 × 10(2) MPN/ 100 g for shellfish harvesting areas ranged from 18.7 to 93.7 % of samples analyzed monthly. Additionally, a large number of samples obtained from retail shops were also highly contaminated by coliforms during rainy periods, and therefore were not proper for human consumption. We conclude that A. brasiliana can be successfully used to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast coast.

  18. View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed in the early 1980's to replace Lamokin Tower, at center of photograph; panels 1 and 2 at right of photograph are part of main supervisory board; panel 1 controlled Allen Lane sub-station #7; responsiblity for this portion of the system was transferred to southeast Pennsylvania transit authority (septa) in 1985; panel 2 at extreme right controls catenary switches in a coach storage yard adjacent to the station - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Using the Method of Paulo Freire in Nutrition Education: An Experimental Plan for Community Action in Northeast Brazil. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 3 (1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummon, Therese; Lotham, Michael C., Ed.

    This monograph provides an interpretation of the work and ideas of Paulo Freire and describes an attempt to use his methods in a preliminary trial of a small scale nutrition program in four villages in Maranhao State, Northeast Brazil. The introductory chapter indicates the seriousness of the nutritional problems of the rural poor as well as the…

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with syphilis in parturient women in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital syphilis is a major public health concern, even after the implementation of intervention protocols in several countries. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional factors associated with syphilis in parturient women attending public maternity hospitals in Northeast, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2010 with a proportionate stratified sampling of 222 parturient women using a structured questionnaire. The study analyzed socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional variables. The structured questionnaire was conducted with parturient women and complementary information was obtained through hospitals records, admission forms and prenatal cards. Data were stored using the Statistical Package SPSS version 18. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using frequency distribution, central tendency and measures of spread for the variables. A bivariate analysis was done using chi square test and Fisher’s exact test, with a significance level of 5% and a 95% confidence interval, in order to analyze the relation between the variables and risk factors for syphilis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was done in the statistical package STATA, version 11.0. Results The prevalence of syphilis in parturient women was 7.7%. The bivariate analyses showed that the rate was higher among women who: were from Fortaleza (p = 0.019), studied for less than nine years (p = 0.044), had more than one sexual partner in life (p = 0.021), did not live with partner (p = 0.022), used illegal drugs (p < 0.0001), whose partner used illegal drugs and had diagnosis of syphilis (p = 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). The non-adjusted analysis found significant positive association between syphilis and the following variable: being from Fortaleza (OR = 7.26; CI 95% = 1.49-100.20), having studied for less than nine years (OR

  1. Evaluation of the IPCC Models (AR4 and AR5) in the Precipitation Simulation in the Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, José; Vasconcelos Junior, Francisco; Chaves, Rosane; Silva, Emerson; Servain, Jacques; Costa, Alexandre; Sombra, Sérgio; Barbosa, Augusto; Dos Santos, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    With the simulations of the models used in the latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), comparative studies are necessary between observations and the so-called historical run (C20) and future projections of the AR4 (A2) and AR5 (RCP8.5) experiments, in order to assess whether the AR5 models had a better performance in the representation of physical processes. This article compares the sensitivity of IPCC models (AR4 and AR5) in representing the anuall average and seasonal rainfall variation (summer and autumn) in three regions of the Northeast of Brazil between 1979 and 2000, using the CMAP - CPC (Merged Analysis of Precipitation) data as reference. The projections made by these models for the period 2040-2070 were also analyzed.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  3. Habitat use by Centropomus undecimalis in a rocky area of estuarine beach in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, D V; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat, diel period, tidal phase and moon phase on the spatial distribution of Centropomus undecimalis was investigated at the mouth of the Timbo estuary, north-east Brazil. Underwater visual censuses were conducted in three areas comprising a mix of mud, sand and beach rock substrata; with one of the areas having additional structural complexity in the form of unused wooden debris. The area with debris housed significantly higher densities of juvenile and adult C. undecimalis whereas sub-adults were more abundant in an area lacking the wooden debris. Juvenile abundance was greatest during the day, whereas sub-adult and adults were more abundant at night. There were significant interactions between habitat, diel period, tidal phase and moon phase for all ages of C. undecimalis. These results emphasize the need to account for a range of environmental factors when planning for the conservation of estuarine and coastal habitats. PMID:27221331

  4. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  5. On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil - Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moura, A. D.; Shukla, J.

    1981-01-01

    The establishment of a thermally direct local circulation which has its ascending branch at about 10 deg N and its descending branch over northeast Brazil and the adjoining oceanic region is proposed as a possible mechanism for the occurrence of severe droughts over this Brazilian region. The driving for this anomalous circulation is provided by enhanced moist convection due to the effect of warmer sea surface anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic and cooling associated with colder sea surface temperature anomalies in the southern tropical Atlantic. A simple primitive equation model is used to calculate the frictionally-controlled and thermally-driven circulation due to a prescribed heating function in a resting atmosphere, and a series of numerical experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of the Goddard Laboratory's model to prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Atlantic.

  6. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  7. Polyacrylamide effect on hydraulic conductivity of hardsetting soils in Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Laércio; Almeida, Brivaldo; Melo, Diego; Marques, Karina; Almeida, Ceres

    2013-04-01

    Among soil hydro-physical properties, hydraulic conductivity is more sensitive to changes in soil structure. Hydraulic conductivity describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Hardsetting soils present very low hydraulic conductivity values. When dry, these soils show high penetration resistance and consistency extremely hard, but change to friable when moist. In this condition are poorly structured, slaking when moist, limit agricultural machinery use and it may reduce the growth of the root system. In Brazil, these soils occur throughout of coastal zone in flat areas called "coastal tableland". Chemical ameliorant, such as polymers based on anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), improve hydraulic conductivity of soil in hardsetting soils. The primary functions of polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction and water run-off. PAM effect is attributed to its ability to expand when placed in water, storing it in soil pore space, releasing it gradually to the plants. This process occurs by reducing the water flow through the pores of the soil, due to water molecules can be absorbed by PAM, providing water gradually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that PAM reduces the soil hardsetting character. The area is located in coastal zone in Goiana city, Pernambuco, northeastern of Brazil. This soil is typical hardsetting soil. Intact soil cores were collected from four horizons until 70cm depth. In the laboratory, the soil cores were saturated with different PAM concentrations (0.01, 0.005, 0.00125%) and H2O (control). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was determined using a constant head method, according to Klute and Dirksen (1986). Four replicates were used for each horizon and Tukey test at 5% probability was used by

  8. [Psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Desirée Pereira de; Viñas, Ferran; Casas, Ferran; Montserrat, Carme; González-Carrasco, Mònica; Alcantara, Stefania Carneiro de

    2016-01-01

    The study's overall objective was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in urban and rural schoolchildren in Northeast Brazil, focusing on differences according to territorial context. The sample consisted of 757 participants, 495 from urban schools and 262 from rural schools, enrolled in the 6th and 7th grades (9 to 18 years of age) in 21 municipal and state public schools, of which 13 urban and 8 rural, in 7 municipalities (counties) in Ceará State, Brazil. The study instruments were inventory of stressful events, scale of life satisfaction for students, index of sense of community, and satisfaction indices by life domains (family, material goods, relations, neighborhood/zone, health, time, school, and personal). The results indicate that socioeconomically underprivileged public schoolchildren from urban areas are more exposed to daily stress and score lower on satisfaction in specific domains of life and on sense of community. This latter is an important indicator for evaluating wellbeing in this young population. PMID:27653200

  9. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-05-01

    Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri -- EESJC (07 masculine 25' S and 36 masculine 30' W), located in the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Forty-five lizards inhabiting granite outcrops in an area of Caatinga were captured, belonging to the following species: Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) (18 individuals), T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825) (15 individuals), Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986 (6 individuals), and P. pollicaris (Spix, 1825) (6 individuals). Laboratory examination revealed that all species had some degree of pulmonary infection caused by Raillietiella mottae. The highest rates of prevalence (66.7%) and mean intensity of infection (5.25 +/- 2.01, range of 2-11) were observed in P. periosus. The results obtained in this study show that lizards of the Brazilian semi-arid region are infected by a generalist species of pentastomid. The most likely cause for such pattern is the similarity in lizards' diets (ants and termites). It is particularly noteworthy that T. semitaeniatus, P. periosus, and P. pollicaris represent new host records for R. mottae.

  10. [The health system of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  11. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  12. A new species of Pheles Herrich-Schaeffer from Northeast Brazil (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Curtis J; Nobre, Carlos Eduardo Beserra

    2014-03-24

    A new species of Riodinidae, Pheles caatingensis Callaghan & Nobre, sp. nov. from Ceará and Pernambuco State in Brazil is described, along with its habitat, behavior and taxonomic differences with other members of the genus Pheles. Notes are included on distribution and mimetic relationships with other sympatric insects.

  13. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Urban Poor in Northeast Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Kathleen

    1974-01-01

    The city of Salvador, Brazil, is growing rapidly; yet 100,000 people still live in the slums and unemployment is high. This article examines the lifestyle of one of these slum dwellers and his family focusing on their poverty. Discussion questions and activities are provided. (DE)

  14. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-10-30

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations.

  15. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-01-01

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations. PMID:24301784

  16. Tosta Evans, 1953 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new species from northeast Brazil, first description of the female of Tosta tosta Evans, 1953, and placement of the genus within Achlyodini.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-08-11

    A new species of Tosta Evans, 1953 from northeast Brazil is described: T. pseudospeculum Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande, sp. nov. Additionally, the female of Tosta tosta Evans, 1953, the type species of the genus, is described for the first time. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia for all studied species are provided, as well as a discussion of the placement of the genus within the tribe Achlyodini.

  17. Reactivity of the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol (cultar) with two tropical soils of the northeast semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milfont, Mônica Lúcia; Martins, Jean Manuel Fonseca; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro; Netto, André Maciel; Guiné, Véronique; Mas, Hélène; dos Santos Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of paclobutrazol (PBZ, a plant growth retardant) with a Yellow Ultisol and a Vertisol from the semiarid northeast region of Brazil was evaluated through batch sorption experiments and modeling. Although not instantaneous, the sorption kinetic of PBZ (pure and formulated) was fast (a few hours) in both soils. The sorption kinetics were well described by a second-order (dS(t)/dt=k(2)(S(e2)-S(t))(2)) but not by a first-order model. The sorption isotherms were found to be linear and the calculated K(D) values were 8.8 +/- 0.11 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 L kg(-1) for pure PBZ in the Ultisol and the Vertisol, respectively. The corresponding K(OC) values were 1275 +/- 34 (logK(OC) = 3.11) and 1156 +/- 49 (logK(OC) = 3.06) L kg(-1), respectively. Considering the very different texture of the two soils and the similar K(OC) values determined, these results showed that in both soils, the sorption of PBZ is dominantly controlled by organic matter, although some interactions of PBZ with iron oxides (goethite) were observed in the Ultisol. Based on these sorption parameters a low leachability potential of PBZ in soils is anticipated, as they correspond to a groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) ranging from 2.0 to 2.7, i.e., moderately to not mobile, in contradiction with the actual groundwater situation in Brazil. This work stresses the need to evaluate and predict the risk associated with aquifer contamination by this widely used plant growth regulator.

  18. Epidemiological, Clinical and Antiretroviral Susceptibility Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtypes B and Non-B in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Kledoaldo; de Souza Leal, Élcio; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; de Medeiros, Luzidalva Barbosa; da Silva, Sirleide Pereira; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-1 diversity causes important differences in the virus’ biological properties and their interactions with hosts, such as cell tropism, responses to antiretroviral therapy, drug-resistance, and disease progression. Objectives We evaluated the interrelationship of phylogenetic inference with epidemiological and laboratory data for HIV-1 isolates circulating in Pernambuco, Northeast Region—Brazil. Study design A total of 168 HIV-1 pol sequences were analysed, 64 were obtained from 2002–2003, and 104, from 2007–2009. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioural data were obtained from medical records. Laboratory testing enabled the determination of recent HIV-1 infections and co-infections with HBV, HCV, HTLV, or syphilis. Surveillance drug-resistance mutation analysis and antiretroviral susceptibility profiling were performed using HIV Drug-Resistance Database. Results HIV-1 non-B was associated with female, lower education, lower viral loads, and higher T cell counts mean. Frequencies of co-infection HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-syphilis were 27.8% (95% CI: 19.8–37.7), 1.04% (95% CI: 0.05–5.00) and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.6–23.0), respectively. Drug-resistant mutations rate was 2.98% (95% CI: 1.10–6.47). HIV-HBV subtype B co-infection was associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), higher education, higher viral loads and males. HIV-syphilis subtype non-B co-infection was associated with MSM status, lower T cell counts and males. Conclusions Data showed the importance of molecular characterisations of the HIV-1 epidemic and its relation with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population, as well as its association with other infectious diseases, so they can effort to improve preventive measures for health services and more information about the progress and effects of the epidemic in Northeastern–Brazil. PMID:27218259

  19. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  20. The correlation between ancestry and color in two cities of Northeast Brazil with contrasting ethnic compositions.

    PubMed

    Magalhães da Silva, Thiago; Sandhya Rani, M R; de Oliveira Costa, Gustavo Nunes; Figueiredo, Maria A; Melo, Paulo S; Nascimento, João F; Molyneaux, Neil D; Barreto, Maurício L; Reis, Mitermayer G; Teixeira, M Glória; Blanton, Ronald E

    2015-07-01

    The degree of admixture in Brazil between historically isolated populations is complex and geographically variable. Studies differ as to what the genetic and phenotypic consequences of this mixing have been. In Northeastern Brazil, we enrolled 522 residents of Salvador and 620 of Fortaleza whose distributions of self-declared color were comparable to those in the national census. Using the program Structure and principal components analysis there was a clear correlation between biogeographic ancestry and categories of skin color. This correlation with African ancestry was stronger in Salvador (r=0.585; P<0.001) than in Fortaleza (r=0.236; P<0.001). In Fortaleza, although self-declared blacks had a greater proportion of European ancestry, they had more African ancestry than the other categories. When the populations were analyzed without pseudoancestors, as in some studies, the relationship of 'race' to genetic ancestry tended to diffuse or disappear. The inclusion of different African populations also influenced ancestry estimates. The percentage of unlinked ancestry informative markers in linkage disequilibrium, a measure of population structure, was 3-5 times higher in both Brazilian populations than expected by chance. We propose that certain methods, ascertainment bias and population history of the specific populations surveyed can result in failure to demonstrate a correlation between skin color and genetic ancestry. Population structure in Brazil has important implications for genetic studies, but genetic ancestry is irrelevant for how individuals are treated in society, their health, their income or their inclusion. These track more closely with perceived skin color than genetic ancestry.

  1. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  2. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  3. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals.

  4. Risk factors associated with an outbreak of dengue fever in a favela in Fortaleza, north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, J; de Oliveira, F A; Kerr-Pontes, L R; Feldmeier, H

    2001-08-01

    To increase the effectiveness of ongoing anti-dengue control measures, we conducted a case-control study in a favela in Fortaleza (north-east Brazil) during an outbreak of dengue fever. Cases were defined according to the national guidelines for dengue control as well as based on the detection of IgM-dengue antibodies, and 34 cases and 34 controls were investigated. Significant risk factors were: living in a street perpendicular to the beach on which the favela is situated (P < 0.0001), an interval > 30 days since the last visit of the vector control agent (P=0.001), receptacles in the garden or courtyard (P=0.001), plants with temporary water pools on the property, gutter to collect rainwater, uncovered water storage container (all P=0.02), and no waste collection (P=0.03). Socio-economic variables were not associated with dengue fever. The probable starting point of the epidemic was an uncovered water tank on the roof of the house adjacent to the index case. From there, the outbreak spread uphill parallel to the prevailing direction of the wind. Thus, the chronological and spatial evolution of the epidemic could have been forecast after the first cases had occurred. This example of investigative epidemiology in an operational setting shows that targeted intervention leading to increased effectiveness of control measures is possible.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

    2015-01-25

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks.

  6. Oral mucosal lesions in Indians from Northeast Brazil: cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population.

  7. The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Northeast Brazil: a clinical and molecular view.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Zanette, Angela; Lyra, Isa; Souza, Cyntia Cajado; Santos, Leandro Ferraz; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Dupuit, Marie France; Almeida, Mari Ney Tavares; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2004-08-01

    The beta(S)-globin haplotypes were studied in 78 sickle cell Brazilian patients from Bahia, Northeast Brazil, that has a large population of African origin. Hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. We identified 44 (55.0%) patients with the CAR/Ben (Central African Republic/Benin) genotype, 16 (20.0%) Ben/Ben, 13 (16.2%) CAR/CAR and seven (8.8%) with other genotypes. Analyses of the phenotypes showed clinical differences related only to Hb F levels and blood transfusion therapy; the presence of -alpha(-3.7)-thalassemia (thal) demonstrated statistical significance when associated with hematocrit (p=0.044), MCV (p=0.0007), MCH (p=0.012) and spleen sequestration events. The haplotype diversity found in the present study can be justified by information about the origin of the slave traffic period in Bahia during the 19th century. The specific characteristics described among the Bahian sickle cell patients could be confirmed by increasing the number of patients with specific genotypes and further studies of genetic markers.

  8. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  9. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  10. Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuité, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Hellyson Fidel Araujo; da Costa, Cristiane Francisca; Sassi, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%). Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head) were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%). Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7%) or disgusting (11.3%), and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent.

  11. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-06-27

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas. PMID:27355983

  12. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  13. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, L N; Costa Junior, L M; de Melo, C F; Ramos Silva, J C; Bevilaqua, C M L; Azevedo, S S; Muradian, V; Araújo, D A F V; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Bahia, Ceará, Sergipe, and Alagoas) of Brazil was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 81 (53.3 %) chickens had titers of 1:5 in 26, 1:10 in 9, 1:20 in 4, 1:40 in 1, 1:80 in 6, 1:160 in 6, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in 6, 1:1,280 in 3, 1:2,560 in 6, and 1:5,120 or higher in 1. Hearts and brains of 81 seropositive chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 23 chickens with MAT titers of 1:5 or higher; the isolates were designated TgCKBr165-187. Five isolates killed all infected mice. Results indicate widespread contamination of rural environment in Brazil with T. gondii oocysts.

  14. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants. PMID:24741469

  15. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants.

  16. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons.

  17. [Inequality, poverty, and childhood health and nutritional conditions in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Barreto, Maurício L; Santos, Nedja Silva; Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães de; Dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria Conceição

    2007-10-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between gradients of social inequalities and the household environment and health and nutritional conditions among 2,001 preschool children in ten counties (municipalities) in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The analysis used multinomial multivariate logistic regression. Children in the middle and lower tertiles on the poverty scale had significant and increasing odds of living in a household headed by a woman, an unemployed father, a mother with

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  19. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  20. [Death from dengue fever as a sentinel event for evaluation of quality of healthcare: a case study in two municipalities in Northeast Brazil, 2008].

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de; Samico, Isabella; Siqueira Filha, Noêmia Teixeira de; Cazarin, Gisele; Braga, Cynthia; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2011-12-01

    Despite the existing resources for adequate dengue patient care in the Brazilian healthcare system, the case-fatality rate for the disease is still high in the country. In order to identify factors associated with dengue-related death, this study evaluated quality of care according to the degree of implementation of specific measures, the technical and scientific quality of care, and access to health services in two municipalities (counties) in Northeast Brazil. An evaluative study of the implementation analysis type was performed, with death from dengue as the sentinel event for quality of care. To assess the degree of implementation and quality of care, the study scored the interview criteria and patient chart analysis; access was evaluated by thematic analysis. As for structure and process, the health services were found to be partially adequate (70%). No geographic or economic barriers were found to explain the occurrence of deaths. Technical and scientific quality failed to achieve adequate levels in the municipalities (46% and 30%) or in the specific services, and clinical management of dengue by the health services proved insufficient.

  1. DETAIL OF HEATING/COOLING SYSTEM, A/C MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF HEATING/COOLING SYSTEM, A/C MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  3. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  4. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4%) had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52%) were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The acceptance rate of post

  5. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals.

  6. Biological aspects of sharks caught off the Coast of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A F; Hazin, F H V; Carvalho, F; Viana, D L; Rêgo, M G; Wor, C

    2009-11-01

    One hundred seventeen specimens of sharks were caught along the coast of Pernambuco State, Northern Brazil, between May 2004 and May 2007, among which 86 were blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, enabling a more detailed study of the species. Blacknose sharks were caught in the 2 study areas along the Boa Viagem/Piedade and Paiva beaches, accounting for the highest relative abundance among the species caught (73.5% of total). Potentially dangerous sharks, tiger and bull sharks, were also caught in the same areas, whereas hammerhead and blacktip sharks were only captured off Boa Viagem/Piedade. Concerning the blacknose shark, the total length (TL) ranged from 39.0 to 180.0 cm. Among the 38 females analysed, 32 were juveniles, 11 were maturing, 2 were pre-ovulatory and 21 were pregnant. Sexing was possible for 75 of the 83 embryos, 38 of which were males and 37 were females, with a sex proportion of 1:0.9 and total length ranging between 6.4 and 63.5 cm. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 5 to 10 and uterine fecundity from 1 to 3, with an estimated gestational period of 9 months. Among the 48 males, 6 were juveniles and 42 were adults. Both males and females seem to reach sexual maturity at about 105.0 cm TL. Among the 86 stomachs analysed, only 22.1% had contents, with teleosts as the most frequent item.

  7. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; Dos Santos, Célia Dias; Dos Santos, Rafael Vital; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  8. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  9. Dynamics of medicinal plants knowledge and commerce in an urban ecosystem (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Julio Marcelino; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida de Lima; Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-07-01

    Given the importance of markets and fairs for the commerce of medicinal plants, an ethnobotanical study was undertaken at the Caruaru Fair (Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil) to compare the richness of species sold and their values of relative importance (RI) using two datasets collected with a 4-year interval. The seasonality of these plants' supplies was also analyzed. The Caruaru Fair is located in the 18 de Maio Park. It covers an area 40,000 m(2) and is used by merchants who sell several types of products, such as supplies, handicrafts, clay and aluminum utensils, shoes, clothes and medicinal plants. Semistructured interviews were carried out with the vendors who agreed to take part in the study in order to record which plants were sold and their respective indications. The plants were collected, and the species were determined. The information was analyzed with quantitative tools. A total of 169 plants were identified from both surveys, which were significantly different with regard to species richness (p < 0.05) but did not vary in relation to species' Relative Importance (p > 0.05). In relation to the seasonality of the plant supply, habit may explain the lack of some species during certain periods of the year, as most of the absent plants are herbaceous. In terms of the species most sold locally, it was found that spontaneous tree species are well known and extensively commercialized.

  10. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; dos Santos, Célia Dias; dos Santos, Rafael Vital

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  11. [Pathogenic bacteria dissemination by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two hospitals in northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fontana, Renato; Wetler, Rita M da C; Aquino, Renata S S; Andrioli, João L; Queiroz, Guilherme R G; Ferreira, Sônia L; Nascimento, Ivan C do; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections bring a high risk to the health of hospital patients and employees. Ants are common organisms in Brazilian hospitals, where they can act as dispersers of opportunistic microorganisms in places they forage. The occurrence of multi-resistant bacteria carried by ants was analyzed in two public hospitals (HA and HB) in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. In these two hospitals 132 workers belonging to three ant species were collected. The bacteria associated to these ants were identified and their susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated. More than half (57.3%) of ants collected in HA were associated with some kind of bacteria, with 26.7% of them being opportunist bacteria, while 84,2% of the ants from HB presented associated bacteria growth, with 61.4% of them being opportunist bacteria. Twenty four species of bacteria were isolated. The Gram-positive bacilli of the genus Bacillus were the most frequent, followed by the Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli (family Enterobacteriaceae) and Gram-negative non-fermenters bacilli. The profile of sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to drugs pointed out the existence of multi-resistant isolates carried by ants. For the first time, are reported cases of the same bacterial resistant isolates taken form homospecific ant workers that point out the importance of ants to bacteria dissemination and proliferation in a hospital. Our results suggest that the risk of contamination presented by these ants is similar to the one of any other mechanical vector of bacterial dissemination.

  12. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P M; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-07-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28(o) ± 2(o) C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  13. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast.

  14. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  15. Biosurfactant-and-bioemulsifier produced by a promising Cunninghamella echinulata isolated from Caatinga soil in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Silva, Nadielly R; Luna, Marcos A C; Santiago, André L C M A; Franco, Luciana O; Silva, Grayce K B; de Souza, Patrícia M; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D C; da Silva, Carlos A Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2014-01-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E₂₄) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm², which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm²). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%-6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:25257520

  16. Resistance to antimicrobials and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Krewer, Carina; Santos Amanso, Evandro; Veneroni Gouveia, Gisele; de Lima Souza, Renata; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis is the principal disease affecting dairy herds worldwide. The aim of the present study was to characterize phenotypic and genotypic features associated with resistance to antimicrobials in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 2064 milk samples of 525 lactating cows in the Northeast of Brazil. Of the 218 isolates analyzed, 57.8% were characterized as Staphylococcus aureus, 28% as coagulase-positive staphylococci other than S. aureus (oCPS), and 14.2% as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The test for susceptibility to antimicrobials showed amoxicillin (32.6%) to be the less effective drug in vitro, and the multi-drug resistance (MDR) rate for beta-lactams varied from 0 to 0.75. The genotypic characterization showed that 93.1% of the samples were tested positive for the blaZ gene, while none amplified mecA. The antibiotic efflux mechanism was observed in 0.9% of isolates. The biofilm formation was found in 3.7 and 96.3% of samples, respectively, on Congo red agar and on the microplate adhesion test, while the icaD gene was present in 92.2% of Staphylococcus spp. The high frequency of blaZ gene observed in this study was associated with the resistance of most Staphylococcus spp. to one or more of the beta-lactams tested, which are routinely used in Brazilian herds for mastitis treatment. The biofilm formation was also detected in the isolates analyzed being an important characteristic for pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria.

  17. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nadielly R. Andrade; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Santiago, André L. C. M. A.; Franco, Luciana O.; Silva, Grayce K. B.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D. C.; da Silva, Carlos A. Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2014-01-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:25257520

  18. The hepatitis delta genotype 8 in Northeast Brazil: The North Atlantic slave trade as the potential route for infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Nunes, Jomar Diogo Costa; Barros, Lena Maria Fonseca; Carrilho, Flair José; Ferreira, Adalgisa de Sousa Paiva; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2016-09-15

    Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well known, even though HDV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection leads to severe forms of acute and chronic liver diseases. HDV is endemic in the Western Amazon region. Recently, the HDV genotype 8 was found in chronic patients followed at the center for liver studies in the Northeast Brazil, Maranhão. Previous studies suggested that this genotype was introduced in Maranhão during the slave trade. The presence of HDV in that study, which was done outside the Amazon region, led us to investigate whether the virus is found infecting individuals in other regions of Maranhão as well. Thus, we screened ninety-two HBsAg positive individuals from five Municipalities of Maranhão for anti-HD antibody and eight were found positive (8.7%). These eight positive individuals were submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate active HDV infection. Half of them were positive for a fragment sequence of the delta antigen; their sequence samples were submitted to genotype characterization by phylogenetic analysis. All sequences clustered in a unique branch of the tree separated from the other branch described in Africa. Our study confirmed the presence of HDV-8 in Maranhão. These infected individuals had no evidence of contact with African people. Furthermore, we found individuals infected with HDV-8 in two more different municipalities. More studies like ours are urgent because the co-infection HBV/HDV is more difficult to treat. Identification of the endemic regions and implementation of healthy policies for preventing this infection are urgent in this region.

  19. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  20. A telemedicine network for remote paediatric cardiology services in north-east Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Sheila Maria Vieira; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Soares de Araújo, Juliana Sousa; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Moser, Lúcia Roberta Didier Nunes; Hatem, Thamine de Paula; Gomes de Freitas, Carolina Paim; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Tavares, Thiago Ribeiro; Gomes, Renata Grigório Silva; Severi, Rossana; Santos, Cícera Rocha; Ferreira da Silva, Jailson; Rezende, Juliana Landim; Vieira, Paulo Coelho; Filho, José Luiz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Providing health care for children with congenital heart diseases remains a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Approach In October 2011, the Government of Paraíba, Brazil, established a paediatric cardiology network in partnership with the nongovernmental organization Círculo do Coração. A cardiology team supervised all network activities, using the Internet to keep in contact with remote health facilities. The network developed protocols for screening heart defects. Echocardiograms were performed by physicians under direct online supervision of a cardiologist; alternatively, a video recording of the examination was subsequently reviewed by a cardiologist. Cardiovascular surgeons came to a paediatric hospital in the state capital once a week to perform heart surgeries. Local setting Until 2011, the State of Paraíba had no structured programme to care for children with heart disease. This often resulted in missed or late diagnosis, with adverse health consequences for the children. Relevant changes From 2012 to 2014, 73 751 babies were screened for heart defects and 857 abnormalities were identified. Detection of congenital heart diseases increased from 4.09 to 11.62 per 1000 live births (P < 0.001). Over 6000 consultations and echocardiograms were supervised via the Internet. Time to diagnosis, transfers and hospital stays were greatly reduced. A total of 330 operations were carried out with 6.7% (22/330) mortality. Lessons learnt Access to an echocardiography machine with remote supervision by a cardiologist improves the detection of congenital heart disease by neonatologists; virtual outpatient clinics facilitate clinical management; the use of Internet technology with simple screening techniques allows resources to be allocated more efficiently. PMID:26668441

  1. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality in a region of endemic fluorosis in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Consuelo Fernanda Macedo; Lima, José Ferreira; Adriano, Maria Soraya Pereira Franco; de Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti; Forte, Franklin Delano Soares; de Farias Oliveira, Rosimere; Silva, Alexandre Pessoa; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk for caries and fluorosis in a desertification area, applying the calcium/fluoride concentration ratio of underground water and the quality of water in a selected geographical region. This study was performed in the municipality of São João do Rio do Peixe, located in the tropical semiarid lands of Brazil. A total of 111 groundwater samples were collected. Fluoride concentration varied from 0.11 to 9.33 mg/L. Thirty percent of all samples analyzed showed values above 1.5 mg/L, while 64 % were above the ideal limit of 0.7 mg/L. Mean calcium concentration was 47.6 mg/L, and 14.4 % of all samples presented values above the WHO acceptable limits. The proportional value of calcium/fluoride in water showed that only 12 % of the samples were suitable for dental caries prevention with minimal risk for dental fluorosis. Mapping of the fluoride distribution indicated that approximately 2,465 people could be affected by dental fluorosis and 1,057 people might be affected by skeletal fluorosis. It can be concluded that, in addition to fluoride, many water parameters were not suitable for the drinking water. Mapping out calcium/fluoride ratio may indicate areas of water suitability for caries control, whereas the fluoride concentration solely can indicate the areas with the risk for fluorosis. This approach can be relevant for health authorities for identifying communities where dental caries or dental fluorosis is prevalent.

  3. Correction of vital statistics based on a proactive search of deaths and live births: evidence from a study of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, Brazil has undergone dramatic changes in terms of socioeconomic development and health care. In the first decade of the 2000s, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a series of programs focused on reducing infant mortality, including the Family Health Program as a national policy for primary care. In this paper, we propose a method to correct underreporting of deaths and live births. After vital statistics are corrected, infant mortality trends are analyzed for the period 2000–2010 by macro-geographical region. Methods A proactive search of live births and deaths was carried out in the Amazon and Northeast regions in 2010 to find vital events that occurred in 2008 and were not reported to the Ministry of Health. The probabilistic sample of 133 municipalities was stratified by adequacy of vital information reporting. For each municipality, the adequacy analysis was based on the reported age-standardized mortality rate per 1,000 population and the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Correction factors were estimated by strata based on additional vital events found in the proactive search. The procedure was generalized to correct municipal vital statistics for the period 2000–2010. Results In the proactive search, 35% of non-reported deaths were found within the health system (hospitals and other health establishments), but 28% were found in non-official sources, like illegal cemeteries. In areas of extreme poverty and unreliable vital information, the estimated completeness of infant death reporting was only 33%. After correction of vital information, the estimated infant mortality rate decreased from 26.1 in 2000 to 16.0 in 2010, with an annual rate of decrease of 4.7%, greater than the required rate to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. Among Brazilian regions, the Northeast showed the largest decrease, from 38.4 to 20.1 per 1,000 live births. Conclusions The proactive search for vital events was shown to

  4. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Pasquino, Jackeline Araujo; Peixoto, Laisla Rangel; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; de Sousa, Jorge Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings. PMID:24820610

  5. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2014-10-15

    The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley.

  6. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem.

  7. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem. PMID:22437380

  8. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Mario D; Mari, Jair J; Delgado, Pedro GG; Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Barrett, Thomas; Gerolin, Jeronimo; Goihman, Samuel; Razzouk, Denise; Rodriguez, Jorge; Weber, Renata; Andreoli, Sergio B; Saxena, Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS) was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a) mental health services; and b) human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a) the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus); and b) the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS). Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS). At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS) registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize long-stay patients

  9. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  10. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus variants and genetic diversity in the L1 gene and long control region of HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in North-East Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Chagas, Bárbara Simas; do Amaral, Carolina Medeiros; Nascimento, Kamylla Conceição Gomes; Leal, Lígia Rosa Sales; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Cartaxo Muniz, Maria Tereza; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study showed the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) variants as well as nucleotide changes within L1 gene and LCR of the HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil.

  12. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and high plasma homocysteine in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infected patients from the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim Hyperhomocysteinemia due to Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene, in particular the C677T (Ala222Val) polymorphism were recently associated to steatosis and fibrosis. We analyzed the frequency of MTHFR gene in a cross-sectional study of patients affected by Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) from Northeast of Brazil. Method One hundred seven-four untreated patients with CHC were genotyped for the C677T MTHFR. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism was identified by PCR-RFLP. The homocysteine (Hcy) levels were determined by chemiluminescence method. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases and have current and past daily alcohol intake less than 100 g/week. Results Among subjects infected with CHC genotype non-1 the frequency of MTHFR genotypes TT was 9.8% versus 4.4% genotype 1 (p = 0.01). Nevertheless, association was found between the MTHFR genotype TT × CT/CC polymorphism and the degree of steatosis and fibrosis in both hepatitis C genotype (p < 0.05). A significant difference was found on plasma Hcy levels in patients with steatosis regardless of HCV genotype (p = 0.03). Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma Hcy levels is highly prevalent in subjects with chronic hepatits C with steatosis regardless of HCV genotype and vitamin deficiency. The presence of genotype TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was more common in CHC genotype non-1 infected patient regardless of histopathological classification and genotype TT+CT frequencies were significant in the presence of fibrosis grade 1+2 and of steatosis in CHC infected patients from the northeast of Brazil regardless of HCV genotype. The genetic susceptibility of MTHFR C677T polymorphism should be confirmed in a large population. PMID:21854603

  14. Levels of mannose-binding lectin in individuals with visceral leishmaniasis in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E L; Campos Júnior, M; Monteiro, S G; Costa, G C; Magalhães, A L P; Santos, M D C; Caldas, A J M; Pimentel, M M G

    2015-12-29

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the seven priority endemic diseases in the world. The clinical outcome of many infections is not only dependent on the pathogenic organism, but also on the genetic variability of the host susceptibility to infection. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of MBL between healthy controls and carriers of VL. The VL cases were recruited randomly from the main hospitals and referral outpatient clinics for VL in São Luís, and from home visits. Determination of MBL protein levels was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 161 patients with VL and the 161 healthy controls, 60.9 and 67.1% had high levels of MBL, respectively. There was no significant difference in MBL levels between cases and controls. Low socioeconomic status and living conditions are conducive to the occurrence of VL. Owing to the small number of existing studies, it is extremely important to conduct further studies on MBL levels and susceptibility to VL, especially in regions where the disease is endemic, such as Maranhão, Brazil.

  15. [Food insecurity in the Northeast and South of Brazil: magnitude, associated factors, and per capita income patterns for reducing inequities].

    PubMed

    Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Tomasi, Elaine; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem Avena; Volz, Pâmela Moraes; Osório, Alessander; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses food insecurity among urban Brazilian families with children under seven years. A cross-sectional study in areas covered by primary health care centers identified 5,419 families in the Northeast and 5,081 in the South of the country. Food insecurity was assessed by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity was 22.9% in the Northeast and 7.5% in the South. According to the adjusted analysis, increased likelihood of moderate or severe food insecurity was associated with families headed by women, black or brown maternal skin color, low maternal education, low family income, and enrollment in the Bolsa Família program (conditional income transfer). Moderate or severe food insecurity would be reduced by 59.5% in the Northeast and 45.4% in the South with a per capita income of at least BRL 175.00 per month. Increased family income for the poorest families and better targeting of Bolsa Família are essential for reducing food insecurity in the country.

  16. [Access to the school food program and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Northeast and Southeast Brazil, 1997].

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene; dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio

    2007-05-01

    Access by schoolchildren (7-10 years of age) to the School Food Program was investigated in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population living in the Northeast and Southeast regions in 1996-97. Among children enrolled in public schools, 87.4% had lunch at school: 77.9% in the Northeast, 93.7% in the Southeast, and 77.9% and 90.7% in the rural and urban areas, respectively. Stunting was observed in 13.2% of children (13.8% of boys and 12.6% of girls) and was most prevalent in the rural Northeast (22%) and least in the urban Southeast (8.5%). Stunting was more prevalent in children out of school (27.9%) or enrolled in schools that did not supply lunch (17.9%). Prevalence of overweight was relatively high (9.6%) and similar between boys and girls, but was more prevalent in children who had lunch at school (9.8%) as compared to children attending schools without lunch programs (5.5%). These data suggest inadequate geographic, economic, and biological criteria in the School Food Program. PMID:17486243

  17. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Variation in Populations of Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Araceae) from North-East Brazil, Estimated with AFLP Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, I. M.; Mayo, S. J.; van den Berg, C.; Fay, M. F.; Chester, M.; Lexer, C.; Kirkup, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims This study sought genetic evidence of long-term isolation in populations of Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Araceae), a herbaceous, probably outbreeding, humid forest hemi-epiphyte, in the brejo forests of Ceará (north-east Brazil), and clarification of their relationships with populations in Amazonia and the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Methods Within-population genetic diversity and between-population dissimilarity were estimated using AFLP molecular markers in 75 individuals from eight populations located in Ceará, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Key Results The populations showed a clinal pattern of weak genetic differentiation over a large geographical region (FST = 0·1896). A strong correlation between genetic and geographical distance (Mantel test: r = 0·6903, P = 0·002) suggests a historical pattern of isolation by distance. Genetic structure analysis revealed at least two distinct gene pools in the data. The two isolated Ceará populations are significantly different from each other (pairwise ΦPT = 0·137, P = 0·003) and as diverse (Nei's gene diversity, average He = 0·1832, 0·1706) as those in the Atlantic and Amazon forest regions. The population in southern Brazil is less diverse (Nei's gene diversity, average He = 0·127) than the rest. The Ceará populations are related to those of the Atlantic forest rather than those from Amazonia (AMOVA, among-groups variation = 11·95 %, P = 0·037). Conclusions The gene pools detected within an overall pattern of clinal variation suggest distinct episodes of gene flow, possibly correlated with past humid forest expansions. The Ceará populations show no evidence of erosion of genetic diversity, although this was expected because of their isolation. Their genetic differentiation and relatively high diversity reinforce the importance of conserving the endangered brejo forests. PMID:17823112

  18. STR frequencies for the PowerPlex 16 System Kit in a population from Northeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Miguel; Crespillo, Manuel; Luque, Juan A; Valverde, Juan L

    2003-07-29

    The aim of this paper, was to obtain the frequencies for the 15 STR loci included in the PowerPlex 16 System Kit on a population of 204 unrelated Caucasian individuals living in Northeast of Spain in order to use for forensic purposes. Statistical analyses were performed using the programs GENEPOP version 3.3 and Powerstats version 1.2. The results showed that all the loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations.

  19. Tectonic and paleogeographic settings of northeast Asian hydrocarbon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, W.L.; Stanley, K.O. )

    1990-05-01

    Most of China and Soviet Asia were formed by the welding of microcontinents and accretionary wedge assemblages from the Devonian through the Late Cretaceous. The first hydrocarbon systems developed in late Precambrian to middle Paleozoic basins on continental platform blocks prior to the Hercynian welding of plates. Later hydrocarbon systems developed in both extensional and compressional successor basins associated with plate collisions from the late Paleozoic to the Cenozoic. Basins with cratonic tectono-stratigraphic assemblages, which formed on Archean-early Paleozoic microcontinent plates, feature hydrocarbon systems that are sourced by marine rocks and reservoired in weathered crusts and/or clastic/carbonate platform rocks. The upper Precambrian and Paleozoic of east Siberia, the middle Paleozoic of west Siberia, and the lower Paleozoic of the Tarim basin are examples of this hydrocarbon system. The rift-sag successor basins, which developed on these welded microplates and accretionary wedges after collision, feature hydrocarbon systems produced from mostly nonmarine rocks in China and mostly marine rocks in Russia. Example successor basins include the marine Jurassic-Cretaceous West Siberian interior sag basin formed over several microplates; the nonmarine Cretaceous-Tertiary rift-sag Songliao and north China basins; and the Neogene extensional strike-slip North Sakhalin basin. The compressional basins formed as a result of late Paleozoic to Cenozoic plate collisions. These basins feature hydrocarbon systems in marine and/or nonmarine rocks depending on the paleogeographic setting. The best example is the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine Junggar basin in northwest China.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo; Pfleger, Viola; Lang, Katrin; Heukelbach, Jörg; Miralles, Iracema; Fraga, Francisco; Sousa, Anastácio Queiroz; Stoffler-Meilicke, Marina; Ignatius, Ralf; Kerr, Ligia Franco Sansigolo; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2007-09-01

    Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7), chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6), trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1), gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6), syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1), and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6) and 12.5% (10.0-15.5), respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  1. Geographical and socioeconomic factors relating to the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in an urban area of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in Santo Antonio de Jesus, a town in Bahia State, north-east Brazil, to determine the relationship between various biological, socioeconomic, behavioural, and geographical factors and the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The town's population was around 45,000 and the study was targeted at all children born in 1970-71 who were living in the town at the time of the survey (August-November 1984). An extensive questionnaire was used to collect information on each child and on family and household conditions; samples of stools were also taken for examination (Kato-Katz method). A survey of water snails was also carried out and information on the distribution of their breeding sites was plotted on a map of the area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 31.0%. Several variables that reflected different aspects of the population's way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Some of the findings are valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and its distribution in urban locations as well as for defining high-risk groups, all of which are important for planning control strategies. PMID:1905208

  2. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  3. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

    PubMed

    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  4. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; dos Reis, Neilane Bertoni; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

    2014-04-01

    The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

  5. Serum Retinol Concentrations in Mothers and Newborns at Delivery in a Public Maternity Hospital in Recife, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreto, Luciana Marques; Vieira, Carmina Silva dos Santos; de Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Serum retinol concentrations were compared in a consecutive series of 65 mother-newborn pairs at delivery in a public maternity hospital in Recife, Brazil, from January to August 2008 and examined their association with biological, socioeconomic, environmental and obstetrical characteristics. Serum retinol concentrations of the newborns (umbilical cord) and mothers (brachial venipuncture) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prevalence of low (<0.70 µmol/L) and inadequate (<1.05 µmol/L) serum retinol concentrations were observed in 23.1% (95% CI 13.9-35.5) and 23.0% (95% CI 13.5-35.8) among newborns and mothers respectively. The serum retinol distribution was lower in male than female infants (-0.4 µmol/L, p=0.01) and, across both sexes, concentrations in paired newborn and mother were correlated (r=0.27, p=0.04). Further, maternal status explains only 7% of the variance in retinol concentrations in newborn's cord plasma. Among mothers delivering in public facilities in Recife, hypovitaminosis may exist. PMID:24847590

  6. [Knowledge of condom among adolescents: a population-based study in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Juliana Mano; Cesar, Juraci A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lack of knowledge on condoms and to identify associated factors among teenagers in two municipalities (counties) in Piauí State, Brazil, in mid-2008. Standardized home interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with all the teenagers (13-19 years of age). The study investigated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge on contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The outcome variable was lack of knowledge on male condoms. The multivariate analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 2,241 adolescents, 18.8% claimed ignorance of male condoms. Among individuals with at least 9 years of schooling, only 4% lacked knowledge on condoms. Meanwhile, among individuals who lacked knowledge on STDs, 74% lacked knowledge on condoms. In the adjusted analysis, female gender, younger age, low schooling, not having a girlfriend, and lack of knowledge on oral contraception and STDs increased the likelihood of lack of knowledge on condoms. The data showed the urgent need for awareness-raising interventions on condom use among adolescents in these municipalities.

  7. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  8. Early Devonian geothermal systems in northeast Scotland: Exploration targets for epithermal gold

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, K. )

    1989-06-01

    Early Devonian geothermal activity is recognized in northeast Scotland by the remnants of silica sinter, a hot-spring manganese deposit, an area of steam alteration, and hydrothermal eruption breccias. At least five systems were active at this time, three of which are located on or near the intersection of major faults and lineaments. Two deposits can be dated as Early Devonian, whereas others show a spatial relation to 408 Ma Caledonian granitoids-the proposed heat sources for the geothermal systems. Fault zones active at this time provided channelways for fluids in the convecting systems. The shallow sections of these systems have been preserved in the Arndilly, Dalroy, Lecht, and Rhynie areas, which is encouraging for gold prospecting. Six targets for epithermal gold exploration are identified: the four areas named above and two areas at the intersection of major faults and lineaments.

  9. Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poli, C; Lopez, L C S; Mesquita, D O; Saska, C; Mascarenhas, R

    2014-05-01

    This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6%) became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March). We found evidence of human interactions (injuries) in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes.

  10. Burkholderia symbiotica sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. native to north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Bontemps, Cyril; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Four strains, designated JPY-345(T), JPY-347, JPY-366 and JPY-581, were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of two species of Mimosa, Mimosa cordistipula and Mimosa misera, that are native to North East Brazil, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. All four strains grew at 15-43 °C (optimum 35 °C), at pH 4-7 (optimum pH 5) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 % NaCl). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JPY-345(T) showed 97.3 % sequence similarity to the closest related species Burkholderia soli GP25-8(T), 97.3 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia caryophylli ATCC25418(T) and 97.1 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia kururiensis KP23(T). The predominant fatty acids of the strains were C(18 : 1)ω7c (36.1 %), C(16 : 0) (19.8 %) and summed feature 3, comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c (11.5 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content of the strains was 64.2-65.7 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. DNA-DNA hybridizations between the novel strain and recognized species of the genus Burkholderia yielded relatedness values of <51.8 %. On the basis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarities and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the four strains represent a novel species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia symbiotica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JPY-345(T) (= LMG 26032(T) = BCRC 80258(T) = KCTC 23309(T)).

  11. Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poli, C; Lopez, L C S; Mesquita, D O; Saska, C; Mascarenhas, R

    2014-05-01

    This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6%) became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March). We found evidence of human interactions (injuries) in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes. PMID:25166312

  12. Design of a photovoltaic system for a passive design northeast all-electric residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Tully, G. F.; Johnson, J.; Parker, J.; Felice, R.

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic system was developed and integrated into a passively designed, low energy consuming home suitable for the Northeast region of the country. The selected array size is 4.1 kW and covers 51 square meters of roof area. The design addresses the residential market segment of low energy consuming houses with limited roof area availability for photovoltaic arrays. A direct mount, next generation, larger sized, photovoltaic shingle module is used to reduce installation costs over earlier generation shingle modules. A 4 kW line-commutated inverter is used in the power conversion subsystem, since it is representative of currently available equipment. The complete system and house design are described, including all the pertinent installation and construction drawings. Specific performance results are presented for the Boston and Madison region. The system design presented, coupled with previously completed designs, provide a set of design options expected to be available to residential homeowners in the mid 1980's.

  13. The tectonic evolution of Cenozoic extensional basins, northeast Brazil: Geochronological constraints from continental basalt 40Ar/39Ar ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Vasconcelos, Paulo Marcos; Knesel, Kurt Michael; da Silveira Dias, Luiz Gustavo; Roesner, Eduardo Henrique; Cordeiro de Farias, Paulo Roberto; de Morais Neto, João Marinho

    2013-12-01

    The Boa Vista and Cubati Basins, Paraíba, Brazil, are NW-SE extension-related intracratonic basins that resulted from tectonic stresses after the opening of the South Atlantic. These basins contain lacustrine fossiliferous sediments, bentonite beds, and basalt flows that preserve Cenozoic continental records. 40Ar/39Ar ages for six whole-rocks from two distinct basaltic flows underlying the sediments in the Boa Vista basin are 27.3 ± 0.8 and 25.4 ± 1.3 Ma, while three grains from a basaltic flow overlying the sediments yield 22.0 ± 0.2 Ma. The sediments at the nearby Cubati Basin are overlain by a basalt flow with ages of ˜25.4 Ma. Three whole-rocks from an NE-SW-trending trachytic dyke cross cutting the sediments at the Boa Vista Basin yield 40Ar/39Ar ages of ˜12.45 ± 0.06, 12.59 ± 0.07, and 12.58 ± 0.07 Ma. Three whole-rocks from a nearby volcanic plug (Chupador) yield an age of 23.4 ± 0.1 Ma. The geochronological results combined with stratigraphic correlations between the two basins allow bracketing the age of the main sedimentary and bentonic units within the Boa Vista and Cubati Basins between 25.5 ± 1.3 and 24.9 ± 0.1 Ma. The ages, combined with field observations reveal that the formation of the Boa Vista and Cubati basins is associated with mantle-derived magmas channelled through reactivated Precambrian shear zones. Our geochronological results suggest that a temporal link with the Fernando de Noronha and Saint Helena hot spots can be excluded as possible sources of the Boa Vista and Cubati magmas. Rather, the extensional tectonics in the 30-20 Ma interval, long after Gondwana break-up, may be associated with the re-activation of continental-scale shear zones that channelled small batches of mantle-derived magmas.

  14. Comparison of the burden of diarrhoeal illness among individuals with and without household cisterns in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe and secure water is an international issue recognized by the United Nations. To address this problem, the One Million Cisterns Project was initiated in 2001 in Brazil’s semi-arid region to provide a sustainable source of water to households. The objectives of this study were to determine the 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea in individuals with and without cisterns and determine symptomology, duration of illness and type of health care sought among those with diarrhoea. A subgroup analysis was also conducted among children less than five years old. Methods A face-to-face survey was conducted between August 20th and September 20th, 2007 in the Agreste Central Region of Pernambuco State, Brazil. Households with and without a cistern that had at least one child under the age of five years were selected using systematic convenient sampling. Differences in health outcomes between groups were assessed using Pearson’s Chi-squared and two-way t-tests. Demographic variables were tested for univariable associations with diarrhoea using logistic regression with random effects. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 3679 people from 774 households were included in the analysis (1863 people from 377 households with cisterns and 1816 people from 397 households without cisterns). People from households with a cistern had a significantly lower 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea (prevalence = 11.0%; 95% CI 9.5-12.4) than people from households without a cistern (prevalence = 18.2%; 95% CI 16.4-20.0). This significant difference was also found in a subgroup analysis of children under five years old; those children with a cistern had a 30-day period prevalence of 15.6% (95% CI 12.3-18.9) versus 26.7% (95% CI 22.8-30.6) in children without a cistern. There were no significant differences between those people with and without cisterns in terms of the types of symptoms, duration of

  15. 78 FR 7411 - Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC470 Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of VMS unit...

  16. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  17. Contaminant impacts to the endocrine system in largemouth bass in northeast U.S. rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    The National Biological Service (NBS) in cooperation with the USGS-National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program conducted a reconnaissance investigation of potential disruption of the endocrine system in carp and largemouth bass (LMB) from streams and rivers across the US. Chemical analysis of sediment and fish tissue, from agricultural and industrial sites in NAWQA study units, indicated the potential for impacts to the endocrine system of fish. Collections of 39 male and 28 female LMB were made in fall 1994 from contaminated and reference sites in three major river systems in the Northeast US (Potomac, Hudson, and Connecticut rivers). Additional fish collections will be made at these same sites in Spring 1995. Blood and gonadal tissue samples will give a triad of bioindicators (17B-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology) of potential endocrine disruption. Chemical residue for tissue will also be made from selected LMB to compare with the bioindicators. Comparisons of contaminated sites and reference site indicated a significantly lower E/T ratio in female LMB from two contaminated sites (Housatonic River in the Connecticut River system and the Anacostia River in the Potomac River system). Additionally, significantly higher E/T ratios in male LMB were found from each of the three river systems. These E/T ratios indicate that endocrine disruption is both estrogenic to male LMB (feminization) and potentially androgenic to the female LMB (masculinization).

  18. The Ni-Cu-PGE mineralized Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, Riacho do Pontal Orogen: Onset of Tonian (ca. 900 Ma) continental rifting in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Silas Santos; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Caxito, Fabrício de Andrade; Uhlein, Alexandre; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Stevenson, Ross

    2016-10-01

    The Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic Complex (BSC) occurs at the extreme northwest of the Riacho do Pontal Orogen Internal Zone, in the northern margin of the São Francisco Craton in Northeast Brazil. The stratigraphy of this medium size (3.5 km wide and 9 km long) layered intrusion consists of four main zones, from bottom to top: Lower Mafic Zone (LMZ; mainly troctolite), Ultramafic Zone (UZ; mainly dunite and minor troctolite); Transitional Mafic Zone (TMZ; mainly troctolite) and an Upper Mafic Zone (UMZ; gabbro and minor anorthosite, troctolite, and ilmenite magnetitite). Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization occurs at the contact of the UZ with the TMZ, consisting of an up to 50 m thick stratabound zone of disseminated magmatic sulfides. An Mg-tholeiitic affinity to the parental magma is indicated by the geochemical fractionation pattern, by the magmatic crystallization sequence and by the elevated Fo content in olivine. A Smsbnd Nd isochron yielded an age of 903 ± 20 Ma, interpreted as the age of crystallization, with initial εNd = 0.8. Evidence of interaction of the BSC parental magma with sialic crust is given by the Rare Earth and trace element patterns, and by slightly negative and overall low values of εNd(900 Ma) in between -0.2 and +3.3. Contrary to early interpretations that it might constitute an ophiolite complex, based mainly on the geochemistry of the host rocks (Morro Branco metavolcanosedimentary complex), here we interpret the BSC as a typical layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in continental crust, related to an extensional regime. The BSC is chrono-correlated to mafic dyke swarms, anorogenic granites and thick bimodal volcanics of similar age and tectonic setting in the São Francisco Craton and surrounding areas. Intrusion of the BSC was followed by continued lithospheric thinning, which led to the development of the Paulistana Complex continental rift volcanics around 888 Ma and ultimately to plate separation and the generation of new oceanic crust (Monte

  19. [Analysis of coverage in the Mortality Information System in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Figueiroa, Barbara de Queiroz; Vanderlei, Lygia Carmen de Moraes; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Carvalho, Patricia Ismael de; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2013-03-01

    This article analyzes the coverage of the Mortality Information System (SIM) in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in the year 2008. The study involved secondary data from SIM on deaths (excluding stillbirths) in residents of the municipality and primary data from the Active Search of Deaths and Births in the Northeast and Legal Amazonia, which collected the events from multiple sources and located deaths that had not been reported to the system. Coverage was calculated as the number of deaths recorded in SIM divided by the total (SIM + active search). The study showed 94.8% coverage and detected an important contribution by notary public offices to the identification of deaths that were missing from the SIM. Of these unreported deaths, 29.7% occurred in health services, 49% occurred at home with death certificates signed by private physicians, and 25.5% had been attested by the forensic examiner's office. The method allowed calculating the coverage rate for the Mortality Information System in a municipality in the metropolitan area. Despite the low proportion of deaths missing in the system, the study detected problems with data collection and flow.

  20. Integration of Earth System Models and Workflow Management under iRODS for the Northeast Regional Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, F.; Yang, P.; Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM, NSF Award #1049181) integrates weather research and forecasting models, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, a water balance/transport model, and mesoscale and energy systems input-out economic models developed by interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy. NE-RESM is intended to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. Integration of model components and the development of cyberinfrastructure for interacting with the system is facilitated with the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS), a distributed data grid that provides archival storage with metadata facilities and a rule-based workflow engine for automating and auditing scientific workflows.

  1. Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS): A Multi-scale Global-Regional-Estuarine FVCOM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, R. C.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS) is a global-regional-estuarine integrated atmosphere/surface wave/ocean forecast model system designed for the northeast US coastal region covering a computational domain from central New Jersey to the eastern end of the Scotian Shelf. The present system includes 1) the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting); 2) the regional-domain FVCOM covering the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank/New England Shelf region (GOM-FVCOM); 3) the unstructured-grid surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE) modified from SWAN with the same domain as GOM-FVCOM; 3) the Mass coastal FVCOM with inclusion of inlets, estuaries and intertidal wetlands; and 4) three subdomain wave-current coupled inundation FVCOM systems in Scituate, MA, Hampton River, NH and Mass Bay, MA. GOM-FVCOM grid features unstructured triangular meshes with horizontal resolution of ~ 0.3-25 km and a hybrid terrain-following vertical coordinate with a total of 45 layers. The Mass coastal FVCOM grid is configured with triangular meshes with horizontal resolution up to ~10 m, and 10 layers in the vertical. Scituate, Hampton River and Mass Bay inundation model grids include both water and land with horizontal resolution up to ~5-10 m and 10 vertical layers. GOM-FVCOM is driven by surface forcing from WRF model output configured for the region (with 9-km resolution), the COARE3 bulk air-sea flux algorithm, local river discharges, and tidal forcing constructed by eight constituents and subtidal forcing on the boundary nested to the Global-FVCOM. SWAVE is driven by the same WRF wind field with wave forcing at the boundary nested to Wave Watch III configured for the northwestern Atlantic region. The Mass coastal FVCOM and three inundation models are connected with GOM-FVCOM through one-way nesting in the common boundary zones. The Mass coastal FVCOM is driven by the same surface forcing as GOM-FVCOM. The nesting boundary conditions for the inundation models

  2. Composite farming systems in an era of change: Nagaland, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Malcolm; Brookfield, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Composite farming systems, first clearly identified by Rambo, are those in which radically different technologies are found together in a single farming complex. Data from diaries kept by groups of farming families in two Angami Naga villages in northeast India, Khonoma and smaller Tsiesema, detailing inputs into and outputs from wet-rice terraces and jhum (swidden) fields in the years 2000 and 2001, are presented and discussed to detail the workings of related but different composite systems. The 2000–2001 survey caught an important set of changes in midstream. Although returns to labour from the first-year jhums were much higher than those from the wet-rice terraces in 2000–2001, jhums were declining in significance as a growing non-farm economy joined the production of cool-climate vegetables and a spice crop for the Indian market as principal sources of livelihood. This story is told in the light of recent writing on the demise of swidden in the larger Southeast Asian region, and it is suggested that greater attention be paid to the composite systems, which are not uncommon in this region. This might help diversify what has perhaps been an oversimplified discussion. PMID:21847830

  3. Trajectories of Future Land Use for Earth System Modeling of the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Northeast includes some of the nation's most populated cities and their supporting hinterlands, with an urban corridor spanning from Maine to Virginia. The megaregion's centuries-long history of landscape transformations has had enduring impact on the region's hydrology, ecosystems and socioeconomy. Driven by policy decisions made in the next decade, future landscape changes will also interplay with climate change, with multi-decadal effects that are currently poorly understood. While existing national and global land cover trajectories will play an important role in understanding these future impacts, they do not allow for investigation of many issues of interest to regional stakeholders, such as local zoning and suburban sprawl, the development of a regional food system, or varying rates of natural lands protection. Existing land cover trajectories also do not usually provide the detail needed as input drivers for earth system models, such as disaggregated vegetation types or harmonized time series of infrastructure management. We discuss the development of a simple land use/land cover allocation scheme to develop such needed trajectories, their implementation for 4 regional socioeconomic pathways developed collaboratively with regional stakeholders, and their preliminary use in regional ecosystem modeling.

  4. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  5. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  6. Application of GRACE Data for Quantifying Mesoscale Groundwater Stress - Urucuia Aquifer System, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollberg, R.; Gonçalves, R. D.; Weiss, H.; Chang, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides a couple of applications in hydrology research such as total water storage (TWS) changes monitoring, quantitative water cycle components estimation, drought monitoring and hydrological modelling. Limited spatial resolutions of gravity measurements and noise contamination can cause errors and uncertainty of the study objective. Therefore, several GRACE studies recommend application of GRACE data retrievals to areas of interests only larger 200,000 km². The Urucuia Aquifer System (UAS) represents a major strategic water resource for Brazil. UAS is located in the drought-stricken northeast of Brazil and its discharge covers about 30% of the São Francisco River water (4th largest river in South America). Hydrological monitoring of the UAS is of increased importance to guarantee future river water supply and related ecosystem services for the territories crossed. A pre-processed GRACE three-model-ensemble was used to account for TWS changes and a negative balance was revealed for the UAS territory indicating potential water stress. Individual water cycle components needed to be excluded from the total GRACE signal using supplemental data sets to characterize the remaining storage term equivalent to 'water stress'. Comprehensive hydrological ground measurements of precipitation, river discharge, hydraulic heads plus further climate remote-sensing data sources were taken into account trying to distinguish natural from anthropogenic groundwater stress. Consideration of climate data from global hydrological models showed an insufficient accuracy which is related to spatial scaling issues whereas the inclusion of available ground data could increase the overall significance of the GRACE signal for this study. GRACE-based TWS retrievals were applied successfully in combination with comprehensive hydrological monitoring data to quantify potential groundwater storage changes of the 120,000 km² large UAS.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped. PMID:27105417

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  9. Production systems--an example from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, José Bento Sterman; Felício, Pedro Eduardo de

    2010-02-01

    Important information about the Brazilian agribusiness, population and economy are presented in this paper, as well as details of beef production, market, industry and production system, to inform people involved in meat industry about details on demography, production, economy and production systems of a country that is the largest player in beef exports in the world and that uses, mostly, Bos indicus based bovine population, reared under pasture conditions, for meat production purposes. Herd size, genetic evaluation programs, quantity of beef produced and market is informed, with figures about the global and major players' production. Some discussion related to environmental concerns, methane emission and carbon fixation is also presented, as well as meat quality. Meat quality of fed animals is also compared with beef from animals that are raised in pasture conditions.

  10. Strike-slip structural styles and petroleum system evolution, northeast Sakhalin Island

    SciTech Connect

    Meisling, K.E.; Wagner, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    The primary petroleum system of northeast Sakhalin Island and adjacent shelfal areas is comprised of a system of Late Miocene to Quaternary faulted transpressional anticlines that trap oil and gas in Early Miocene to Pliocene deltaic reservoirs sourced from Late Oligocene to Early Miocene diatomaceous shales. Existing production has been limited to onshore anticlines, and offshore structural trends remain undeveloped, despite several discoveries. The regional tectonic evolution of Sakhalin Island can be divided into five major phases: (1) Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene subduction, (2) Middle-Eocene collision and uplift, (3) Late Eocene to Early Oligocene oblique rifting, (4) Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene thermal subsidence, and (5) Late Miocene to Quaternary transpression and inversion. Oil-prone source rocks were deposited during rapid post-rift thermal subsidence of transtensional rift basins and adjacent highs, which provided an ideal sediment-starved setting for source rock accumulation. Reservoir facies were supplied by prograding post-rift Miocene deltaics of the paleo-Amur river, which built a shelf across the thermally subsiding basin and intrabasin highs. Traps were formed when the basin was later inverted during Late Miocene to Pleistocene transpression, which reactivated both Paleogene normal faults and structural trends of the Mesozoic accretionary prism to create a broad zone of distributed shear. Strike-slip structural styles are evidenced by linear, en echelon alignments of doubly-plunging anticlines characterized by numerous small-displacement, transverse normal faults. Strike slip on individual structures is relatively small, however, based on a lack of thorough going faults. Strike-slip structures on Sakhalin Island are considered active, in light of the earthquake of May 27, 1995 (M=7.6) and uplift of Pleistocene marine terraces.

  11. Strike-slip structural styles and petroleum system evolution, northeast Sakhalin Island

    SciTech Connect

    Meisling, K.E.; Wagner, J.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The primary petroleum system of northeast Sakhalin Island and adjacent shelfal areas is comprised of a system of Late Miocene to Quaternary faulted transpressional anticlines that trap oil and gas in Early Miocene to Pliocene deltaic reservoirs sourced from Late Oligocene to Early Miocene diatomaceous shales. Existing production has been limited to onshore anticlines, and offshore structural trends remain undeveloped, despite several discoveries. The regional tectonic evolution of Sakhalin Island can be divided into five major phases: (1) Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene subduction, (2) Middle-Eocene collision and uplift, (3) Late Eocene to Early Oligocene oblique rifting, (4) Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene thermal subsidence, and (5) Late Miocene to Quaternary transpression and inversion. Oil-prone source rocks were deposited during rapid post-rift thermal subsidence of transtensional rift basins and adjacent highs, which provided an ideal sediment-starved setting for source rock accumulation. Reservoir facies were supplied by prograding post-rift Miocene deltaics of the paleo-Amur river, which built a shelf across the thermally subsiding basin and intrabasin highs. Traps were formed when the basin was later inverted during Late Miocene to Pleistocene transpression, which reactivated both Paleogene normal faults and structural trends of the Mesozoic accretionary prism to create a broad zone of distributed shear. Strike-slip structural styles are evidenced by linear, en echelon alignments of doubly-plunging anticlines characterized by numerous small-displacement, transverse normal faults. Strike slip on individual structures is relatively small, however, based on a lack of thorough going faults. Strike-slip structures on Sakhalin Island are considered active, in light of the earthquake of May 27, 1995 (M=7.6) and uplift of Pleistocene marine terraces.

  12. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  13. [Abundance and seasonality of Diptera (Insecta) in a poultry house in the northeast region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Z; da Costa, Fábio H; Lopes, Wilton Carlos Z; Balieiro, Júlio César de C; Soares, Vando E; do Prado, Angelo P

    2008-01-01

    Modern production systems accommodate broody hens in high densities, leading to the accumulation of excrement under the cages. This substrate is excellent for the development of sinantropic flies. Thus, the accomplishment of surveys in these places becomes essential, in order to plan better strategies of control. The present work aimed at studying the entomofauna and the seasonality of the species of dipterous present in the Crisdan poultry house located in the Municipality of São João da Boa Vista, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the period of January of 2001 to December of 2002, 1,012,595 flies were captured using the "jug-trap". The species were identified: Drosophila repleta (Wollaston, 1858), Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758), Ophyra spp., Hermetria illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), and Sepsidae. More frequently D. repleta and M. domestica had added 99.47% of the dipterous. Increased rainfall and the collection months influenced the sampling of dipterous (P<0.05). Drosophila repleta was the most abundant species, representing 91% of all captured flies. However, this diptera did not develop at the surveyed site since immatures were not captured therein.

  14. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D.; Martins, Liline; dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C. S.; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S. C.; Lazéra, Márcia S.; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  15. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  16. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence.

  17. Fronts and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severov, Dimitri

    and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System (BCCS) are stud-ied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984"data, and two Sea surface temperature (SST) data bases: "Meteor satellite"(1989-1994) and "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000).The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, fronts, inter-frontal and frontal zones are analysed and classified: a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; b) the Inter-frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Sub-tropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteris-tics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the fronts of the BCCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. D. N. Severov (a) , V. Pshennikov (b) and A.V. Remeslo (c) a -Sección Oceanologé Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 ıa, a Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2) 525-8618, Fax (598-2) 525-8617, mail: dima@fcien.edu.uy b -Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 Mon-a tevideo, Uruguay, mail: seva@fisica.edu.uy c -Atlantic Research Inst. For Fisheries Oceanology (Atlant

  18. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 3. The versatile maintenance expert system (VMES). Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Srihari, S.N.; Shapiro, S.C.; Upadhyaya, S.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the exploration of methods for developing a versatile expert system for equipment maintenance.

  19. Technological characterization of sheep production systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Camila; Nunes, Bruno César Prosdocimi; Gameiro, Augusto Hauber

    2015-04-01

    Sheep production has expanded in Brazil focusing on lamb meat, mostly to meet demanding internal markets in the state of São Paulo. Such markets present a demand which internal production is insufficient to meet. However, sheep farmers face many technical difficulties to produce quality lambs at viable costs. This study aimed at investigating the main characteristics of sheep production systems of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to provide resources for the development of technologies, policies and other initiatives focused on the activity. We designed in panel meetings the characteristics of representative sheep farms in five regions of the state, concerning: (i) property and manpower profile; (ii) flock; (iii) handling techniques; (iv) facilities and equipment; (v) food production; and (vi) technical indicators. Results demonstrate that the predominant sheep farming in the state employs low technology, presenting low productivity despite its evolution in recent years. We verified great technical deficiency regarding farmers, who are new in this business and usually do not have access to technologies. Producers' unawareness about basic handling procedures and techniques as well as their lack of flock records can contribute to the activity's unsustainability. There is need for improving rural extension and diffusion of technologies.

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 13. Image understanding and intelligent parallel systems. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge-based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topics for this volume are various aspects of parallel, structural and optimal techniques in computer vision.

  1. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil`s system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M.; Barbosa, R.I.

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil`s far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil`s system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project`s high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Aquatic Ecosystem Services in the 21st Century Northeast Corridor: Assessment Using a Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R. J.; Wollheim, W. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Northeast United States will be significantly impacted by both global climate change and the regional-scale strategic management decisions made in the next few years. We have developed a Regional Earth System Model for the Northeast Corridor (NE-RESM) that simulates the impacts of climate, land use, and development policy on the interacting cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. The NE-RESM will provide a unique and critically needed tool for policymakers to understand how their current decisions will impact ecosystem services over the 21st Century. To test our modeling framework, we conducted a retrospective experiment focusing on the water-energy-economy nexus during the period 2000-2010. Component models were developed to 'translate' physical outputs from the NE-RESM - such as stream discharge and water temperature - into ecosystem services including water regulation for thermoelectric cooling and the ability for streams to serve as a refugia for wildlife. Simulations were performed both with and without Clean Water Act limits on thermal pollution. Through this work, we were able to obtain spatially distributed information on how these laws impact power generation by the thermoelectric sector but also enable Northeast streams to serve as habitat for temperature-sensitive aquatic species (Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, River Herring and the American Eel). Our ongoing research examines future climate and policy scenarios through 2100. We are considering the impact of changing land cover patterns (a return to agriculture vs. suburban sprawl) and various strategies to meet energy and municipal water needs under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5).

  3. Characteristics of the distribution of doctors in the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in the states of Brazil's Northeast.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Priscila Tamar Alves; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Leite, Antonio Flaudiano Bem; Carvalho, Islândia Maria de Sousa; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano; Brito-Silva, Keila Silene de

    2016-09-01

    Inequalities in access to health, reflecting shortages and inadequate geographical distribution of health professionals, have been indicated as a challenge for Brazil. This paper analyzes the geographical distribution of professionals of the Mais Médicos Program allocated in the Northeastern Region of Brazil, through a descriptive cross-sectional study. Secondary data provided by the Health Ministry were used, and thematic maps of distribution of doctors in the Region were prepared. Data on 4,716 doctors who became members of health teams in 1,294 municipalities in six Indigenous Health Districts in the years 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. The greater part of the municipalities of the Region received between one and five doctors. The municipalities most benefited had, at least, 20% of their population in extreme poverty. 99.9% of the doctors were allocated in a Health Center or Primary Healthcare Unit. The majority were women (57%), predominantly of the 45-49 age group (24%). In spite of the advances achieved by the Program - such as distribution of the doctors in locations with greater vulnerability - some States continue to have significant shortages of healthcare.

  4. Characteristics of the distribution of doctors in the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in the states of Brazil's Northeast.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Priscila Tamar Alves; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Leite, Antonio Flaudiano Bem; Carvalho, Islândia Maria de Sousa; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano; Brito-Silva, Keila Silene de

    2016-09-01

    Inequalities in access to health, reflecting shortages and inadequate geographical distribution of health professionals, have been indicated as a challenge for Brazil. This paper analyzes the geographical distribution of professionals of the Mais Médicos Program allocated in the Northeastern Region of Brazil, through a descriptive cross-sectional study. Secondary data provided by the Health Ministry were used, and thematic maps of distribution of doctors in the Region were prepared. Data on 4,716 doctors who became members of health teams in 1,294 municipalities in six Indigenous Health Districts in the years 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. The greater part of the municipalities of the Region received between one and five doctors. The municipalities most benefited had, at least, 20% of their population in extreme poverty. 99.9% of the doctors were allocated in a Health Center or Primary Healthcare Unit. The majority were women (57%), predominantly of the 45-49 age group (24%). In spite of the advances achieved by the Program - such as distribution of the doctors in locations with greater vulnerability - some States continue to have significant shortages of healthcare. PMID:27653073

  5. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Klein, Carlos Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. Objective To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Methods Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Results Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Conclusions Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes. PMID:25004417

  6. "Sick and unable to march:" life and death in the army of the Dutch West India Company in the Northeast of Brazil, 1630-1654.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Bruno Romero Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Of the many evils that were inflicted upon the army of the West India Company in its years of activity in Brazil, few could be compared to diseases. However, there is little quantitative data in the field of historiography regarding the impact of disease on these troops. Apart from the limited amount of information about the diseases that affected many soldiers, little is known about the medical treatments that were available, the main diseases that affected the troops, and what were the causes. This article provides information to understand aspects that have been little studied in quantitative and systematic terms in the field of historiography, and demonstrates how the diseases afflicted the Company and affected its actions in the territory.

  7. Effects of Bayluscide WP 70 on the survival and water-leaving behaviour of Biomphalaria straminea, snail host of schistosomiasis in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sarquis, O; Pieri, O S; dos Santos, J A

    1997-01-01

    The toxic and behavioural effects of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70) on Biomphalaria straminea from a highly endemic area of schistosomiasis in northeastern Brazil were investigated through laboratory bioassays. The LD50 and LD90 were 0.114 mg/l and 0.212 mg/l, respectively. Water-leaving behaviour occurred among 14% to 30% of the snails in the presence of sublethal doses of niclosamide and among 16% of the controls. It was concluded that both the relatively low susceptibility to niclosamide and water-leaving behaviour of local B. straminea may be responsible for the recolonization of transmission foci after mollusciciding. It was suggested that recently improved measures of snail control, such as controlled-release formulations of niclosamide and plant molluscicides should be considered in areas where snail control is recommended.

  8. The role of CSP in Brazil: A multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Rafael; Lucena, André F. P.; Tomaschek, Jan; Fichter, Tobias; Haasz, Thomas; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto; Rochedo, Pedro; Fahl, Ulrich; Kern, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    MESSAGE, TIMES and REMIX-CEM are potential tools for modelling a larger penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) into the Brazilian power system. They also allow devising the opportunities that concentrated solar power (CSP) plants offer to the power system and to the wider energy system. There are different opportunities for CSP in Brazil in the short and medium term, consolidating this technology as a feasible alternative for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in Brazil. This work verified that CSP is a cost-effective option only under very stringent mitigation scenarios (4DS and 2DS) and when carbon capture and storage (CCS) is not available. Still, according to the findings of REMIX-CEM-B, CSP can provide firm energy and dispatchable capacity in the Northeast region of Brazil, optimally complementing wind and PV generation. Moreover, CSP can offer additional flexibility to the Northeast power system, especially during winter and after 2030.

  9. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  10. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  11. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  12. [Community structure and biological integrity of periphyton in Hunhe River water system of Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xu-wang; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Ying; Li, Qing-nan; Meng, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Taking the Hunhe River water system in Liaoning Province of Northeast China as a case, this paper investigated the community structure of periphyton and the physical and chemical characteristics of water environment at 62 sampling sites, and, by using the biological integrity index of periphyton (P-IBI) and the habitat environment quality index (QHEI), a health assessment on the aquatic ecosystem of the water system was conducted. There was a great spatial heterogeneity in the periphyton community structure, and the sampling sites could be divided into 4 groups, with significant differences in the community structure, species richness, density, and Shannon diversity index among the groups. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and dissolved phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) were the main water environment factors driving the formation of the periphyton community structure in the water system. The health assessment of the water system based on P-IBI and QHEI was basically in consistency, though the assessment of several reaches had large discrepancy. Overall, the Suzi River at the upper reaches of the water system had a better health status, while the upper reaches of Hunhe River and the main stream of Hunhe River at its middle and lower reaches were worse in health.

  13. Community of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) parasites of resident birds at the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Valim, M P; Gama, R A

    2014-09-01

    The current study describes the chewing lice community associated with seabird populations resident at the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Adults of three species of seabirds were captured using hand-nets for the collection of biometric data and specimens of ectoparasites. In total, 320 birds were examined (120 Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), Brown Booby; 120 Anous stolidus (L.), --Brown Noddy; and 80 Anous minutus Boie, Black Noddy) of which 95% were infested with 8,625 chewing lice, representing eight species of the genera Actornithophilus, Austromenopon, Eidmanniella, Pectinopygus, Quadraceps, and Saemundssonia. On S. leucogaster, Pectinopygus garbei (Pessôa & Guimarães) was more prevalent and had a mean and median intensity of infestation significantly greater than those recorded for Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget). On the two Noddies, the species of Actornithophilus and Quadraceps were significantly more prevalent and abundant than Austromenopon atrofulvum (Piaget) and Saemundssonia remota Timmermann Most of the louse species had a highly aggregated distribution, with k exponent of the negative binomial distribution ranging from 0.04 to 3.06. A weak but significant correlation was found between the abundance of chewing lice and morphometric variables (body weight, wing, beak, tail, and tarsus lengths). It is possible that high rates of infestation have a negative effect on the morphological characteristics of the hosts, including the health of the plumage. All the lice species collected--except for P. garbei (ex S. leucogaster)--were reported for the first time from Brazilian populations of these seabird species. PMID:25276921

  14. Tracing the Origins and Processes of Groundwater Salinization in Coastal Aquifers with a Multi-isotopes Approach. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Bertrand, G.; Kloppmann, W.; Aquilina, L.; Pauwels, H.; Martins, V.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. By focusing on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer, this work aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. Two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area constitute the site basement. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that were distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high 87Sr/86Sr with a large range of values (0.7102-0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower values (0.7097-0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation. Although sulfate isotopes, Electrical Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. δ18O-δ2H clearly evidence the local present day recharge in the surficial aquifer, some samples being affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water from dams used for water supply. The deep aquifers display a high range of B (20-600µg/L) and δ11B (6.7-68.5‰) with some of the highest values known to date. Multiple sources and processes affect the B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. The surficial aquifers are locally salinized possibly due to present seawater intrusion, and highly contaminated with

  15. Gender relations, the gendered division of labour and health: the case of the women factory workers of Rio Tinto, northeast Brazil, 1924-91.

    PubMed

    Ferreira De Macedo, M B

    1996-01-01

    This article examines gendered work-health relationships among female factory workers in Rio Tinto, a textile factory town in Brazil. The author draws on her own and her parents' experiences as factory workers and as residents of Rio Tinto. In addition, she gathered research during 1982-86 and 1988-93, interviewing 30 female and 12 male workers. Findings from 1924-58 and 1959-91 indicate that the family structure and work process were interlinked. Self-images are construed to be the intersection of social relations of sex and class, psychopathology, and the concept of work positions. Gendered relations are a social construction, and awareness of these relations is based on a hierarchy and form of power based on a gendered division of labor. Gendered relations arise out of a specific historical context. Social practices reflect the relationship between sexual division of labor and gendered social relations, their modalities, shape, and periodization. The work-health relationship is expressed in the gendered technical organization of work, the gendered socialization of work, and domestic labor. The period of 1917-58 reflects the capitalist influences. When women became wage earners, their management of household tasks was changed. Men took over the heavy tasks, and women performed tasks that required skill and patience. Work-related health impacts, such as deformed knees or severed fingers, and accidents varied with the task. Women adapted to work conditions. During the 1940s, female workers refused to join the collective protests of men for better wages and conditions. The dream of progress faded by 1964. After 1959, new gendered relations of production and reproduction emerged. Labor laws were passed; new machines were introduced. During 1965-70, the health issues were headaches, irritability, and anxiety. 1970-91 brought a hollowness of spirit and the search for an explanation for the violence they had experienced.

  16. Community of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) parasites of resident birds at the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Valim, M P; Gama, R A

    2014-09-01

    The current study describes the chewing lice community associated with seabird populations resident at the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Adults of three species of seabirds were captured using hand-nets for the collection of biometric data and specimens of ectoparasites. In total, 320 birds were examined (120 Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), Brown Booby; 120 Anous stolidus (L.), --Brown Noddy; and 80 Anous minutus Boie, Black Noddy) of which 95% were infested with 8,625 chewing lice, representing eight species of the genera Actornithophilus, Austromenopon, Eidmanniella, Pectinopygus, Quadraceps, and Saemundssonia. On S. leucogaster, Pectinopygus garbei (Pessôa & Guimarães) was more prevalent and had a mean and median intensity of infestation significantly greater than those recorded for Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget). On the two Noddies, the species of Actornithophilus and Quadraceps were significantly more prevalent and abundant than Austromenopon atrofulvum (Piaget) and Saemundssonia remota Timmermann Most of the louse species had a highly aggregated distribution, with k exponent of the negative binomial distribution ranging from 0.04 to 3.06. A weak but significant correlation was found between the abundance of chewing lice and morphometric variables (body weight, wing, beak, tail, and tarsus lengths). It is possible that high rates of infestation have a negative effect on the morphological characteristics of the hosts, including the health of the plumage. All the lice species collected--except for P. garbei (ex S. leucogaster)--were reported for the first time from Brazilian populations of these seabird species.

  17. Hydrology of a Tropical Estuarine System: Itamaracá, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Carmen; Kjerfve, Björn

    1993-05-01

    The Itamaracá estuarine system, located in northeastern Brazil is formed by an elongated U-shaped channel, Canal de Santa Cruz, which connects to the South Atlantic Ocean at the two ends and receives runoff from six small rivers. The estuary is surrounded by mangrove wetlands, while its off-shore area is shielded by extensive shore-parallel sandstone reefs and sand banks, which reduce the water exchange. Tides at both entrances are semidiurnal, in phase, and have mean and spring ranges of 1·8 m and 2·2 m, respectively. Typically, flood tides last 6·9 h while ebb tides extend for 5·5 h. Tidal currents lag water elevation by 86-94° and there is a phase lag of 15-20 min. in water elevation between the inner channel and the estuarine mouth. Monthly rainfall during peak rainy season (PRS) is 0·34 m per month and during peak dry season (PDS) only 0·06 m per month. Considering evaporation, evapotranspiration, runoff and river discharge, the fresh-water input into the estuary is 57·7 m 3 s -1 during PRS, but only 0·2 m 3 s -1 during PRS, a 300-fold difference. This difference in water supply governs, to a large extent, the hydrodynamics of the system. During PDS, the channel is well mixed, and slightly hypersaline. Mean salinity ranges from 31 to 36%, reaching 38·6% near the bottom. This condition results from a combination of low river discharge, high evapotranspiration, east-southeast winds and from the presence of saline water masses at the estuarine entrances. Large concentrations of TSS inside the channel during PDS suggest that these water masses act as a dynamic harrier, inhibiting flushing. During PRS, this situation no longer exists, and exchange of material between the estuary and off-shore waters occurs more readily. The system is partially mixed, gravitational circulation prevails, and mean salinity ranges from 20 to 32%.

  18. Multi-isotopes constraints on the origins and processes of groundwater salinization in coastal aquifers. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Pauwels, Helène; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study focuses on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer and aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. The RMR basement is constituted by two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that can be distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high strontium isotope ratios with a large range of values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7102 to 0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower 87Sr/86Sr values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097 to 0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation dating from the Atlantic opening. Although sulfate isotopes, Electric Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a clear mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. Stable isotopes of the water molecule clearly evidence the local present day recharge especially within the surficial aquifer, whereas some samples are affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water originating from dam used for water supply. The two deep aquifers display a high range of B concentrations (~20 to 600 µg.L-1) and B isotope composition (δ11B = 6.7 to 68.5 ‰), with the highest values known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B

  19. Microbiological aspects of an urban river used for unrestricted irrigation in the semi-arid region of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, B S O; Soares, N E; Moraes, M R; Catão, R M R; Konig, A

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the behaviour of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria), faecal indicators (faecal coliforms FC and faecal streptococci FS), somatic coliphages and F-specific bacteriophages in an urban river contaminated with domestic sewage and surface run-off from agricultural and cattle grazing lands. The influence of physical and chemical parameters was also investigated as well as Salmonella and Listeria serotype diversity and drug resistance patterns. Faecal contamination was high (FC = 5 x 10(6) - 4 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL; FS = 4 x 10(5) - 2 x 10(2) CFU/100 mL) but decreased along the river by up to 99.5% following 47% reduction of BOD5 and 91% increase of DO, both associated with the self purification process. Somatic coliphages (6.9 x 10(5) - 1 x 10(3) PFU/100 mL) and F-specific bacteriophages (5.8 x 10(4) - 65 PFU/100 mL) behaved similarly with reductions of 99.85%. Salmonella and Listeria were isolated at all sampling points with highestfrequencies (91-100%) at those with sewage discharge and rural water run-off. The lowest value (35%) occurred at the end of the river where it was (a) wider and shallower, (b) it ran slower and was warmer (29-33 degrees C), (c) the pH was alkaline (8.2-9.9), (d) electrical conductivity (2,200-5,800 microS/cm) and DO (6-13 mg/L) were highest. Pathogen decline did not follow exactly FC and FS reduction patterns, while physical and chemical parameters apparently did not interfere with Salmonella and Listeria survival to the same extent as they did with FC and FS. Somatic coliphages and F-specific bacteriophages did not show more resistance than bacterial indicators. Catchment area contribution seemed to be more significant for pathogens than for indicators and rainy periods increased pathogenic isolation frequency. Five Salmonella serotypes and five serogroups were identified. S. hadar and serogroup E were predominant (50%); both are increasing in Brazil apparently from animal sources. Nearly 25% of Salmonella strains

  20. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. [THE CHARACTERISTIC OF SOMATOTYPE AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM OF STUDENT YOUTH OF THE NORTHEAST OF RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Timofeieva, A V; Klimova, T M; Mikhailova, A E; Zakharova, R N; Vinokurova, S P; Timofeiev, L F

    2015-01-01

    The article considers results of single-step study in random sampling of female students of the M.K. Ammosov north-east federal university (n=456). The study was carried out to investigate somatotype and functional state of circulatory system. The standard technique was applied to measure height, body mass, chest circumference, level of arterial pressure and rate of heart beats. The type of somatotype was established using Pignet index. The tone of vegetative system was determined using Kérdö index. The adaptation potential of circulatory system was determined using functional changes index. The results of study established that in 61% of examined female students the type of constitution corresponds to normosthenic one. The percentage of persons with asthenic and hypersthenic type of constitution amounted to 27% and 12% correspondingly. The signs of increasing oftone ofsympathetic nervous system are observed in 89% of girls. The functional condition of circulatory system is evaluated as "tension of adaptation mechanisms" that is apparently related to period of adaptation to new conditions. The prolonged preservation of such states results in exhaustion offunctional resources of organism and can promote development of diseases. In conditions of impacting of unfavorable ecological factors the deconditionning disorders can significantly contribute to health disturbances and decreasing of life quality. To preserve youth's health during period of education the comprehensive strategy is to be implemented such components as dynamic monitoring of health, organization of adequate diet, explanation of necessity of observance of sleep and rest pattern, development of conditions for active aerobic physical exertion and activities on correction of risk factors of development of diseases are to be included. PMID:26987173

  2. [THE CHARACTERISTIC OF SOMATOTYPE AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM OF STUDENT YOUTH OF THE NORTHEAST OF RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Timofeieva, A V; Klimova, T M; Mikhailova, A E; Zakharova, R N; Vinokurova, S P; Timofeiev, L F

    2015-01-01

    The article considers results of single-step study in random sampling of female students of the M.K. Ammosov north-east federal university (n=456). The study was carried out to investigate somatotype and functional state of circulatory system. The standard technique was applied to measure height, body mass, chest circumference, level of arterial pressure and rate of heart beats. The type of somatotype was established using Pignet index. The tone of vegetative system was determined using Kérdö index. The adaptation potential of circulatory system was determined using functional changes index. The results of study established that in 61% of examined female students the type of constitution corresponds to normosthenic one. The percentage of persons with asthenic and hypersthenic type of constitution amounted to 27% and 12% correspondingly. The signs of increasing oftone ofsympathetic nervous system are observed in 89% of girls. The functional condition of circulatory system is evaluated as "tension of adaptation mechanisms" that is apparently related to period of adaptation to new conditions. The prolonged preservation of such states results in exhaustion offunctional resources of organism and can promote development of diseases. In conditions of impacting of unfavorable ecological factors the deconditionning disorders can significantly contribute to health disturbances and decreasing of life quality. To preserve youth's health during period of education the comprehensive strategy is to be implemented such components as dynamic monitoring of health, organization of adequate diet, explanation of necessity of observance of sleep and rest pattern, development of conditions for active aerobic physical exertion and activities on correction of risk factors of development of diseases are to be included.

  3. Impacts of mire reclamation on dynamics of dissolved nutrients in fluvial systems in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuedong; Song, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Wan, Zhongmei

    2012-11-01

    As an important nutrient reservoir, the mires in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China have been suffering from large-scale agriculture reclamation since the 1960s. The effects of the long-term reclamation on the dynamics of the dissolved nutrients in fluvial systems are revealed through surveying the export concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the natural mire, degraded mire and drainage ditches during the growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. The results show that the mean concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, 2.03 ± 0.355 mg l(-1)) are much higher in natural mire than in degraded mire (1.15 ± 0.247 mg l(-1)) and ditches (1.03 ± 0.231 mg l(-1)), and the fraction lessened is primarily the organic part of nitrogen. It indicates that the long-term mire reclamation has led to a significant reduction in TDN concentrations in the surface fluvial system, and has changed the dominant nitrogen components from organic to inorganic formation. In comparison, the concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) have no significant difference between natural mire and degraded mire or ditches, which demonstrates that mire reclamation has no impact on TDP export dynamics in the fluvial system. The seasonal dynamics of TDN are strongly correlated to dissolved organic carbon at almost all the sample sites, and mire reclamation does not alter the C : N ratio in the fluvial system, but lowers N : P ratio remarkably. The long-term reclamation exerts distinctly different effects on the export dynamics of TDN and TDP in the fluvial system in the Sanjiang Plain. Specific goals and methods ought to be determined if ecological management and recovery measures are to be carried out.

  4. Changes in the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna of the Bear Creek system of Northwest Alabama and Northeast Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Garner, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Drastic reductions in diversity and abundance of mussel populations are documented in many systems. Bear Creek, located in northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi, has seen changes to its fauna, possibly the result of impoundment, channelization, wastewater discharge, and sedimentation from such sources such as strip mining, agriculture, and silviculture. The most obvious influences have been impoundment of the lowermost 32 km of Bear Creek by Pickwick Reservoir of Tennessee River, the construction of four dams within the system, construction of a 29-km-long channel designed to limit flooding, and bank destabilization. Mussels are absent from much of the system and faunal composition has apparently been altered where mussels persist, based on comparison to limited previous studies. The most notable changes are the loss of Cumberlandian species diversity and the apparent increase in Ohioan species diversity. We sampled 40 stations in the Bear Creek system and report 32 mussel species live or fresh dead, including 3 Cumberlandian species, and 2 others weathered dead. Fourteen of these species were not reported in two earlier studies. During this study the most depauperate populations were upstream of Bear Creek km 41.0 and in tributaries. No mussels were collected immediately downstream of dams, and diversity gradually increased downstream from the lowermost main channel dam until 28 species occurred together in a free-flowing reach shortly before entering Pickwick Reservoir. One weathered dead zebra mussel, Dreisenna polymorpha, was also collected, representing a new tributary record. The population of Epioblasma brevidens in Bear Creek is the only population of that species known in the lower Tennessee River system, and the population of Lexingtonia dolabelloides, another new tributary record, is one of only two populations of that species known downstream of Paint Rock River.

  5. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  6. Soil fauna community in the black soil of northeast China under different conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fauna is an important component in soil ecosystem. Through the soil moisture changes, soil environment is changed under different tillage systems, and then the population of soil fauna also is changed. This study tested whether conservation tillage or conventional tillage (CT) of black soil fie...

  7. Talang Akar-Cibulakan( ) petroleum systems, Arjuna Basin, offshore Northeast Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Gresko, M.J. ); Sinclair, S.W. )

    1996-01-01

    The Talang Akar-Cibulakan( ) petroleum systems occur in the Arjuna basin, one of a series of basins on the southern edge of the Sunda craton originating during a major Eocene-Oligocene period of extension. Total in-place hydrocarbons of 2.5 BBO and 3 TCFG have been discovered since 1968. Over 1000 wells have been drilled, and 1 BBO and 1.1-TCFG have been produced from 70 fields. Major reservoirs are Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Talang Aker Formation and Middle to Upper Miocene shallow-marine sandstones of the Cibulakan Formation. Geochemical analyses indicate that Talang Aker coals and shales are the principal source of hydrocarbons in this prolific petroleum systems. This source interval has thicknesses from <125 m on flanks and highs to > 600 m in the axis of the basin. These source rocks contain main; terrestrially-derived organic mater but source quality varies considerably. Carbonaceous shales are mainly gas prone while liptinite-enriched coals are good oil and gas source rocks. Geohistory modelling indicates that hydrocarbon generation was initiated by Middle Miocene (15 mya) and reached its peak at Upper Miocene (10 mya). Primary migration at Middle Miocene resulted in hydrocarbon charge of interbedded reservoir rocks. Secondary migration since post-Upper Miocene, concurrent with renewed tectonism, has been mainly vertical through fault-related fractures. Basin-wide source rock and hydrocarbon characteristics, in combination with structural and stratigraphic framework, define these supercharged and vertically drained petroleum systems.

  8. Talang Akar-Cibulakan(!) petroleum systems, Arjuna Basin, offshore Northeast Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Gresko, M.J.; Sinclair, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Talang Akar-Cibulakan(!) petroleum systems occur in the Arjuna basin, one of a series of basins on the southern edge of the Sunda craton originating during a major Eocene-Oligocene period of extension. Total in-place hydrocarbons of 2.5 BBO and 3 TCFG have been discovered since 1968. Over 1000 wells have been drilled, and 1 BBO and 1.1-TCFG have been produced from 70 fields. Major reservoirs are Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Talang Aker Formation and Middle to Upper Miocene shallow-marine sandstones of the Cibulakan Formation. Geochemical analyses indicate that Talang Aker coals and shales are the principal source of hydrocarbons in this prolific petroleum systems. This source interval has thicknesses from <125 m on flanks and highs to > 600 m in the axis of the basin. These source rocks contain main; terrestrially-derived organic mater but source quality varies considerably. Carbonaceous shales are mainly gas prone while liptinite-enriched coals are good oil and gas source rocks. Geohistory modelling indicates that hydrocarbon generation was initiated by Middle Miocene (15 mya) and reached its peak at Upper Miocene (10 mya). Primary migration at Middle Miocene resulted in hydrocarbon charge of interbedded reservoir rocks. Secondary migration since post-Upper Miocene, concurrent with renewed tectonism, has been mainly vertical through fault-related fractures. Basin-wide source rock and hydrocarbon characteristics, in combination with structural and stratigraphic framework, define these supercharged and vertically drained petroleum systems.

  9. [Distribution of sediment iron of the ditch system in Sanjiang Plain, northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Chun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Jiang, Ming; Xi, Min

    2009-03-15

    The iron distribution of the multi-level ditch system (hair canal-field canal-lateral canal-branch canal-main canal) was studied through total iron determination of the sediments (0-60 cm). The results showed that the mean concentration was (3.02 +/- 0.10) x 10(4) mg x kg(-1). Extremely significant difference was obseved between different ditch level (F = 6.261, p < 0.001), and the highest and the lowest concentration were present in the farmland lateral canal (3.71 x 10(4) mg x kg(-1)) and wetland canal (2.43 x 10(4) mg x kg(-1)), respectively. The difference of different sediment layers was not significant (F = 0.093, p = 0.693), while the iron concentrations of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm sediments were 51.96% and 62.22% higher than that of the natural wetland soil nearby, respectively. Iron can transfer with the runoff in a certain extent, but it was not cumulated along the ditch system with the largest cumulation location at the third level. The runoff containing iron decreased gradully because of the wetland protection and climate change nowadays. The horizontal transfer of iron along the ditch system indicated the timing and intensity of iron loss in the past since the canals were dredged. PMID:19432346

  10. The debatable role of courts in Brazil's health care system: does litigation harm or help?

    PubMed

    Prado, Mariana Mota

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of the Brazilian case suggest that successful litigation can have regressive effects and negatively impact the health care system. While the data to support this claim is not conclusive, this paper assumes that such immediate regressive effects are indeed taking place, but asks if these are the only consequences that should be analyzed in assessing the impact of right to health litigation in Brazil. The answer is no. The current perspective adopted to assess right to health litigation in Brazil is too narrow. Other consequences can and should be considered in analyzing the overall impact of litigation. To go beyond the set of questions asked by the existing experts on the topic, this paper analyzes whether the right to health litigation in Brazil has the potential, and could be generating: (i) policy changes within the health care system; (ii) institutional changes within the health care system; and (iii) institutional changes outside the health care system. After presenting anecdotal evidence that suggests these three types of changes may be happening in Brazil, I conclude the paper by discussing what would be required to assess them, and how these changes may affect our overall assessment of the more immediate and supposedly negative impact that litigation has had on the system.

  11. North-East Atlantic Current Systems from 10 Years of Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, C.; Fernandes, M. J.; Alves, M.

    2006-07-01

    At the Faculty of Science, University of Porto (FCUP), Portugal, data from several altimeter missions have been regularly reprocessed using state-of-art geophysical corrections and have been used for oceanographic applications, the main focus being the Cape Verde Archipelago and the Iberia Peninsula regions. In this study, some of the latest results for the North- East (NE) Atlantic region comprising the upwelling systems that occur along the African and Iberian coasts, obtained from a continuous 10-year SLA data set of merged data from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1 (J1), ERS-2 and Envisat (EN) missions, are shown. This data set was generated with the aim of analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of the ocean currents associated with the upwelling systems along the coasts, known as rich and diverse ecosystems. This regional study covers the NE Atlantic between latitudes 10°N and 50°N and longitudes 30°W and 5°W.

  12. Evaluating probabilistic dengue risk forecasts from a prototype early warning system for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel; Coelho, Caio As; Barcellos, Christovam; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Catão, Rafael De Castro; Coelho, Giovanini E; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Bailey, Trevor C; Stephenson, David B; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a prototype dengue early warning system was developed to produce probabilistic forecasts of dengue risk three months ahead of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. Here, we evaluate the categorical dengue forecasts across all microregions in Brazil, using dengue cases reported in June 2014 to validate the model. We also compare the forecast model framework to a null model, based on seasonal averages of previously observed dengue incidence. When considering the ability of the two models to predict high dengue risk across Brazil, the forecast model produced more hits and fewer missed events than the null model, with a hit rate of 57% for the forecast model compared to 33% for the null model. This early warning model framework may be useful to public health services, not only ahead of mass gatherings, but also before the peak dengue season each year, to control potentially explosive dengue epidemics. PMID:26910315

  13. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  14. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

  15. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  16. Reconstructing normal fault systems with synextensional lacustrine sediments: Examples from northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Tertiary history of the Windermere Hills, NE Nevada includes the development of five overprinted extensional fault systems which range from late Eocene to middle Miocene in age. Definition of the age, stratigraphic architecture and sedimentary facies in synextensional half-grabens permits reconstruction of the complex extensional chronology of this area. The earliest Tertiary strata exposed in the region consist of late Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic deposits whose thickness does not change significantly within the study area. This, and recognition that these strata are tilted similar amounts as younger synextensional sediments suggest they are not directly associated with normal faulting. Conglomerate interbedded in the calc-alkaline volcanic sequence is associated with steep-sided volcanic landforms suggesting that late Eocene (39-41 Ma) relief was produced by volcanic processes and not extensional faulting. Early Oligocene and middle Miocene synextensional deposits are differentiated by their wedge-shaped stratigraphic architecture, fault bounded margins, and abrupt thickness and facies variations. Sedimentary facies in these basins are dominated by aggraded lacustrine fan delta deposits which fine abruptly basinward. Age dating of these strata suggest that 1-3 kilometers of sediment were deposited in 2-4 Ma in rapidly subsiding half-grabens. Synextensional sediments are also associated with similarly aged unconformities and paleovalleys in adjacent uplifted blocks. Definition of the timing of basin margin faults hinges on their correct correlation with coarse-grained marginal facies associated with a particular episode of extension. Problems are illustrated in fault bounded half-grabens which contain fine-grained lacustrine sediments in marginal settings.

  17. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  18. Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 9. A planner system for the application of indications and warning. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Nirenburg, S.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge based maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the design of a planning system for an Indications and Warning (IW) application.

  20. Brazil: A Country Study on the Education System of Brazil and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Education Institutions in the United States. World Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, M. Lou

    2004-01-01

    This volume of the Projects for International Education Research (PIER), World Education Series is a study of the structure and content of the education system of Brazil together with a formal set of placement recommendations based upon the author's research. The placement recommendations have been reviewed and officially approved by the National…

  1. Emplacement, offset history, and recent uplift of basement within the San Andreas Fault System, northeast San Gabriel Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Miles Douglas

    1999-11-01

    Mapping, petrography, cross-sections, structure contours, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism analogues of summed moment tensors have provided insights into the reconstruction and deformation associated with the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gabriel and Western San Bernardino Mountains (WSBM) of the Central Transverse Ranges. The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) represent a Quaternary 'arch' that extends across the northwest trending San Andreas Fault (SAF). Mechanisms to explain the relatively large magnitudes of uplift on both sides of this relatively straight strike slip fault have been problematical. The uplift results from the interactions between the right lateral San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and SAF, and the thrust Cucamonga-Sierra Madre Faults (CF-SMF). Uplift south of the SAF occurs as the SGM Block propagates through the restraining bend at the intersection of the SJF and SAF at the surface, which has produced an antiform in the topography of the range and in the Vincent Thrust. Uplift is also due to motion on the CF-SMF. Uplift north of the SAF is attributed to an upper-crustal north-dipping subsurface restraining bend in the SAF due to the projected intersection of the CF-SMF and SJF, with the SAF. Northwest migration of the restraining bend in the Quaternary has produced a ˜1.5 km high, northeast dipping monocline in crystalline basement which is adjacent and parallel to the SAF. Reverse faults and deformation of alluvial terraces document a northwest migrating locus of compression and uplift. Toward the southeast, the subsurface restraining bend becomes a subsurface lateral ramp where the SJF intersects the SAF at depth. Crystalline basement of the Holcomb Ridge-Table Mountain 'slice' consists of a syntectonically emplaced, intercalated, north-dipping, igneous and metamorphic suite. Cretaceous igneous rocks were emplaced as tabular bodies, which now strike eastwest, and are concordant with a relatively older metasedimentary screen and para

  2. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  3. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 15. Strategies for coupling symbolic and numerical computation in knowledge-base systems. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is coupling symbolic and numerical computation as an effective means of solving problems in Knowledge Base Systems.

  4. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 16. Intelligent signal-processing techniques for multi-sensor surveillance systems. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Rhody, H.E.; Gayvert, R.T.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is intelligent signal processing techniques for multi-sensor surveillance systems.

  5. Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STRs in a population sample from the Federal District (Brazil)-a territory that arose from nothing.

    PubMed

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; de Souza, Claudia Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    The Federal District (Brazil) was created in 1960 in the Central-West Region of Brazil in a previously unpopulated area. In 2010, this artificially founded district was populated by 2,562,963 inhabitants. In this study, the genetic variations of the 15 Next Generation Multiplex (NGM(TM)) short tandem repeat loci were analyzed. The results indicate that the NGM(TM) is a highly informative genetic system in this population, which is more similar to the southeastern, northeastern, and overall Brazil populations. This conclusion agrees with the population composition reported in the 2010 National Survey Inquiries, in which most of the immigrants were from the northeast and the southeast.

  6. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  7. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  8. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N

    2014-08-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries.

  9. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N

    2014-08-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries. PMID:26263189

  10. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil.

  11. Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil- CHUVA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, C. F.; Sakuragi, J.; Vila, D. A.; Carvalho, I.; Schneebeli, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project CHUVA (Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM) is been carrying and its main goal is understand the physical processes involved on the precipitating systems which occur over Brazil. The project plans the setting up of a series of instruments in different parts of Brazil and so far many instruments had been deployed over the three field campaigns. Among the instruments, a dual polarization X band radar, two micro rain radars, a multi-channel ground radiometer, disdrometers, pluviometers are the more important equipments used to collect rainfall information from both: warn and cold clouds. Preliminary results show evident differences in some cloud microphysics observed in different rain events during the campaigns. Besides, rainfall maps produced by the radar data were compared to those similar maps produced by satellite. The X band radar radome, when wet, imposed some attenuation on the radar reflectivities values and an algorithm to compensate such attenuation had been developed based on data observed by disdrometers and micro rain radars. The preliminary results will be shown during the conference and it is expected that the community could discuss and evaluate them under the light of the GPM purposes.

  12. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  13. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  14. Evaluating probabilistic dengue risk forecasts from a prototype early warning system for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rachel; Coelho, Caio AS; Barcellos, Christovam; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Catão, Rafael De Castro; Coelho, Giovanini E; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Bailey, Trevor C; Stephenson, David B; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a prototype dengue early warning system was developed to produce probabilistic forecasts of dengue risk three months ahead of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. Here, we evaluate the categorical dengue forecasts across all microregions in Brazil, using dengue cases reported in June 2014 to validate the model. We also compare the forecast model framework to a null model, based on seasonal averages of previously observed dengue incidence. When considering the ability of the two models to predict high dengue risk across Brazil, the forecast model produced more hits and fewer missed events than the null model, with a hit rate of 57% for the forecast model compared to 33% for the null model. This early warning model framework may be useful to public health services, not only ahead of mass gatherings, but also before the peak dengue season each year, to control potentially explosive dengue epidemics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11285.001 PMID:26910315

  15. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  16. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results. PMID:24334896

  17. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results.

  18. 7. View looking southeast, showing northeast approach and northeast sidewalk. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View looking southeast, showing northeast approach and northeast sidewalk. - Water Street Bridge, Spanning Boston & Maine Railroad tracks at Water Street (U.S. Route 3), Concord, Merrimack County, NH

  19. 52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery entries (archways have since been filled in) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF BUILDING 13, FACING SOUTH. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  1. 5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF (HOISTS IN CENTER). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Hennige, Sebastian J; Wicks, Laura C; Navas, Juan Moreno; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Roberts, J Murray

    2014-01-20

    Ocean acidification has been suggested as a serious threat to the future existence of cold-water corals (CWC). However, there are few fine-scale temporal and spatial datasets of carbonate and nutrients conditions available for these reefs, which can provide a baseline definition of extant conditions. Here we provide observational data from four different sites in the northeast Atlantic that are known habitats for CWC. These habitats differ by depth and by the nature of the coral habitat. At depths where CWC are known to occur across these sites the dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 2088 to 2186 μmol kg(-1), alkalinity ranged from 2299 to 2346 μmol kg(-1), and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.35 to 2.44. At two sites fine-scale hydrodynamics caused increased variability in the carbonate and nutrient conditions over daily time-scales. The observed high level of variability must be taken into account when assessing CWC sensitivities to future environmental change.

  3. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Helen S.; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Wicks, Laura C.; Navas, Juan Moreno; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification has been suggested as a serious threat to the future existence of cold-water corals (CWC). However, there are few fine-scale temporal and spatial datasets of carbonate and nutrients conditions available for these reefs, which can provide a baseline definition of extant conditions. Here we provide observational data from four different sites in the northeast Atlantic that are known habitats for CWC. These habitats differ by depth and by the nature of the coral habitat. At depths where CWC are known to occur across these sites the dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 2088 to 2186 μmol kg-1, alkalinity ranged from 2299 to 2346 μmol kg-1, and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.35 to 2.44. At two sites fine-scale hydrodynamics caused increased variability in the carbonate and nutrient conditions over daily time-scales. The observed high level of variability must be taken into account when assessing CWC sensitivities to future environmental change.

  4. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Hennige, Sebastian J; Wicks, Laura C; Navas, Juan Moreno; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Roberts, J Murray

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification has been suggested as a serious threat to the future existence of cold-water corals (CWC). However, there are few fine-scale temporal and spatial datasets of carbonate and nutrients conditions available for these reefs, which can provide a baseline definition of extant conditions. Here we provide observational data from four different sites in the northeast Atlantic that are known habitats for CWC. These habitats differ by depth and by the nature of the coral habitat. At depths where CWC are known to occur across these sites the dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 2088 to 2186 μmol kg(-1), alkalinity ranged from 2299 to 2346 μmol kg(-1), and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.35 to 2.44. At two sites fine-scale hydrodynamics caused increased variability in the carbonate and nutrient conditions over daily time-scales. The observed high level of variability must be taken into account when assessing CWC sensitivities to future environmental change. PMID:24441283

  5. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Helen S.; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Wicks, Laura C.; Navas, Juan Moreno; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification has been suggested as a serious threat to the future existence of cold-water corals (CWC). However, there are few fine-scale temporal and spatial datasets of carbonate and nutrients conditions available for these reefs, which can provide a baseline definition of extant conditions. Here we provide observational data from four different sites in the northeast Atlantic that are known habitats for CWC. These habitats differ by depth and by the nature of the coral habitat. At depths where CWC are known to occur across these sites the dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 2088 to 2186 μmol kg−1, alkalinity ranged from 2299 to 2346 μmol kg−1, and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.35 to 2.44. At two sites fine-scale hydrodynamics caused increased variability in the carbonate and nutrient conditions over daily time-scales. The observed high level of variability must be taken into account when assessing CWC sensitivities to future environmental change. PMID:24441283

  6. Northeast Hellas Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-446, 8 August 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of pitted terrain northeast of Hellas Basin shows light-toned outcrops of layered, sedimentary rock, and a valley floor covered by large, dark ripples or small dunes. Similar light-toned sedimentary materials are found throughout the region immediately northeast of Hellas, and in the crater, Terby. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and located near 27.5oS, 281.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  8. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  9. [Democracy without equity: analysis of health reform and nineteen years of National Health System in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ivan Batista

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the nineteen years of the National Health System in Brazil, under the prism of equity. It takes into account the current political context in Brazil in the 80s, that the democratization of the country and the health sector could, per se, lead to a more equitable situation regarding the access to health services. Democracy and equity concepts are here discussed; analyzing which situations may facilitate or make it difficult its association in a theoretical plan, applying them to the Brazilian context in a more general form and, to emphasizing practical implications to the National Health System and to groups of activism related to health reforms. It also seeks to show the limits and possibilities of these groups with regards to the reduction of inequality, in relation to the access to health services, which still remain. To conclude, the author points out the need for other movements to be established which seek the reduction of such and other inequalities, such as access to education, housing, etc, drawing special attention to the role played by the State, which is questioned regarding its incapacity of promoting equity, once it presents itself as being powerful when approaching other matters.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Kim M; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M; Ellis, Brett; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2013-04-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation.

  11. [Right to health litigations: a discussion on the observance of the principles of Brazil's Health System].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino

    2008-04-01

    The paper reflects upon the legal interpretations of the right to health and its consequences. In order to exemplify the complexity of the theme and its emotional appeal, it analyzes the Supreme Court's decision in a public litigation against the State of Alagoas demanding that medication be supplied. Different interpretations, by both judges and health professionals, of the notion of integral health care, one of the principles of Brazil's Health System, are examined. It is held that scarcity of resources must be taken into consideration when drawing up public policies that aim to allocate funding efficiently and in a manner that is compatible with the principals of the health system. Finally, the impact of judicial decisions concerning medication not offered by the system and the behavior of the Brazilian judiciary with this respect are discussed.

  12. [The model of state health policy and the system of medical assistance adopted in present-day Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Vianna, A L

    1992-04-01

    A contribution to the analysis of the health reform presently occurring in Brazil is presented. The need to consolidate the theoretical background which supports the advances already achieved in order to understand recent events in the area is stressed. In this regard, the health reform is understood as a question transcending the mere administrative and managerial aspect of the health system, since it necessarily involves a redefinition of the concepts of health, disease and the medical practice adopted by the dominant mechanistic paradigm of medicine. The recent events which delineate the health system in Brazil are analysed and criticised in the light of this concern.

  13. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H.

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  14. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system. PMID:26628223

  15. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  16. Performance of a single stage vertical flow constructed wetland system treating raw domestic sewage in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lana, L C O; Moraes, D C; von Sperling, M; Morato, M L N; Vasconcellos, G R; Paraense, M O; Moreira, T P A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the behaviour of two intermittently fed vertical flow constructed wetlands (one planted with Tifton 85 and the other unplanted) working in parallel, treating raw municipal sewage in Brazil for a population equivalent around 100 inhabitants. Based on a monitoring programme of over 2 years, the following items were evaluated: influence of batch frequency and the presence of Tifton 85 on the wetlands performance in terms of several physico-chemical and biological constituents. The unit with plants performed better than the one without, indicating a positive influence of the presence of plants. More attachment by total and volatile solids and larger amount of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle were observed in the planted filter medium, which can explain its higher nitrification and solids removal. The application of a smaller influent volume with a higher batch frequency improved the performance of both units. No signs of medium clogging have been observed in both units. The system simplicity and the good removal efficiency of organic matter, suspended solids, ammonia and helminth eggs indicate its high applicability in small communities in developing countries such as Brazil.

  17. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  18. [Social and health inequalities in Brazil: scientific production within the Brazilian health care system context].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daniel Labernarde; Gerhardt, Tatiana Engel

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the relationships between social and health care system inequalities analyzing the approach and operational ways used in scientific studies produced after the foundation of Sistema Unico de Saúde (SUS), the Brazilian health care system. A review was conducted having as framework four internationally indexed Brazilian scientific journals, which publish their papers on-line in the Project Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). All empiric research studies on health produced in Brazil from 1988 onwards were included and eight descriptors were used: social inequalities, health inequalities and health concept. The scientific production on the subject focuses on the fact that differences in health status are a direct result of inequalities in access and use of medical services. At the same time, a strong trend towards dealing with social inequalities through traditional economic indicators, such as income was observed.

  19. Wind data analysis for the design of a hybrid generation system at the Algodoal Island - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra, U.H.; Pinho, J.T.; J.C. da Cunha, D. de; Araujo, A.C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The northeastern coast of the State of Para and the Marajo Island - in Brazil, exhibit a wind potential that seems adequate to the generation of electric energy to supply local demands. These local demands are mostly formed by small towns and villages located invariably far from the big urban centers with little or no possibility to be supplied by the utility grid. In this paper it is intended to report the studies being conducted to design a hybrid wind diesel system to attend a small population center, namely the Algodoal Island, that is a representative sample of this region. It will be described the process of data acquisition and statistical treatment as well as some environmental, social and economic aspects regarding the Algodoal Island. Finally it will be presented a preliminary estimate of energy demand for this locality as well as a probable wind-diesel system arrangement to supply this demand.

  20. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojin; Song, Chul-han; Park, Rae Seol; Park, Mi Eun; Han, Kyung man; Kim, Jhoon; Choi, Myungje; Ghim, Young Sung; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2016-04-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70{%}, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  1. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  2. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A BROCK HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A BROCK HOUSE USED FOR THE WATER FILTERING SYSTEM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Water Filtering System Brock House, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. Seasonal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the Vaza Barris Estuarine System, Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Carlos S; Santos, Lukas G G V; Sant'Anna, Mércia V S; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-03-15

    The seasonal assessment of anthropogenic activities in the Vaza Barris estuarine river system, located in the Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil, was performed using the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution. The aliphatic hydrocarbon and isoprenoid (Pristane and Phytane) concentrations ranged between 0.19 μg g(-1) and 8.5 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance level set at p<0.05, and no seasonality distribution change was observed. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI), associated with n-alkanes/n-C16, Low Molecular Weight/High Molecular Weight ratio (LMW/HMW) and Terrigenous to Aquatic Ratio (TAR) suggested biogenic input of aliphatic hydrocarbons for most samples, with significant contribution of higher plants.

  4. [The healthcare system for slaves in nineteenth-century Brazil: disease, institutions, and treatment practices].

    PubMed

    Pôrto, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Although the nineteenth century saw numerous attempts to deter the slave trade, it was also the period when Brazil imported the greatest number of slaves in its history. The conditions under which slaves were transported, worked, and lived were largely responsible for their state of health. Yet this topic barely makes an appearance in the field of history, and many disputed points remain to be settled. My research cross-references sources and topics in order to gather data on the hygienic lives of nineteenth-century slaves. By analyzing archival documents from hospitals, notary public offices, and church bodies, iconographic sources, and the medical literature, I have retrieved information that can be used towards writing a history of the healthcare system available to slaves.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  6. Contribution of the Unified Health Care System to mammography screening in Brazil, 2013*

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Rodrigues, Danielle Cristina Netto; Corrêa, Rosangela da Silveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Oliveira, Humberto Vinícius Carrijo Guimarães; Rahal, Rosemar Macedo Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the coverage of opportunistic mammography screening performed via the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System), at the state and regional level, in 2013. Materials and Methods This was an ecological study in which coverage was estimated by determining the ratio between the number of mammograms performed and the expected number of mammograms among the population of females between 50 and 69 years of age. The number of mammograms performed in the target population was obtained from the Outpatient Database of the Information Technology Department of the SUS. To calculate the expected number of mammograms, we considered 58.9% of the target population, the proportion that would be expected on the basis of the recommendations of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute. Results In 2013, the estimated national coverage of mammography screening via the SUS was 24.8%. The mammography rate ranged from 12.0% in the northern region to 31.3% in the southern region. When stratified by state, coverage was lowest in the state of Pará and highest in the state of Santa Catarina (7.5% and 35.7%, respectively). Conclusion The coverage of mammography screening performed via the SUS is low. There is a significant disparity among the Brazilian states (including the Federal District of Brasília) and among regions, being higher in the south/southeast and lower in the north/northeast.

  7. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases. PMID:19448921

  8. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases.

  9. Geographic information systems (GIS) spatial data compilation of geodynamic, tectonic, metallogenic, mineral deposit, and geophysical maps and associated descriptive data for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naumova, Vera V.; Patuk, Mikhail I.; Kapitanchuk, Marina Yu.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Miller, Robert J.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. The purpose of this publication is to provide a high-quality spatial data compilation (Geographical Information System or GIS) of geodynamic, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps, and descriptive data for Northeast Asia for customers and users. This area consists of Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan. The GIS compilation contains integrated spatial data for: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) a mineral deposit location map; (3) metallogenic belt maps; (4) detailed descriptions of geologic units, including tectonostratigraphic terranes, cratons, major melange zones, and overlap assemblages, with references; (5) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; (6) detailed mineral deposit descriptions with references; and (7) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes.

  10. Concentrations and transport of atrazine in the Delaware River-Perry Lake system, northeast Kansas, July 1993 through September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Brewer, L.D.; Foley, G.A.; Morgan, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the distribution and transport of atrazine in surface water in the 1,117 square-mile Delaware River Basin in northeast Kansas was conducted from July 1992 through September 1995. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the present (1992-95) conditions and possible future changes in the distribution and magnitude of atrazine concentrations, loads, and yields spatially, temporally, and in relation to hydrologic conditions and land-use characteristics. A network of 11 stream-monitoring and sample-collection sites was established within the basin. Stream- water samples were collected during a wide range of hydrologic conditions throughout the study. Nearly 5,000 samples were analyzed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for triazine herbicide concentrations. Daily mean triazine herbicide concentrations were calculated for all sampling sites and subsequently used to estimate daily mean atrazine concentrations with a linear- regression relation between ELISA-derived triazine concentrations and atrazine concentrations determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for 141 dual-analyzed surface-water samples. During May, June, and July, time-weighted, daily mean atrazine concentrations in streams in the Delaware River Basin commonly exceeded the value of 3.0-ug/L (micrograms per liter) annual mean Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking-water supplies. Time-weighted, daily mean concentrations equal to or greater than 20 ug/L were not uncommon. However, most time- weighted, daily mean concentrations were less than 1.0 ug/L from August through April. The largest time-weighted, monthly mean atrazine concentrations occurred during May, June, and July. Most monthly mean concentrations between August and April were less than 0.50 ug/L. Large differences were documented in monthly mean concentrations within the basin. Sites receiving runoff from the northern and

  11. Design of a side-by-side photovoltaic thermal system for a Northeast all-electric residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Johnson, J.; Parker, J.; Truncellito, N.; Felice, R.

    1980-11-01

    There are three major system elements: the photovoltaic array, the electric power conversion subsystem, and the thermal subsystem. A key to the sizing of the PV and thermal array is the relative cost of each system. Therefore, the ratio of the costs associated with each system was varied parametrically to define ultimate sizing of the PV and thermal array. In general, the results indicate larger PV array area and minimal thermal array area for the set of cost assumptions described.

  12. A System Dynamics Model for Long-Term Planning of the Undergraduate Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Luísa Mariele; Borenstein, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil has experienced a rapid expansion since the 1990s as a consequence of the government's pliability in launching new programs and educational institutions. This expansion was mainly driven by the private sector. Despite this expansion, Brazil has not yet achieved the enrollment goal expected in the National Education Plan…

  13. Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System (Bay of Biscay, Spain, northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, Álvaro; Ríos, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-eight species of scleractinian corals were collected between 55 and 2,291 m depth during INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System and the near continental shelf (Bay of Biscay). Most interesting species are described and all depicted. All species were already known from the northeast Atlantic, although some are seldom reported. Deltocyathus eccentricus and Flabellum chunii are northernmost records in the eastern Atlantic, and species first collected from the Bay of Biscay. From a literature review and new records given herein, 31 species of Scleractinia are known from the Avilés Canyon System. Live specimens of six species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the Bay of Biscay and nearby areas, either at shallower depths ( Caryophyllia sarsiae, Monomyces pygmaea, Stephanocyathus nobilis), or deeper depths ( C. atlantica, C. sarsiae, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis). Desmophyllum cristagalli has the widest bathymetric range (551-2,291 m), and Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed species (24 stations). Tabulating the number of live species occurring in each 100-m depth interval of the canyon system, highest species richness occurs in the 700-800-, 800-900-, and 1,400-1,500-m depth intervals (11 species). The habitat-forming species L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata were abundant in some stations building well-developed coral banks. Live colonies of the big-sized species S. variabilis and E. rostrata co-occurred at the deepest station sampled that yielded scleractinia (2,291 m).

  14. Effect of Root System Morphology on Root-sprouting and Shoot-rooting Abilities in 123 Plant Species from Eroded Lands in North-east Spain

    PubMed Central

    GUERRERO-CAMPO, JOAQUÍN; PALACIO, SARA; PÉREZ-RONTOMÉ, CARMEN; MONTSERRAT-MARTÍ, GABRIEL

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The objective of this study was to test whether the mean values of several root morphological variables were related to the ability to develop root-borne shoots and/or shoot-borne roots in a wide range of vascular plants. • Methods A comparative study was carried out on the 123 most common plant species from eroded lands in north-east Spain. After careful excavations in the field, measurements were taken of the maximum root depth, absolute and relative basal root diameter, specific root length (SRL), and the root depth/root lateral spread ratio on at least three individuals per species. Shoot-rooting and root-sprouting were observed in a large number of individuals in many eroded and sedimentary environments. The effect of life history and phylogeny on shoot-rooting and root-sprouting abilities was also analysed. • Key Results The species with coarse and deep tap-roots tended to be root-sprouting and those with fine, fasciculate and long main roots (which generally spread laterally), tended to be shoot-rooting. Phylogeny had an important influence on root system morphology and shoot-rooting and root-sprouting capacities. However, the above relations stood after applying analyses based on phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs). • Conclusions The main morphological features of the root system of the study species are related to their ability to sprout from their roots and form roots from their shoots. According to the results, such abilities might only be functionally viable in restricted root system morphologies and ecological strategies. PMID:16790468

  15. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group (178 g/day). The input output ratio was 1:1.7 for both crossbred and Burmese pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  16. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Helena M B; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R Russell M; Gusmão, Norma B; Lima, Nelson

    2016-03-09

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  17. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Helena M.B.; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R. Russell M.; Gusmão, Norma B.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens. PMID:27005653

  18. 30. NORTHEAST TO BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NORTHEAST TO BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF FACTORY. A BENCH VICE STANDS IN LEFT FOREGROUND IN FRONT OF THE HOODED FORGE. MOUNTED ON THE WORK BENCH IS THE MAIN CASTING FROM AN ELI WINDMILL, USED AS A JIG TO SUPPORT PARTS DURING THE BABBITT BEARING POURING OPERATION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. 2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE MINE OFFICE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  20. 10. INTERIOR VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, SECOND BAY Showing intermediate doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, SECOND BAY Showing intermediate doors cut for warehouse conversion, heating system, dormer removal repair. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  1. 10. View to northeast from near siphon structure showing broad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View to northeast from near siphon structure showing broad, U-shaped earthen banked ditch - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Clean Lubrication Oil Storage Tank & Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. INTERIOR OF COMMUNICATIONS ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHEAST Plattsburgh Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COMMUNICATIONS ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Air Force Communications Systems (AFCS) Maintenance Facility, Off Alabama Avenue, adjacent to Flightline Apron, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  4. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELTDRIVEN BACKUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST: UNIT 4, WITH BELT-DRIVEN BACKUP SYSTEM ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. 1. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING FILTH HOIST HOUSE AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING FILTH HOIST HOUSE AT LEFT REAR, ENGINE HOUSE AT CENTER-RIGHT - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Filth Hoist House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  7. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Emergency Generator Enclosure, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. View of Face B Array, looking northeast Beale Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Face B Array, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. 7. SHARP CURVES IN RHODES DITCH NEAR NORTHEAST PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SHARP CURVES IN RHODES DITCH NEAR NORTHEAST PART OF PROJECT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Walter, Juline M; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Meirelles, Pedro M; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Tenório, Márcio; Valle, Rogério; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-01-01

    Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae) that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil), representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192), Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196), and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185). Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP) bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption), and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification) were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths) and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms. PMID:27548380

  12. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Juline M.; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Tenório, Márcio; Valle, Rogério; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae) that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil), representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192), Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196), and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185). Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP) bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption), and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification) were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths) and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms. PMID:27548380

  13. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Paraná sedimentary basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Paraná sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²³⁸U, ²³⁴U, ²²⁶Ra, ²²²Rn, ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at São Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors.

  14. Epidemic dengue 1 in Brazil, 1986: evaluation of a clinically based dengue surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V J; Gubler, D J; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Pinheiro, F; Schatzmayr, H G; Bailey, R; Gunn, R A

    1990-04-01

    In the last 15 years, dengue fever has emerged as a major health problem in tropical America. Prevention and control of epidemic disease are enhanced by the rapid identification of new or increased dengue activity. Most surveillance systems, however, identify cases by clinical case reports and, therefore, lack the sensitivity needed for early detection. During the 1986 dengue 1 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the authors evaluated the usefulness of a clinical case definition by comparing it with laboratory-confirmed infection status of residents in two cities. The case definition had a sensitivity of 64% and a false-positive rate of 57%. Thus, for every 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue infections, 230 cases were reported. Both infected and noninfected residents who used medical services and who lived in the city with the highest transmission were more likely to meet the case definition. Thus, factors unrelated to actual infection influenced the sensitivity. With the use of stepwise logistic regression, the authors analyzed combinations of patient symptoms and produced nine new hypothetical case definitions. However, none of the new definitions had a false-positive rate lower than 38%. This study emphasizes the need for laboratory-based dengue surveillance systems.

  15. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Walter, Juline M; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Meirelles, Pedro M; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Tenório, Márcio; Valle, Rogério; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-01-01

    Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae) that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil), representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192), Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196), and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185). Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP) bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption), and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification) were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths) and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms.

  16. Modelling of paleo-saltwater intrusion in the northern part of the Nubian Aquifer System, Northeast Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossel, Wolfgang; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Wycisk, Peter

    2010-09-01

    A numerical groundwater model of the Nubian Aquifer System was established to prove the influence of rising seawater levels on the groundwater salinity in northern Egypt over the last 140,000 years. In addition, the impact of a groundwater recharge scenario for these 140,000 years, involving climatic change, on the saltwater/freshwater interface was investigated. Saltwater intrusion induced by rising water levels of the Mediterranean Sea led to salinisation from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara depression. This modeling approach was supported by a density-driven model setup and calculation. The modelled saltwater/freshwater interfaces partially fitted the observed ones, especially in the southern half of the Qattara depression. In other parts of the northern Nubian Aquifer System, the ingression of salt water was modelled adequately, but in the west, small regions of the measured interface were not. The development in the Qattara depression (Egypt) and Sirte basin (Libya) were investigated in more detail. The different behaviour in the Sirte basin may be due to high evapotranspiration rates in some former periods, salt solutions from the pre-Quaternary layers or saltwater infiltration from sabkha-like recent salt-bearing sediments.

  17. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  18. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  19. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumousseaud, C.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tyrrell, T.; Charalampopoulou, A.; Schuster, U.; Hartman, M.; Hydes, D. J.

    2010-05-01

    Future climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to strongly affect the oceans, with shallower winter mixing and consequent reduction in primary production and oceanic carbon drawdown in low and mid-latitudinal oceanic regions. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the effects of cold and warm winters on the carbonate system in the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean for the period between 2005 and 2007. Monthly observations were made between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay using a ship of opportunity program. During the colder winter of 2005/2006, the maximum depth of the mixed layer reached up to 650 m in the Bay of Biscay, whilst during the warmer (by 2.6 ± 0.5 °C) winter of 2006/2007 the mixed layer depth reached only 300 m. The inter-annual differences in late winter concentrations of nitrate (2.8 ± 1.1 μmol l-1) and dissolved inorganic carbon (22 ± 6 μmol kg-1, with higher concentrations at the end of the colder winter (2005/2006), led to differences in the dissolved oxygen anomaly and the chlorophyll α-fluorescence data for the subsequent growing season. In contrast to model predictions, the calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes (ranging from +3.7 to -4.8 mmol m-2 d-1) showed an increased oceanic CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay following the warmer winter of 2006/2007 associated with wind speed and sea surface temperature differences.

  20. Haplotype data and mutation rates for the 23 Y-STR loci of PowerPlex® Y 23 System in a Northeast Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Stefania; Caratti, Stefano; Ferrian, Melissa; De Leo, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    The PowerPlex® Y 23 System (Promega) is a short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex that allows co-amplification of 23 gonosomal Y-STRs, combining 17 loci commonly included in commercially available kits (DYS389I, DYS448, DYS389II, DYS19, DYS391, DYS438, DYS437, DYS635, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS458, DYS385a/b, DYS456, and Y-GATA-H4) and six new loci (DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS643, DYS576, and DYS570) with the last two being rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs). In order to assess the possible gain in forensic efficiency provided by the six additional markers, a population sample of 410 unrelated healthy males originating from Northeast Italy (Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige, Lombardia, and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions) was typed. The data (335 of the 410 samples) are available in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database under accession number YA003327. Overall, 410 unique haplotypes were found corresponding to a global haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.999994 with a discriminatory capacity (DC) of 100%. Allelic microvariants, null alleles, and duplications were detected. Pairwise genetic distances (R(ST)) calculated among neighboring European reference populations revealed no significant differences. Furthermore, for studying Y-STR mutation rates, 90 father-son pairs, in which the fathers were already included in the full dataset, were tested. On a total of 2,070 meioses considered, eight single-step mutational events were observed, two of which within the same father-son pair and the average mutation rate was 3.38 × 10(-3) per locus per generation (95% confidence interval, 1.36 × 10(-3)-6.95 × 10(-3)). PMID:25099381

  1. Development of a deep karst system within a transpressional structure of the Dolomites in north-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Zampieri, Dario; Filipponi, Marco

    2013-02-01

    The Piani Eterni karst system is one of the longest and deepest caves of Italy situated in the southern sector of the Dolomiti mountain range. The area where the cave was formed displays peculiar structural settings confined in a tectonic transpressive corridor between two regional thrusts (Belluno and Valsugana). During Miocene uplift of the range the inheritance of Mesozoic structures led to the formation of a deep and wide upward-branching flower (or palm tree) structure cutting the carbonate sequence and exposing the surrounding surface to karst processes after erosion. The relative lowering of the hydrologic base level, due both to the uplift of the area and then to the carving of deep glacial valleys in the Quaternary, allowed the formation of paleo-phreatic conduits at subsequently deeper levels, interconnected by vadose shafts and canyons. This work gives a detailed tectonic interpretation of the transpressive structure and picks out the tectonic features most favorable to the karst development. A detailed statistical analysis of the distribution and orientation of the karst conduits was performed using 31 km of 3D surveys showing that the development of the cave was strictly guided by a few favorable surfaces of stratigraphic and tectonic origin. These features are known in the literature as inception horizons and tectonic inception features, respectively. Cave levels are usually related to lithologic favorable conditions associated with standings of the paleo-water table. Here we suggest that some tectonic surface geometries could have led to the opening of voids in the active tectonic phase leading to the formation of the original proto-conduit network. Different types of tectonic inception features identified in the cave were described in terms of geometry and kinematics. Tensional fractures, as well as fault plane undulations and flexural slip surfaces between beds, are described as the most favorable tectonic surfaces for the development of the

  2. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  3. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  4. Evaluation of hepatitis E virus infection between different production systems of pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lana, Marconni Victor; Gardinali, Noemi Rovaris; da Cruz, Raquel Aparecida Sales; Lopes, Letícya Lerner; Silva, Gustavo Sousa; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; de Almeida Souza, Marcos; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Pescador, Caroline Argenta

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs from large-scale and family-scale farms, (2) genetically characterize the strains isolated, and (3) study the pathogenesis of swine HEV infection via immunohistochemistry. A total of 50 pigs from 10 farms in Mato Grosso State, Brazil were divided according to type of production system into either large-scale farms (n = 5) or family-scale farms (n = 5). Samples of liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines, bile, and feces from the pigs were analyzed by nested PCR with primers targeting the ORF2 region of HEV and by immunohistochemistry. Of the eight HEV-positive samples from pigs of family-scale farms, phylogenetic analysis revealed that seven of the swine HEV isolates clustered with subtype 3b of genotype 3 and one isolate was categorized with subtype 3 f. The HEV antigen was detected mainly in the small intestine samples from family-scale farms, suggesting an early stage HEV infection. HEV was not detected in the samples of pigs from large-scale farms, reinforcing the need for additional studies to evaluate the risk of transmission of HEV to humans from pigs from family-scale farms in Mato Grosso State.

  5. [The role of the court system in regulating health insurance plans in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Danielle Conte; Bahia, Ligia; Barroso, André Feijó

    2009-02-01

    Consumer complaints against private health insurance plans and companies in Brazil have become increasingly frequent in the country's 'supplementary' (non-public) health care sector, with numerous cases reaching the courts. The problem raised the need for regulation of this private market, which began in 1998, through Law no. 9.656. One of the challenges faced by the National Agency for Supplementary Health Care (ANS) is resistance to the legislation by health insurance companies, besides the fact that there are still some contracts not covered by this law. The objective of the current study was to analyze health insurance policyholders' appeals against court rulings for or against injunctions concerning coverage, in cases heard by the courts in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The main data investigated were: court issuing the ruling; defendant; basis for the case; ruling by the Circuit Court and Court of Appeals; and the legal arguments. Based on the findings, the Brazilian court system still plays an important role in hearing and ruling on complaints by health insurance policyholders. The ANS has an important role in filling some gaps that have still not been solved in regulating the health insurance industry.

  6. Data assimilation of surface altimetry on the North-Easter Ice Stream using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene; Csatho, Beata; Schenk, Anton; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surface altimetry data has been collected on polar ice sheets over the past decades, following missions such as Envisat and IceSat. This data record will further increase in size with the new CryoSat mission, the ongoing Operation IceBridge Mission and the soon to launch IceSat-2 mission. In order to make the best use of these dataset, ice flow models need to improve on the way they ingest surface altimetry to infer: 1) parameterizations of poorly known physical processes such as basal friction; 2) boundary conditions such as Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Ad-hoc sensitivity studies and adjoint-based inversions have so far been the way ice sheet models have attempted to resolve the impact of 1) on their results. As for boundary conditions or the lack thereof, most studies assume that they are a fixed quantity, which, though prone to large errors from the measurement itself, is not varied according to the simulated results. Here, we propose a method based on automatic differentiation to improve boundary conditions at the base and surface of the ice sheet during a short-term transient run for which surface altimetry observations are available. The method relies on minimizing a cost-function, the best fit between modeled surface evolution and surface altimetry observations, using gradients that are computed for each time step from automatic differentiation of the ISSM (Ice Sheet System Model) code. The approach relies on overloaded operators using the ADOLC (Automatic Differentiation by OverLoading in C++) package. It is applied to the 79 North Glacier, Greenland, for a short term transient spanning a couple of decades before the start of the retreat of the Zachariae Isstrom outlet glacier. Our results show adjustments required on the basal friction and the SMB of the whole basin to best fit surface altimetry observations, along with sensitivities each one of these parameters has on the overall cost function. Our approach presents a pathway towards assimilating

  7. Dengue viruses in Brazil, 1986-2006.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves

    2007-11-01

    A total of 4,243,049 dengue cases have been reported in Brazil between 1981 and 2006, including 5,817 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) and a total of 338 fatal cases. Although all Brazilian regions have been affected, the Northeast and Southeast regions have registered the highest number of notifications. DENV-1 and DENV-4 were isolated for the first time in the Amazon region of Brazil in 1981 and 1982. The disease became a nationwide public health problem following outbreaks of DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1986 and 1990, respectively. The introduction of DENV-3 in 2000, also in the state of Rio de Janeiro, led to a severe epidemic with 288 245 reported dengue cases, including 91 deaths. Virus strains that were typed during the 2002 epidemic show that DENV-3 has displaced other dengue virus serotypes and entered new areas, a finding that warrants closer evaluation. Unusual clinical symptoms, including central nervous system involvement, have been observed in dengue patients in at least three regions of the country.

  8. Coastal dunefields of south Brazil as a record of climatic changes in the South American Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Vinícius Ribau; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Southern Brazil coastal dunefields are undergoing a stabilization process that appears to be influenced by climate change. Although this process is relatively well known in the literature, the precise climatic mechanisms involved were not fully understood until now. Here, we propose a new method for integrating meteorological data with dunefield morphology analyses by remote sensing to better understand the impacts of recent climate change on dunefield dynamics. Based on this approach, three successive morphological phases were identified for the Santa Catarina central coast dunefields since 1938: (i) increased sand saturation; (ii) reduced sand saturation with consequent accelerated dune migration; and (iii) decelerated dune migration with trends of stabilization by the vegetation cover. For the coastal dunefields of southern Brazil, the stabilization process can be explained mechanistically by an increase in precipitation and decrease of wind power, both of which were correlated with the intensification of the South American Monsoon System.

  9. Culture and the Immune System: Cultural Consonance in Social Support and C-reactive Protein in Urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we examine the distribution of a marker of immune system stimulation-C-reactive protein-in urban Brazil. Social relationships are associated with immunostimulation, and we argue that cultural dimensions of social support, assessed by cultural consonance, are important in this process. Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, approximate shared cultural models. A measure of cultural consonance in social support, based on a cultural consensus analysis regarding sources and patterns of social support in Brazil, was developed. In a survey of 258 persons, the association of cultural consonance in social support and C-reactive protein was examined, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, depressive symptoms, and a social network index. Lower cultural consonance in social support was associated with higher C-reactive protein. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.

  10. [The Unified National Health System and public policies: psychological care for menopausal women in the Federal District, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mori, Maria Elizabeth; Coelho, Vera Lúcia Decnop; Estrella, Renata da Costa Netto

    2006-09-01

    This study focused on psychological care for middle-aged women in public health services in the Federal District (Brasilia), Brazil. The article discusses women's health and more specifically menopause and its place in Brazilian public health policies. The survey confirmed the lack of psychological support for menopausal women. In most cases only outpatient medical care was offered. No psychologist had been designated in any of the units surveyed to assist these women. The study concludes that this period of women's life has failed to receive psychological care in Brazil, thus neglecting the principles of the Unified National Health System. Menopausal women deserve comprehensive health care, including attention to conflicts related to biological, psychological, and socio-cultural dimensions of aging, thus contributing to the process of working through maturity.

  11. 2. Credit BG. View down dust ditch at northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit BG. View down dust ditch at northeast side of A Street, looking north northwest in "the loop". Note culverts used to give vehicular and pedestrian access to buildings northeast of A Street, some foundations of which may be seen at right of view. Structures in background belong to Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Dust Ditch System, Traversing North Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Spatio-temporal modelling of climate-sensitive disease risk: Towards an early warning system for dengue in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor C.; Stephenson, David B.; Graham, Richard J.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Barcellos, Christovam

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the potential for using seasonal climate forecasts in developing an early warning system for dengue fever epidemics in Brazil. In the first instance, a generalised linear model (GLM) is used to select climate and other covariates which are both readily available and prove significant in prediction of confirmed monthly dengue cases based on data collected across the whole of Brazil for the period January 2001 to December 2008 at the microregion level (typically consisting of one large city and several smaller municipalities). The covariates explored include temperature and precipitation data on a 2.5°×2.5° longitude-latitude grid with time lags relevant to dengue transmission, an El Niño Southern Oscillation index and other relevant socio-economic and environmental variables. A negative binomial model formulation is adopted in this model selection to allow for extra-Poisson variation (overdispersion) in the observed dengue counts caused by unknown/unobserved confounding factors and possible correlations in these effects in both time and space. Subsequently, the selected global model is refined in the context of the South East region of Brazil, where dengue predominates, by reverting to a Poisson framework and explicitly modelling the overdispersion through a combination of unstructured and spatio-temporal structured random effects. The resulting spatio-temporal hierarchical model (or GLMM—generalised linear mixed model) is implemented via a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Dengue predictions are found to be enhanced both spatially and temporally when using the GLMM and the Bayesian framework allows posterior predictive distributions for dengue cases to be derived, which can be useful for developing a dengue alert system. Using this model, we conclude that seasonal climate forecasts could have potential value in helping to predict dengue incidence months in advance of an epidemic in South East Brazil.

  13. Performance evaluation of hospitals that provide care in the public health system, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals. PMID:26247385

  14. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  15. Performance evaluation of hospitals that provide care in the public health system, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimento s de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals. PMID:26247385

  16. Performance evaluation of hospitals that provide care in the public health system, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals.

  17. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  18. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    This study couples published and unpublished information on the alterations of continental material fluxes, plume dispersal patterns and coastal erosion induced by natural and human impacts to the distribution of sediment facies and sedimentation rates of the continental shelf of the States of Sergipe and Alagoas, northeastern Brazil (Lats. 8o56,2' and 11o20,0' S, Longs. 35o07,7' and 37o14,2' W). Historical data on river flow and material fluxes of 7 rivers, including the São Francisco river (L = 2850 km, AB = 634000 km2), were obtained from own measurements and from the national data bank of ANA (National Agency of Waters, www.ana.gov.br) with the softwares HIDRO 1.2 and SisCAH 1.0. Historical data on the distribution of sediments and their elemental composition of the shelf from the AKAROA (1965) campaign with 190 sampling stations (scale 1:1.000.000; Kempf, 1972, Summerhayes et al. 1975 & 1976, Coutinho, 1976) were revisited and new digital maps constructed with ArcGIS 9.3. Comparisons are made from new maps from recent campaigns (scale 1:250.000) performed by the consortium GEORIOEMAR/ UFS/ CENPES/ PETROBRÁS (2010). Statistical analyses with all parameters revealed that the shelf harbors 4 major regional sedimentary domains (i.e. A to D), reflecting the interaction between continental inputs and the impact of the oligotrophic South Equatorial Current (SEC) upon the shelf. The domains are: A- The Alagoas shelf. Set north of the São Francisco river with low fluvial input, dominance of SEC, recent organogenetic carbonate sediments with the calcareous algae Lithothamnium sp. and Halimeda sp. B- The São Francisco river alluvial fan and canyon. The river harbors a cascade of dams and after 1995, river flow declined by 40 % and was modulated to a constant flow of 2060 m3s-1, 95 % of the suspended matter load was retained within the reservoirs and nutrients (N,P) were impoverished by 90 % . The estuarine waters are now transparent and oligotrophic and the coastal

  19. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  20. Strain transfer at continental scale from a transcurrent shear zone to a transpressional fold belt: The Patos-Seridó system, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Michel; Vauchez, Alain; Archanjo, Carlos; de Sá, Emanuel F. J.

    1991-06-01

    During the Brasiliano-pan-African orogeny, a complex continental-scale pattern of east-west transcurrent shear zones and northeast-trending fold belts formed in the northern and central Borborema province of northeastern Brazil. The east-west shear zones have been usually regarded as slightly younger features, but the study of the most spectacular case of intersection between these two structures, the Patos shear zone and the Seridó transpressional belt, leads to a different tectonic model. Satellite imagery and structural, petro-logical, and geophysical data support the interpretation that these structures (1) are in structural continuity and (2) formed simultaneously under amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions that led to partial melting. This suggests a model of strain transfer at the scale of the orogen: at the eastern end of the Patos east-west dextral shear zone, the strain that accommodated the relative motion of the northern block was transferred to the northeast-trending Seridó belt, where it resulted in folding, strike-slip faulting, and stretching parallel to the strike of the belt.

  1. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  2. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  3. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  4. Contributions from Sociology of Science to Mathematics Education in Brazil: Logic as a System of Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaes de Andrade, Thales Haddad; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of…

  5. EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL AND NATIVE SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in agricultural practices in the Cerrado (tropical savannah) and Amazon regions in Brazil is causing drastic changes in the nutrient and carbon cycling of native areas. Because microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, monitoring the shifts in the microb...

  6. Use Of The Gpr To Characterize Sedimentary Structures Of Lakes In Sub-Humid Drainage System, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, P. A.; Augustin, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    PAULO ROBERTO ANTUNES ARANHA IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL CRISTINA ROCHA AUGUSTIN - IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL System of lakes located in the sandstones domains of Supergrupo Urucuia, in the State Park Veredas do Peruaçu, north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are common features in ecosystems of the Veredas, a biome of the Cerrado (Savanna-Open pasture). The linearity of these lakes suggests that they could have, in the past, belonged to the same drainage system, that would have been disconnected throughout the evolution of the Vereda system. The objective of this research is with the help of the GPR and using 100 MHz antennaes to obtain radargram images that could assist in the interpretation of the structures occurring at the bottom of these lakes. It is possible do identify on the radargrams reflectors that can be correlated with depositional system. These reflectore have the concave form. The results of these radargrames indicate great conformity between the concave form of the sediments and that of the bottom of the lake, allowing to assume that this deposition has been occurring since a long time ago. Therefore, if there was a connection between the study lake and those located in its proximity it has occurred a long time, before the deposition of the sedimentary sequences had been deposited. The thickness of the sediments, that varies since 2m until 5m, indicates that or either this deposition was either a very rapid one so that could generate a fast deposition, or it has been taking place during a considerable geologic long time.; Data acquisitiont;

  7. Delivering genetic education and genetic counseling for rare diseases in rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A X; Abé-Sandes, K; Giugliani, R; Bittles, A H

    2013-12-01

    Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, with an ethnically diverse, Portuguese-speaking and predominantly Roman Catholic population of some 194 million. Universal health care is provided under the Federal Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) but, as in many other middle and low income countries, access to medical genetics services is limited in rural and remote regions of the country. Since there is no formally recognized Genetic Counseling profession, genetic counseling is provided by physicians, trained either in medical genetics or a related clinical discipline. A comprehensive medical genetics program has been established in Monte Santo, an inland rural community located in the state of Bahia in Northeast Brazil, with high prevalences of a number of autosomal recessive genetic disorders, including non-syndromic deafness, phenyketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Genetic education, counseling and treatment are locally provided, with a neonatal screening program for MPSVI currently under trial. PMID:23338802

  8. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  9. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  10. [Differences between neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates in Brazil: a study based on the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) Hospital Information System].

    PubMed

    de Andrade Schramm, J M; Szwarcwald, C L

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Brazilian States based upon the country's Hospital Information System. Analysis of 1995 data reveals contrasting rates between the various regions of the country. In order to elucidate the States' different rates, we focused on the association between indicators of coverage, utilization, and access to the Unified Health System (SUS). The results for the neonatal period mostly showed higher early neonatal mortality rates when compared to late neonatal mortality rates, higher neonatal mortality rates in the States comprising the South and Southeast regions, less variable rates between those States, and extremely low rates in some States of the North, Central-West, and Northeast regions. The limited supply of SUS services and low access to same are relevant constraints on health care for the population in the North and Northeast. Aspects related to quality of childbirth and neonatal care are also reflected in the rates studied. The findings suggest that spatial and temporal monitoring of these rates could provide analytical support for organizing the Maternal and Child Health Program. PMID:11175526

  11. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  12. Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Toward an Integrated Strategy. World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alberto; Mistiaen, Johan A.

    This report constitutes a step toward designing an integrated strategy for rural poverty reduction in Brazil. The report contains an updated and detailed profile of the rural poor in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil; identifies key components of rural poverty in those regions; and proposes a five-pronged strategic framework in which…

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis-Related Deaths, Brazil, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed spatiotemporal patterns of 8,756 schistosomiasis-related deaths in Brazil during 2000-2011 and identified high-risk clusters of deaths, mainly in highly schistosomiasis-endemic areas along the coast of Brazil's Northeast Region. Schistosomiasis remains a neglected public health problem with a high number of deaths in disease-endemic and emerging focal areas.

  14. Direct Costs of Dengue Hospitalization in Brazil: Public and Private Health Care Systems and Use of WHO Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Machado, Alessandra A.; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Sales, Antonio; Brabes, Kelly Cristina da Silva; Croda, Júlio; Negrão, Fábio Juliano

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue, an arboviral disease, is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In Brazil, epidemics have become increasingly important, with increases in the number of hospitalizations and the costs associated with the disease. This study aimed to describe the direct costs of hospitalized dengue cases, the financial impact of admissions and the use of blood products where current protocols for disease management were not followed. Methods and Results To analyze the direct costs of dengue illness and platelet transfusion in Brazil based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional census study on hospitalized dengue patients in the public and private Brazilian health systems in Dourados City, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The analysis involved cases that occurred from January through December during the 2010 outbreak. In total, we examined 8,226 mandatorily reported suspected dengue cases involving 507 hospitalized patients. The final sample comprised 288 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients, who accounted for 56.8% of all hospitalized cases. The overall cost of the hospitalized dengue cases was US $210,084.30, in 2010, which corresponded to 2.5% of the gross domestic product per capita in Dourados that year. In 35.2% of cases, blood products were used in patients who did not meet the blood transfusion criteria. The overall median hospitalization cost was higher (p = 0.002) in the group that received blood products (US $1,622.40) compared with the group that did not receive blood products (US $550.20). Conclusion The comparative costs between the public and the private health systems show that both the hospitalization of and platelet transfusion in patients who do not meet the WHO and Brazilian dengue guidelines increase the direct costs, but not the quality, of health care. PMID:25188295

  15. Use of South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) to Assess Impacts of Biofuel Expansion on Water Resources in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, L.; De Mattos, J. Z.; Scarpare, F.; Galdos, M. V.; Scanlon, B.; Long, D.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale expansion of sugarcane production in Brazil is very positive in terms of biofuels and greenhouse gases; however, potential impacts on water resources are uncertain. The objective of this analysis is to assess potential impacts of biofuel expansion in Central South Brazil on water resources using the South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS). SALDAS is driven by 3 hourly atmospheric forcing. Limited surface observations have resulted in use of remotely sensed data merged with surface observations to calculate precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. SALDAS simulates partitioning of water and energy in response to spatiotemporal variability in climate forcing and land use change related to biofuel expansion. The impacts of land use changes related to biofuel expansion will be examined by evaluating water and energy fluxes in areas of different land use and substituting space for time. Output from SALDAS will be compared with coarser resolution Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and other more traditional modeling approaches, such as CROPWAT, to estimate changes in water use from biofuel expansion. Land surface models provide an excellent reconnaissance tool to better understand the hydrology of regional systems in response to climate and land use in data constrained regions.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere

  17. Historical and Legal Remarks on Cultural Diversity and Higher Education in Brazil in the Context of the School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischmann, Roseli

    2005-01-01

    The debate about intercultural dialogue and intercultural learning in Brazil must first consider the excluded "Brazils". Indeed Brazil has been labeled a "racial democracy", although the inequality is at one of the highest levels in the world. This article proposes the analysis of the role of education, particularly higher education, in the…

  18. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health's budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  19. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  20. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  1. The cretaceous opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, J.

    1984-01-01

    A continuous rift system from the Rockall Trough through the Faeroe-Shetland Channel, and the Møre and Vøring basins up to the Tromsø and Bear Island basins is inferred to have developed during the Cretaceous. Oceanic crust was generated in its southern part but its width presumably decreases toward the northeast and probably ends in the Møre Basin. This rift/spreading system requires a clockwise rotation of Greenland and the Rockall Plateau during the Cretaceous around a rotation pole at its northern end at about 74°N 21°E. North of the pole of rotation crustal shortening must have occurred. This compression is interpreted to have taken place on West Spitsbergen. The orogeny there is reinterpreted as (1) a Cretaceous folding phase, (2) a phase of overthrusting at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, and (3) an extensional faulting phase during the Oligocene. This plate-tectonic model can resolve a series of problems in the Northeast Atlantic region: the connection of the Caledonian fronts of Scotland and Greenland can be easily established. The northern ends of the West Shetland Basin and the North Sea graben; the unusual depth of the Møre and Vøring basins; the marked obliqueness of structural trends between the Northeast Greenland shelf and the Norwegian shelf; the fact that the western Hammerfest Basin was intersected by a younger north-south trending graben which formed the deep Tromsø Basin—all these enigmatic observations can be explained by the Cretaceous rift system.

  2. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms.

  3. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms. PMID:26446089

  4. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland

  5. [The Sanumá-Yanomami medical system and indigenous peoples' health policy in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Sílvia Maria Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss how the Sanumá indigenous people, a subgroup of the Yanomami linguistic family, located in northern Roraima State, Brazil, interacts with and relates to the public policy for indigenous people's health. Missionaries and Brazilian government and non-governmental organization employees are the agents with whom the Sanumá had to deal during the implementation of a healthcare policy. The ethnography of this interrelationship, permeated by moments of epidemic outbreaks, clashes, and attempts at collaboration, raises questions on the implementation of health services in indigenous territories.

  6. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization.

  7. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization. PMID:19858939

  8. Analysis of scenarios for wastewater and urban drainage systems in Brazil based on an integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, S R A; Parkinson, J; Bernardes, R S

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is currently facing widespread problems in the urban environment associated with inadequate wastewater and urban drainage systems, particularly for low-income communities. These problems are promoted by the rapid and often unplanned urbanization process in developing cities and are compounded by a lack of funding, absence of planning, ineffective institutional arrangements, and inappropriate policies to provide the framework for integrated wastewater and stormwater management. Because planning for the provision of wastewater and urban drainage systems is a complex task, an integrated-modeling approach is proposed to provide a practical methodology for sanitation and urban drainage planning in Brazilian cities. In the model development, as well as technical aspects, other aspects related to institutional, financial, socio-economic, environmental and public health issues were also taken into account.

  9. STEM EDX Nitrogen Mapping of Nanoinclusions in Milky Diamonds from Juina, Brazil, Using a Windowless Silicon Drift Detector System.

    PubMed

    Rudloff-Grund, J; Brenker, F E; Marquardt, K; Kaminsky, F V; Schreiber, A

    2016-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with a windowless detector setup allows high-resolution imaging and chemical composition mapping even of light elements present in low concentrations. The used TEM-system combines a field emission electron source with four silicon drift detectors allowing for high detection sensitivity. We used this enhanced system to investigate 20 to 200 nm sized inclusions in milky diamonds from Rio Soriso, Juina area, Brazil. The diamonds act as a chemical inert container and therefore protect their inclusions from further chemical reactions with their surroundings. We visualize the presence and distribution of nitrogen within focused ion beam (FIB) slices containing these nanoinclusions. The investigation of these specific diamonds may open a new window to deeper parts of the Earth (>660 km) as they represent pristine material of this deep mantle environment. PMID:27128863

  10. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  11. Patients' Perceptions on the Performance of a Local Health System to Eliminate Leprosy, Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Yamamura, Mellina; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Neto, Marcelino Santos; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, leprosy has been listed among the health priorities since 2006, in a plan known as the “Pact for life” (Pacto pela Vida). It is the sole country on the American continent that has not reached the global goal of disease elimination. Local health systems face many challenges to achieve this global goal. The study aimed to investigate how patients perceive the local health system's performance to eliminate leprosy and whether these perceptions differ in terms of the patients' income. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Interviews were performed with the leprosy patients. The local health system was assessed through a structured and adapted tool, considering the domains judged as good quality of health care. The authors used univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and nineteen patients were recruited for the study, 50.4% (60) of them were male, 54.0% (64) were between 42 and 65 years old and 66.3% (79) had finished elementary school. The results showed that patients used the Primary Health Care service near their place of residence but did not receive the leprosy diagnosis there. Important advances of this health system were verified for the elimination of leprosy, verifying protocols for good care delivery to the leprosy patients, but these services did not develop collective health actions and did not engage the patients' family members and community. Conclusions/Significance The patients' difficulty was observed to have access to the diagnosis and treatment at health services near their homes. Leprosy care is provided at the specialized level, where the patients strongly bond with the teams. The care process is individual, with limited perspectives of integration among the health services for the purpose of case management and social mobilization of the community to the leprosy problem. PMID:25412349

  12. Vertical structure, energetics, and dynamics of the Brazil Current System at 22°S-28°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Cesar B.; Silveira, Ilson C. A.; Castro, Belmiro M.; Lima, Jose Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    We use four current meter moorings and quasi-synoptic hydrographic observations in conjunction with a one-dimensional quasi-geostrophic linear stability model to investigate downstream changes in the Brazil Current (BC) System between 22°S and 28°S. The data set depict the downstream thickening of the BC. Its vertical extension increases from 350 m at 22.7°S to 850 m at 27.9°S. Most of this deepening occurs between 25.5°S and 27.9°S and is linked to the bifurcation of the South Equatorial Current at intermediate depths (Santos bifurcation), which adds the Antarctic Intermediate Water flow to the BC. Geostrophic estimates suggest that the BC transport is increased by at least 4.3 Sv (˜70%) to the south of that bifurcation. Moreover, the Santos bifurcation is associated with a substantial increase in the barotropic component of the BC System. On average, the water column average kinetic energy (IKE) is 70% baroclinic to the north and 54% barotropic to the south of the bifurcation. Additionally, the BC shows conspicuous mesoscale activity off southeast Brazil. The water column average eddy kinetic energy accounts for 30-60% of the IKE. Instabilities of the mean flow may give rise to these mesoscale fluctuations. Indeed, the linear stability analysis suggests that the BC System is baroclinically unstable between 22°S and 28°S. In particular, the model predicts southwestward-propagating fastest growing waves (˜190 km) from 25.5°S to 27.9°S and quasi-standing most unstable modes (˜230 km) at 22.7°S. These modes have vertical structures roughly consistent with the observed eddy field.

  13. The Open University System of Brazil: A Study of Learner Support Facilities in the Northern, North-Eastern and Southern Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Cruz Duran, Maria Renata; Da Costa, Celso José; Amiel, Tel

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2011, research on the Open University System of Brazil's (UAB's) official evaluation processes relating to learner support facilities has been carried out by the Teachers' Training, New Information, Communication and Technologies research group, which is linked to the Laboratory of New Technologies for Teaching at…

  14. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  15. [Theory and practice of the health systems reforms: the cases of Brazil and Mexico].

    PubMed

    Abrantes Pego, Raquel; Almeida, Celia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of public health experts in the contemporary health sector reform process. The authors discuss the issue based on the case of Brazil and Mexico, where a group of public health specialists have oriented their participation to influence the conflict concerning health policy reform in the respective countries. One approach has been to develop a new cognitive framework for technical health sector reform projects viewed as policy proposals with technical content. The purpose is to demonstrate how these specialists have managed to influence the national debate over health sector reform when the technical and scientific discussion leaves the academic sphere and reaches the social and political realm. The authors contend that this occurs because such technical and scientific knowledge has been postulated (independently of its intrinsic value) as a political and ideological alternative platform for sustaining a health sector reform proposal which, once transformed into a policy project, has served to aggregate certain political and social forces.

  16. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of non-central nervous system childhood embryonic tumours in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer differs from most common adult cancers, suggesting a distinct aetiology for some types of childhood cancer. Our objective in this study was to test the difference in incidence rates of 4 non-CNS embryonic tumours and their correlation with socioeconomic status (SES) in Brazil. Methods Data was obtained from 13 Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) of neuroblastoma (NB), Wilms'tumour (WT), retinoblastoma (RB), and hepatoblastoma (HB). Incidence rates by tumour type, age, and gender were calculated per one million children. Correlations between social exclusion index (SEI) as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence rates was investigated using the Spearman's test. Results WT, RB, and HB presented with the highest age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) in 1 to 4 year old of both genders, whereas NB presented the highest AAIR in ≤11 month-olds. However, differences in the incidence rates among PBCRs were observed. Higher incidence rates were found for WT and RB, whereas lower incidence rates were observed for NB. Higher SEI was correlated with higher incidences of NB (0.731; p = 0.0117), whereas no SEI correlation was observed between incidence rates for WT, RB, and HB. In two Brazilian cities, the incidence rates of NB and RB were directly correlated with SEI; NB had the highest incidence rates (14.2, 95% CI, 8.6-19.7), and RB the lowest (3.5, 95% CI, 0.7-6.3) in Curitiba (SEI, 0.730). In Natal (SEI, 0.595), we observed just the opposite; the highest incidence rate was for RB and the lowest was for NB (4.6, 95% CI, 0.1-9.1). Conclusion Regional variations of SES and the incidence of embryonal tumours were observed, particularly incidence rates for NB and RB. Further studies are necessary to investigate risk factors for embryonic tumours in Brazil. PMID:21545722

  17. Community Health Workers in Brazil's Unified Health System: A Framework of their Praxis and Contributions to Patient Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; da Silva, Sueli Bulhões; Soriano, Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) play a pivotal role in primary care, serving as liaisons between community members and medical providers. However, the growing reliance of health care systems worldwide on CHWs has outpaced research explaining their praxis – how they combine indigenous and technical knowledge, overcome challenges and impact patient outcomes. This paper thus articulates the CHW Praxis and Patient Health Behavior Framework. Such a framework is needed to advance research on CHW impact on patient outcomes and to advance CHW training. The project that originated this framework followed Community-Based Participatory Research principles. A team of U.S.-Brazil research partners, including CHWs, worked together from conceptualization of the study to dissemination of its findings. The framework is built on an integrated conceptual foundation including learning/teaching and individual behavior theories. The empirical base of the framework comprises in-depth interviews with 30 CHWs in Brazil's Unified Health System, Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro. Data collection for the project which originated this report occurred in 2008–10. Semi-structured questions examined how CHWs used their knowledge/skills; addressed personal and environmental challenges; and how they promoted patient health behaviors. This study advances an explanation of how CHWs use self-identified strategies – i.e., empathic communication and perseverance – to help patients engage in health behaviors. Grounded in our proposed framework, survey measures can be developed and used in predictive models testing the effects of CHW praxis on health behaviors. Training for CHWs can explicitly integrate indigenous and technical knowledge in order for CHWs to overcome contextual challenges and enhance service delivery. PMID:22305469

  18. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  19. VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HAS OPERATED CONTINUOUSLY SINCE 1953 - Rocky Flats Plant, Water Treatment Plant, West of Third Street, north of Cedar Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 1. View looking northeast at the west and south facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northeast at the west and south facades of Test Stand 'D' workshop 4222/E-23. Test Stand 'D' tower nitrogen tanks, television camera platform and access stairs are at right of image. Ductwork atop roof is for air conditioning system. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Workshop, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Context view, looking northeast along the Wellton Canal and access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view, looking northeast along the Wellton Canal and access road at the Radial Gate Check. Antelope Hill is visible in the background - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. 3. LOOKING NORTHEAST ACROSS DAM TO GATE CONTROLS, CABLE CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING NORTHEAST ACROSS DAM TO GATE CONTROLS, CABLE CAR ANCHORING, AND, AT RIGHT, HEAD WORKS AT PORTAL OF TUNNEL ZERO FOR DIVERSION OF WATER TO BEAR CREEK/SANTA ANA RIVER CONFLUENCE POOL. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Santa Ana River Diversion Dam, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast wall and gutter boxes. Two 750,000 gallon steel tanks at right (T19 in foreground with T18 behind). - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  4. 20. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOURSPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOUR-SPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG EAST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, SHOWING SHELVES AND BINS WITH TOOLS AND PARTS FOR PUMP AND WATER SYSTEM REPAIR. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. 13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF WEST BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF WEST BOILER ROOM AT SIROCCO DUST COLLECTOR WHICH FORMED PART OF THE ORIGINAL POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR BOILERS 900 AND 901 INSTALLED IN 1926-1928. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. 20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building 104 showing two waveguide termination faces (fiberglass light bands on left of photograph). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  8. View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). Vehicle at right center is parked on earthen Upper Stehr Lake Dam. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stehr Lake & Dams, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  9. The Northeast Climate Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, M. J.; Palmer, R. N.; Morelli, T.; Staudinger, M.; Holland, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the critical threats, unique climate challenges, and expansive and diverse nature of the northeast region, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin-Madison have formed a consortium to host the NE CSC. This partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey climate science center network provides wide-reaching expertise, resources, and established professional collaborations in both climate science and natural and cultural resources management. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting the regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach throughout the northeast region. Thus, the NE CSC conducts research, both through its general funds and its annual competitive award process, that responds to the needs of natural resource management partners that exist, in part or whole, within the NE CSC bounds. This domain includes the North Atlantic, Upper Midwest and Great Lakes, Eastern Tallgrass and Big Rivers, and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), among other management stakeholders. For example, researchers are developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; conducting a Designing Sustainable Landscapes project to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes in the Northeast to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite of

  10. Irregular water supply, household usage and dengue: a bio-social study in the Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Andrea; Lima, José Wellington de Oliveira; Marinho, Alice Correia Pequeno; Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Landim, Lucyla Paes; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Despite increased vector control efforts, dengue fever remains endemic in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil, where sporadic epidemic outbreaks have occurred since 1986. Multiple factors affect vector ecology such as social policy, migration, urbanization, city water supply, garbage disposal and housing conditions, as well as community level understanding of the disease and related practices. This descriptive study used a multi-disciplinary approach that bridged anthropology and entomology. A multiple case study design was adopted to include research in six study areas, defined as blocks. The water supply is irregular in households from both under-privileged and privileged areas, however, clear differences exist. In the more privileged blocks, several homes are not connected to the public water system, but have a well and pump system and therefore irregularity of supply does not affect them. In households from under-privileged blocks, where the water supply is irregular, the frequent use of water containers such as water tanks, cisterns, barrels and pots, creates environmental conditions with a greater number of breeding areas. In under-privileged homes, there are more possible breeding areas and environmental conditions that may improve the chances of Aedes aegypti survival.

  11. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  12. Spotlight: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  13. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries.

  14. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  15. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    . For colorectal cancer, the stage at diagnosis of cases diagnosed in northeast Pennsylvania was compared to data from prior years. A population-based interview study of healthy adults was conducted to document the status of cancer screening and to estimate the prevalence of established cancer risk factors in this community. This study is similar in design to that used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This program includes two distinct but related projects. The first project uses existing data to conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania, and the second is a population-based study of cancer risk factors and cancer screening behaviors in this same population. HUMAN SUBJECTS CONSIDERATIONS This program includes two projects: cancer surveillance and a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior. The cancer surveillance project involves only the use of existing aggregate data or de-identified data. As such, the surveillance project is exempt from human subjects considerations. The study of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors includes data from a random sample of adult residents of northeast Pennsylvania who are 18 or more years of age. All races, ethnicities and both sexes are included in proportion to their representation in the population. Subjects are interviewed anonymously by telephone; those who are unable to complete an interview in English are ineligible. This project has been reviewed and approved by the Scranton-Temple Residency Program IRB (IRB00001355), which is the IRB for the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute.

  16. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  17. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  18. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals <7 cm were associated with both the estuary (mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  19. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel’ perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive–interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives

  20. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen

  1. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen

  2. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  3. Understanding groundwater chemistry using multivariate statistics techniques to the study of contamination in the Korba unconfined aquifer system of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghibi, Adel; Merzougui, Amira; Zouhri, Lahcen; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    The Korba aquifer of Cap-Bon peninsula (North-east of Tunisia), which extends over 40 km and occupies an area of 438 km2, is of great economic importance. Its location in an often narrow plain with intense human activity (agriculture, industry, tourism, etc.) makes it particularly vulnerable from both a qualitative and quantitative alteration. The high salinization in some parts of the study area has been attributed to seawater intrusion process, because of the high and increasing contents of chloride ions and electric conductivity value distribution. However, recent studies of this aquifer have shown that the chemical characteristics of groundwaters are the result of different components: intruding seawater, direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion, dissolution processes associated with cations exchange and solute recycling through irrigation return flow. In this paper, we describe the hydrological processes in the Korba coastal plain using hydrochemical data, correlation matrices and factor analysis to provide evidence of salinization processes. Based on historical hydraulic heads data (1996-2005), salinization of fresh groundwater is highly associated with groundwater withdrawal. Thus, the piezometric survey confirmed the inversion of the groundwater flow in Diarr El Hojjaj and Tafelloun villages where a piezometric depression of 12 m was observed at 3000 m from the shoreline which accelerate seawater intrusion by reversing the hydraulic gradients. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: Ca-Cl, Na-Cl and SO4-mixed types. The groundwaters showed paths of hydrochemical evolution, from Ca-SO4 type to Na-Cl type; or from Ca- SO4 type directly to Na-Cl type. Geochemical data reveal frequent participation of seawater in the coastal and central areas water samples, showing a very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes. Also, we conclude that salinization has its origin in

  4. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, May 1992-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Papas, P.N.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system, and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 1 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  5. Magnetic and electric field testing of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and New Jersey transit/North Jersey coast line rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, May 1993-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Robertson, D.C.; Steiner, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz), is of interest with respect to any potential health effects these fields may have on the public and on transportation workers. An EMF survey of National Rail Passengers Corporation trains operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC) was performed, as part of a comprehensive comparative safety assessment of the German Transrapid (TR-07) maglev system and of existing (NEC and transit trains) and advanced rail systems (the French TGV). The report is Volume 2 of two volumes. A portable magnetic field monitoring system (augmented to include an electric fields probe) was used to sample, record and store three-axis static and ac magnetic fields waveforms simultaneously, at multiple locations. A real time Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorder able to capture EMF transients, and two personal power-frequency magnetic field monitors were used to collect complementary data.

  6. Drought in Northeast Brazil—past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Alves, Lincoln Muniz

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an overview of the drought situation in Northeast Brazil for the past, present, and future. Droughts affect more people than any other natural hazard owing to their large scale and long-lasting nature. They are recurrent in the region and while some measures have been taken by the governments to mitigate their impacts, there is still a perception that residents, mainly in rural areas, are not yet adapted to these hazards. The drought affecting the Northeast from 2012 to 2015, however, has had an intensity and impact not seen in several decades and has already destroyed large swaths of cropland, affecting hundreds of cities and towns across the region, and leaving ranchers struggling to feed and water cattle. Future climate projections for the area show large temperature increases and rainfall reductions, which, together with a tendency for longer periods with consecutive dry days, suggest the occurrence of more frequent/intense dry spells and droughts and a tendency toward aridification in the region. All these conditions lead to an increase in evaporation from reservoirs and lakes, affecting irrigation and agriculture as well as key water uses including hydropower and industry, and thus, the welfare of the residents. Integrating drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting provides efficient means of assessing impacts of climate variability and change, identifying vulnerabilities, and allowing for better adaptation measures not only for medium- and long-term climate change but also for extremes of the interannual climate variability, particularly droughts.

  7. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin. PMID:24068425

  8. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  9. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  10. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  11. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR

  12. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians) aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years (<1 to 50 years). Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels <7.0%, and 47.5% patients had HbA1c levels ≥ 9%. HbA1c levels were associated with lower economic status, female gender, age and the daily frequency of self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) but not with insulin regimen and geographic region. Hypertension was more frequent in the mid-west (32%) and north/northeast (25%) than in the southeast (19%) and south (17%) regions (p<0.001). More patients from the southeast region achieved LDL cholesterol goals and were treated with statins (p<0.001). Fewer patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions were screened for retinopathy and nephropathy, compared with patients from the south and southeast. Patients from the south/southeast regions had more intensive insulin regimens than patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions (p<0.001). The most common insulin therapy combination was intermediate-acting with regular human insulin, mainly in the north/northeast region (p<0.001). The combination of insulin glargine with lispro and glulisine was more frequently used in the mid-west region (p<0.001). Patients from the north/northeast region were younger

  13. GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  14. [Recording of venomous bites and stings by National Information Systems in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bochner, Rosany; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the epidemiological surveillance of venomous bites and stings according to four national information systems: SINAN (National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity), SINITOX (National Information System on Poisoning), SIH-SUS (Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System), and SIM (Mortality Information System). The authors conclude that each information system has specific characteristics and addresses different demands. Although they contain large amounts of data, even if combined they fail to reflect the real magnitude of disorders caused by venomous bites and stings in the country.

  15. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  16. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  17. Trends in schistosomiasis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important public health problem, with high morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. We analysed the epidemiological characteristics and time trends of schistosomiasis-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide study based on official mortality data obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We included all deaths in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which schistosomiasis was mentioned on the death certificate as an underlying or associated cause of death (multiple causes of death). We calculated crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants), and proportional mortality rates. Trends over time were assessed using joinpoint regression models. Over the 12-year study period, 12,491,280 deaths were recorded in Brazil. Schistosomiasis was mentioned in 8,756 deaths, including in 6,319 (72.2%) as an underlying cause and in 2,437 (27.8%) as an associated cause. The average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.49 deaths/100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.52) and proportional mortality rate was 0.070% (95% confidence interval: 0.069-0.072). Males (0.53 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), those aged ⩾70years (3.41 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), those of brown race/colour (0.44 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), and residents in the Northeast region of Brazil (1.19 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) had the highest schistosomiasis-related death rates. Age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant decrease at a national level (Annual Percent Change: -2.8%; 95% confidence interval: -4.2 to -2.4) during the studied period. We observed decreasing mortality rates in the Northeast (Annual Percent Change: -2.5%; 95% confidence interval: -4.2 to -0.8), Southeast (Annual Percent Change: -2.2%; 95% confidence interval: -3.6 to -0.9), and Central-West (Annual Percent Change: -7.9%; 95% confidence interval: -11.3 to -4.3) regions, while the rates remained stable in the North and South regions. Despite the reduced

  18. Analysis of floodplain storage and sedimentation in the middle Araguaia River, an anabranching system of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K. B.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Bayer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Araguaia River is the largest river that drains the Cerrado, or savanna ecosystem, in central Brazil. With a drainage area of about 377,000 km2 and a mean annual discharge of 6,420 m3s-1, the Araguaia River is an anabranching system with a tendency to braid. The study area is a middle section of the river, which maintains a well-developed alluvial floodplain. We use a water budget approach to analyze discharge data from 1976-2006 from four gauging stations along the study area, demonstrating that up to 30% of the river discharge is lost to floodplain storage during flooding periods in some river reaches. We link floodplain storage of discharge to the morphology of the channel and alluvial floodplain, emphasizing the role of morphological features such as paleomeander and oxbow lakes. Floodplain storage also displays a temporal pattern. In addition, we present initial results of floodplain sedimentation rates obtained through Pb-210 geochronology in a reach of the study area near the Aruanã gauging station. Channel and floodplain morphology is linked to floodplain sedimentation patterns. This research contributes to knowledge of water and sediment fluxes between tropical anabranching rivers and their floodplains.

  19. Efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B under treatment in the public health system in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Camila V; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Grossmann, Thiago K; Mirenda, Henrique; Dal-Pupo, Bruna B; de Almeida, Paulo RL; de Mattos, Angelo A

    2016-01-01

    There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective. PMID:27074254

  20. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  1. Primary care in Brazil, and the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in the Unified Health System: achievements and limits.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gastão Wagner de Sousa; Pereira, Nilton

    2016-09-01

    An historical analysis of Brazil's policies in Primary Healthcare, with emphasis on the Family Health Strategy (FHS), and the Mais Médicos Program (PMM). Studies were made of documents and secondary official data, and the bibliography that has been produced on this theme. It was found that primary healthcare has been established and successfully consolidated as an option in healthcare for a great part of the population of Brazil. There have, however, been structural hurdles, which have tended to compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of this policy. It was identified that these obstacles arise principally from insufficient financing and from inefficient modes of planning and management. The Mais Médicos Program has widened care coverage and made the distribution of primary healthcare doctors more equitable, although it has not resolved the structural problems of the public system. PMID:27653048

  2. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  3. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  4. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  5. Sandstream on the northeast Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Marcio L.; Solewicz, Reynaldo; Cabral, Alexandre P.; Testa, Viviane

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary characterization of seabed morphology and mapping of algal patches within a sandstream on the northeast Brazilian continental shelf off Cape Calcanhar (where the South American coast turns sharply to the west) is presented. The study area (30 km × 30 km) is swept by unidirectional, wind-driven, tidally rectified currents, under the influence of the North Brazil Current. The study was made by use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the seafloor down to 40 m depth, digital bathymetric data from smooth sheets furnished by the Brazilian Navy, echo-sounder profiling and underwater surveying by SCUBA diving. A mesoscale shore-parallel natural zonation of the sandstream was observable on the TM-images: (a) an inner zone dominated by sediment resuspension caused by wave-driven turbulence and tidal currents; (b) an intermediate zone dominated by sand ribbons and other longitudinal bedforms; (c) an outer zone dominated by large-scale sand waves (underwater sand dunes) limited offshore by shore-parallel sandbanks. Image-assisted in situ work, carried out on the latter zone, gave the following results: (1) Morphology and sand composition—the asymmetric sand waves are made of medium quartz sand, with almost straight crests of lengths up to 4 km, heights between 3 and 7 m, and avalanche lee slopes of 30°; on the stoss sides we recorded the presence of ripples and absence of megaripples and benthic ecosystems; on interdune areas, benthic ecosystem patches dominated by foliaceous and calcareous algae were found.(2) Sediment transport—active bedload transport was observable only during the winter season, when the strongest wind-forced currents induce flow separation at the crests and avalanche streams on the lee slope. Within the interdune areas, under the influence of the lee vortices, benthic community data confirms no appreciable abrasion due to sand transport.(3) Biology—species composition and biomass estimates from the algal patches in the first

  6. Inequities in access to health care in different health systems: a study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health system reforms are undertaken with the aim of improving equity of access to health care. Their impact is generally analyzed based on health care utilization, without distinguishing between levels of care. This study aims to analyze inequities in access to the continuum of care in municipalities of Brazil and Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem in the prior three months (2,163 in Colombia and 2,167 in Brazil). The outcome variables were dichotomous variables on the utilization of curative and preventive services. The main independent variables were income, being the holder of a private health plan and, in Colombia, type of insurance scheme of the General System of Social Security in Health (SGSSS). For each country, the prevalence of the outcome variables was calculated overall and stratified by levels of per capita income, SGSSS insurance schemes and private health plan. Prevalence ratios were computed by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for health care need. Results There are inequities in favor of individuals of a higher socioeconomic status: in Colombia, in the three different care levels (primary, outpatient secondary and emergency care) and preventive activities; and in Brazil, in the use of outpatient secondary care services and preventive activities, whilst lower-income individuals make greater use of the primary care services. In both countries, inequity in the use of outpatient secondary care is more pronounced than in the other care levels. Income in both countries, insurance scheme enrollment in Colombia and holding a private health plan in Brazil all contribute to the presence of inequities in utilization. Conclusions Twenty years after the introduction of reforms implemented to improve equity in access to health care, inequities, defined in terms of unequal use for equal need

  7. A Real-Time Eulerian Photochemical Model Forecast System: Overview and Initial Ozone Forecast Performance in the Northeast U.S. Corridor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, John N.; Ryan, William F.; Seaman, Nelson L.; Coats, Carlie J., Jr.; Pudykiewicz, Janusz; Arunachalam, Sarav; Vukovich, Jeffery M.

    2004-04-01

    This article reports on the first implementation of a real-time Eulerian photochemical model forecast system in the United States. The forecast system consists of a tripartite set of one-way coupled models that run routinely on a parallel microprocessor supercomputer. The component models are the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University (PSU) NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), the Sparse-Matrix Operator Kernel for Emissions (SMOKE) model, and the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform—Real Time (MAQSIP-RT) photochemical model. Though the system has been run in real time since the summer of 1998, forecast results obtained during August of 2001 at 15-km grid spacing over New England and the northern mid-Atlantic—conducted as part of an “early start” NOAA air quality forecasting initiative—are described in this article.The development and deployment of a real-time numerical air quality prediction (NAQP) system is technically challenging. MAQSIP-RT contains a full pho-tochemical oxidant gas-phase chemical mechanism together with transport, dry deposition, and sophisticated cloud treatment. To enable the NAQP system to run fast enough to meet operational forecast deadlines, significant work was devoted to data flow design and software engineering of the models and control codes. The result is a turnkey system now in use by a number of agencies concerned with operational ozone forecasting.Results of the chosen episode are compared against three other models/modeling techniques: a traditional statistical model used routinely in the metropolitan Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area, a set of publicly issued forecasts in the northeastern United States, and the operational Canadian Hemispheric and Regional Ozone and NOx System (CHRONOS) model. For the test period it is shown that the NAQP system performs as well or better than all of these operational approaches. Implications for the impending development of an operational U.S. ozone forecasting capability are

  8. 51. MAIN CONTROL ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE INSTRUMENT LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. MAIN CONTROL ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE INSTRUMENT LOCATED AT THE TOP CENTER IS A SYNCHROSCOPE USED TO ASCERTAIN PHASE OF A GENERATOR PRIOR TO CONNECTING IT ON THE LINE. WHEN THE OPERATOR DETERMINED THAT THE GENERATOR WAS SYNCHRONIZED WITH OTHER GENERATORS ON LINE, IT WOULD BE CONNECTED TO THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. ON RIGHT OF VIEW IS PART OF EARTH/GRAVEL SHIELDING FOR BIN SET. AERIAL STRUCTURE MOUNTED ON POLES IS PNEUMATIC TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR DELIVERY OF SAMPLES BEING SENT FROM NEW WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TO THE CPP REMOTE ANALYTICAL LABORATORY. INEEL PROOF NUMBER HD-17-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwest part of Rio de Janeiro state water availability is one of the main limiting factors for human development and crop productivity. In the same way that shortage of freshwater is one of the main problems, the tomato production systems waste water and highly degrade the environment. The search for the water use efficiency is a challenge in tomato sustainable development production systems. This study aimed to contribute towards the development of sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in the northwestern part or Rio de Janeiro state, as well as increase water use efficiency and the improvement of our understanding on the role played by soil and water management practices on soil hydrology, especially on the amount of water available for the plants. The study was carried out at an experimental watershed in the city of São José do Ubá, in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro state. This city has one of the worst human development index (HDI = 0718) of the state, occupying one of the last 6 positions (85 in 91), with serious problems of education, sanitation, water supply and public health. This area is characterized by an extensive steep hilly topography constituted by long convex-concave hillslopes separated by flat valley-bottoms. The original Atlantic Forest was continuously removed for the introduction of farming and grazing activities, which currently dominate the landscape of the region. The combination of such topographic and land-use characteristics tend to generate a variety of erosional processes, including rill and interrill erosion, gullies and even landslides. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 1,171 mm, with most of rain concentrated during the summer season, making December the wetter and July the drier months. The water balance is negative for most of the year, with the exception of the period from November to January. The cultivation in the area is traditionally done using production systems that

  11. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  12. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  13. Predicting carbon dynamics in integrated production systems in Brazil using the CQESTR model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based carbon models are research tools to predict management impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) and options to increase SOC stocks and reduce CO2. The CQESTR model was used to examine the effect of soil management practices, including integrated crop-livestock system (iCLS), and various sc...

  14. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  15. [Progress and challenges facing user acceptance in the implementation and qualification of the Unified Health System in Primary Healthcare: a review of the bibliographical output in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2012-08-01

    The public policies adopted by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil have gone through successive transformations, striving to reassert health as a universal right. The user acceptance of the guidelines of the National Humanization Policy for Care and Management of the SUS - Humanize SUS - is taking shape and relevance in Primary Healthcare (PHC) to ensure humanized access and resolution of the health demands of users and communities in Brazil. A critical analysis of the bibliographical output in Brazil from 1989 to 2009 was conducted regarding acceptance of implementation and qualification of SUS in PHC. The databases consulted were SciELO, Lilacs and Medline. The results revealed progress in broadening access to PHC services and health professionals more sensitive to the needs of users and communities. However, lack of coordination in integrated networks, excess demand, the hegemonic biomedical model, lack of training and democratic and reflexive spaces to reorganize the work process have been raising increasingly more incisive questions about the potential of this guideline for the implementation and qualification of SUS.

  16. Medication adherence in patients in treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus in a university hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, Luciana Resende; Diniz, Juliana de Souza; Ferreira, Tatyana Xavier Almeida Matteucci; Lima, Dione Marçal; Silva, Nílzio Antônio; Saraiva, Guylherme; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Dewulf, Nathalie de Lourdes Souza; Amaral, Rita Goreti

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is essential for the control of symptoms and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the study was to investigate medication adherence in outpatients in treatment for RA and SLE in a university hospital in Brazil. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 92 patients (55 RA patients and 37 SLE patients) were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for patients’ interview and a form for collecting data from medical records were used for data collection. Adherence to drug treatment was assessed by the Morisky scale questionnaire. Data storage and analysis were performed using Epi Info 3.5.4 and statistical analysis by Stata/SE 12.0. The Pearson’s chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test were applied for statistical and bivariate analyses. For multivariate data analysis the Poisson regression and the Wald test were used. The prevalence of adherence to drug treatment was 16.4% in RA patients and 45.9% in SLE patients. The final model of the multivariate analysis demonstrated associations between medication adherence and the following covariates for both RA and SLE groups: duration of therapy for rheumatic disease at the institution greater than 15 years and presence of more than six chronic comorbidities. The parameter “acquisition of medication at the high-cost pharmacy” was differently associated with medication adherence by group, and for the SLE group, living outside the city of Goiânia was a protective factor associated with adherence. This study demonstrated a low prevalence of medication adherence in patients in treatment for RA and SLE treated at this institution. These findings will serve as a base for future studies to elucidate what factors may positively or negatively affect medication adherence in this population. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches are needed to enhance adherence to drug treatment in patients in treatment for

  17. A novel air quality analysis and prediction system for São Paulo, Brazil to support decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Andrade, Maria Fatima; Gavidia-Calderón, Mario; Bouarar, Idir

    2016-04-01

    The extensive economic development and urbanization in southeastern Brazil (SEB) in recent decades have notably degraded the air quality with adverse impacts on human health. Since the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) accommodates the majority of the economic growth in SEB, it overwhelmingly suffers from the air pollution. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality and to assist the decision makers to mitigate the air pollution in MASP. Here we present the results of an air quality modeling system designed for SEB with focuses on MASP. The Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used considering the anthropogenic, biomass-burning and biogenic emissions within a 1000×1500 km domain with resolution of 10 km. FINN and MEGAN are used for the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions, respectively. For the anthropogenic emissions we use a local bottom-up inventory for the transport sector and the HTAPv2 global inventory for all other sectors. The bottom-up inventory accounts for the traffic patterns, vehicle types and their emission factors in the area and thus could be used to evaluate the effect of changes in these parameters on air quality in MASP. The model outputs are compered to the satellite and ground-based observations for O3 and NOx. The results show that using the bottom-up or top-down inventories individually can result in a huge deviation between the predictions and observations. On the other hand, combining the inventories significantly enhances the forecast accuracy. It also provides a powerful tool to quantify the effects of traffic and vehicle emission policies on air quality in MASP.

  18. Risk factors and prevalence of newborn hearing loss in a private health care system of Porto Velho, Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Rodrigues, Liliane Barbosa; Aurélio, Fernanda Soares; da Silva, Virgínia Braz

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hearing loss and to analyze the results of newborn hearing screening and audiological diagnosis in private health care systems. METHODS Cross-sectional and retrospective study in a database of newborn hearing screening performed by a private clinic in neonates born in private hospitals of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Northern Brazil. The screening results, the risk for hearing loss, the risk indicators for hearing loss and the diagnosis were descriptively analyzed. Newborns cared in rooming in with their mothers were compared to those admitted to the Intensive Care Unit regarding risk factors for hearing loss. RESULTS: Among 1,146 (100%) enrolled newborns, 1,064 (92.8%) passed and 82 (7.2%) failed the hearing screening. Among all screened neonates, 1,063 (92.8%) were cared in rooming and 83 (7.2%) needed intensive care; 986 (86.0%) were considered at low risk and 160 (14.0%) at high risk for hearing problems. Of the 160 patients identified as having high risk for hearing loss, 83 (37.7%) were admitted to an hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit, 76 (34.5%) used ototoxic drugs and 38 (17.2%) had a family history of hearing loss in childhood. Hearing loss was diagnosed in two patients (0.2% of the screened sample). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hearing loss in newborns from private hospitals was two cases per 1,000 evaluated patients. The use of ototoxic drugs, admission to Intensive Care Unit and family history of hearing loss were the most common risk factors for hearing loss in the studied population. PMID:24142311

  19. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate into a karstic coastal groundwater system in northeast China: evidence from major ions, δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, D.; Song, X.; Currell, M. J.

    2015-11-01

    The hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater evolution in the Daweijia area of Dalian, northeast China, were characterized using hydrochemistry and isotopes of carbon and sulfur (δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4). The aim was to distinguish anthropogenic impacts as distinct from natural processes, with a particular focus on sulfate, which is found at elevated levels (range: 54.4 to 368.8 mg L-1; mean: 174.4 mg L-1) in fresh and brackish groundwater. The current investigation reveals minor seawater intrusion impact (not exceeding 5 % of overall solute load), in contrast with extensive impacts observed in 1982 during the height of intensive abstraction. This indicates that measures to restrict groundwater abstraction have been effective. However, hydrochemical facies analysis shows that the groundwater remains in a state of ongoing hydrochemical evolution (towards Ca-Cl type water) and quality degradation (increasing nitrate and sulphate concentrations). The wide range of NO3 concentrations (74.7-579 mg L-1) in the Quaternary aquifer indicates considerable input of fertilizers and/or leakage from septic systems. Both δ13C (-14.5 to -5.9 ‰) and δ34SSO4 (+5.4-+13.1 ‰) values in groundwater show increasing trends along groundwater flow paths. While carbonate minerals may contribute to increasing δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4 values in deep karstic groundwater, high loads of agricultural fertilizers reaching the aquifer via irrigation return flow are likely the main source of the dissolved sulfate in Quaternary groundwater, as shown by distinctive isotopic ratios and a lack of evidence for other sources in the major ion chemistry. According to isotope mass balance calculations, the fertilizer contribution to overall sulfate has reached an average of 62.1 % in the Quaternary aquifer, which has a strong hydraulic connection to the underlying carbonate aquifer. The results point to an alarming level of impact from the local intensive agriculture on the groundwater system, a

  20. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  1. Digital model evaluation of the predevelopment flow system of the Tertiary limestone aquifer, Southeast Georgia, Northeast Florida, and South South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model using finite-difference techniques was used successfully to simulate the predevelopment flow regime within the multilayered Tertiary limestone aquifer system in Southeastern Georgia, Northeastern Florida, and Southern South Carolina as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Tertiary Limestone Regional Aquifer System analysis. The aquifer, of early Eocene to Miocene age, ranges from thin interbedded clastics and marl in the updip area to massive limestone and dolomite 1,500 feet thick in the downdip area. The aquifer is confined above by Miocene clay beds, and terminates at depth in low-permeability rocks or the saltwater interface. Model-simulated transmissivity of the upper permeable zone ranged from about 1 x 10 super 3 foot squared per day in the updip area and within parts of the Gulf Trough (a series of alinement basins filled by fine clastic in material) to about 1 x 10 super 6 foot squared per day in South Georgia, and area having large secondarily developed solution channels. The model results indicate that only about 540 cubic feet per second of water flowed through the predeveloped system, from the updip highland area of high altitude and in the areas north of Valdosta and southwest of Jacksonville, to discharge along streams in the updip area and diffuse upward leakage in the downdip area near the coast and offshore. (USGS)

  2. IMPLEMENTING LAPAROSCOPY IN BRAZIL'S NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM: THE BARIATRIC SURGEONS' POINT OF VIEW

    PubMed Central

    SUSSENBACH, Samanta; SILVA, Everton N; PUFAL, Milene Amarante; ROSSONI, Carina; CASAGRANDE, Daniela Schaan; PADOIN, Alexandre Vontobel; MOTTIN, Cláudio Corá

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Brazilian National Public Health System (BNPHS) has presented advances regarding the treatment for obesity in the last years, there is a repressed demand for bariatric surgeries in the country. Despite favorable evidences to laparoscopy, the BNPHS only performs this procedure via laparotomy. Aim 1) Estimate whether bariatric surgeons would support the idea of incorporating laparoscopic surgery in the BNPHS; 2) If there would be an increase in the total number of surgeries performed; 3) As well as how BNPHS would redistribute both procedures. Methods A panel of bariatric surgeons was built. Two rounds to answer the structured Delphi questionnaire were performed. Results From the 45 bariatric surgeons recruited, 30 (66.7%) participated in the first round. For the second (the last) round, from the 30 surgeons who answered the first round, 22 (48.9%) answered the questionnaire. Considering the possibility that BNPHS incorporated laparoscopic surgery, 95% of surgeons were interested in performing it. Therefore, in case laparoscopic surgery was incorporated by the BNPHS there would be an average increase of 25% in the number of surgeries and they would be distributed as follows: 62.5% via laparoscopy and 37.5% via laparotomy. Conclusion 1) There was a preference by laparoscopy; 2) would increase the number of operations compared to the current model in which only the laparotomy is available to users of the public system; and 3) the distribution in relation to the type of procedure would be 62.5% and 37.5% for laparoscopy laparotomy. PMID:25409964

  3. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  4. Pliocene northeast African vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddy, H.; Sieracki, A.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Plant leaf wax molecular fossils have yielded key insights into forest-grassland transitions in northeast Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of sedimentary leaf waxes (including n-alkanoic acids) records variations in the proportions of plants using the C3 (Calvin-Benson) pathway including trees, most shrubs and cool-season grasses versus the C4 (Hatch-Slack) pathway including warm-season grasses and sedges. Here we apply this technique to marine sediments from the Gulf of Aden to characterize northeast African environmental variability during the Pliocene. We sample DSDP Site 231 integrating 3kyr intervals to generate a high-resolution reconstruction spanning 3.7-5.3Ma. The δ13C compositions of downcore C30 n-alkanoic acid analyses average -27.5‰ (σ=1.2, n=177), ranging between -30.2 to -24.3‰ with repeated oscillations in the proportions of C4 biomass, presumably corresponding to the eccentricity and precessional modulation of insolation acting on monsoonal precipitation. Although δ13C values cannot be uniquely translated to C4 biomass given the spread in the C3 'endmember', we find complimentary evidence for proportions of C4 biomass from the isotopic spread of the n-alkanoic homologues (n-C28 to n-C32). Comparison to pollen data indicates that at times of low δ13C values, complete forest cover remains unlikely given the presence of grass pollen - taken together these records indicate the presence of C3 grasses. By evaluating our longer record from this site, as well as the terrestrial soil carbonate record, we find the Pliocene has low C4 proportions in comparison to higher proportions in Pleistocene and even late Miocene times. Intriguingly this drop in C4 plant biomass may correspond to a period of elevated atmospheric pCO2. Our ongoing reconstructions are of interest both for constraining environments of hominin evolution and tropical climate variability prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, in particular during

  5. Northeast Kansas well tests oil, gas possibilities in Precambrian rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Newell, K.D.; Doveton, J.H.; Magnuson, L.M.; Lollar, B.S.; Waggoner, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tests for oil and gas prospects in Precambrian rocks in Northeast Kansas is currently being undertaken by WTW Operating LLC. It drilled in late 2005 the no.1 Wilson well with a depth of 5,772ft, 1,826ft into the Precambrian basement on a venture testing the possibility of oil and gas in the crystalline rocks. The basin extends northeast into Nebraska and Iowa and is a shallow cratonic basin filled with Paleozoic segments. The rocks have been previously though as not a potential for oil and gas due to the rocks' crystalline and nonporous character with the exception of the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). Later, though, small quantities of oil have been produced on the Central Kansas uplift from granite wash while the wells also produced low-Btu with swabbing operations. The recovered gas contained considerable nonflammable components of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and helium which equates to a low btu content of 283.

  6. Sensitometric analyses of screen-film systems for mammography exams in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, L. A. G.; Drexler, G. G.; de Almeida, C. E.; Medeiros, L. L.; Ferreira, N. M. P. D.; Estrada, J. J. S.

    2015-12-01

    A determination of the sensitometric parameters of screen-film systems to evaluate their qualities was performed. The quality control of the automatic film processor was carried out to ensure a high level of efficiency. Based on ISO 9236-3, the following potentials were applied on the X-ray tubes: 25 kV, 28 kV, 30 kV and 35 kV. Four different mammography films from different manufacturers with and without screens were tested for curve shape, speed and average gradient. The results indicated that film 1 exhibited better contrast, film 3 demonstrated the highest energy dependence, and film 4 presented the largest base+fog density. None of the four mammographic films tested achieved satisfactory results in all parameters analyzed. Improvements in the manufacturing process for these films must be completed to avoid losses in the image quality.

  7. Integrated sediment quality assessment in Paranaguá Estuarine System, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Torres, R J; Abessa, D M S; Morais, R D; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2009-10-01

    Sediment quality from Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES), a highly important port and ecological zone, was evaluated by assessing three lines of evidence: (1) sediment physical-chemical characteristics; (2) sediment toxicity (elutriates, sediment-water interface, and whole sediment); and (3) benthic community structure. Results revealed a gradient of increasing degradation of sediments (i.e. higher concentrations of trace metals, higher toxicity, and impoverishment of benthic community structure) towards inner PES. Data integration by principal component analysis (PCA) showed positive correlation between some contaminants (mainly As, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and toxicity in samples collected from stations located in upper estuary and one station placed away from contamination sources. Benthic community structure seems to be affected by both pollution and natural fine characteristics of the sediments, which reinforces the importance of a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate sediments of PES. PMID:19616298

  8. Fluid evolution in the H 2O-CH 4-CO 2-NaCl system during emerald mineralization at Gravelotte, Murchison Greenstone Belt, Northeast Transvaal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwe, Yin Yin; Morteani, Giulio

    1993-01-01

    Fluid evolution during emerald mineralization at the Gravelotte emerald mine has been studied by microthermometry and laser Raman microprobe spectrometry. The emeralds and associated phenakites occur on the flanks of a highly metasomatised albitite pegmatoid body and in the biotite schists at and near its contact. The fluids lie in the H 2O-CH 4-CO 2-NaCl system and four types of inclusions are characterised based on time of trapping and fluid contents. The earliest type 1 inclusions, found in phenakites and the emeralds which formed from them, are low salinity (<6 wt% NaCl) with up to 18 mol% CH 4. The carbonic phase contains over 93 mol% CH 4 and variable small amounts of CO 2, C 2H 6, N 2, and H 2S. The solvus crest for this system lies at ≈400°C, closer to the H 2O end of the join. With time the fluids become less CH 4 rich and more saline. The type 2 fluids are highly variable in both CH 4-CO 2 contents and salinity, reflecting mixing of type 1 fluids with higher salinity brines. The late type 3 and 4 inclusions are CH 4-CO 2-free high salinity inclusions with up to 38 wt% NaCl. Trapping conditions for the type 1 fluids were around 450-500°C and 4 kb based on model isochores and geologic evidence. During the trapping of type 2 inclusions, fluid pressures probably fluctuated due to opening and resealing of fractures. Approximate P- T ranges of trapping for these and other later inclusions have been defined, minimum trapping temperatures for types 2, 3, and 4 being, respectively, 250, 150, and 240°C, and pressures in the range of 1-4 kb. Calculations of ƒ O 2 show an initial low ƒ O 2 between QFM and the synthetic graphite-CH 4 buffer for the type 1 fluids. This rises to above QFM in the later stages. Such low initial values are uncharacteristic of granitic pegmatite systems, and it is suggested that the phenakites formed in the post-magmatic stage of alkali metasomatism when the albitization took place. In the later stages, phenakite was converted to

  9. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  10. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study serum samples of 203 animals from different locations from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled anima...

  12. Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

    1958-01-01

    Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

  13. Longshore transport gradients and erosion processes along the Ilha Comprida (Brazil) beach system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; de Oliveira Sousa, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Siegle, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the longshore transport gradients and wave power distribution along the Ilha Comprida beach system and relate it to the distribution of the current erosion process along this barrier island. The study is based on quantitative analysis of the potential longshore drift and the wave power distribution, as well as on the morpho-sedimentary seasonal variations in the beach system. Therefore, the 30-year wave reanalysis database from the global wave generation model WAVEWATCH III (NOAA/NCEP) has been extracted and analyzed for the region, as well as field surveys with topographic measurements and sediment samples. The numerical model MIKE 21 SW has been applied to propagate waves onshore and recognize the longshore transport tendencies and the nearshore wave power distribution. Results show an overall transport trend to the NE, being larger in the southern sector than in the northern sector of the island. Varying transport magnitudes prove to generate gradients in longshore drift. Two positive gradients in the longshore drift, resulting in local sediment losses, are observed. One is found in the central-southern area and another in the northern part of the island. Both areas coincide with erosive spots, as observed through field surveys. The central-southern positive gradient becomes larger and migrates to the south during the most energetic months, while the northern gradient presents only variations in magnitude, being relatively stable in position throughout the year. Nearshore wave power results show two main areas with higher values that coincide with the positive longshore transport gradients. Sediment data presents low temporal variability, although spatial variations have been found reflecting the local hydrodynamic conditions, while the volumetric data shows largest values in the central-northern sector, being smaller in the central-southern and northern regions. Moreover, the central portions are more stable than the extreme

  14. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  15. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes.

  16. Plants used by a Quilombola group in Brazil with potential central nervous system effects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Carlini, E A

    2004-09-01

    This study focused on an ethnopharmacological survey among a group of Brazilian Quilombolas (descended from runaway slaves living in hideouts up-country) whose therapeutic practices involve a combination of healing ceremonies and prescription of medicinal plants consisting of the use of, at least, 48 plants with possible effect on the central nervous system (CNS), cited in 53 formulas prescribed for 17 therapeutic indications, the main ones being: to fortify the brain, for insomnia, as a sedative, for insanity, weight loss, and rejuvenation. The formulas consist of one to ten plants, and each plant may be recommended for up to seven different therapeutic indications, with evidence of non-specificity in the use of plants in this culture. Of these 48 plants, only 31 could be identified to the species level as belonging to 20 taxonomic families, with the Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae, Cyperaceae, and Myrtaceae as the most important families. Only eleven of these species have been previously studied and appear in scientific literature. Some of these plants are at present under study in the Department of Psychobiology of the Federal University of Sao Paulo.

  17. Rift border system: The interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in the Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, L.P.; Silva, T.F. da

    1995-11-01

    A geometric and depositional model is proposed to explain the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the main border of the Reconcavo basin. The architecture of the rift margin is characterized by a rift border system constituted by (1) a master fault, (2) a step, and (3) a clastic wedge. This footwall-derived clastic wedge is interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas composed of conglomerates that interfinger with hanging-wall strata. The analysis of the vertical distribution of coarse-grained components of this wedge suggests that its composition is geographically controlled, and no regular inverted stratigraphy is commonly described for this type of succession. During an initial lacustrine phase, turbidites accumulated farther from and parallel to the rift margin. The mapping of marker beds that bound these lacustrine turbidite deposits may be used to infer major periods of clastic influx and, therefore, to correlate with periods of fault-related subsidence or climatic fluctuations in the depositional basin and erosion of the sediment source area. Periods of limited back-faulting and basin expansion toward the main border are distinguished through patterns of progradation and aggradation indicating progressive retreat of the rift border and younging; in the footwall direction. The overall evolution of the rift border seems to be related to extension, block rotation, hanging-wall subsidence, and footwall uplift associated with the initial master fault, with limited propagation of faults away from the basin into the footwall.

  18. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. PMID:22446073

  19. Preservation of dinosaur tracks beds in a synrift back-barrier system. Barremian Camarillas Formation, Galve sub-basin (northeast Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, R.; Rodríguez, J. P.; Liesa, C. L.; Soria, A. R.

    2012-04-01

    A total of ten dinosaur tracks-bearing strata have been found associated to clastic and carbonate levels of the synrift Barremian Camarillas Formation, in the Galve sub-basin (NE Spain). Based on the sedimentological study of seven stratigraphic sections, several facies associations have been differentiated in a mixed siliciclastic carbonate succession which belongs to a barrier-island lagoonal system. Sedimentation was highly influenced by synsedimentary tectonics; faults controlled the location of the carbonate lagoons and the spatial distributions of the siliciclastic barrier-island systems (probably located at the fault tips). Recurrent storms were also important, which eroded the barrier. They supplied clastic material to the lagoon forming extensive siliciclastic washover fans, which merged laterally with the lagoonal carbonates. Dinosaur track casts appear mainly associated with siliciclastic washover fan deposits that fill and cover them, although they also appear associated with lagoonal carbonates. Washover fans deposits show a tabular or lenticular geometry, lags of quartzite and clay pebbles, through and planar cross-bedding, cross and parallel lamination, asymmetric ripples, vertical and horizontal bioturbation and in some case, bivalve fragments. The footprints have a sub-circular geometry (30-40 cm length and 15-35 cm depth) and in some of them, it is possible to see digit casts, parallel striae, scars, probable claw marks, vertebrate bones and gastrolith. One of these track-bearing strata can be followed laterally for more than 7 Km. The dinosaur marks that appear at base and top of carbonate strata show a variety of shapes and dimensions (from 15 cm to 70 cm length and less than 15-20 cm depths). Lagoonal carbonates (mudstone to wackestone) present mainly bivalves, ostracods, gastropods, benthic foraminifera and oysters. In several cases, the tracks were formed on the lagoonal carbonates and then, filled and preserved by the siliciclastic washover

  20. Northeast View From Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This panorama of the region to the northeast of the lander was constructed to support the Sojourner Rover Team's plans to conduct an 'autonomous traverse' to explore the terrain away from the lander after science objectives in the lander vicinity had been met. The large, relatively bright surface in the foreground, about 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft, in this scene is 'Baker's Bench.' The large, elongated rock left of center in the middle distance is 'Zaphod.'

    This view was produced by combining 8 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  2. Reconstructing land use history from Landsat time-series. Case study of a swidden agriculture system in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Loïc P.; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Latifah, Siti H.; Kooistra, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used for a selected study area, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in land use regimes. In order to further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil (state of Amazonas). Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after land abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation approach. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted by the method against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized Residual Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent spatial patterns. We identified

  3. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A.; Rigoti, C.; Loureiro, A.; Alves, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P.; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; Matias, L.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.; Rabineau, M.; Viana, A.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS, is discussed by Klingelhoefer et al. (2014). Beneath the continental shelf, a ~100 km wide necking zone (Domain N) is imaged where the continental crust thins abruptly from ~40 km to less than 15 km. Toward the ocean, most of the SSPS (Domains A and C) shows velocity ranges, velocity gradients, and a Moho interface characteristic of the thinned continental crust. The central domain (Domain B) has, however, a very heterogeneous structure. While its southwestern part still exhibits extremely thinned (7 km) continental crust, its northeastern part depicts a 2-4 km thick upper layer (6.0-6.5 km/s) overlying an anomalous velocity layer (7.0-7.8 km/s) and no evidence of a Moho interface. This structure is interpreted as atypical oceanic crust, exhumed lower crust, or upper continental crust intruded by mafic material, overlying either altered mantle in the first two cases or intruded lower continental crust in the last case. The deep structure and v-shaped segmentation of the SSPS confirm that an initial episode of rifting occurred there obliquely to the general opening direction of the South Atlantic Central Segment.

  4. Long-term geochemical and hydraulic measurements in a characteristic confined/unconfined aquifer system of the younger Pleistocene in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, C.; Steidl, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a data base of hydrochemical and hydraulic groundwater measurements of a younger Pleistocene multilayered, unconfined/confined aquifer system in NE Germany. The Institute of Landscape Hydrology of the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) e. V. operates seven groundwater monitoring wells in the Quillow catchment located in the Uckermark region (Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany). From July 2000 to March 2014, water samples were collected periodically on different days of the year and at depths between 3 and 5 m (shallow wells) and 20 and 25 m (deeper wells) below the surface. The parameters pH value, redox potential, electric conductivity, water temperature, oxygen content, spectral absorption coefficient and concentration of hydrogen carbonate, ammonium, phosphate, chloride, bromite, nitrite, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcite, dissolved organic carbon, iron(II) and manganese were determined for each sample (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.266). The measurements, taken over a period of 14 years, include a high variation of hydraulic situations represented by a corresponding database of detected groundwater heads. The hydraulic head was measured between 2000 and 2014 (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.272).

  5. Data on geochemical and hydraulic properties of a characteristic confined/unconfined aquifer system of the younger Pleistocene in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, C.; Steidl, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a database of hydrochemical and hydraulic groundwater measurements of a younger Pleistocene multilayered, unconfined/confined aquifer system in NE Germany. The Institute of Landscape Hydrology of the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) operates seven groundwater monitoring wells in the Quillow catchment located in the Uckermark region (federal state of Brandenburg, Germany). From July 2000 to March 2014, water samples were collected periodically on different days of the year and at depths between 3 and 5 m (shallow wells) and 16 and 24 m (deeper wells) below the surface. The parameters pH value, redox potential, electric conductivity, water temperature, oxygen content, spectral absorption coefficient and concentration of hydrogen carbonate, ammonium, phosphate, chloride, bromide, nitrite, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcite, dissolved organic carbon, iron(II) and manganese were determined for each sample (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.266). The measurements, taken over a period of 14 years, include a high variation of hydraulic situations represented by a corresponding database of 19 000 recorded groundwater heads. The hydraulic head was measured between 2000 and 2014 (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.272).

  6. Temporal trends and spatial distribution of unsafe abortion in Brazil, 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends and distribution patterns of unsafe abortion in Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on records of hospital admissions of women due to abortion in Brazil between 1996 and 2012, obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health. We estimated the number of unsafe abortions stratified by place of residence, using indirect estimate techniques. The following indicators were calculated: ratio of unsafe abortions/100 live births and rate of unsafe abortion/1,000 women of childbearing age. We analyzed temporal trends through polynomial regression and spatial distribution using municipalities as the unit of analysis. RESULTS In the study period, a total of 4,007,327 hospital admissions due to abortions were recorded in Brazil. We estimated a total of 16,905,911 unsafe abortions in the country, with an annual mean of 994,465 abortions (mean unsafe abortion rate: 17.0 abortions/1,000 women of childbearing age; ratio of unsafe abortions: 33.2/100 live births). Unsafe abortion presented a declining trend at national level (R2: 94.0%, p < 0.001), with unequal patterns between regions. There was a significant reduction of unsafe abortion in the Northeast (R2: 93.0%, p < 0.001), Southeast (R2: 92.0%, p < 0.001) and Central-West regions (R2: 64.0%, p < 0.001), whereas the North (R2: 39.0%, p = 0.030) presented an increase, and the South (R2: 22.0%, p = 0.340) remained stable. Spatial analysis identified the presence of clusters of municipalities with high values for unsafe abortion, located mainly in states of the North, Northeast and Southeast Regions. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion remains a public health problem in Brazil, with marked regional differences, mainly concentrated in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. Qualification of attention to women’s health, especially to reproductive aspects and attention to pre- and post-abortion processes, are necessary and urgent strategies to be implemented

  7. Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Savitt, S.; Morgan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

  8. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  9. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate into a karstic coastal groundwater system in northeast China: evidence from major ions, δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Song, Xianfang; Currell, Matthew J.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater evolution in the Daweijia area of Dalian, northeast China, were characterised using hydrochemistry and isotopes of carbon and sulfur (δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4). The aim was to distinguish anthropogenic impacts as distinct from natural processes, with a particular focus on sulfate, which is found at elevated levels (range: 54.4 to 368.8 mg L-1; mean: 174.4 mg L-1) in fresh and brackish groundwater. The current investigation reveals minor seawater intrusion impact (not exceeding 5 % of the overall solute load), in contrast with extensive impacts observed in 1982 during the height of intensive abstraction. This indicates that measures to restrict groundwater abstraction have been effective. However, hydrochemical facies analysis shows that the groundwater remains in a state of ongoing hydrochemical evolution (towards Ca-Cl type water) and quality degradation (increasing nitrate and sulfate concentrations). The wide range of NO3 concentrations (74.7-579 mg L-1) in the Quaternary aquifer indicates considerable input of fertilisers and/or leakage from septic systems. Both δ13C (-14.5 to -5.9 permil) and δ34SSO4 (+5.4 to +13.1 permil) values in groundwater show increasing trends along groundwater flow paths. While carbonate minerals may contribute to increasing δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4 values in deep karstic groundwater, high loads of agricultural fertilisers reaching the aquifer via irrigation return flow are likely the main source of the dissolved sulfate in Quaternary groundwater, as shown by distinctive isotopic ratios and a lack of evidence for other sources in the major ion chemistry. According to isotope mass balance calculations, the fertiliser contribution to overall sulfate has reached an average of 62.1 % in the Quaternary aquifer, which has a strong hydraulic connection to the underlying carbonate aquifer. The results point to an alarming level of impact from the local intensive agriculture on the groundwater

  10. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  11. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  12. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  13. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  14. Birth in Brazil survey: neonatal mortality, pregnancy and childbirth quality of care.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Sônia; Lima Friche, Amélia Augusta de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Campos, Deise; Azevedo Bittencourt, Sonia Duarte de; Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Cavalcante, Rejane Silva; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2014-08-01

    This study examined neonatal deaths in the live-births cohort in the Birth in Brazil survey, which interviewed and examined medical records of 23,940 mothers from February 2011 to October 2012. Potential risk factors were analyzed using hierarchical modeling. Neonatal mortality rate was 11.1/1,000, the highest rates occurring in the North and Northeast regions and in lower social classes. Low birth weight, risks during pregnancy and conditions of the newborn were the main factors associated with neonatal death. Inadequate prenatal and childbirth care point to unsatisfactory quality of health care. Difficulty in gaining hospital admission for delivery, and children with birth weight<1,500g born at hospitals without a neonatal intensive care unit, indicate gaps in health system organization. Deaths from intra-partum asphyxia in term babies and late prematurity express preventable neonatal mortality. Better quality health care, especially hospital care during labor and birth, poses the main public policy challenge to progress in reducing mortality and inequalities in Brazil. PMID:25167179

  15. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  16. 20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' OFFICE ALONG NORTH SIDE OF FIRST FLOOR. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  18. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  20. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA