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Sample records for syzygium cumini leaves

  1. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Bioassay-guided fractionation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Poongunran, Jeyakumaran; Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fernando, Irushika Thushari; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Araya, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors serve as important strategies in the management of blood glucose. Even though Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) (SC) is used extensively to treat diabetes; scientific evidence on antidiabetic effects of SC leaves is scarce. SC leaf extract was investigated for α-amylase inhibitory effect and continued with isolation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using in vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay (with 20-1000 μg/mL test material) to isolate the inhibitory compounds from ethyl acetate extract of SC leaves. Structures of the isolated inhibitory compounds were elucidated using 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopic analysis and direct TLC and HPLC comparison with authentic samples. Study period was from October 2013 to October 2015. An active fraction obtained with chromatographic separation of the extract inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase with an IC 50 of 39.9 μg/mL. Furthermore, it showed a strong inhibition on α-glucosidase with an IC 50 of 28.2 μg/mL. The active fraction was determined to be a 3:1 mixture of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Pure ursolic acid and oleanolic acid showed IC 50 values of 6.7 and 57.4 μg/mL, respectively, against α-amylase and 3.1 and 44.1 μg/mL respectively, against α-glucosidase. The present study revealed strong α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid isolated from SC leaves for the first time validating the use of SC leaves in antidiabetic therapy.

  4. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  5. Molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice N; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Maia, Jose G S; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Moraes, Denise F C

    2013-06-01

    The chemical composition and biological potential of the essential oil extracted from Syzygium cumini leaves collected in Brazil were examined. GC/MS Analyses revealed a high abundance of monoterpenes (87.12%) in the oil. Eleven compounds were identified, with the major components being α-pinene (31.85%), (Z)-β-ocimene (28.98%), and (E)-β-ocimene (11.71%). To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the oil, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and the LC₅₀ obtained was 90 mg/l. The essential oil also showed significant activity against Leishmania amazonensis, with an IC50 value equal to 60 mg/l. In addition, to evaluate its toxicity towards a non-target organism, the essential oil was tested against Artemia salina and showed a LC₅₀ of 175 mg/l. Thus, the essential oil of S. cumini showed promising activity as a molluscicidal and leishmanicidal agent and might be valuable in combating neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Further research is being conducted with regard to the purification and isolation of the most active essential-oil compounds. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-12-01

    To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed Central

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. PMID:24093786

  8. Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels: a prominent source of bioactive molecules against cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Vinicyus Teles; França, Lucas Martins; Malik, Sonia; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a worldwide medicinal plant traditionally used in herbal medicines due to its vaunted properties against cardiometabolic disorders, which include: antihyperglycemic, hypolipemiant, antiinflammatory, cardioprotective, and antioxidant activities. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, and tannins in different parts of the plant, albeit the knowledge on their mechanisms of action is scarce. This mini-review highlights the cardiometabolic properties of S. cumini by correlating its already identified phytochemicals with their described mechanisms of action. Data herein compiled show that some compounds target multiple metabolic pathways; thereby, becoming potential pharmacological tools. Moreover, the lack of clinical trials on S. cumini usage makes it a fruitful field of interest for both scientific community and pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels: a prominent source of bioactive molecules against cardiometabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Vinicyus Teles; França, Lucas Martins; Malik, Sonia; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a worldwide medicinal plant traditionally used in herbal medicines due to its vaunted properties against cardiometabolic disorders, which include: antihyperglycemic, hypolipemiant, antiinflammatory, cardioprotective, and antioxidant activities. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, and tannins in different parts of the plant, albeit the knowledge on their mechanisms of action is scarce. This mini-review highlights the cardiometabolic properties of S. cumini by correlating its already identified phytochemicals with their described mechanisms of action. Data herein compiled show that some compounds target multiple metabolic pathways; thereby, becoming potential pharmacological tools. Moreover, the lack of clinical trials on S. cumini usage makes it a fruitful field of interest for both scientific community and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26578965

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Siani, Antonio C; Souza, Mariana C; Henriques, Maria G M O; Ramos, Mônica F S

    2013-07-01

    Despite the many biological activities reported for essential oils, their anti-inflammatory ability is relatively underexplored considering the wide variation in plant sources and in their volatile composition. Oils from Syzygium cumini Skells (SC) and Psidium guajava L. (PG) (Myrtaceae) have been described as having diverse pharmacological activities. The current study seeks to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils from the leaves of SC and PG, as well as some of their terpene-enriched fractions (+V = more volatile and -V = less volatile) obtained by vacuum distillation. Both the pharmacological responses and chemical compositions were correlated. The relative contents of the oils and their fractions were evaluated by gas chromatography. Individual constituents in the oils were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Anti-inflammatory activity was accessed in the lipopolysaccharide-induced pleurisy model, by measuring the inhibition of total leukocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil migration in the mice pleural lavage, after oil treatment with the oils at 100 mg/kg. Eosinophil migration was inhibited by SC (67%), SC (+V) (63%), PG (76%), PG (+V) (67%) and PG (-V) (74%). This efficacy was correlated with the presence of β-pinene and β-caryophyllene in the oils, a result that was reinforced by evaluating both these pure components (38 and 50% inhibition, respectively). Synergistic effects associated with the presence of α-pinene were speculated. Essential oils from SC and PG may be useful to treat inflammatory diseases by mechanisms that include the inhibition of eosinophil migration.

  11. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: a review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses.

    PubMed

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan

    2012-03-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes.

  12. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses

    PubMed Central

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan

    2012-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes. PMID:23569906

  13. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  14. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O

    2017-10-01

    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent optimization for anthocyanin extraction from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Bratati; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments that are potential candidates for use as natural food colourant. In this study, Syzygium cumini fruit skin has been used as anthocyanin source. All the six major types of anthocyanins were identified in the sample by ultra performance liquid chromatography studies, and the antioxidant activity was found to be 4.34 ± 0.26 Fe(2+)g(- 1) in the sample with highest anthocyanin content. Optimization of conditions for extracting high amounts of anthocyanin from the fruit peels was investigated by response surface methodology. The results suggested that highest anthocyanin yield (763.80 mg; 100 ml(- 1)), highest chroma and hue angle in the red colour range could be obtained when 20% ethanol was used in combination with 1% acetic acid. Methanol was replaced with ethanol for the extraction of pigments due to its less toxicity and being safe for human consumption. The optimized solvent can be used to extract anthocyanins from the S. cumini fruits and used as natural colourants in the food industries.

  16. Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Assis; Araujo Vieira, Francielli; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Mulling dos Santos, Matheus; Ramos, Angelica; Dias Ferreira, Rafael; Teixeira de Macedo, Gabriel; Vargas Klimaczewski, Claudia; Lopes Seeger, Rodrigo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda B.

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous-leaf extract of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata are traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and cancer, especially in South America, Africa, and Asia. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as their protective activities against toxic agents. Phytochemical screenings of the extracts were carried out by HPLC analysis. The in vitro antioxidant capacities were compared by DPPH radical scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activities. Mitochondrial parameters observed were swelling, lipid peroxidation and dehydrogenase activity. The major chemical constituent of S. cumini was rutin. In B. forficata were predominant quercetin and gallic acid. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity at all tested concentrations, while B. forficata had not similar property. In mitochondria, high concentrations of B. forficata alone induced a decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, but low concentrations of this extract prevented the effect induced by Fe2++H2O2. This was also observed with high concentrations of S. cumini. Both extracts partially prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/citrate. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+, while B. forficata alone induced swelling more than Ca2+. This study suggests that leaf extract of S. cumini might represent a useful therapeutic for the treatment of diseases related with mitochondrial dysfunctions. On the other hand, the consumption of B. forficata should be avoided because mitochondrial damages were observed, and this possibly may pose risk to human health. PMID:27152111

  17. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, Ak; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships.

  18. In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by activation of Glut-4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Anandharajan, R; Jaiganesh, S; Shankernarayanan, N P; Viswakarma, R A; Balakrishnan, A

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose transport. A. marmelos and S. cumini are anti-diabetic medicinal plants being used in Indian traditional medicine. Different solvent extracts extracted sequentially were analysed for glucose uptake activity at each step and methanol extracts were found to be significantly active at 100ng/ml dose comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone. Elevation of Glut-4, PPARgamma and PI3 kinase by A. marmelos and S. cumini in association with glucose transport supported the up-regulation of glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on A. marmelos- and S. cumini-mediated glucose uptake suggested that new protein synthesis is required for the elevated glucose transport. Current observation concludes that methanolic extracts of A. marmelos and S. cumini activate glucose transport in a PI3 kinase-dependent fashion.

  19. Antioxidant activity, phenolic-flavonoid content and high-performance liquid chromatography profiling of three different variants of Syzygium cumini seeds: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Priya, Syama Hari; Prakasan, Nisha; Purushothaman, Jayamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The medicinally important phytochemicals present in Syzygium cumini seeds probably accounts for its wide use in traditional systems of medicines in India, like Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant potential of three different geographical variants of S. cumini seeds and to compare the phenolic profiling to know the effect of geographical variation in phenolic composition. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of S. cumini seeds were analyzed. Antioxidant activities in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed. The most active fractions were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling to identify the phenolic composition. Among all the fractions, 70% methanol fraction of S. cumini seed showed significant antioxidant potential. There existed a linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. HPLC profiling of 70% methanol (ME) fractions of all the variants revealed the presence of phenolic compounds with high concentrations of ellagic acid and gallic acid. The differences in phenolic concentration due to geographical changes might be the reason for higher antioxidant potential showed by 70% ME of Trivandrum variant. 70% methanolic fraction of S. cumini can act as a novel source of natural antioxidant.

  20. Protective effect of gallic acid and Syzygium cumini extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Karine Santos; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; da Silva, Thainan Paz; Borges, Raphaela Maleski; Boligon, Aline; Pigatto, Aline; Athayde, Margareth Lynde; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antibacterial effects; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action in the immune system are not yet completely elucidated. This study evaluates the in vitro effect of gallic acid and aqueous S. cumini leaf extract (ASc) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activities, cell viability and oxidative stress parameters in lymphocytes exposed to 2, 2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH). Lymphocytes were incubated with ASc (100 and 500 µg/ml) and gallic acid (50 and 200 µM) at 37 °C for 30 min followed by incubation with AAPH (1 mM) at 37 °C for 2 h. After the incubation time, the lymphocytes were used for determinations of ADA, DPP-IV and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, lipid peroxidation, protein thiol (P-SH) group levels and cellular viability by colorimetric methods. (i) HPLC fingerprinting of ASc revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic and ellagic acids; (ii) for the first time, ASc reduced the AAPH-induced increase in ADA activity, but no effect was observed on DPP-IV activity; (iii) ASc increased P-SH groups and cellular viability and decreased LDH activity, but was not able to reduce the AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation; (iv) gallic acid showed less protective effects than ASc. ASc affects the purinergic system and may modulate adenosine levels, indicating that the extract of this plant exhibits immunomodulatory properties. ASc also may potentially prevent the cellular injury induced by oxidative stress, highlighting its cytoprotective effects.

  1. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lactobacillus fermentum, fruit extracts of Syzygium cumini and Momordica charantia on diabetes induced mice.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Sehar; Hussain, Abid; Rehman, Shafiqur; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-09-01

    A lot of treatment strategies available for diabetes but its complications are still a medical problem around the globe. It demands to find out some alternative therapeutic measures. In order to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of probiotics and natural extracts, this study was designed. Accordingly, a local source of yogurt probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated and characterized that showed its probiotic properties. Besides this, natural extracts of plants fruits like java plum (Syzygium cumini) and bitter gourd (M. charantia) were made. Lactobacillus fermentum and the extracts were administered individually as well as in combination to diabetes induced mice. Different parameters like body weight, blood glucose level and lipid profile including total cholesterol, HDL & LDL were analyzed before and after treatment. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum and natural extracts have hypoglycemic as well hypolipidemic activity against diabetic mice. This study can further investigated to screen potential compounds from these extracts to control the glucose and the lipid levels in diabetic patients.

  2. Dehydration of jambolan [Syzygium cumini (L.)] juice during foam mat drying: Quantitative and qualitative changes of the phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Iasnaia Maria de Carvalho, Tavares; Nogueira, Tuany Yuri Kuboyama; Mauro, Maria Aparecida; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva

    2017-12-01

    Jambolan [Syzygium cumini (L.)] berries are a popular fruit in Brazil, renowned for their high phenolic compound (PC) content. These PCs have antioxidant, antibacterial, and other characteristics that may be beneficial to human health. The objective of the study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes of the main phenolic compounds (PCs) (anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydrolysable tannins) in the jambolan fruit, the produced fruit juice, and in the corresponding dehydrated powders obtained by foam mat drying (60, 70, and 80°C) and lyophilization (control). The PCs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n ). Juice production resulted in a more pronounced degradation of anthocyanins than flavonols, and facilitated the extraction of hydrolysable tannins. Elevation of the dehydration temperature negatively impacted the anthocyanin content of the products; on the other hand, the flavonols and hydrolysable tannins were more sensitive to oxidation and heating time during dehydration, respectively, than dehydration temperature. In summary, it can be concluded that processing at 70°C is most suitable, in light of the least loss of nutritional quality of the product with processing time. This study directly informs further investigations into preparation of high-quality jambolan fruit products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seed incorporation during vinification and its impact on chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine.

    PubMed

    VenuGopal, K S; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2017-12-15

    Syzgium cumini (Jamun) is an evergreen tropical tree, its various parts are known for many therapeutic properties. The present work represents the production of wines from jamun fruits using two different native isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae - KF551990 and Pichia gummiguttae - MCC 1273) and influence of jamun seeds on the physico-chemical parameters, chromatic properties, phenolic components and sensory attributes of wine. Wine produced was bottle aged for one year. On aging there was a reduction in bitterness and astringency. Aging lead to reduction in monomeric anthocyanin with an increase in co-pigmented and polymeric anthocynins thus affecting the wine color. Anthocyanin analysis in jamun wine indicated petunidin 3,5-diglucoside as the principal anthocyanin. PCA analysis of wine revealed association of young jamun wine with anthocyanin components. PLS analysis exhibited both positive and negative correlation between various attributes indicating sensory perception of jamun wine is affected by overall composition of the wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of in vitro supplementation with Syzygium cumini (L.) on platelets from subjects affected by diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Francesca; Borroni, Francesca; Alidori, Alessandro; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Faloia, Emanuela; Rabini, Rosa Anna; Giulietti, Alessia; Mazzanti, Laura; Nanetti, Laura; Vignini, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of Syzygium cumini (L.) (Sc) incubation on platelets from patients with diabetes, in order to test its efficacy as a potential adjuvant therapy. This study was performed on 77 patients with diabetes [29 in good (DMgc) and 48 in poor glycemic control (DMpc)] and 85 controls. In patients, platelets were analyzed at recruitment and after in vitro Sc incubation (final concentration of 200 µg/ml for 3 hours at 37 °C), whereas in controls only basal evaluation was performed. Lipoperoxide and nitric oxide (NO) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and membrane fluidity tested by anisotropy of fluorescent probes 1-(4-trimethylaminophenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and 1-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) were determined. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also evaluated. In vitro Sc activity counteracts oxidative damage, by improving platelet function through augmented membrane fluidity and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity; it also enhances antioxidant system functionality by increasing NO levels, SOD activity, and TAC and by decreasing lipoperoxide levels both in whole samples and in DMgc and DMpc. In addition, a slight tendency towards collagen-induced platelet aggregation decrease after Sc was observed. However, all these parameters, even after improvement, did not reach the levels of control subjects. Our results suggest that Sc may have a preventive and protective effect in oxidative damage progression associated with diabetes mellitus and its complications. If our data will be confirmed, Sc supplementation might become a further tool in the management of this disease, especially in view of its easy availability, safety, low cost, and absence of side effects.

  5. High-sucrose diet induces diabetic-like phenotypes and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster: Protective role of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Assis; Gonzaga, Thallita Karla Silva do Nascimento; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Santos, Matheus Mulling Dos; Loreto, Julia Sepel; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-05-01

    Diet is a key component for development and longevity of organisms. Here, the fruit fly was used to evaluate the detrimental effects caused by consumption of high-sucrose diets (HSD), namely phenotypic responses linked to insulin signaling and oxidative stress. The protective effects of extracts from medicinal plants Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata were investigated. HSD intake (15% and 30%) delayed the time to pupation and reduced the number of white pupae. In adult flies, the intake of diets was associated with mortality and increased levels of glucose+trehalose, triacylglycerols and hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, 30% HSD induced body-weight loss, mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in acetylcholinesterase, δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase and antioxidant enzymes activity. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, keap1, HSP70, dILP-5 and Insulin receptor mRNA levels were over-expressed in flies emerged from 30% HSD. The extract treatments blunted the developmental alterations elicited by diets. Syzygium cumini extract was more efficient than B. forficata in reducing hyperglycaemia, redox disturbances and the changes in mRNA expression of insulin receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Antidiabetic and antioxidant functionality associated with phenolic constituents from fruit parts of indigenous black jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) landraces.

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Gevariya, Shila N; Hirpara, Darshna G; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2017-09-01

    Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and antidiabetic constituents. The fruit parts (pulp, seed, seed coat, kernel) of underutilized indigenous six black jamun landraces ( Syzygium cumini L.), found in Gir forest region of India and differed in their fruit size, shape and weight, are evaluated and correlated with antidiabetic, DPPH radical scavenging and phenolic constituents. The α-amylase inhibitors propose an efficient antidiabetic strategy and the levels of postprandial hyperglycemia were lowered by restraining starch breakdown. The sequential solvent systems with ascending polarity-petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were performed for soxhlet extraction by hot percolation method and extractive yield was found maximum with methanolic fruit part extracts of six landraces. The methanolic extracts of fruit parts also evidenced higher antidiabetic activity and hence utilized for further characterization. Among the six landraces, pulp and kernel of BJLR-6 (very small, oblong fruits) evidenced maximum 53.8 and 98.2% inhibition of α-amylase activity, respectively. The seed attained inhibitory activity mostly contributed by the kernel fraction. The inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity was positively correlated with phenol constituents. An HPLC-PDA technique was used to quantify the seven individual phenolics. The seed and kernel of BJLR-6 exhibited higher individual phenolics-gallic, catechin, ellagic, ferulic acids and quercetin, whereas pulp evidenced higher with gallic acid and catechin as α-amylase inhibitors. The IC 50 value indicates concentration of fruit extracts exhibiting ≥50% inhibition on porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) activity. The kernel fraction of BJLR6 evidenced lowest (8.3 µg ml -1 ) IC 50 value followed by seed (12.9 µg ml -1 ), seed coat (50.8 µg ml -1 ) and pulp (270 µg ml -1 ). The seed and kernel of BJLR-6 inhibited PPA at much lower concentrations than standard acarbose (24.7

  7. Syzygium cumini is more effective in preventing the increase of erythrocytic ADA activity than phenolic compounds under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Karine S; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula E R; Cargnelutti, Lariane O; da Silva, Priscila S; da Silva, Thainan P; Zanette, Régis A; Pigatto, Aline S; Moretto, Maria B

    2014-06-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) is a plant known for its antidiabetic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Sc aqueous leaf extract (ASc) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in erythrocytes (RBCs) exposed to high glucose concentrations (30 mM) in vitro. We also investigated the effects of the main phenolic compounds found in ASc (gallic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid) and the effects of insulin, caffeine, and dipyridamole, which are substances involved in the adenosine metabolism, on ADA activity in vitro. Blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers and a suspension of RBCs was used for the determination of ADA activity. The results showed that: (1) the effect of ASc on ADA activity was more significant than the combination of phenolic compounds; (2) insulin, caffeine, or dipyridamole prevented high glucose increase of ADA activity at doses as low as 50 μU/mL, 25 μM, and 1 μM, respectively; (3) the inhibitory effect caused by ASc on erythrocyte ADA activity remained practically the same after the combination of the extract with insulin or caffeine; (4) when RBCs were exposed to ASc plus dipyridamole, this chemical attenuated the effect of ASc on ADA activity, suggesting an antagonism or a competition with ASc by the same site of action. Therefore, ASc was more effective in preventing the increase in ADA activity than phenolic compounds, suggesting that ASc may collaborate to improve endothelial dysfunction, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic properties of adenosine by affecting its metabolism. The results of this study help to provide evidence of the empirically supported benefits of the use of S. cumini in diabetes.

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  9. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Jonas R; França, Lucas M; Chagas, Vinicyus T; Gaspar, Renato S; Dos Santos, Kayque A; Gonçalves, Luciana M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Holloway, Alison C; Dutra, Richard P; Carneiro, Everardo M; Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10-1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  10. Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.

    PubMed

    Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS + BA (10 μM) + GA3 (2.5 μM). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 μM). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate.

  11. Identification of bioactive compounds from jambolão (Syzygium cumini) and antioxidant capacity evaluation in different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adelia F; Marques, Marcella C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2011-06-15

    The composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from jambolão fruits (Syzygium cumini) was determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Two main carotenoids were found in the fruits, all-trans-lutein (43.7%) and all-trans-β-carotene (25.4%). The anthocyanin composition was characterised by the presence of 3,5-diglucosides of five out of six aglycones commonly found in foods. This pattern was also observed for the other flavonoids, since diglucosides of dihydromyricetin, methyl-dihydromyricetin and dimethyl-dihydromyricetin, along with myricetin glucoside and a galloyl-glucose ester were identified. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of a functional extract rich in anthocyanins was evaluated through the scavenging capacities of ABTS(+) and peroxyl radical (ORAC) and the protective effect against singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The TEAC values indicated that the hemiacetals/chalcones and quinonoidal bases species (pH⩾5) possess higher scavenging capacity as compared to the flavylium cation (pH<3). The functional extract also showed 60% of dimethylanthracene protection against (1)O2 and an ORAC value of 16.4μmolTrolox/gfruit. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), commonly known as "jambolão" in Brazil is widely used in folk medicine against leishmaniasis, inflammation, chronic diarrhea, and ulcers. It is one of the most commonly used plants for the treatment of diabetes worldwide. In previous studies, Syzygium cumini was shown to possess antihyperlipidemic and anti-allergic properties, and to exhibit good performance as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and Trypanosoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of S. cumini essential oil (ScEO) and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. To evaluate the anti-proliferative effect on Leishmania, effects on promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were assessed using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. The intramacrophagic amastigotes were exposed to ScEO and α-pinene to determine the survival index. To gain insight into the mechanism of action involved in the effect on the samples, we evaluated the modulation of macrophage activation state by observing structural (phagocytic and lysosomal activities) and cellular (nitric oxide increase) changes. To assess the safety profile of ScEO and α-pinene, murine macrophages and human red blood cells were treated with ScEO and α-pinene and the selectivity index was calculated for each treatment. α-Pinene was effective against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 19.7µg/mL. α-Pinene was more active (IC50 values of 16.1 and 15.6µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively) than ScEO (IC50 values of 43.9 and 38.1µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively). Our results showed that the anti-Leishmania effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity, as evidenced by the observed increases in both phagocytic and lysosomal activity

  13. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    PubMed

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elimination of deleterious effects of DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice by Syzygium cumini seed extract.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep K

    2011-09-01

    The inhibition of tumor incidence by hydro-alcoholic extract of S.cumini seed was evaluated in mice on two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by single application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 µg/100µl of acetone), and 2 weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% acetone/thrice in a week) till the end of the experiment (i.e. 16 weeks). Oral administration of extract at a dose of 250mg/kg b.wt./day at the peri-initiational stage (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application), promotional stage (i.e. from the time of croton oil application) and at both the stages (i.e. 7 days prior to DMBA application & continued till the end of experiment) to the mice, recorded a significant reduction in tumor incidence to 37.5, 50 & 25% respectively in comparison to the carcinogen treated control, where tumor incidence was found as 100%. Tumor yield and Tumor burden were also significantly reduced by SCE. Similarly, the cumulative number of papillomas after 16 weeks was 68 in the control group, which was reduced to 15, 21 & 8 in the animals treated with the SCE continuously at peri-, post- and peri- & post- initiation stage respectively. A significant impairment was noticed in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase & protein and enhancement in LPO in liver and skin of carcinogen treated control mice as compared with vehicle treated mice. All such parameters were returned to near normal value by administration of SCE to DMBA treated mice. These results suggest a possible chemopreventive property of S.cumini against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  15. Selective Inhibition of PTP1B by Vitalboside A from Syzygium cumini Enhances Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Lipid Accumulation Via Partial Agonism to PPARγ: In Vitro and In Silico Investigation.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Gopal; Muthukumaran, Padmanaban; Sarath Kumar, Baskaran; Muthusamy, Velusamy Shanmuganathan; Lakshmi, Baddireddi Subhadra

    2016-08-01

    Although antidiabetic drugs show good insulin-sensitizing property for T2DM, they also exhibit undesirable side-effects. Partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonism with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibition is considered as an alternative therapeutic approach toward the development of a safe insulin sensitizer. Bioactivity-based fractionation and purification of Syzygium cumini seeds led to the isolation and identification of bifunctional Vitalboside A, which showed antidiabetic and anti-adipogenic activities, as measured by glucose uptake in L6 and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Nile red assay. A non-competitive allosteric inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by Vitalboside A was observed, which was confirmed by docking studies. Inhibitor studies with wortmannin and genistein showed an IRTK- and PI3K-dependent glucose uptake. A PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GLUT4 translocation and an inactivation of GSK3β were observed, confirming its insulin-sensitizing potential. Vitalboside A exhibited partial transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ with an increase in adiponectin secretion, which was confirmed using docking analysis. Vitalboside A is a bifunctional molecule derived from edible plant showing inhibition of PTP1B and partial agonism to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which could be a promising therapeutic agent in the management of obesity and diabetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Synthesis of Water Dispersible Fluorescent Carbon Nanocrystals from Syzygium cumini Fruits for the Detection of Fe3+ Ion in Water and Biological Samples and Imaging of Fusarium avenaceum Cells.

    PubMed

    Bhamore, Jigna R; Jha, Sanjay; Singhal, Rakesh Kumar; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this work, water dispersible fluorescent carbon nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a simple, green and low cost hydrothermal method using Syzygium cumini (jamun) as a carbon source at 180 °C for 6 h. The average size of carbon NCs was found to be 2.1 ± 0.5 nm and shown bright blue fluorescence when excited at 365 nm under UV lamp. The carbon NCs were characterized by spectroscopic (UV-visible and fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and dynamic light scattering) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques. The quantum yield of carbon NCs was found to be ~5.9 % at 438 nm emission wavelength when excited at 360 nm. It was noticed that none of the metal ions quenched the fluorescence intensity of carbon NCs at 438 nm except for Fe 3+ , indicating the formation of Fe 3+ ion-carbon NCs complexes. The linear range was observed in the concentration range of 0.01-100 μM with the corresponding detection limits of 0.001 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the carbon NCs were used as probes for imaging of fungal (Fusarium avenaceum) cells.

  17. Antihyperglycemic activities of leaves of three edible fruit plants (Averrhoa carambola, Ficus hispida and Syzygium samarangense) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahreen, Shejuty; Banik, Joyanta; Hafiz, Abdul; Rahman, Shahnaz; Zaman, Anahita Tanzia; Shoyeb, Md Abu; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of diabetes, while the leaves of S. samarangense are used for treatment of cold, itches, and waist pain. Since scientific studies are absent on the antihyperglycemic effects of the leaves of the three plants, it was the objective of the present study to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of the plants in oral glucose tolerance tests carried out with glucose-loaded mice. The extracts at different doses were administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. Significant oral hypoglycemic activity was found with the extracts of leaves of all three plants tested. The fall in serum glucose levels were dose-dependent for every individual plant, being highest at the highest dose tested of 400 mg extract per kg body weight. At this dose, the extracts of A. carambola, F. hispida, and S. samarangense caused, respectively, 34.1, 22.7, and 59.3% reductions in serum glucose levels when compared to control animals. The standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, caused a 57.3% reduction in serum glucose levels versus control. Among the three plants evaluated, the methanolic extract of leaves of S. samarangense proved to be the most potent in demonstrating antihyperglycemic effects. The result validates the folk medicinal uses of A. carambola and F. hispida in the treatment of diabetes, and indicates that the leaves of S. samarangense can also possibly be used for amelioration of diabetes-induced hyperglycemia.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum L. (Salam) Leaves against Foodborne Pathogens and Application as Food Sanitizer

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Suzita; Radu, Son; Shaari, Khozirah

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of S. polyanthum L. (salam) leaves extract foodborne pathogens. All the foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treating with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.67 ± 0.58–9.67 ± 0.58 mm of inhibition zone. The range of MIC values was between 0.63 and 1.25 mg/mL whereas MBC values were in the range 0.63 mg/mL to 2.50 mg/mL. In time-kill curve, L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa were found completely killed after exposing to extract in 1 h incubation at 4x MIC. Four hours had been taken to completely kill E. coli, S. aureus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus at 4x MIC. However, the population of K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. typhimurium only reduced to 3 log CFU/mL. The treated cell showed cell rupture and leakage of the cell cytoplasm in SEM observation. The significant reduction of natural microflora in grapes fruit was started at 0.50% of extract at 5 min and this concentration also was parallel to sensory attributes acceptability where application of extract was accepted by the panellists until 5%. In conclusion, S. polyanthum extract exhibits antimicrobial activities and thus might be developed as natural sanitizer for washing raw food materials. PMID:29410966

  19. Anthocyanins of Jambolão (Syzygium cumini): Extraction and pH-Dependent Color Changes.

    PubMed

    do Carmo Brito, Brenda de Nazaré; da Silva Pena, Rosinelson; Santos Lopes, Alessandra; Campos Chisté, Renan

    2017-10-01

    Jambolão fruits are promising sources of anthocyanins, and in this study, the jambolão fruit from the Brazilian Amazonian region was characterized and the efficiency of six ethanol-based solutions to extract anthocyanins was determined. Moreover, the color changes of anthocyanin extracts, as influenced by different pH conditions (pH from 1.0 to 8.0), were evaluated. The fruits exhibited high contents of total anthocyanins (296 mg/100 g) and the CIELAB parameters characterized jambolão as a purple-red colored fruit (a* = 20.30, b* = -4.17, and hab∘= 348.39). Among the six different ethanol-based solutions, ethanol 95% with 1% of HCl (v/v) was the most efficient solution to extract anthocyanins from jambolão fruits. Furthermore, the CIELAB parameters were characterized as useful tool to monitor the color changes of anthocyanins of jambolão over the tested pH range. Therefore, jambolão fruits from Amazonian region have technological potential for the application by food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Jambolão fruits are great source of anthocyanins and the incorporation of these natural pigments as food colorants is not only valuable to improve overall appearance, but it is also beneficial to human health. The production of natural extracts with high levels of anthocyanins from jambolão can be considered a very useful approach to the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Five new species of Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Brambach, Fabian; Byng, James W.; Culmsee, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following ongoing ecological research on the tree diversity of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, we describe five new species of Syzygium. These are the first descriptions of Syzygium species from the island since Blume (1850, Jambosa celebica and J. cornifolia), highlighting the significant lack of taxonomic research on the genus for the region. The five species proposed as new are Syzygium balgooyi sp. nov., Syzygium contiguum sp. nov., Syzygium devogelii sp. nov., Syzygium eymae sp. nov., and Syzygium galanthum sp. nov. All species are illustrated and information on their distribution, ecology, and conservation status is given. PMID:28785165

  1. Improved production of tannase by Klebsiella pneumoniae using Indian gooseberry leaves under submerged fermentation using Taguchi approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, Amrinder; Beniwal, Vikas; Salar, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase E.C 3.1.1.20) is an inducible, largely extracellular enzyme that causes the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds present in various substrates. Large scale industrial application of this enzyme is very limited owing to its high production costs. In the present study, cost effective production of tannase by Klebsiella pneumoniae KP715242 was studied under submerged fermentation using different tannin rich agro-residues like Indian gooseberry leaves (Phyllanthus emblica), Black plum leaves (Syzygium cumini), Eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus glogus) and Babul leaves (Acacia nilotica). Among all agro-residues, Indian gooseberry leaves were found to be the best substrate for tannase production under submerged fermentation. Sequential optimization approach using Taguchi orthogonal array screening and response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the fermentation variables in order to enhance the enzyme production. Eleven medium components were screened primarily by Taguchi orthogonal array design to identify the most contributing factors towards the enzyme production. The four most significant contributing variables affecting tannase production were found to be pH (23.62 %), tannin extract (20.70 %), temperature (20.33 %) and incubation time (14.99 %). These factors were further optimized with central composite design using response surface methodology. Maximum tannase production was observed at 5.52 pH, 39.72 °C temperature, 91.82 h of incubation time and 2.17 % tannin content. The enzyme activity was enhanced by 1.26 fold under these optimized conditions. The present study emphasizes the use of agro-residues as a potential substrate with an aim to lower down the input costs for tannase production so that the enzyme could be used proficiently for commercial purposes.

  2. Antimalarial activity of Syzygium guineense during early and established Plasmodium infection in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Solomon Asmamaw; Wubneh, Zewdu Birhanu

    2017-01-05

    In Ethiopia, the leaves of Syzygium guineense have been found useful for the prevention and cure of malaria, and demonstrated antiplasmodial activity in vitro. Nevertheless, no scientific study has been conducted to confirm its antimalarial activity in vivo. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial effect of Syzygium guineense leaf extract in mice. Inoculation of the study mice was carried out by using the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. The plant extract was prepared at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. Chloroquine and distilled water was administered to the positive and negative control groups respectively. Parameters like parasitaemia, survival time and body weight were determined following standard tests (4-day suppressive, Rane's and repository tests). Syzygium guineense crude leaf extract displayed considerable (p < 0.05) parasite suppression at doses of 600 and 400 mg/kg in a 4-day suppressive test with chemosuppressive value of 59.39 and 49.09% respectively. S. guineense crude leaf extract also showed dose-dependent schizontocidal activity in both the repository and curative tests. The extract also prevented body weight loss and prolonged survival date of mice significantly (P < 0.05) at the highest dose employed in the study. Qualitative chemical assay for S. guineense methanolic leaf extract revealed that the plant is endowed with different plant secondary metabolites exemplified by terpenoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins, glycosides, saponins and phenols. Syzygium guineense leaf extract possess antimalarial activity in mice. The test substance was found to be safe with no observable signs of toxicity in the study mice. The results of the present work confirmed the in vitro antiplasmodial finding and traditional claims in vivo in mice. Therefore, Syzygium guineense could be regarded as a potential source to develop safe, effective and affordable antimalarial agent.

  3. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  4. Description of jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.)) anthocyanin extraction kinetics at different stirring frequencies of the medium using diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Wilton Pereira; Nunes, Jarderlany Sousa; Gomes, Josivanda Palmeira; de Araújo, Auryclennedy Calou; e Silva, Cleide M. D. P. S.

    2018-05-01

    Anthocyanin extraction kinetics was described for jambolan fruits. The spherical granules obtained were dried at 40 °C and the average radius of the sphere equivalent to the granules was determined. Solid-solvent ratio was fixed at 1:20 and temperature at 35 °C. A mixture of ethyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid (85:15) was used as solvent. Experiments were conducted with the following stirring frequencies: 0, 50, 100 and 150 rpm. Two diffusion models were used to describe the extraction process. The first one used an analytical solution, with boundary condition of the first kind. The second one used a numerical solution, with boundary condition of the third kind. The second model was the most adequate, and its results were used to determine empirical equations relating the process parameters with the stirring frequency, allowing to simulate new extraction kinetics.

  5. Chemical Profiling of the Essential Oils of Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora and Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Krstin, Sonja; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The essential oil compositions of the leaves of three related Myrtaceae species, namely Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora, were investigated using GLC/MS and GLC/FID. Altogether, 125 compounds were identified: α-Selinene (13.85%), β-caryophyllene (12.72%) and β-selinene constitute the most abundant constituents in S. aqueum. Germacrene D (21.62%) represents the major compound in S. samarangense whereas in E. uniflora, spathulenol (15.80%) represents the predominant component. Multivariate chemometric analyses were used to discriminate the essential oils using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on the chromatographic results. The antimicrobial activity of the popularly used E. uniflora essential oil was assessed using broth microdilution method against six Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi. The oil showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis exhibiting MIC and MMC of 0.63 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of E. uniflora essential oil was investigated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) and MCF-7 cancer cell line using MTT assay. It showed moderate activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC 50 value of 76.40 μg/ml. On the other hand, T. brucei was highly susceptible to E. uniflora essential oil with IC 50 of 11.20 μg/ml, and a selectivity index of 6.82. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeels. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.

    1994-02-01

    Cuticular and epidermal features of leaves of two common plant species namely, Lantana camara L. and Syzygium cuminii L. (Skeel.) growing in polluted and healthy (control) environments were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes. Polluted leaf samples were collected from the plants growing near a diesel generating set used in running a tube well. The study shows that in polluted populations of Lantana camara, the trichome frequency had increased four fold. In Syzygium cuminii, the stomatal openings were filled with dust and a tendency towards callus formation was also observed. The epidermal cells were comparatively thick walled and weremore » broken at certain places. The changes observed in the cuticular and epidermal features of polluted populations of the investigated species indicate their significance as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

  8. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Oriental. Syzygium aquem Water apple, watery roseapple Peach. Syzygium cumini Java plum, jambolana Peach... samarangense Java apple Peach. Terminalia bellirica Myrobalan, belleric Peach. Terminalia catappa Tropical...

  9. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Oriental. Syzygium aquem Water apple, watery roseapple Peach. Syzygium cumini Java plum, jambolana Peach... samarangense Java apple Peach. Terminalia bellirica Myrobalan, belleric Peach. Terminalia catappa Tropical...

  10. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Oriental. Syzygium aquem Water apple, watery roseapple Peach. Syzygium cumini Java plum, jambolana Peach... samarangense Java apple Peach. Terminalia bellirica Myrobalan, belleric Peach. Terminalia catappa Tropical...

  11. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P) strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg) had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:23930041

  12. Biphasic effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on reproductive physiology of male mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Singh, S K

    2016-11-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used for the treatment of male sexual disorders in indigenous medicines of Indian subcontinent. Therefore to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum on the male reproductive health, chronic oral exposure of aqueous extract of flower buds of Syzygium in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg kg -1 BW) were studied for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds increased serum testosterone level and testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities and improved sperm motility, sperm morphology, secretory activity of epididymis and seminal vesicle, and number of litters per female. On the other hand, higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of the treatment adversely affected above parameters. Further, higher doses of the extract also had adverse effects on daily sperm production, 1C cell population and on histology of testis. In conclusion, Syzygium aromaticum flower buds extract exhibits biphasic effect on reproductive physiology of male mice. Lower dose of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud extract is androgenic in nature and may have a viable future as an indigenous sexual rejuvenator, while higher doses adversely affected functional physiology of reproductive organs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. Herbs and spices have been used for the treatment of diabetes for centuries in folk medicine. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extracts (SE) have been shown to perform comparably to insulin by significantly reducing blood glucose levels in animal models; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effects of clove on metabolism in C2C12 myocytes and demonstrated that SE significantly increases glucose consumption. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was increased by SE treatment. SE also transcriptionally regulates genes involved in metabolism, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α). Nicotinamide, an SIRT1 inhibitor, diminished SE's effects on glucose consumption. Furthermore, treatment with SE dose-dependently increases muscle glycolysis and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. Overall, our study suggests that SE has the potential to increase muscle glycolysis and mitochondria function by activating both AMPK and SIRT1 pathways.

  14. Identification of nonvolatile compounds in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Manado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathoni, A.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (clove) are native to Indonesia and have been widely used in food industry due to their flavor. Nonvolatile compounds contribute to flavor, mainly in their taste. Currently, there is very little information available about nonvolatile compounds in clove. Identification of nonvolatile compounds is important to improve clove's value. Compound extraction was conducted by maceration in ethanol. Fractionations of the extract were performed by using gravity column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS was operated in negative mode with 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by fragment analysis and compared to references. Several compounds had been identified and characterized asquinic acid, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, isobiflorin, biflorin, ellagic acid, hydroxygallic acid, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, dimethoxyluteolin, and rhamnetin. These compounds had two main flavor perceptions, i.e. astringent, and bitter.

  15. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Aly, S E

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of closely related, extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can occur as natural contaminants of foods and feeds. Aflatoxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic to different animal species. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and have antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of these volatile oils to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. Sixty male rats were divided into six treatment groups, including a control group, and the groups were treated for 30 days with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oils with or without aflatoxin. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period for haematological and biochemical analysis. The results indicated that exposure to aflatoxins resulted in haematological and biochemical changes typical for aflatoxicosis. Treatment with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oil of rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet resulted in significant protection against aflatoxicosis. Moreover, Nigella sativa oil was found to be more effective than Syzygium aromaticum oil in restoring the parameters that were altered by aflatoxin in rats. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth.

    PubMed

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%).

  17. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth#

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  18. Biofilm inhibition by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils in the strains of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-03-27

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum have been used in traditional medicine to treat fungal infections of skin, mouth, urinary and vaginal tract in Asian countries particularly India and other developing countries. To evaluate essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum for their anti-biofilm activity against strong biofilm forming strains of Candida albicans. XTT reduction assay, Time kill assays, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the effect of test oils on the Candida albicans biofilms. Most of the Candida albicans strains tested displayed formation of moderate to strong biofilms. Preformed Candida biofilms showed ≥1024 times increased resistance to antifungal drugs, 2 times to Syzygium aromaticum, but no increased tolerance for Cymbopogon citratus. Test oils were more active against preformed biofilms compared to amphotericin B and fluconazole. At 0.5× MIC, Cymbopogon citratus followed by Syzygium aromaticum were most inhibitory against biofilm formation. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed the deformity of three dimensional structures of biofilms formed in the presence of sub-MICs of Cymbopogon citratus. The cell membranes appeared to be the target site of compounds in sessile cells as displayed by SEM observations. Our data had demonstrated promising in vitro anti-biofilm activity by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum and confirm the ethnopharmacological use of these oils in muco-cutaneous Candida infections. Furthermore, it suggests exploitation of these oils as new anti-biofilm products to deal with the problem of drug-resistance and recurrent infection associated with biofilm mode of growth of Candida spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Syzygium aqueum: A Polyphenol- Rich Leaf Extract Exhibits Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Pain-Killing and Anti-inflammatory Activities in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F.; Petruk, Ganna; Rezq, Samar; Ashour, Mohamed L.; Youssef, Fadia S.; El-Shazly, Assem M.; Monti, Daria M.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.; Wink, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Syzygium aqueum is widely used in folk medicine. A polyphenol-rich extract from its leaves demonstrated a plethora of substantial pharmacological properties. The extract showed solid antioxidant properties in vitro and protected human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) against UVA damage. The extract also reduced the elevated levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin (TB), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in rats with acute CCl4 intoxication. In addition to reducing the high MDA level, the extract noticeably restored GSH and SOD to the normal control levels in liver tissue homogenates and counteracted the deleterious histopathologic changes in liver after CCl4 injection. Additionally, the extract exhibited promising anti-inflammatory activities in vitro where it inhibited LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 with a higher COX-2 selectivity than that of indomethacin and diclofenac and reduced the extent of lysis of erythrocytes upon incubation with hypotonic buffer solution. S. aqueum extract also markedly reduced leukocyte numbers with similar activities to diclofenac in rats challenged with carrageenan. Additionally, administration of the extract abolished writhes induced by acetic acid in mice and prolonged the response latency in hot plate test. Meanwhile, the identified polyphenolics from the extract showed a certain affinity for the active pockets of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) explaining the observed anti-inflammatory activities. Finally, 87 secondary metabolites (mostly phenolics) were tentatively identified in the extract based on LC-MS/MS analyses. Syzygium aqueum displays good protection against oxidative stress, free radicals, and could be a good candidate for treating oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:29922158

  20. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and isolated compounds on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disorder leading to inflammation as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species due to the active involvement of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the infection site of the skin. The current study was designed to assess the potential of the leaf extract of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and its compounds for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against the pathogenic P. acnes. Methods The broth dilution method was used to assess the antibacterial activity. The cytotoxicity investigation on mouse melanocyte (B16-F10) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937) cells was done using sodium 3’-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) reagent. The non-toxic concentrations of the samples was investigated for the suppression of cytokines interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) by testing the supernatants in the co-culture of the human U937 cells and heat killed P. acnes using enzyme immunoassay kits (ELISA). The statistical analysis was done using the Graph Pad Prism 4 program. Results Bioassay guided isolation of ethanol extract of the leaves of S. jambos led to the isolation of three known compounds namely; squalene, an anacardic acid analogue and ursolic acid which are reported for the first time from this plant. The ethanol extract of S. jambos and one of the isolated compound namely, anacardic acid analogue were able to inhibit the growth of P. acnes with a noteworthy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 31.3 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanol extract and three commercially acquired compounds namely; myricetin, myricitrin, gallic acid exhibited significant antioxidant activity with fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging between 0.8-1.9 μg/ml which was comparable to that of vitamin C, the reference antioxidant agent. The plant extract, compounds ursolic acid and myricitrin (commercially

  1. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Djipa, C D; Delmée, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2000-07-01

    Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-Saharan Africa to treat infectious diseases. Acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of S. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. Both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. They proved to be particularly effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among which Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri. These properties seem to be related to the high tannin content of S. jambos extracts (77 and 83% for the aqueous and acetone extracts, respectively, determined according to the European Pharmacopoeia method) which were generally more active than Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Alchemilla vulgaris and Rubus fruticosus extracts containing 48, 44, 46 and 28% tannins, respectively. Furthermore, elimination of tannins totally suppressed these antimicrobial activities.

  2. Active starch biopolymeric packaging film for sausages embedded with essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Mariane L; de Cezaro, Aline M; Vedovatto, Felipe; Paroul, Natalia; Steffens, Juliana; Valduga, Eunice; Backes, Geciane T; Franceschi, Elton; Cansian, Rogério L

    2017-06-01

    Starch polymer matrices were developed with the incorporation of 1% clove essential oil (EO) ( Syzygium aromaticum ) aiming for use as active packaging for sausages. At the concentration of 1% EO in the polymer matrix, it showed exponential behavior with respect to oil release over 30 days, with faster release in the beginning and a tendency towards a reduction in release velocity over time. The presence of OE in the biofilm led to significant differences versus the control in terms of aroma and flavor parameters. It was found that EO had an antioxidant effect in sausages with a significant difference between treatments with respect to TBA (thiobarbituric acid) values at the end of a 15 day period of refrigerated storage. There were no significant variations in pH and Aw among treatments during the evaluated period. A significant negative correlation (-0.78) between brightness (L*) and the lipid oxidation of the products was observed.

  3. Cytotoxic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Syzygium calophyllifolium bark.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Rahul; Abrahamse, Heidi; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2018-04-25

    The present study explores the effect of Syzygium calophyllifolium bark methanol (SCBM) extract on pain and inflammation as cancer associated symptoms. The anti-proliferative and cell death-inducing ability of the extract was analysed using MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATP and LDH levels, along with the cell morphology were noted. The anti-proliferative ability of the extract was examined in relation to pain and inflammation. Analgesic activity was determined using a hot plate, acetic acid and formalin-induced pain models in mice. Acute anti-inflammatory activity was observed in carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw oedema in Wistar rats. Chronic inflammation was induced by placing a cotton pellet under the skin at the axial region of rats. Reduced ATP and increased LDH content indicated the cytotoxic effect of the extract. SCBM at 200 mg/kg dose depicted good activity in acetic acid (77.69%) and formalin (80.81%) induced pain models compared to the standard drug indomethacin. However, only a moderate activity was observed in the hot plate method (53.85%). The higher dose of SCBM was equally effective in anti-inflammatory models. The dose (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the paw oedema in carrageenan (96.71%) and egg albumin models (54.24%) compared to the control. The chronic inflammation was also inhibited upto 70.46% by SCBM. These activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds detected in HPLC. The outcome of the study states that the extract can reduce both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and kill the cancer cells, proposing the dual role of SCBM in treating inflammatory pains in cancer. The result of these studies indicated that wild plants like Syzygium calophyllifolium could be taken forward for a detailed study to accomplish the demand for a better treatment against diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Antioxidant Content and Protective Effect of Argan Oil and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes

    PubMed Central

    BAKOUR, Meryem; SOULO, Najoua; HAMMAS, Nawal; FATEMI, Hinde EL; ABOULGHAZI, Abderrazak; TAROQ, Amal; ABDELLAOUI, Abdelfattah; AL-WAILI, Noori; LYOUSSI, Badiaa

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the effect of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced liver, brain and kidney tissue toxicity as well as biochemical changes in wistar rats. The antioxidant content of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil was studied with the use of gas chromatography. The animals received daily by gavage, for 21 days, either distilled water, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, Argan oil, H2O2 alone, H2O2 and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, or H2O2 and Argan oil. Blood samples were withdrawn on day 21 for the biochemical blood tests, and the kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were prepared for histopathology examination. The results showed that the content of antioxidant compounds in Syzygium aromaticum essential oil is higher than that found in Argan oil. H2O2 increased level of blood urea, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglycerides (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and decreased the total protein, albumin and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no significant effect on blood electrolyte or serum creatinine. The histopathology examination demonstrated that H2O2 induces dilatation in the central vein, inflammation and binucleation in the liver, congestion and hemorrhage in the brain, and congestion in the kidney. The H2O2-induced histopathological and biochemical changes have been significantly alleviated by Syzygium aromaticum essential oil or Argan oil. It is concluded that the Argan oil and especially the mixture of Argan oil with Syzygium aromaticum essential oil can reduce the oxidative damage caused by H2O2, and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of these natural substances in the diseases attributed to the high oxidative stress

  5. The Antioxidant Content and Protective Effect of Argan Oil and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes.

    PubMed

    Bakour, Meryem; Soulo, Najoua; Hammas, Nawal; Fatemi, Hinde El; Aboulghazi, Abderrazak; Taroq, Amal; Abdellaoui, Abdelfattah; Al-Waili, Noori; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2018-02-18

    Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the effect of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced liver, brain and kidney tissue toxicity as well as biochemical changes in wistar rats. The antioxidant content of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil was studied with the use of gas chromatography. The animals received daily by gavage, for 21 days, either distilled water, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, Argan oil, H₂O₂ alone, H₂O₂ and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, or H₂O₂ and Argan oil. Blood samples were withdrawn on day 21 for the biochemical blood tests, and the kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were prepared for histopathology examination. The results showed that the content of antioxidant compounds in Syzygium aromaticum essential oil is higher than that found in Argan oil. H₂O₂ increased level of blood urea, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglycerides (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and decreased the total protein, albumin and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no significant effect on blood electrolyte or serum creatinine. The histopathology examination demonstrated that H₂O₂ induces dilatation in the central vein, inflammation and binucleation in the liver, congestion and hemorrhage in the brain, and congestion in the kidney. The H₂O₂-induced histopathological and biochemical changes have been significantly alleviated by Syzygium aromaticum essential oil or Argan oil. It is concluded that the Argan oil and especially the mixture of Argan oil with Syzygium aromaticum essential oil can reduce the oxidative damage caused by H₂O 2, and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of these natural substances in the diseases attributed

  6. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  7. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. PMID:24144127

  8. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic black tea fungi and their inhibition by Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Murugan, K.; Lakshimi, G.; Anandraj, K.

    2011-01-01

    Black tea is consumed worldwide and is believed to play a role in cancer prevention. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic fungi are highly hazardous contaminants of tea since they are associated with tea quality impairment and human health risk. The present study reports isolation of such xerophilic and aflatoxigenic fungi associated with marketed tea. Twenty different tea samples collected from the local markets of Tamilnadu, India were investigated for fungal contamination. The results indicated contamination by 0.38% Aspergillus flavus. Other common contaminant fungi including Penicillium spp. (0.30%), Pacelomyces spp. (0.14%), and Mucor spp. (0.19%) were also isolated. Amongst the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02 were found to be xerophilic aflatoxigenic mycoflora. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rRNA revealed their close ancestry. The chloroform and acetone extracts of spices Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum exhibited antifungal inhibitory activity on growth and toxin elaboration of both these xerophilic tea contaminants A. niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02. The results advocate the use of these spices plant or their extracts as novel antimicrobials which may add preservation and flavour in marketed tea. PMID:23961151

  10. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  11. Synergistic antinociceptive interaction of Syzygium aromaticum or Rosmarinus officinalis coadministered with ketorolac in rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Z exp ) was lower than the theoretical value (Z add ). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. fruit.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, Saikumar; Chandran, Rahul; Thankarajan, Sajeesh; Abrahamse, Heidi; Thangaraj, Parimelazhagan

    2018-01-01

    Syzygium calophyllifolium fruits are among the important wild edibles used by the tribes of Western Ghats. However, this underutilized fruit remained unnoticed for its medicinal properties. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity by DPPH · , ABTS ·+ , FRAP assays and antibacterial efficacy by well diffusion method. GC-MS and HPLC profiles of crude extract and column chromatographic fractions were also determined. The methanolic extract of fruit (MFE) showed high total phenolics, tannins and flavonoids. The faction H (FH) displayed significant antioxidant property in DPPH · (IC 50 2.1 µg/ml), ABTS ·+ (19483.29 μM Trolox equivalents/g extract) and FRAP (65.5 mM Fe(II)/mg extract) assays over MFE. Moreover, FH also exhibited good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (32.0 mm), Salmonella typhi (27.0 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (27.3 mm) at 100 mg/ml concentration. GC-MS revealed 12 major compounds in MFE, HPLC analysis of MFE and FH depicted the presence of rutin and ellagic acid. This study suggested that FH could have high concentration of bioactive compounds like rutin and ellagic acid or its analogues compared to MFE which may be responsible for its strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

  13. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  14. Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Manoj K; Bhadra, Santanu; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Antioxidant and vascular protective activities of Cratoxylum formosum, Syzygium gratum and Limnophila aromatica.

    PubMed

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Luangaram, Saowanee; Leekhaosoong, Krissadarut; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Preeprame, Srisomporn

    2007-04-01

    Phytochemicals contained in dietary plants provide a variety of health benefits and may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aqueous extracts from three popular Thai dietary and herbal plants, Cratoxylum formosum, Syzygium gratum, and Limnophila aromatica, were investigated for the antioxidant and vascular protective activities in the in vitro and in vivo models. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of plant extracts were evaluated in vitro by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the intracellular antioxidant activity in rat peritoneal macrophages by dihydrofluorescein assay, and the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In an animal model of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with aqueous plant extracts (1 g/kg/d) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg/d) as a control for 6 d. On day four, all animals except the normal control group, were administered with phenylhydrazine (PHZ) intraperitoneally. It was demonstrated that the plant extracts possessed high free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PHZ induced severe hemolysis and hemodynamic disturbances and treatment with the extracts and NAC significantly improved the hemodynamic status. Vascular responsiveness to bradykinin, acetylcholine, and phenylephrine in PHZ-control rats was markedly impaired, and the plant extracts or NAC largely restored the vascular responses. Moreover, the plant extracts prevented loss of blood reduced glutathione and suppressed formation of plasma malondialdehyde, plasma NO metabolites and blood superoxide anion. It was concluded that the plant extracts possess antioxidants and have potential roles in protection of vascular dysfunction.

  16. Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Matsubara, Eri; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Sukaton, Edi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-03-01

    In the course to find a new whitening agent, we evaluated the methanol extract from bud of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells. Eugenol and eugenol acetate were isolated as the active compounds and showed melanin inhibition of 60% and 40% in B16 melanoma cell with less cytotoxicity at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, an essential oil prepared from the bud of clove, which contain eugenol and eugenol acetate as dominant components, showed melanin inhibition of 50% and 80% in B16 melanoma cells at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  18. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces ...

  19. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  20. Seed-free synthesis of 1D silver nanowires ink using clove oil (Syzygium Aromaticum) at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeevika, Alagan; Ravi Shankaran, Dhesingh

    2015-11-15

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been demonstrated to be a promising next generation conducting material and an alternative to the traditional electrode (ITO) because of its high conductivity, transparency and stability. Generally, AgNWs are synthesized by chemical method (mainly polyol reduction method) at high temperature in the presence of exotic seeds. The present work aims at the green approach for preparation and characterization of 1D AgNWs ink using clove oil (Syzygium Aromaticum) at room temperature. AgNWs was prepared by green synthesis using clove oil as reducing as well as capping agent at room temperature. The obtained ink was purified, filtered and redissolved in methanol. The prepared AgNWs showed an absorption peaks at 350 and 387nm in the UV-vis spectrum due to transverse SPR mode of silver. From the HR-TEM analysis, it was observed that the AgNWs possess an average diameter and length of ∼39±0.01nm and ∼3μm, respectively. The obtained AgNWs are crystalline in nature and are arranged in a perfect crystal lattice orientation, which was confirmed from the selected area electron diffraction studies. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the face centered cubic structure. The AgNWs coated glass substrate shows an electrical conductivity of ∼0.48×10(6)S/m. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical profiling of clove bud oil (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli and Bali by GC-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Amelia, B.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is the largest clove producer in the world. In 2012, total world clove production is 113,215 tons where nearly 71 % (79,250 tons) comes from Indonesia. Although Indonesia is a major producer of clove in the world, research and publications about cloves in this country are scarce and hence knowledge about characteristics of difference varieties of cloves is very limited. The present study was aimed to compare major and minor constituents in clove oil responsible for their flavor based on origin which are cloves from Toli-Toli and Bali. The clove bud oil was isolated from clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) using steam distillation. The compounds of clove bud oil was analyzed using GC-MS. The major compounds of clove oil were eugenol, caryophyllene, α-humulene and eugenyl acetate with composition 66.37 %, 15.38 %, 1.97 % and 12.99 %, respectively (Toli-Toli) and clove from Bali were 72.34 %, 12.51 %, 2.34 % and 5.33 %, respectively. The unique minor compounds of clove oil from Toli-Toli were (+)-δ-cadinene (0.13 %) and β-caryophylladienol (0.19 %) while in clove oil from Bali were valencene (0.17 %), δ-selinene (0.22 %) and alloaromadendrene (0.24 %). A total of 36 compounds were identified from the clove bud oil Toli-Toli and 38 compounds from the clove bud oil Bali.

  2. Anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil and eugenol: effects on growth, viability, adherence and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Machado, M; Dinis, A M; Salgueiro, L; Custódio, José B A; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2011-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum and its major compound eugenol. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, adherence, viability and ultrastructure. S. aromaticum essential oil (IC(50)=134 μg/ml) and eugenol (IC(50)=101 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of G. lamblia. The essential oil inhibited trophozoites adherence since the first hour of incubation and was able to kill almost 50% of the parasites population in a time dependent manner. The eugenol inhibited G. lamblia trophozoites adherence since the third hour and not induce cell lyses. The main morphological alterations were modifications on the cell shape, presence of precipitates in the cytoplasm, autophagic vesicles, internalization of flagella and ventral disc, membrane blebs, and intracellular and nuclear clearing. Taken together, our findings lead us to propose that eugenol was responsible for the anti-giardial activity of the S. aromaticum essential oil and both have potential for use as therapeutic agents against giardiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  4. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Lakshman, Dilip K; Zasada, Inga A; Vinyard, Bryan T; Chitwood, David J

    2008-03-01

    Clove oil, derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry, is active against various organisms, and was prepared in a soy lecithin/detergent formulation to determine concentrations active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In microwell assays, the mean effective clove oil concentration that reduced egg hatch by 50% (EC(50)) was 0.097% (v/v) clove oil; the EC(50) for second-stage juvenile (J2) viability was 0.145% clove oil (compared with carrier control treatments). Volatiles from 5.0% clove oil reduced nematode egg hatch in water by 30%, and decreased viability of hatched J2 by as much as 100%. Reductions were not as large with nematodes in carrier. In soil trials with J2 recovered from Baermann funnels, the EC(50) = 0.192% clove oil (compared with water controls). The results demonstrated that the tested formulation is active against M. incognita eggs and J2, that the EC(50) values for J2 in the microwell studies and the soil recovery tests were similar to each other and that direct contact with the clove oil is needed for optimal management results with this natural product. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes induced by eugenol-rich oil of Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis consists of a complex spectrum of infectious diseases with worldwide distribution of which visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar caused by Leishmania donovani is the most devastating. In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice are expensive and associated with multiple adverse side effects. Because of these limitations, the development of new antileishmanial compounds is imperative and plants offer prospects in this regard. The present work was conducted to study the antileishmanial potential of oil from Syzygium aromaticum flower buds (clove). The S. aromaticum oil was characterized by gas chromatography and GC-MS and eugenol as well as eugenyl acetate were found to be the most abundant compounds, composing 59.75 % and 29.24 %, respectively of the oil. Our findings have shown that eugenol-rich essential oil from S. aromaticum (EROSA) possesses significant activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 21 ± 0.16 µg ml(-1) and 15.24 ± 0.14 µg ml(-1), respectively, against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Alterations in cellular morphology and growth reversibility assay substantiated the leishmanicidal activity of EROSA. The leishmanicidal effect was mediated via apoptosis as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation. EROSA presented no adverse cytotoxic effects against murine macrophages even at 200 µg ml(-1). Our studies authenticate the promising antileishmanial activity of EROSA, which is mediated by programmed cell death, and, accordingly, EROSA may be a source of novel agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  6. Isolation, characterization and in silico docking studies of synergistic estrogen receptor a anticancer polyphenols from Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp.

    PubMed Central

    Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Neeraja, Pabbaraju; Savithramma, Nataru

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to isolate, characterize, and in silico evaluate of anticancer polyphenols from different parts of Syzygium alternifolium. Materials and Methods: The polyphenols were isolated by standard protocol and characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), High performance liquid chromatography - Photodiode array detector coupled with Electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The compounds were elucidated based on retention time and molecular ions (m/z) either by [M+H]+/[M-H]− with the comparison of standard phenols as well as ReSpect software tool. Furthermore, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME)/toxicity properties of selected phenolic scaffolds were screened using OSIRIS and SwissADME programs, which incorporate toxicity risk assessments, pharmacokinetics, and rule of five principles. Molecular docking studies were carried out for selected toxicity filtered compounds against breast cancer estrogen receptor a (ERa) structure (protein data bank-ID: 1A52) through AutoDock scoring functions by PyRx virtual screening program. Results: The obtained results showed two intensive peaks in each polyphenol fraction analyzed with FT-IR, confirms O-H/C-O stretch of the phenolic functional group. A total of 40 compounds were obtained, which categorized as 9 different classes. Among them, flavonol group represents more number of polyphenols. In silico studies suggest seven compounds have the possibility to use as future nontoxic inhibitors. Molecular docking studies with ERa revealed the lead molecules unequivocally interact with Leu346, Glu353, Leu391, Arg394, Gly521, Leu525 residues, and Phe404 formed atomic π-stacking with dihydrochromen-4-one ring of ligands as like estrodial, which stabilizes the receptor structure and complicated to generate a single mutation for drug resistance. Conclusion: Overall, these results significantly proposed that isolated phenolics could be served as potential ER mitigators for breast

  7. Antioxidant effects of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract used with different extenders on ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Baghshahi, H; Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Shirazi, A

    2014-12-01

    Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract was added at concentrations of 0, 35, 75, and 115 μg/ml to ovine semen extenders in order to investigate the antioxidant activities of clove bud extract and its effects on semen quality parameters after cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. The basic extender was composed of Tris, egg yolk, and glycerol. Two other extenders were prepared by substitution of egg yolk with either LDL or egg yolk+SDS. The DPPH inhibition test was employed to assess the antioxidant activity of clove bud extract. Results showed that, compared to vitamin E, clove bud extract had a higher antioxidant activity. Better sperm motility and movement characteristics (P<0.05) were observed in the semen diluted with medium containing egg yolk+SDS than in that containing egg yolk and LDL. Progressive motility and movement characteristics of the sperm were significantly improved (P<0.05) by adding 35 and/or 75 μg/ml of clove bud extract to semen extenders. Sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity were also higher (P<0.05) in the semen exposed to medium containing egg yolk+SDS and 75 μg of clove buds extract after cryopreservation processes. Higher levels of clove bud extract, however, had adverse effects on all the sperm quality parameters and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the motility, movement parameters, viability, and plasma membrane integrity of ovine sperm. It was concluded that the clove bud extract had an antioxidant potential that makes it useful for addition to semen extenders and that the best results are obtained with a maximum clove bud extract of 75 μg/ml. Moreover, the combination of egg yolk and a detergent was found to improve sperm quality after the cooling and freeze-thawing processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  9. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    PubMed

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  10. Novel molecular imprinted polymers over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for selective and efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Hu, Yunchu; You, Qingping; Shi, Shuyun

    2015-07-01

    Improving sites accessibility can increase the binding efficiency of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs). In this work, we firstly synthesized MIPs over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs) for the selective recognition of protocatechuic acid (PCA). The resulting Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of PCA on Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs was 17.2mg/g (2.3 times that on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIPs). In addition, Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs showed a short equilibrium time (140min), rapid magnetic separation (5s) and high stability (retained 94.4% after six cycles). Subsequently, Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs were successfully applied for the selective and efficient determination of PCA (29.3μg/g) from Syzygium aromaticum. Conclusively, we combined three advantages into Fe3O4@mSiO2@MIPs, namely, Fe3O4 core for quick separation, mSiO2 layer for enough accessible sites, and surface imprinting MIPs for fast binding and excellent selectivity, to extract PCA from complex systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  13. Paid Educational Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three reasons why the Canadian government is supportive of paid educational leave (PEL): the provision of a second chance, equal opportunity, and increased productivity. It also compares Canadian efforts in providing workers' education with those of other countries. (EM)

  14. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  15. Icephobicity of Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Shirazi, Elika T.; Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh

    2016-11-01

    Ice adhesion and excessive accumulation on exposed structures and equipment are well known to cause serious problems in cold-climate regions; therefore, the development of coatings that can resist icing can solve many challenges in various areas of industry. This work was inspired by nature and ice-resistivity and superhydrophobicity of plants leaves. Kale is an example of a plant that can be harvested in winter. It shows superhydrophobic behavior, which is normally known as an advantage for cleaning the leaves, but we were able to show that its surface structure and high contact angle of water drops on kale leaves could delay the ice formation process making it a good candidate for an ice-repellent coating. We have performed in-depth experimental analyses on how different plants can prevent icing, and contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the leaves were taken to further mimic their surface morphology.

  16. LEAVE PAD - TRAINING - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-18

    S65-20641 (1965) --- Astronauts John W. Young (left), pilot, and Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, for the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, are shown leaving the launch pad after simulations in the Gemini-3 spacecraft.

  17. Effect of water extracts from edible Myrtaceae plants on uptake of 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose in TNF-α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the glucose uptake activity of the water extracts from the leaves and fruit of edible Myrtaceae plants, including guava (Psidium guajava Linn.), wax apples [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L.M. Perry], Pu-Tau [Syzygium jambo (L.) Alston], and Kan-Shi Pu-Tau (Syzygium cumini Linn.) in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The fluorescent dye 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose was used to estimate the uptake ability of the cells. Glucose uptake test showed that pink wax apple fruit extract (PWFE) exhibits the highest glucose uptake activity, at an increment of 21% in the insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes as compared with the TNF-α-treated control group. Vescalagin was isolated using column chromatography of PWFE. This compound, at the concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, exhibits the same glucose uptake improvement in insulin-resistant cells as PWFE at a 100-µg/mL dose. We postulate that vescalagin is an active component in PWFE that may alleviate the insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Maternity Leave Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  19. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  20. HPLC profiling, antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of Syzygium jambos available in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Hemayet; Rahman, Shaikh Emdadur; Akbar, Proity Nayeeb; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2016-03-28

    Syzygium jambos has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in Bangladesh. The study investigates the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling of phenolic compounds, and evaluates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of S. jambos available in Bangladesh. The extract was subjected to HPLC for the identification and quantification of the major bioactive polyphenols present in S. jambos. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2'-azino bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract in rats for two different test models: carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema was inspected. High levels of catechin hydrate and rutin hydrate (99.00 and 79.20 mg/100 g extract, respectively) and moderate amounts of ellagic acid and quercetin (59.40 and 69.30 mg/100 g extract, respectively) were quantified in HPLC. Catechin hydrate from this plant extract was determined for the first time through HPLC. For ABTS scavenging assay, the median inhibition concentration (IC50) value of S. jambos was 57.80 µg/ml, which was significant to that of ascorbic acid (12.01 µg/ml). The maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was found to be 0.4934. The total antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated to be 628.50 mg/g of ascorbic acid, 230.82 mg/g of gallic acid and 11.84 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, a significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.01) was observed in rats for both the test models with a reduction in the paw volume of 58.04 and 53.95 %, in comparison to those of indomethacin (62.94 and 65.79 %), respectively. The results suggest that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds are responsible for acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of S. jambos.

  1. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Treesearch

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  2. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  3. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  4. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  5. Maternity Leave in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-07-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  7. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice. PMID:14567759

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; Cardoso, Maria G; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Mendonça, Lidiany Z; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-07-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus.

  9. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  10. Phloem networks in leaves.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Mónica R; Losada, Juan M; Niklas, Karl J

    2018-06-01

    The survival of all vascular plants depends on phloem and xylem, which comprise a hydraulically coupled tissue system that transports photosynthates, water, and a variety of other molecules and ions. Although xylem hydraulics has been extensively studied, until recently, comparatively little is known quantitatively about the phloem hydraulic network and how it is functionally coupled to the xylem network, particularly in photosynthetic leaves. Here, we summarize recent advances in quantifying phloem hydraulics in fully expanded mature leaves with different vascular architectures and show that (1) the size of phloem conducting cells across phylogenetically different taxa scales isometrically with respect to xylem conducting cell size, (2) cell transport areas and lengths increase along phloem transport pathways in a manner that can be used to model Münch's pressure-flow hypothesis, and (3) report observations that invalidate da Vinci's and Murray's hydraulic models as plausible constructs for understanding photosynthate transport in the leaf lamina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  12. Fathers' Participation in Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are findings from an investigation of Swedish parents, who were studied to discover barriers to fathers taking time off from work to care for a newborn. Discussion focuses on: (1) fathers' participation in parental leave; (2) parents who take leave, and why; (3) barriers to fathers' participation in parental leave; (4) the potential of…

  13. Judy Holoviak Leaves AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Judy C. Holoviak, AGU director of publications, leaves AGU on 6 May 2009. Her nearly 45-year career at AGU was recognized when she received the 2008 Edward A. Flinn III Award (see Eos, 89(52), 546, 2008). During her tenure, the journals program grew from 803 articles published per year to an average of 22 articles published per day (about 5670 per year); Eos grew from a quarterly journal (under the title of Transactions, American Geophysical Union) to a monthly magazine, and then to a weekly newspaper; and AGU became recognized as a leader in electronic publication.

  14. Parental leave and child health.

    PubMed

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  15. Parental Leave Policies and Parents’ Employment and Leave-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

  16. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  17. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    PubMed

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  18. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up..., including pandemic influenza when appropriate, by permitting the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave... and procedures developed in planning for a pandemic influenza and provided references to a substantial...

  19. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  20. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of phenylpropanoids and ketone identified in Syzygium aromaticum bud against Bradysia procera.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tae-Kyun; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Jang, Kyoung-Hwa; Na, Eun-Shik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2018-02-01

    Bradysia procera is a serious insect pest of Panax ginseng plants. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of three phenylpropanoids, three terpenoids, and a ketone from Syzygium aromaticum bud methanol extract and hydrodistillate against third-instar larvae and eggs of B. procera. In a filter-paper mortality bioassay, methyl salicylate (LC 50 , 5.26μg/cm 2 ) was the most toxic compound, followed by 2-nonanone, eugenol, and eugenyl acetate (8.77-15.40μg/cm 2 ). These compounds were significantly less toxic than either thiamethoxam, clothianidin, or cypermethrin. Egg hatching was inhibited by 97, 85, and 40% at 11.7μg/cm 2 of methyl salicylate, 2-nonanone, and eugenol, respectively. The egg-hatching inhibition of these insecticides was between 90 and 94% at 0.09μg/cm 2 . These constituents were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that toxicity was achieved mainly through the action of vapor. The mechanism of larvicidal action of methyl salicylate, eugenol, and eugenyl acetate might be primarily due to interference with the octopaminergic system. 2-Heptyl acetate and 2-nonanone might act on both acetylcholinesterase and the octopaminergic receptor. 2-Heptanone might act primarily on acetylcholinesterase. Further studies will warrant possible applications of S. aromaticum bud-derived products as potential larvicides and ovicides for the control of B. procera. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Deus, Juliana Telles de; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-07-04

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  3. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  4. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11 μg/mL and 0.03–0.36 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r 2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

  6. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium antisepticum plant extract against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and its application potential with cooked chicken.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenqian; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2018-06-01

    For the past decades, there has been a growing demand for natural antimicrobials in the food industry. Plant extracts have attracted strong research interests due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but only a limited number have been investigated thoroughly. The present study aimed at identifying a novel anti-staphylococcal plant extract, to validate its activity in a food model, and to investigate on its composition and antimicrobial mechanism. Four plant extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in vitro, with Syzygium antisepticum leaf extract showing the strongest antimicrobial activity (MIC = 0.125 mg/mL). Relatively high total phenolic content (276.3 mg GAE/g extract) and antioxidant activities (90.2-138.0 mg TE/g extract) were measured in S. antisepticum extract. Food validation study revealed that higher extract concentration (32 mg/mL) was able to inhibit or reduce staphylococcal growth in cooked chicken, but caused color change on meat surface. By GC-MS, β-caryophyllene (12.76 area%) was identified as the dominant volatile compound in extract. Both crude extract and pure β-caryophyllene induced membrane damages in S. aureus. These results suggested good anti-staphylococcal properties of S. antisepticum plant extract, identified its major volatile composition and its membrane-damaging antimicrobial mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    PubMed

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  10. Family Leave: It's the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jean B.

    1993-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)

  11. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  12. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... time, normally from full-time to part-time. (b) Medical necessity. For intermittent leave or leave on a...

  13. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (1) or (2) of this part shall not be taken intermittently or on a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... time, normally from full-time to part-time. (b) Medical necessity. For intermittent leave or leave on a...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (1) or (2) of this part shall not be taken intermittently or on a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... time, normally from full-time to part-time. (b) Medical necessity. For intermittent leave or leave on a...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (1) or (2) of this part shall not be taken intermittently or on a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (1) or (2) of this part shall not be taken intermittently or on a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  19. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... time, normally from full-time to part-time. (b) Medical necessity. For intermittent leave or leave on a...

  20. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  1. Bioinspired green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles from Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp: characterization and evaluation of its synergistic antimicrobial and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Vasavi, Thirumalanadhuni; Uma Maheswari Devi, Palempalli; Savithramma, Nataru

    2017-10-01

    In recent times, nanoparticles are attributed to green nanotechnology methods to know the synergistic biological activities. To accomplish this phenomenon, present study was aimed to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) by using Syzygium alternifolium stem bark, characterized those NPs using expository tools and to elucidate high prioritized antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Synthesized particles exhibited a color change pattern upon synthesis and affirmed its respective broad peak at 285 nm which was analyzed through UV-vis spectroscopy. FT-IR study confirmed that phenols and primary amines were mainly involved in capping and stabilization of nanoparticles. DLS and Zeta potential studies revealed narrow size of particles with greater stability. XRD studies revealed the crystallographic nature of particles with 17.2 nm average size. Microscopic analysis by using TEM revealed that particle size range from 5-13 nm and most of them were spherical in shape, non-agglomerated and poly-dispersed in condition. Antimicrobial studies of particles showed highest inhibitory activity against E. coli and T. harzianum among bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The scope of this study is extended by examining anticancer activity of CuO NPs. This study exhibited potential anticancer activity towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer lines. Overall, these examinations relate that the S. alternifolium is described as efficient well-being plant and probabilistically for the design and synthesis of nanoparticles for human health. This study paves a way to better understand antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutic drug potentials of nanoparticles to design and analysis of pharmaceuticals by in vivo and in vitro approaches.

  2. Eugenol-rich Fraction of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) Reverses Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in Liver Cirrhosis and Inhibits Hepatic Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shakir; Prasad, Ram; Mahmood, Amena; Routray, Indusmita; Shinkafi, Tijjani Salihu; Sahin, Kazim; Kucuk, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dried flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) is rich in eugenol, an antioxidant and antiinflammatory compound that can protect liver against injury. Clove, besides eugenol, also contains other pharmacologically active phytochemicals such as β-sitosterol and ascorbic acid. This study reports the effect of eugenol-rich fraction (ERF) of clove on liver cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide. Methods: Cirrhosis of the liver, which predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma, was induced by administering thioacetamide (0.03%) in drinking water for 16 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were divided into two groups; the treated group was administered ERF for 9 weeks, one week after discontinuation of thioacetamide, while the other group received normal saline for a similar duration of time. Results: The treatment with ERF, as determined by histopathology and through a battery of biochemical markers of hepatic injury, oxidative stress and drug metabolizing enzymes, significantly ameliorated the signs of liver cirrhosis. It lowered the elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and other biochemical changes in liver cirrhosis. Histopathology of the liver corroborated the effect of ERF with biochemical findings. ERF treatment further inhibited cell proliferation, as demonstrated by reduced [3H]-thymidine uptake. Conclusions: Data provide evidence supporting the protective action of ERF on liver cirrhosis. The study assumes significance because cirrhosis predisposes the liver to cancer, which is characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. ERF in this study is reported to inhibit hepatic cell proliferation and at the same time decrease oxidative stress, which might be the mechanism of protection against liver cirrhosis. PMID:25574464

  3. Essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum reverses the deficits of stress-induced behaviors and hippocampal p-ERK/p-CREB/brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Bin; Luo, Liu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Geng, Di; Li, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Shao-Mei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Yi, Li-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine. Our study investigated the safety and antidepressant-like effects of the essential oil of S. aromaticum after acute or long-term treatment. Using GC-MS, a total of eight volatile constituents were identified in the essential oil of S. aromaticum. The single LD50 was approximately 4500 mg/kg based on a 24-h acute oral toxicity study. In a long-term repeated toxicity study of this essential oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p. o.), only 400 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in body weight. In addition, no significant changes in relative organ weights and histopathological analysis were observed in all doses of essential oil-treated mice compared with the control group. Furthermore, acute S. aromaticum essential oil administration by gavage exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (200 mg/kg, p < 0.05) and tail suspension test (100 and 200 mg/kg, p < 0.05). Long-term S. aromaticum essential oil treatment via gavage significantly increased sucrose preference (50 mg/kg, p < 0.05; 100 and 200 mg/kg, p < 0.01) as well as elevated the protein levels of hippocampal p-ERK, p-CREB, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. These results confirmed the safety of the essential oil of S. aromaticum and suggested that its potent antidepressant-like property might be attributed to the improvement in the hippocampal pERK1/2-pCREB-BDNF pathway in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Jin; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Yang, In; Choi, Won-Sil; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential of using plant oils derived from Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. Et Perry as natural antifungal agents. The antifungal effects of essential oils at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/ml on the dermatophytes Microsporum canis (KCTC 6591), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (KCTC 6077), Trichophyton rubrum (KCCM 60443), Epidermophyton floccosum (KCCM 11667), and Microsporum gypseum were evaluated using the agar diffusion method. The major constituents of the active fraction against the dermatophytes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The antifungal activities of S. aromaticum oil (clove oil) against the dermatophytes tested were highest at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, with an effectiveness of more than 60%. Hyphal growth was completely inhibited in T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. gypseum by treatment with clove oil at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. Eugenol was the most effective antifungal constituent of clove oil against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. Morphological changes in the hyphae of T. mentagrophytes, such as damage to the cell wall and cell membrane and the expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum, after treatment with 0.11 mg/ml eugenol were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, L. petersonii oil (LPO) was more than 90% effective against all of the dermatophytes tested, with the exception of T. rubrum. Geranial was determined to be the most active antifungal constituent of L. petersonii oil. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that clove and tea tree oils exhibited significant antifungal activities against the dermatophytes tested in this study.

  5. Efficacy of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole on murine oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi IV.

    PubMed

    Zanusso Junior, Gerson; Massago, Miyoko; Kian, Danielle; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas

    2018-02-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem. One of the causes of the high morbidity and mortality in patients is the lack of an effective drug therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole (BZ) in mice orally inoculated with strain of T. cruzi IV obtained from oral CD outbreak occurred in Western Brazilian Amazonia. All the animals inoculated with metacyclic trypomastigote forms (AM14 strain, BZ resistant), derived from the insect Rhodnius robustus, became infected and there was no difference in the mortality rate between the experimental groups. When compared with untreated control animals (UTC), the treatment with essential oil of S. aromaticum (EOSA) alone promoted reduction in 1/5 parameters derived from the parasitemia curve, whereas the treatments with BZ alone or in combination (BZ + EOSA) promoted reduction in 4/5 of those parameters, presenting similar profiles of parasitemia curve. The animals treated with BZ and with the combination BZ + EOSA presented lower patency periods in comparison with the animals in EOSA group, and lower positivity of blood cultures when compared with the UTC group. The results of molecular analysis by qPCR in both blood and cardiac tissue did not show differences between the groups. The cure rates obtained with the different treatments presented the following ascending order: EOSA = 12.5% (1/8), BZ = 25.0% (2/8) and BZ + EOSA = 37.5% (3/8). Although there are no significant differences between them, these results claims that the use of this essential oil could be of interest for treatment of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of novel HER2 inhibitors against gastric cancer derived from flavonoid source of Syzygium alternifolium through molecular dynamics and pharmacophore-based screening

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Tirumalasetty Muni Chandra; Rammohan, Aluru; Baki, Vijaya Bhaskar; Devi, Savita; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2016-01-01

    Continuous usage of synthetic chemotherapeutic drugs causes adverse effects, which prompted for the development of alternative therapeutics for gastric cancer from natural source. This study was carried out with a specific aim to screen gastroprotective compounds from the fruits of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae). Three flavonoids, namely, 1) 5-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxy-6,8-di-C-methylflavone, 2) kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 3) kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the above medicinal plant by employing silica gel column chromatography and are characterized by NMR techniques. Antigastric cancer activity of these flavonoids was examined on AGS cell lines followed by cell cycle progression assay. In addition, pharmacophore-based screening and molecular dynamics of protein–ligand complex were carried out to identify potent scaffolds. The results showed that compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant cytotoxic effect, whereas compound 1 showed moderate effect on AGS cells by inhibiting G2/M phase of cell cycle. Molecular docking analysis revealed that compound 2 has higher binding energies on human growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). The constructed pharmacophore models reveal that the compounds have more number of H-bond Acc/Don features which contribute to the inhibition of HER2 activity. By selecting these features, 34 hits were retrieved using the query compound 2. Molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) of protein–ligand complexes demonstrated conspicuous inhibition of HER2 as evidenced by dynamic trajectory analysis. Based on these results, the compound ZINC67903192 was identified as promising HER2 inhibitor against gastric cancer. The present work provides a basis for the discovery a new class of scaffolds from natural products for gastric carcinoma. PMID:27853354

  7. Development of novel HER2 inhibitors against gastric cancer derived from flavonoid source of Syzygium alternifolium through molecular dynamics and pharmacophore-based screening.

    PubMed

    Babu, Tirumalasetty Muni Chandra; Rammohan, Aluru; Baki, Vijaya Bhaskar; Devi, Savita; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2016-01-01

    Continuous usage of synthetic chemotherapeutic drugs causes adverse effects, which prompted for the development of alternative therapeutics for gastric cancer from natural source. This study was carried out with a specific aim to screen gastroprotective compounds from the fruits of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae). Three flavonoids, namely, 1) 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-di-C-methylflavone, 2) kaempferol-3-O- β -d-glucopyranoside, and 3) kaempferol-3-O- α -l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the above medicinal plant by employing silica gel column chromatography and are characterized by NMR techniques. Antigastric cancer activity of these flavonoids was examined on AGS cell lines followed by cell cycle progression assay. In addition, pharmacophore-based screening and molecular dynamics of protein-ligand complex were carried out to identify potent scaffolds. The results showed that compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant cytotoxic effect, whereas compound 1 showed moderate effect on AGS cells by inhibiting G2/M phase of cell cycle. Molecular docking analysis revealed that compound 2 has higher binding energies on human growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). The constructed pharmacophore models reveal that the compounds have more number of H-bond Acc/Don features which contribute to the inhibition of HER2 activity. By selecting these features, 34 hits were retrieved using the query compound 2. Molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) of protein-ligand complexes demonstrated conspicuous inhibition of HER2 as evidenced by dynamic trajectory analysis. Based on these results, the compound ZINC67903192 was identified as promising HER2 inhibitor against gastric cancer. The present work provides a basis for the discovery a new class of scaffolds from natural products for gastric carcinoma.

  8. Effect of homeopathic preparations of Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica on gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and high fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Sathish; Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinta, Raveendar; Nair, K R Janardanan; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Kumar, Alok; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known. Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus. After 30 days treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured. Diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Akt(ser473) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p < 0.05) with a significant increase in fasting blood glucose level (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Treatment with homeopathic remedies significantly increased the serum insulin and expression of these proteins (p < 0.05) with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05) compared to diabetic rats. In the present study homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica, including ultramolecular dilutions exhibit antidiabetic effects, improving insulin action through activation of insulin signaling molecules in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical profile and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of Syzygium jambos, Costus speciosus and Tapeinochilos ananassae plant extracts used as diabetes adjuvants in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Gavillán-Suárez, Jannette; Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Rivera-Ortiz, Natalie; Rodríguez-Tirado, Karla; Figueroa-Cuilan, Wanda; Morales-Santiago, Lorelein; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2015-07-22

    The increasing numbers of people who use plant-based remedies as alternative or complementary medicine call for the validation of less known herbal formulations used to treat their ailments. Since Puerto Rico has the highest rate of Type 2 diabetes within all the states and territories of the United States, and Puerto Ricans commonly use plants as diabetes adjuvants, it is important to study the plants' physiological effects, and identify their bioactive compounds to understand their role in modulation of blood glucose levels. We present the phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Tapeinochilus ananassae, Costus speciosus and Syzygium jambos. Phytochemicals in methanolic and aqueous extracts were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Alkaloids (Bromocresol green, λ=470 nm), flavonoids (AlCl3, λ=415 nm), saponins (DNS, λ=760 nm), tannins (FeCl3/K4Fe(CN)6, λ=395 nm) and phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteau, λ=765 nm) were quantified. Male C57BLKS/J (db/db) and C57BL/J (ob/ob) genetically obese mice were orally gavaged with aqueous extracts of lyophilized plant decoctions for 10 wks. Our results show that T. ananassae had significantly greater amounts of flavonoids and tannins, while S. jambos showed the greatest concentration of phenolics and C. speciosus exhibited higher amounts of alkaloids. C57BLKS/J db/db treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation when the extracts are administered in complement with an insulin injection. Finally, C57BL/J ob/ob mice on T. ananassae and S. jambos treatments show better blood glucose modulation over time. These results document for the first time the chemical profile of T. ananassae and provide evidence for a potential anti-diabetic efficacy of T. ananassae and S. jambos.

  10. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    PubMed

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  11. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and all...

  12. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  13. Selective and cost-effective protocol to separate bioactive triterpene acids from plant matrices using alkalinized ethanol: Application to leaves of Myrtaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adélia M. Belem; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Nakamura, Marcos Jun; D’Avila, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Triterpenes as betulinic (BA), oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acids (UA) have increasingly gained therapeutic relevance due to their wide scope of pharmacological activities. To fit large-scale demands, exploitable sources of these compounds have to be found and simple, cost-effective methods to extract them developed. Leaf material represents the best plant sustainable raw material. To obtain triterpene acid-rich extracts from leaves of Eugenia, Psidium and Syzygium species (Myrtaceae) by directly treating the dry plant material with alkalinized hydrated ethanol. This procedure was adapted from earlier methods to effect depolymerization of the leaf cutin. Materials and Methods: Extracts were prepared by shaking the milled dry leaves in freshly prepared 2% NaOH in 95% EtOH solution (1:4 w/v) at room temperature for 6 h. Working up the product in acidic aqueous medium led to clear precipitates in which BA, OA and UA were quantified by gas chromatography. Results: Pigment-free and low-polyphenol content extracts (1.2–2.8%) containing 6–50% of total triterpene acids were obtained for the six species assayed. UA (7–20%) predominated in most extracts, but BA preponderated in Eugenia florida (39%). Carried out in parallel, n-hexane defatted leaves led to up to 9% enhancement of total acids in the extracts. The hydroalcoholate treatment of Myrtaceae species dry leaves proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method to obtain triterpene acids, providing them be resistant to alkaline medium. These combined techniques might be applicable to other plant species and tissues. PMID:26246721

  14. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  15. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  16. CME leaving the Sun [Video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Animation of a CME leaving the Sun, slamming into our magnetosphere. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SOHO/ESA Sound: Juan Carlos Garcia To learn more go to the SOHO website: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  17. Planned Giving: Leaving a Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Joan

    2010-01-01

    It is a wonderful surprise when an executor calls to inform that one's college has been remembered in an individual's estate, either for a future gift or one that is being distributed. Leaving this legacy often enriches the final years of a donor's life. But too often, these opportunities are left to chance because community college development…

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  1. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... boards. 630.1003 Section 630.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... boards. 630.1003 Section 630.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... boards. 630.1003 Section 630.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... boards. 630.1003 Section 630.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  6. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  7. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  8. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  9. Parental Leave Use among Disadvantaged Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Pragg, Brianne; Knoester, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in its lack of inclusive and standardized parental leave policy after the birth or adoption of a child. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,233), this study examines the patterns and predictors of fathers’ parental leave use, as well as its association with father-child engagement. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of employed fathers take parental leave, but they rarely take more than one week of leave. Fathers who have more positive attitudes about fatherhood and who live with the birth mother are especially likely to take leave, and to take more weeks of leave, than other fathers. Finally, we find that taking parental leave, and taking more weeks of parental leave, is positively associated with father engagement levels at one year and five years after the birth of his child. PMID:28694555

  10. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  11. Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddapah, Jennifer L.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Masci, Frank J.; Hetrick, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal/family, career, and school…

  12. Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

    This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and…

  13. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... only once per year of enrollment. (e) Students shall not be charged annual leave for travel time to and... Director shall issue procedures to administer the accrual and use of student leave. Such procedures shall provide that: (a) Except for the initial pay period, students shall accrue annual leave at the rate of one...

  14. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  15. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  16. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  1. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of FMLA leave. Similarly, if a full-time employee who would otherwise work 8-hour days works 4-hour days under a reduced leave schedule, the employee would use 1/2 week of FMLA leave. Where an employee... leave in varying increments at different times of the day or shift, the employer may not account for...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  3. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.

  4. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Selwal, Manjit K.; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K.; Aggarwal, N.K.; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C. PMID:24031644

  5. Adolescent mothers leaving multigenerational households.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.

  6. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  7. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing...

  8. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  9. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... against the employee's FMLA leave entitlement. For example, paid sick leave used for a medical condition... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  11. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... against the employee's FMLA leave entitlement. For example, paid sick leave used for a medical condition...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public...

  12. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... against the employee's FMLA leave entitlement. For example, paid sick leave used for a medical condition... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  13. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... against the employee's FMLA leave entitlement. For example, paid sick leave used for a medical condition...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1206 Notice of leave. (a) If leave taken under § 630.1203(a) of... calendar days after the date the employee provides notice of his or her need for family and medical leave... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave...

  15. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  17. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... scheduled administrative workweek. If the number of hours in an employee's workweek varies from week to week, a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 weeks prior to the date leave commences shall be... the 12-week entitlement to family and medical leave. (f) If the number of hours in an employee's...

  18. Shaping an Effective Parental-Leave Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiers, Margaret E.

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of women and two-career couples enter the work force, parental leave provisions are becoming a routine business practice. Companies are beginning to recognize parental leave as a cost-effective strategy for retaining employees and maintaining productivity. (JOW)

  19. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  20. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and all... absence if they continue to meet all requirements for graduation in this part, including age requirements... not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all legal holidays—Federal and...

  1. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and all... absence if they continue to meet all requirements for graduation in this part, including age requirements... not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all legal holidays—Federal and...

  2. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and all... absence if they continue to meet all requirements for graduation in this part, including age requirements... not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all legal holidays—Federal and...

  3. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and all... absence if they continue to meet all requirements for graduation in this part, including age requirements... not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all legal holidays—Federal and...

  4. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  5. Women's reasons for leaving abusive spouses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Y C

    1991-01-01

    Research has focused on factors associated with leaving physically abusive relationships, yet little is known about what the woman thinks when she leaves. Fifty-one formerly battered women from rural and metropolitan areas in two midwestern states described 86 reasons for leaving a physically abusive relationship. During open-ended interviews, women who rated themselves as severely abused spontaneously emphasized leaving as a process. Content analysis resulted in reasons categorized as safety, dependency, and personal growth. Self-report retrospective data from a nonrandom sample limit generalizability of results; however, the awareness and reasoning of the women, coupled with their emphasis on leaving as process and personal growth, suggest the importance of education and support programs for abused women and women at risk for abuse.

  6. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  7. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  8. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers’ access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employer’s perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38 000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval = 0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  9. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  10. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  12. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the following...

  13. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of 24...

  14. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the following...

  15. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the following...

  16. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of 24...

  17. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of 24...

  18. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the following...

  19. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of 24...

  20. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the following...

  1. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of 24...

  2. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  3. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  4. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  5. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  6. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  11. Leaf area and photosynthesis of newly emerged trifoliolate leaves are regulated by mature leaves in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yushan; Gong, Wanzhuo; Wang, Yangmei; Yong, Taiwen; Yang, Feng; Liu, Weigui; Wu, Xiaoling; Du, Junbo; Shu, Kai; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Wenyu

    2018-03-29

    Leaf anatomy and the stomatal development of developing leaves of plants have been shown to be regulated by the same light environment as that of mature leaves, but no report has yet been written on whether such a long-distance signal from mature leaves regulates the total leaf area of newly emerged leaves. To explore this question, we created an investigation in which we collected data on the leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf anatomy, cell size, cell number, gas exchange and soluble sugar content of leaves from three soybean varieties grown under full sunlight (NS), shaded mature leaves (MS) or whole plants grown in shade (WS). Our results show that MS or WS cause a marked decline both in leaf area and LMA in newly developing leaves. Leaf anatomy also showed characteristics of shade leaves with decreased leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness, sponge tissue thickness, cell size and cell numbers. In addition, in the MS and WS treatments, newly developed leaves exhibited lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (E), but higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration in the intercellular space (Ci) than plants grown in full sunlight. Moreover, soluble sugar content was significantly decreased in newly developed leaves in MS and WS treatments. These results clearly indicate that (1) leaf area, leaf anatomical structure, and photosynthetic function of newly developing leaves are regulated by a systemic irradiance signal from mature leaves; (2) decreased cell size and cell number are the major cause of smaller and thinner leaves in shade; and (3) sugars could possibly act as candidate signal substances to regulate leaf area systemically.

  12. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Memecylon malabaricum leaves.

    PubMed

    Hullatti, Kiran Kumar; Rai, V Ravishankar

    2004-06-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Memecylon malabaricum leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity. Only methanol extract has shown activity against bacteria both Gram (+) and Gram (-), and fungi. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  14. LEAVING PAD - ASTRONAUT JOHN W. YOUNG - TRAINING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-19

    S65-20636 (1965) --- Astronauts John W. Young (left), pilot, and Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, for the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, are shown leaving the launch pad after simulations in the Gemini-3 spacecraft.

  15. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    PubMed

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  16. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  17. Leave requirements under the Family and Medical Leave Act: a trap for the unwary.

    PubMed

    Mackarey, J A

    1997-06-01

    The old adage "ignorance of the law is no defense," is certainly true when dealing with the Family Medical leave Act. That is, lack of knowledge does not excuse the failure of the employer to properly designate the leave. Therefore, as an employer, one must be sure to know and follow the Family Medical Leave Act requirements. Not doing so may be a costly mistake.

  18. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  19. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of Plinia trunciflora

    PubMed Central

    Eguiluz, Maria; Yuyama, Priscila Mary; Guzman, Frank; Rodrigues, Nureyev Ferreira; Margis, Rogerio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plinia trunciflora is a Brazilian native fruit tree from the Myrtaceae family, also known as jaboticaba. This species has great potential by its fruit production. Due to the high content of essential oils in their leaves and of anthocyanins in the fruits, there is also an increasing interest by the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, there are few studies focusing on its molecular biology and genetic characterization. We herein report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of P. trunciflora using high-throughput sequencing and compare it to other previously sequenced Myrtaceae genomes. The cp genome of P. trunciflora is 159,512 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 26,414 bp and single-copy regions of 88,097 bp (LSC) and 18,587 bp (SSC). The genome contains 111 single-copy genes (77 protein-coding, 30 tRNA and four rRNA genes). Phylogenetic analysis using 57 cp protein-coding genes demonstrated that P. trunciflora, Eugenia uniflora and Acca sellowiana form a cluster with closer relationship to Syzygium cumini than with Eucalyptus. The complete cp sequence reported here can be used in evolutionary and population genetics studies, contributing to resolve the complex taxonomy of this species and fill the gap in genetic characterization. PMID:29111566

  20. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  1. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employee who would otherwise work 40 hours a week takes off 8 hours, the employee would use 1/5 of a week of FMLA leave. Similarly, if a full-time employee who would otherwise work 8-hour days works 4-hour... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of...

  2. Effects of Flexitime on Sick Leave, Vacation Leave, Anxiety, Performance, and Satisfaction in a Library Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Carol Stoak; Saunders, Russell

    1985-01-01

    Results of study using pretest and posttest control group design in public university library setting to study impact of flexitime indicate that: satisfaction with promotions decreased with significant effect, sick leaves decreased, average length of vacation leaves increased, and results were mixed on performance and approached significance for…

  3. What Makes Them Leave? A Path Model of Postdocs' Intentions to Leave Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorenkamp, Isabelle; Weiß, Eva-Ellen

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of postdoctoral academics cite stressful working conditions for considering abandoning their studies and leaving the academic profession entirely before they obtain a tenured position. This paper identifies the mechanisms by which work stress influences postdocs' intentions to leave academia. Based on Schaubroeck et al.'s (1989)…

  4. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

  5. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  6. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  7. [Chemical constituents from leaves of Paulownia fortunei].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qiang; Wu, Jing-Lian; Cao, Fei-Hua; Li, Chong

    2008-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Paulownia fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis. The compounds were identified as mimulone (I), apigenin (II), luteolin (III), 2alpha, 3beta, 19beta-trihydroxyurs-28-O-beta-D-galactonopyranos ylester (anserinoside, IV), 3alpha-hydroxyl-ursolicacid (V), ursolicacid (VI), daucosterol (VII), beta-sitosterol (VIII). The compounds I - V are obtained from leaves of Paulownia fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl for the first time.

  8. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.301... leave so as to allow the employer to determine whether the leave qualifies under the Act. If the... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor...

  9. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single method of determining the period...

  10. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a multi-State employer who has eligible employees in a State which has a family and medical leave...

  11. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.301... leave so as to allow the employer to determine whether the leave qualifies under the Act. If the... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor...

  12. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.301... leave so as to allow the employer to determine whether the leave qualifies under the Act. If the... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor...

  13. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a multi-State employer who has eligible employees in a State which has a family and medical leave...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205 Section 630.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided in...

  15. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... entitled to take up to 26 workweeks of military caregiver leave in a single 12-month period to care for a... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... leave to care for covered veterans. It defines a covered veteran as an individual who is undergoing...

  16. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child...

  18. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  19. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  20. Understanding the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    PubMed

    Zink-Pearson, E A

    1997-03-01

    In April 1995 final regulations for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 were issued. The act is very detailed, complicated, and difficult to implement for home care agencies. Agencies need to gain a good working understanding of the FMLA to avoid inadvertent violations.

  1. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  2. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  3. How does Phytophthora ramorum infect Rhododendron leaves?

    Treesearch

    Sabine Werres; Marko Riedel

    2013-01-01

    In most parts of Europe, rhododendron is the most important host for the spread of Phytophthora ramorum. To get a better knowledge of leaf infection and capacity for sporulation, infection studies were carried out. Detached leaves of the Rhododendron cultivar 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum' (CG) and the R. insigne hybrid `...

  4. Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

  5. Institutional Practices and Faculty Who Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carl V.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of incentives offered to faculty to leave an institution in difficult financial circumstances are outlined. They include: liberalizing the actuarial pension reduction, lump-sum severance payments, annuity enhancements, phased retirement, retirement perquisites, retraining for outplacement, paid retraining, and earnings supplements during…

  6. Leaves Waste Composite with Glass Fiber Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoiri, N.; Jannah, W. N.; Huda, C.; Maulana, RM; Marwoto, P.; Masturi

    2018-03-01

    A research has been made to fabricate leave waste composites and Polyvinyl Acetate (PvAc) polymers reinforced with glass fibers. The method used was a simple mixing of leaves powders, PvAc, and glass fibers varied from 0 g to 1 g. Mass of 16 g leaves powder and mass of PvAc 4 g. The mixing result is suppressed by 5 metric-tons for 15 minutes. The composite is dried at room temperature for 1 day then in the oven at 100°C for 1 hour. The compressive strength is measured bu a hydraulic press. The result show that the compressive strength increased to the highest point of 0.8 g and will decrease significantly when the addition of glass fiber mass of 1 g. The highest compressive strength reaches 52.6 MPa when the glass fiber mass is 0.8 g. The result of this research showed that leaves composites with Polyvinyl Acetate polymer reinforced with fiber glass can be used as alternative material of wood substitute.

  7. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  8. Tracing the fate of ozone in leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ozone is a greenhouse gas and considered the most damaging air pollutant to plants. Ozone enters leaves through the stomata, and once in the apoplast, it reacts to produce other reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating a cellular response. The specific ROS initially formed after ozone exposure and t...

  9. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  10. Why Do Teachers Leave? CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While California has made substantial progress in easing its teacher shortage and reducing the concentration of the least prepared teachers in the lowest achieving schools, the effort to strengthen schools for all students is hampered by the large number of teachers who leave the profession prematurely. Policymakers at the state and local levels…

  11. Anthocyanins in perilla plants and dried leaves.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Kono, Miya; Ito, Airi; Ito, Michiho

    2018-03-01

    High-quality perilla leaves are purple on upper and lower surfaces and have a good aroma. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia specifies the content of essential oils in perilla leaves but not that of anthocyanins. Several reports have described the chemical species of anthocyanins in red perilla, but a complete analysis of anthocyanins in perilla has not been reported. In this study, the anthocyanins in the leaves of cultivated and wild species of perilla and those in commercially available perilla herbs were studied. Red perilla and most P. citriodora strains accumulate cyanidin derivatives that differ in the acyl group on the glucose moiety at the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of the anthocyanins. Several strains of P. citriodora contain cyanidin derivatives that are different from those in red perilla and most P. citriodora species. Green perilla and wild species other than P. citriodora do not contain foliar anthocyanins. The anthocyanins in commercially available perilla herbs and natural dyes made from red perilla were in agreement with those in fresh red perilla leaves and most P. citriodora samples. The amounts and types of anthocyanins were not associated with place of cultivation, although some changes occurred due to degradation during storage. These results provide clues regarding the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in perilla and the evolution of red perilla. The characteristics and stability of anthocyanins are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  13. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  14. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of three members. At least one member shall represent a labor organization or employee group. (d) Each leave bank board shall— (1) Establish its internal decision-making procedures; (2) Review and...

  15. Determination of free and glucosidically-bound volatiles in plants. Two case studies: L-menthol in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and eugenol in clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry).

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pagani, Alberto; Sganzerla, Marla; Boggia, Lorenzo; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    This study arises from both the today's trend towards exploiting plant resources exhaustively, and the wide quantitative discrepancy between the amounts of commercially-valuable markers in aromatic plants and those recovered from the related essential oil. The study addresses the determination of both the qualitative composition and the exhaustive distribution of free and glucosidically-bound L-menthol in peppermint aerial parts (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) and of eugenol in dried cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), two plants known to provide widely ranging essential oil yields. The two markers were investigated in essential oils and residual hydrodistillation waters, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Their amounts were related to those in the headspace taken as reference. The results showed that the difference between marker compound in headspace and in essential oil amounted to 22.8% for L-menthol in peppermint, and 16.5% for eugenol in cloves. The aglycones solubilised in the residual hydrodistillation waters were 7.2% of the headspace reference amount for L-menthol, and 13.3% for eugenol, respectively representing 9.3% and 15.9% of their amounts in the essential oil. The amount of L-menthol from its glucoside in residual hydrodistillation waters was 20.6% of that in the related essential oil, while eugenol from its glucoside accounted for 7.7% of the amount in clove essential oil. The yield of L-menthol, after submitting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis before hydrodistillation, increased by 23.1%, and for eugenol the increase was 8.1%, compared to the amount in the respective conventional essential oils. This study also aimed to evaluate the reliability of recently-introduced techniques that are little applied, if at all, in this field. The simultaneous use of high-concentration-capacity sample preparation techniques (SBSE, and HS-SPME and in-solution SPME) to run quali-quantitative analysis without sample

  16. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  17. Effects of processing method and age of leaves on phytochemical profiles and bioactivity of coffee leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Ma, Zhili; Kitts, David D

    2018-05-30

    The use of coffee leaves as a novel beverage has recently received consumer interest, but there is little known about how processing methods affect the quality of final product. We applied tea (white, green, oolong and black tea) processing methods to process coffee leaves and then investigated their effects on phytochemical composition and related antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using Japanese-style green tea-processing of young leaves, and black tea-processing of mature (BTP-M) coffee leaves, produced contrasting effects on phenolic content, and associated antioxidant activity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity in IFN-γ and LPS induced Raw 264.7 cells. BTP-M coffee leaves also had significantly (P < .05) higher responses in NO, iNOS, COX-2, as well as a number of cytokines, in non-induced Raw 264.7. Our findings show that the age of coffee leaves and the type of processing method affect phytochemical profiles sufficiently to produce characteristic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Family medical leave--management strategies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

    2004-12-01

    Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor.

  19. Cycloartane glycosides from leaves of Oxyanthus pallidus.

    PubMed

    Tigoufack, Ignas Bertrand Nzedong; Ngnokam, David; Tapondjou, Leon Azefack; Harakat, Dominique; Voutquenne, Laurence

    2010-12-01

    From the MeOH extract of leaves of Oxyanthus pallidus, three cycloartane glycosides, named pallidiosides A-C, were isolated together with two known compounds, oleanolic acid and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol. The structures of pallidiosides A-C were assigned on the basis of spectral studies and comparison with published literature data. The known compounds were identified by means of Co TLC and confirmed by their physical constants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-qualifying. Once the employer has acquired knowledge that the leave is being taken for a FMLA-qualifying... employee fails to explain the reasons, leave may be denied. In many cases, in explaining the reasons for a...

  1. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... school is not in session and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an... and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an employee on the day...

  2. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... school is not in session and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an... and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an employee on the day...

  3. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... school is not in session and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an... and the students are not in the dormitories. Vacation leave is credited to an employee on the day...

  4. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employees on a part-time work schedule in excess of 20 hours per week. (1) Employees on a part-time work... with work weeks of 20 hours a week or less are not eligible for any type of paid leave. (g) For school... weeks. An employee may carry into succeeding years up to 200 hours of vacation leave. Leave unused at...

  5. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Extension of... on the proposed revisions to certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA... Family and Medical Act (FMLA) regulations to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the...

  6. Factors Predicting Staff's Intentions to Leave the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

    1990-01-01

    The survey of University of Bergen (Norway) teaching staff (N=601) found the leading reason for intending to leave the institution was collegial relations. Other reasons predicting intention to leave were in the area of general job satisfaction with staff who found their work less intrinsically satisfying more likely to plan on leaving.…

  7. Learning to live with the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    PubMed

    White, J D

    1994-03-01

    Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here.

  8. An Update on the Family Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Massucci, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and…

  9. Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also…

  10. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of their child. (2) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave to be with the healthy newborn... under applicable State laws. Under this section, both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave...

  11. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of their child. (2) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave to be with the healthy newborn... under applicable State laws. Under this section, both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave...

  12. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  13. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  14. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26 work...

  15. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26 work...

  16. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  17. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual...

  18. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual...

  19. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual...

  20. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual...

  1. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual...

  2. Educational Leave in Europe. Policy Paper No. 83-C3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutze, Hans G.

    This paper provides a description of and rationale for paid educational leave policies in Western Europe by examining three basic categories: general leave provisions provided by law, legal provisions for specific groups, and provisions for educational leave in collective bargaining agreements. Five countries presently have general leave…

  3. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL−1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL−1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL−1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL−1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL−1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL−1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL−1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL−1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  4. Constituents of the leaves of Magnolia ovata.

    PubMed

    Barros, Letícia Ferrari L; Barison, Andersson; Salvador, Marcos José; de Mello-Silva, Renato; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Stefanello, Maria Elida A

    2009-08-01

    Two new lignans, magnovatins A (1) and B (2), along with nine known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia ovata. The known compounds were identified as acuminatin (3), licarin A (4), kadsurenin M, 4-O-demethylkadsurenin M, oleiferin A, oleiferin C, spathulenol, parthenolide, and 11,13-dehydrocompressanolide. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 yielded four new derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectrometric data evaluation. Free-radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of the major compunds 1, 3, and 4 were investigated.

  5. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  6. Carbonic anhydrase from Camelia sinensis (tea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Demir, Y; Demir, N; Ağar, G

    1997-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (carbonate hydrolyase; E,C,4.2.1.1) from leaves of mature Camelia sinensis was purified and characterized. The purification level was 53 fold. The optimum temperature for maximal enzyme activity is 50 degrees C. The optimum pH was 6.8 and this pH varied between 6.5 and 7.5. Each enzyme molecule is a hexamer with an M(r) of 169,000 with subunits of M(r) = 28,000.

  7. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P < 0.01) and on medical center ranking (top third = 77%; middle third = 53%; and bottom third = 29%; P < 0.01) but not based on region (P = 0.06). Private institutions were more likely to offer longer paid leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... servicemember (military caregiver leave). 825.310 Section 825.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993... for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). (a) Required information from health care...

  9. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  10. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  11. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  12. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  13. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  14. Who Stays? Who Leaves? An Examination of Sex Differences in Staying and Leaving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Millicent E.; Low, B. C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the major determinants of the "staying" and "leaving" process for samples of Melbourne (Australia) male and female adolescents. Sixty attitudinal statements were obtained from 796 adolescents and factor analysed. The subset of independent variables, together with a set of personality and…

  15. Relationships between job satisfaction, intentions to leave family practice and actually leaving among family physicians in England.

    PubMed

    Hann, Mark; Reeves, David; Sibbald, Bonnie

    2011-08-01

    A national survey of family physicians working in the National Health Service (NHS) of England in 2001 revealed that 1/10 under 50 years of age were intending to leave direct patient care within 5 years, and that the principal predictor of their intention to leave was job satisfaction. Our research addressed two questions. First, does a family physician's stated intention to leave their job predict whether or not they actually do leave? Second, to what extent does job satisfaction predict actually leaving? Secondary data analysis was performed on 1174 family physicians aged 50 years and under, who responded to the aforementioned survey. Using data from the annual census of physicians in the NHS, we determined which physicians actually left family practice during the next 5 years. Of the 1174 family physicians studied, 194 (16.5%) had left direct patient care within 5 years. Multivariate regression showed that job satisfaction predicted a physician's intention to leave direct patient care and that intention to leave predicted actually leaving. Logically, job satisfaction should then have predicted actual leaving. Our findings, however, suggest that this is only partly true. Although higher levels of job 'dissatisfaction' were associated with an increased likelihood of leaving, higher levels of job 'satisfaction' did not prevent leaving.

  16. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  17. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  18. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  19. Family and medical leave act: unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Jean L; Pelletier, Marianne S

    2003-01-01

    The United States' Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 was an effort to provide national support for families attempting to balance the demands of the workplace and the need to care for a new child, one's own health, or an ill child, spouse, or parent. It is seriously limited, however, in terms of its accessibility for many workers. We briefly compare the FMLA to the substantially broader policies of Western European countries. We highlight its reported benefits to workers but document disparities in employees' use of the FMLA by gender, race, and income level. We evaluate whether employers' fears of higher costs were justified. We point out current challenges that may limit the FMLA further. We close by examining the range of alternative policies in effect at the state level and proposals that would address the current limitations of the FMLA and broaden its coverage.

  20. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  1. RADIATION-INDUCED CRINKLED LEAVES IN JUTE

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.K.

    1963-01-01

    Crinkled leaf chimeras appeared regularly, as phenocopies, in the X/sub 1/ and P/sub 1/ generations of three varieties of Corchorus olitorius L. The S/ sub 1/ populations were devoid of this abnormality. These plants were also characterized by late flowering and reduction in the number of flowers per plant. The frequency of crinaled leaf chimeras increased with increase in dosages of x rays and /sup 23/P beta rays. Inheritance studies revealed no immediate genetic background of these abnormal plants. However, mutations showing crinkled leaves were isolnted in some X/sub 3/ and P/sub 2/ lines and their segregation in later generationsmore » was found to be disturbed. Chromosomal abnormalities during metosis were considered as one of the factors responsible for the disturbed segregation. Crinkled leaf mutations also showed variable manifestation of the mutant characteristic in different years. (auth)« less

  2. The Sites of Evaporation within Leaves.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; John, Grace P; Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2017-03-01

    The sites of evaporation within leaves are unknown, but they have drawn attention for decades due to their perceived implications for many factors, including patterns of leaf isotopic enrichment, the maintenance of mesophyll water status, stomatal regulation, and the interpretation of measured stomatal and leaf hydraulic conductances. We used a spatially explicit model of coupled water and heat transport outside the xylem, MOFLO 2.0, to map the distribution of net evaporation across leaf tissues in relation to anatomy and environmental parameters. Our results corroborate earlier predictions that most evaporation occurs from the epidermis at low light and moderate humidity but that the mesophyll contributes substantially when the leaf center is warmed by light absorption, and more so under high humidity. We also found that the bundle sheath provides a significant minority of evaporation (15% in darkness and 18% in high light), that the vertical center of amphistomatous leaves supports net condensation, and that vertical temperature gradients caused by light absorption vary over 10-fold across species, reaching 0.3°C. We show that several hypotheses that depend on the evaporating sites require revision in light of our findings, including that experimental measurements of stomatal and hydraulic conductances should be affected directly by changes in the location of the evaporating sites. We propose a new conceptual model that accounts for mixed-phase water transport outside the xylem. These conclusions have far-reaching implications for inferences in leaf hydraulics, gas exchange, water use, and isotope physiology. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or...

  4. a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.

    2017-09-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  5. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  6. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline,more » jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.« less

  7. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee...

  8. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee...

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee...

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1112 - Transferring donated annual leave between agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transferring donated annual leave between... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1112 Transferring donated annual leave... amount of donated annual leave needed for transfer to the agency's approved emergency leave recipients...

  12. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  13. Physicians' intention to leave direct patient care: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christiane; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter

    2015-09-08

    In light of the growing shortage of physicians worldwide, the problem of physicians who intend to leave direct patient care has become more acute, particularly in terms of quality of care and health-care costs. A literature search was carried out following Cooper's five-stage model for conducting an integrative literature review. Database searches were made in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science in May 2014. A total of 17 studies from five countries were identified and the study results synthesized. Measures and percentages of physicians' intention to leave varied between the studies. Variables associated with intention to leave were demographics, with age- and gender-specific findings, family or personal domain, working time and psychosocial working conditions, job-related well-being and other career-related aspects. Gender differences were identified in several risk clusters. Factors such as long working hours and work-family conflict were particularly relevant for female physicians' intention to leave. Health-care managers and policy-makers should take action to improve physicians' working hours and psychosocial working conditions in order to prevent a high rate of intention to leave and limit the number of physicians actually leaving direct patient care. Further research is needed on gender-specific needs in the workplace, the connection between intention to leave and actually leaving and measures of intention to leave as well as using qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding and developing validated questionnaires.

  14. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-04

    take up to 26 weeks of leave during a single 12-month period to care for a servicemember who was seriously injured while on active duty. To assist...up to 26 weeks of leave during a single 12-month period to care for a military servicemember who has been seriously injured while on active duty...Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling

  16. Male bumblebees perform learning flights on leaving a flower but not when leaving their nest.

    PubMed

    Robert, Théo; Frasnelli, Elisa; Collett, Thomas S; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Female bees and wasps demonstrate, through their performance of elaborate learning flights, when and where they memorise features of a significant site. An important feature of these flights is that the insects look back to fixate the site that they are leaving. Females, which forage for nectar and pollen and return with it to the nest, execute learning flights on their initial departure from both their nest and newly discovered flowers. To our knowledge, these flights have so far only been studied in females. Here, we describe and analyse putative learning flights observed in male bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Once male bumblebees are mature, they leave their nest for good and fend for themselves. We show that, unlike female foragers, males always fly directly away from their nest, without looking back, in keeping with their indifference to their natal nest. In contrast, after males have drunk from artificial flowers, their flights on first leaving the flowers resemble the learning flights of females, particularly in their fixation of the flowers. These differences in the occurrence of female and male learning flights seem to match the diverse needs of the two sexes to learn about disparate, ecologically relevant places in their surroundings. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  18. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD. PMID:26239345

  19. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  20. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  1. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concentration. Through its inhibitive action elucidate from the electrochemical analysis, the extract was found to act as a mixed type inhibitor. Micrographs by SEM showed that the surface of steel which has been coated with 0% and 20% of OLE coating extract possess a lot of pin holes or pores while the steel with 10% of OLE coating extract shows the surface has multiple cracks. This study clearly shows the efficiency of OLE as anticorrosion coating for control of stainless steel in marine application.

  2. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time.

  3. Multitasking Is Multitaxing: Why Special Educators Are Leaving the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide insight into the inability to retain qualified special education teachers. Why do special educators say they want to leave? What conditions would encourage them to stay? Nearly half of the teachers reported they planned to leave the field in the next 5 years. They cited three areas of concern: administrative…

  4. Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

  5. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  6. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  7. Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students…

  8. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before...

  9. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth..., that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before or after the...

  10. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth..., that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before or after the...

  11. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

  12. The Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-06

    This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the servicemember's deployment; defines those deployments covered under these provisions; extends FMLA military caregiver leave for family members of current servicemembers to include an injury or illness that existed prior to service and was aggravated in the line of duty on active duty; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries or illnesses. This Final Rule also amends the regulations to implement the Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act, which establishes eligibility requirements specifically for airline flight crewmembers and flight attendants for FMLA leave and authorizes the Department to issue regulations regarding the calculation of leave for such employees as well as special recordkeeping requirements for their employers. In addition, the Final Rule includes clarifying changes concerning the calculation of intermittent or reduced schedule FMLA leave; reorganization of certain sections to enhance clarity; the removal of the forms from the regulations; and technical corrections to the current regulations.

  13. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  14. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  15. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (P<.005). Classifying maternity leave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (P<.05), but there was no difference in duration of paid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; P<.001) and better support systems for breast-feeding mothers (49% vs 24%; P<.002). Children's hospitals do not offer better parental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  16. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  17. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  18. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  19. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  20. Early Effects of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Policy

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Carrie H.; Dow, William H.; Dube, Arindrajit; Lovell, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined employers’ responses to San Francisco, California’s 2007 Paid Sick Leave Ordinance. Methods. We used the 2009 Bay Area Employer Health Benefits Survey to describe sick leave policy changes and the policy’s effects on firm (n = 699) operations. Results. The proportion of firms offering paid sick leave in San Francisco grew from 73% in 2006 to 91% in 2009, with large firms (99%) more likely to offer sick leave than are small firms (86%) in 2009. Most firms (57%) did not make any changes to their sick leave policy, although 17% made a major change to sick leave policy to comply with the law. Firms beginning to offer sick leave reported reductions in other benefits (39%), worse profitability (32%), and increases in prices (18%) but better employee morale (17%) and high support for the policy (71%). Many employers (58%) reported some difficulty understanding legal requirements, complying administratively, or reassigning work responsibilities. Conclusions. There was a substantial increase in paid sick leave coverage after the mandate. Employers reported some difficulties in complying with the law but supported the policy overall. PMID:24432927

  1. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  2. School District Leave Policies, Teacher Absenteeism, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Econometric analysis of data from over 700 New York state school districts found that (1) policies governing use of teacher leave days clearly influence their use; (2) higher student absenteeism correlated with poorer test performance; and (3) teacher absence was not largely associated with student test performance. Changes in leave policy were…

  3. Why Do New Teachers Leave? How Could They Stay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simos, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article posits that some teachers leave the profession because they entered it with unrealistic expectations, and that the reality of multiple preparations, unpaid orientation sessions, and large student loads is overburdening.for new teachers. Many new teachers leave their positions because of the dissonance between their…

  4. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  5. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entitled to use) one additional day of FMLA leave each day for four weeks, commencing February 1, 2009. The... employee's spouse, son, daughter, or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious... weeks of leave entitlement described in paragraph (a) of this section occurs: (1) The calendar year; (2...

  6. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  7. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  8. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  9. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  10. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer, will run concurrently with the unpaid FMLA leave. Accordingly, the employee receives pay pursuant... which is not a serious health condition or serious injury or illness does not count against the employee... condition may result from injury to the employee “on or off” the job. If the employer designates the leave...

  11. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106... AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration. (a) The employing agency has the authority to adjust the pay of experts and consultants after initial appointment and to establish...

  12. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  13. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  14. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  15. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Malus domestica leaves.

    PubMed

    Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

  16. Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Trojan-Rodrigues, M; Alves, T L S; Soares, G L G; Ritter, M R

    2012-01-06

    Plants are widely as antidiabetics. The study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or their use may even delay or discourage the adoption of the proper and effective treatment. The present study surveyed the plant species that are popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Sixteen ethnobotanical surveys performed in the state were consulted, and the species used to treat diabetes were listed. For species cited in at least two of the studies, scientific data related to antidiabetic activity were searched in the ISI Knowledge database. The scientific binomial of each species was used as keywords, and data found in review papers were also included. A total of 81 species in 42 families were mentioned; the most important families were Asteraceae and Myrtaceae. Twenty eight species were cited at least twice as being used to treat diabetes in the state. For 11 of these, no scientific data regarding antidiabetic activity could be located. The species most frequently mentioned for use with diabetes were Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) and Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), in 12 studies each, followed by Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae), in six studies; and Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae), and Leandra australis (Melastomataceae) in four studies each. Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini have been studied in more detail for antidiabetic activity. A considerable number of plant species are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes melitus in the Rio Grande do Sul State. The majority of those plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results, mainly for Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini. However, for most of the plants mentioned, the studies are not sufficient to guarantee the efficacy and safety in the use of these plants in the treatment against

  17. Review of Leaving it at the office.

    PubMed

    Hays, Kate F

    2008-06-01

    Reviews the book, Leaving it at the office by John C. Norcross and James D. Guy (2007). This book is filled with compassionate fervor and recognition of the satisfactions of our professional lives. Twelve central elements to therapist self-care form the base for the 12 chapters of the book. Describing themselves as "integrative psychotherapists," Norcross and Guy begin from the perspective of seeing the person of the psychotherapist as a valued human being. They encourage us to refocus on the rewards of our profession, while recognizing its hazards. Body, mind, and soul or spirit are each given their due: attending to activity, awareness and restructuring of our own cognitions (regardless of theoretical perspective), engaging in personal therapy of one kind or another, and cultivating spirituality or mission, creativity and growth. Each chapter sets out information that is described as a field guide rather than an instructional manual, a "curious mix of 'how to,' 'you should,' and 'chill-out.'" Information is culled from many types of sources: the authors' own research and that of a wide variety of others' with respect to self-care; workshops that the authors have offered regarding self-care; and clinical wisdom derived in part from interviews with master clinicians. Chapters are structured into sections focused on self-care both at the office and away from the office. (Yes, sometimes our not-great self-care extends outside of the office setting.) A summary self-care list ends each chapter, one that could serve as a wellness reminder or checklist for any individual. Further, the authors offer specific recommended reading at the end of each chapter, as well as an extensive full reference section at the end of the book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of sick-leave duration: a tool for managers?

    PubMed

    Flach, Peter A; Krol, Boudien; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-09-01

    To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. In a cross-sectional study, data derived from the 2005 sick-leave files of a Dutch university were examined. Odds ratios of the single risk factors were calculated for short spells (or=91 days) of sick-leave. Next, these factors were studied in multiple regression models. Age, gender, duration of employment, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and membership of scientific staff, studied as single factors, have a significant influence on sick-leave duration. In multiple models, this influence remains for gender, salary, age, and history and cause of sick-leave. Only in medium or long spells and regarding the risk for a long or an extended spell do the predictive values of models consisting of psychological factors, work-related factors, salary and gender become reasonable. The predictive value of the risk factors used in this study is limited, and varies with the duration of the sick-leave spell. Only the risk for an extended spell of sick-leave as compared to a medium or long spell is reasonably predicted. Factors contributing to this risk may be used as tools in decision-making.

  20. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdownmore » was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic

  1. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  2. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  4. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloemmore » from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.« less

  5. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdownmore » (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.« less

  7. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  8. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  9. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  10. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  11. Water-Leaving Contribution to Polarized Radiation Field Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhai, Peng-Wang; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.; Ibrahim, Amir; Franz, Bryan A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Gao, Meng; Frouin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation field from a coupled atmosphere-ocean system (CAOS) includes contributions from the atmosphere, surface, and water body. Atmo-spheric correction of ocean color imagery is to retrieve water-leaving radiance from the TOA measurement, from which ocean bio-optical properties can be obtained. Knowledge of the ab-solute and relative magnitudes of water-leaving signal in the TOA radiation field is important for designing new atmospheric correction algorithms and developing retrieval algorithms for new ocean biogeochemical parameters. In this paper we present a systematic sensitivity study of water-leaving contribution to the TOA radiation field, from 340 nm to 865 nm, with polarization included. Ocean water inherent optical properties are derived from bio-optical models for two kinds of waters, one dominated by phytoplankton (PDW) and the other by non-algae particles (NDW). In addition to elastic scattering, Raman scattering and fluorescence from dissolved organic matter in ocean waters are included. Our sensitivity study shows that the polarized reflectance is minimized for both CAOS and ocean signals in the backscattering half plane, which leads to numerical instability when calculating water leaving relative contribution, the ratio between polarized water leaving and CAOS signals. If the backscattering plane is excluded, the water-leaving polarized signal contributes less than 9% to the TOA polarized reflectance for PDW in the whole spectra. For NDW, the polarized water leaving contribution can be as much as 20% in the wavelength range from 470 to 670 nm. For wavelengths shorter than 452 nm or longer than 865 nm, the water leaving contribution to the TOA polarized reflectance is in general smaller than 5% for NDW. For the TOA total reflectance, the water-leaving contribution has maximum values ranging from 7% to 16% at variable wavelengths from 400 nm to 550 nm from PDW. The water leaving contribution to the TOA total reflectance

  12. Water-leaving contribution to polarized radiation field over ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng-Wang; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Ibrahim, Amir; Franz, Bryan A; Hu, Yongxiang; Gao, Meng; Frouin, Robert

    2017-08-07

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation field from a coupled atmosphere-ocean system (CAOS) includes contributions from the atmosphere, surface, and water body. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery is to retrieve water-leaving radiance from the TOA measurement, from which ocean bio-optical properties can be obtained. Knowledge of the absolute and relative magnitudes of water-leaving signal in the TOA radiation field is important for designing new atmospheric correction algorithms and developing retrieval algorithms for new ocean biogeochemical parameters. In this paper we present a systematic sensitivity study of water-leaving contribution to the TOA radiation field, from 340 nm to 865 nm, with polarization included. Ocean water inherent optical properties are derived from bio-optical models for two kinds of waters, one dominated by phytoplankton (PDW) and the other by non-algae particles (NDW). In addition to elastic scattering, Raman scattering and fluorescence from dissolved organic matter in ocean waters are included. Our sensitivity study shows that the polarized reflectance is minimized for both CAOS and ocean signals in the backscattering half plane, which leads to numerical instability when calculating water leaving relative contribution, the ratio between polarized water leaving and CAOS signals. If the backscattering plane is excluded, the water-leaving polarized signal contributes less than 9% to the TOA polarized reflectance for PDW in the whole spectra. For NDW, the polarized water leaving contribution can be as much as 20% in the wavelength range from 470 to 670 nm. For wavelengths shorter than 452 nm or longer than 865 nm, the water leaving contribution to the TOA polarized reflectance is in general smaller than 5% for NDW. For the TOA total reflectance, the water-leaving contribution has maximum values ranging from 7% to 16% at variable wavelengths from 400 nm to 550 nm from PDW. The water leaving contribution to the TOA total reflectance can

  13. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  14. How to work with FMLA and ADA when granting leave.

    PubMed

    Collins, C J; Neuman, A B

    1998-10-16

    There is much confusion among employers on how to interpret rights and responsibilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). In many cases, the guidelines seem contradictory. Labor attorney Christopher J. Collins says that the ADA is basically a civil rights act, designed to protect the disabled from discrimination, while FMLA is a labor standards and leave law. Commonly-asked questions are answered, including the amount of leave an employee is entitled to, the amount of information that can be requested from an employee, and the options for dealing with employees who cannot perform assigned tasks.

  15. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    PubMed

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  16. Phenolic antioxidants from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L.

    PubMed

    Azuma, K; Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Ippoushi, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Kohata, K; Yamauchi, Y; Ito, H; Higashio, H

    1999-10-01

    Six phenolic antioxidative compounds [5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), and quercetin 3-(6-malonylgalactoside) (tentative)] were identified from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. (moroheiya) by NMR and FAB-MS. The contents of these phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol in C. olitorius leaves were determined, and their antioxidative activities were measured using the radical generator-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results obtained showed that 5-caffeoylquinic acid was a predominant phenolic antioxidant in C. olitorius leaves.

  17. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the donation...

  18. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121 Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121...

  19. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121 Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121...

  20. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121 Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121...

  1. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121 Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121...

  2. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise...

  3. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise...

  4. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise...

  5. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  6. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the donation...

  7. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the donation...

  8. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the donation...

  9. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the donation...

  10. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies or...

  11. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies or...

  12. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies or...

  13. Workers not Paid for Sick Leave after Implementation of the New York City Paid Sick Leave Law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gerod Sharper; Walters, Sarah; Wimer, Christopher; Levanon Seligson, Amber; Maury, Matthew; Waldfogel, Jane; Gould, L Hannah; Lim, Sungwoo

    2018-02-01

    This study examined factors associated with being paid for sick leave after implementation of the New York City (NYC) paid sick leave law. A random sample of NYC residents was surveyed by telephone multiple times over a 2-year period. Participants (n = 1195) reported socio-demographics, awareness of the law, income, work hours per week, and payment for sick time off work. In the year after implementation of the law, part-time workers were significantly more likely to attend work while sick than full-time workers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4). Seventy percent of workers who missed work due to illness (n = 249) were paid for sick leave. Part-time workers, respondents not aware of the benefit (30% of workers), and workers without a college degree were the least likely to be paid for sick days. More than one third (37%) of persons not paid for sick leave worked in retail, food service, or health care. Although 70% of respondents were paid for sick leave after implementation of the law, part-time workers and workers with low education were least likely to access the benefit and more likely to work while sick. The disparity in paid sick leave may have public health consequences as many persons not paid for sick leave had occupations that carry a high risk of disease transmission to others.

  14. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    PubMed

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Unauthorised absences from leave from an Australian security hospital.

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ; Goel, Vikram; Neillie, Darren; Stedman, Terry; Meehan, Tom

    2014-04-01

    To consider incidents relating to absences without permission from authorised leave from a security hospital. A retrospective audit over a 10-year period of all critical incidents relating to leave from the High Security Inpatient Services, Brisbane, Australia. There has been a low incidence of patients absenting themselves without permission from leave. Of the 12 patients who went absent without permission over the 10-year study period, only one patient was reported to have committed an offence and no patient seriously self-harmed. Attention to patient selection and risk management strategies have been effective in minimising the risk to patients and to the community as a direct result of absences without permission from authorised leave.

  16. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  17. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  18. Family and medical leave. Office of Personnel Management. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-05-08

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to ensure that both employees' and agencies' rights are protected and their responsibilities fulfilled.

  19. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL

    PubMed Central

    Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied. PMID:22557220

  20. Preventing intimate partner violence through paid parental leave policies.

    PubMed

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C

    2018-05-30

    Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Gravity effects on wind-induced flutter of leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Nickalaus; Kopperstad, Karsten; Solano, Tomas; Shoele, Kourosh; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Wind-Induced flutter of leaves depends on both wind velocity and the gravity. To study the gravitational effects on the oscillatory behavior of leaves in the wind, a wind tunnel that can be tilted about the center of the test section is created. This unique rotation capability allows systematic investigation of gravitational effects on the fluttering response of leaves. The flow-induced vibration will be studied for three different leaves at several different tilting angles including the wind travels horizontally, vertically downward and vertically upward. In each situation, the long axis of a leaf is placed parallel to the wind direction and its response is studied at different flow speed. Oscillation of the leaf is recorded via high-speed camera at each of setup, and the effect of the gravity on stabilizing or destabilizing the fluttering response is investigated. Summer REU student at Florida State University.

  4. Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.

    PubMed

    Grebowski, Lucinda S

    2002-03-01

    The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management.

  5. Crystal macropattern development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Lersten, Nels R; Horner, Harry T

    2006-05-01

    Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves <1 mm long, then proliferate basipetally in the midrib. Lamina druses appear in the distal marginal teeth of leaves 3 cm long; from here they proliferate basipetally and towards midrib along major veins. In about two-thirds-grown leaves (6-9 cm length) druses are all adaxial to veins of most orders; a shift occurs then to formation of prisms, which appear first abaxial to, then all around, veins. Mature leaves have virtually all prisms encrusting all major veins, more sparsely along smaller minor veins. Late season leaves form epitactic crystals on existing prismatics. The developing and mature macropattern of P. serotina is almost the reverse of the pattern described previously in P. virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of

  6. Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. • Methods Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. • Key Results Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves <1 mm long, then proliferate basipetally in the midrib. Lamina druses appear in the distal marginal teeth of leaves 3 cm long; from here they proliferate basipetally and towards midrib along major veins. In about two-thirds-grown leaves (6–9 cm length) druses are all adaxial to veins of most orders; a shift occurs then to formation of prisms, which appear first abaxial to, then all around, veins. Mature leaves have virtually all prisms encrusting all major veins, more sparsely along smaller minor veins. Late season leaves form epitactic crystals on existing prismatics. • Conclusions The developing and mature macropattern of P. serotina is almost the reverse of the pattern described previously in P. virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern

  7. Ampel Bamboo Leaves Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzaman; Oktaviani, Novi; Irmansyah

    2018-03-01

    The bamboo tree trunk was the most commonly used part of daily life. Bamboo leaves often wereconsidered waste by the community, and bamboo leaves contain Silicon dioxide (SiO2). We have developed and compare two silicon dioxide method, using combustion to washing method (A) and washing to combustion method (B). Atom purity of either method was 99.9 %, with the tetragonal crystal structure. Mg, Au, Ca, and K impurities were found in Method A sample, andnot in Method B.

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Selected Herbal Leaves: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, I. A. Abd; Ismail, N.; Rahman, N. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is one of new alternative extraction method that has been widely used to isolate bioactive components from variety of plant materials. The method was proved to be clean and safe, compatible for the extraction of edible products such as spices, food additives, medicines and nutritional supplement products compared to traditional extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, hydro distillation and steam distillation. The SC-CO2 extraction was known as highly influenced by its process parameter such as temperature and pressure for obtaining maximum yield. Therefore, a clear review on the optimum range of temperature and pressure for herbal leaves extraction using SC-CO2 is necessary for future reference. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of temperature and pressure of SC-CO2 process without modifier on extraction yield of some selected herbal leaves i.e clubmoss, drumstick leaves, kratom leaves, mallee and myrtle leaves. The values of investigated parameters were; pressure from 8.9 to 50 MPa and temperature from 35 to 80°C. The results showed that the highest extraction yields were obtained when the pressure and temperature were above 30 MPa and 40°C. The interaction between pressure and temperature for SC-CO2 extraction of plant leaves are crucial since the values cannot be very high or very low in order to preserve the quality of the extracts.

  9. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    PubMed

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Protection by Isoprene against Singlet Oxygen in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Affek, Hagit P.; Yakir, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) protection against effects of singlet oxygen was investigated in Myrtus communis and Rhamnus alaternus. In M. communis, singlet oxygen produced in the leaves by Rose Bengal (RB) led to a 65% decrease in net assimilation rates within 3 h, whereas isoprene emission rates showed either a 30% decrease at ambient CO2 concentrations or a 70% increase under high CO2. In both cases, these changes led to an increase in calculated internal isoprene concentrations. The isoprene protection effect was directly demonstrated by fumigation of young (non-emitting) leaves, treated with RB or bromoxynil (simulating photoinhibition). There was 42% and 29% reduction in the damage to net assimilation compared with non-fumigated leaves for RB or bromoxynil, respectively. In R. alaternus, similar effects of RB on net assimilation were observed, and additional fluorescence measurements showed a significantly smaller decrease in Fv/Fm in isoprene-fumigated young leaves treated with RB (from 0.78 to 0.52), compared with non-fumigated leaves (from 0.77 to 0.27). The internal isoprene concentrations used in this study and possible rate of 1O2 production in leaves indicate that the protective effects observed should be beneficial also under natural conditions. PMID:12011357

  11. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  12. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  14. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  15. Production, Characterization and Application of a Thermostable Tannase from Pestalotiopsis guepinii URM 7114

    PubMed Central

    Reges de Sena, Amanda; Claúdia de Barros dos Santos, Ana; Gouveia, Miquéas Jamesse; Figueira de Mello, Marcelo Rodrigues; Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; Moreira, Keila Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tannase (EC 3.1.1.20) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester and depside bonds of tannic acid to gallic acid and glucose. In the production of foods and beverages, it contributes to the removal of the undesirable effects of tannins. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of endophytic fungi isolated from jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) leaves, and identified as Pestalotiopsis guepinii, in the production of tannase. Tannase was produced extracellularly by P. guepinii under submerged, slurry-state and solid-state fermentations. The submerged fermentation was found to be the most promising (98.6 U/mL). Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effect of variables (pH and temperature), and the results showed that the best conditions for tannase activity were pH=6.9 and 30 °C. Km was found to be 7.18·10–4 mol/L and vmax=250.00 U/mL. The tannase activity was the highest in the presence of Ca2+ at a concentration of 5·10–3 mol/L. Moreover, the enzyme was not inhibited by the tested chelators and detergents. The stability of the enzyme was also studied, and crude enzyme was evaluated in simulation of gastrointestinal digestion of monogastric animals. The crude enzyme was highly stable under simulated conditions; it retained 87.3% of its original activity after 6 h. The study contributes to the identification of microbial species that produce tannase, with potential application in biotechnology. PMID:27904319

  16. Production, Characterization and Application of a Thermostable Tannase from Pestalotiopsis guepinii URM 7114.

    PubMed

    Reges de Sena, Amanda; Claúdia de Barros Dos Santos, Ana; Gouveia, Miquéas Jamesse; Figueira de Mello, Marcelo Rodrigues; Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Aparecida de Assis, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Tannase (EC 3.1.1.20) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester and depside bonds of tannic acid to gallic acid and glucose. In the production of foods and beverages, it contributes to the removal of the undesirable effects of tannins. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of endophytic fungi isolated from jamun ( Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) leaves, and identified as Pestalotiopsis guepinii , in the production of tannase. Tannase was produced extracellularly by P. guepinii under submerged, slurry-state and solid-state fermentations. The submerged fermentation was found to be the most promising (98.6 U/mL). Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effect of variables (pH and temperature), and the results showed that the best conditions for tannase activity were pH=6.9 and 30 °C. K m was found to be 7.18·10 -4 mol/L and v max =250.00 U/mL. The tannase activity was the highest in the presence of Ca 2+ at a concentration of 5·10 -3 mol/L. Moreover, the enzyme was not inhibited by the tested chelators and detergents. The stability of the enzyme was also studied, and crude enzyme was evaluated in simulation of gastrointestinal digestion of monogastric animals. The crude enzyme was highly stable under simulated conditions; it retained 87.3% of its original activity after 6 h. The study contributes to the identification of microbial species that produce tannase, with potential application in biotechnology.

  17. An electrochemical sulfite biosensor based on gold coated magnetic nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-01-15

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(X)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto carboxylated gold coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs) electrodeposited onto the surface of a gold (Au) electrode through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(X)/Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs/Au electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(X). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s when operated at 0.2V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and detection limit were 0.50-1000 μM and 0.15 μM (S/N=3) respectively. Biosensor was evaluated with 96.46% recovery of added sulfite in red wine and 1.7% and 3.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. Biosensor measured sulfite level in red and white wines. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wines sulfite value by standard DTNB (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) method and the present method. Enzyme electrode was used 300 times over a period of 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. Biosensor has advantages over earlier biosensors that it has excellent electrocatalysis towards sulfite, lower detection limit, higher storage stability and no interference by ascorbate, cysteine, fructose and ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an amperometric sulfite biosensor based on SO(x)/PBNPs/PPY modified ITO electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Pundir, C S

    2012-11-01

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(x)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto prussian blue nanoparticles/polypyrrole composite (PBNPs/PPY) electrodeposited onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(x)/PBNPs/PPY/ITO electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(x). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s, when operated at 20 mV s⁻¹ in 0.1M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and minimum detection limit were 0.5-1000 μM and 0.12 μM (S/N=3) respectively. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wine samples sulfite value by standard DTNB method and the present method. The sensor was evaluated with 97% recovery of added sulfite in red wine samples and 2.2% and 4.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. The sensor was employed for determination of sulfite level in red and white wine samples. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of 3 months when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemometrics Optimized Extraction Procedures, Phytosynergistic Blending and in vitro Screening of Natural Enzyme Inhibitors Amongst Leaves of Tulsi, Banyan and Jamun

    PubMed Central

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Singla, Rajeev K.; Katakam, Prakash; Samanta, Tanmoy; Kushwaha, Dilip Kumar; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. Objective: Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun. Materials and Methods: The extraction process parameters of the leaves of three plant species (Ficus benghalensis, Syzigium cumini and Ocimum sanctum) were optimized by rotatable central composite design of chemometrics so as to get maximal yield of bio-actives. Phyto-blends of three species were prepared so as to achieve synergistic antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials and the ratios were optimized by chemometrics. Next, for in vitro screening of natural enzyme inhibitors the individual leaf extracts as well as composite blends were subjected to assay procedures to see their inhibitory potentials against the enzymes pathogenic in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potentials were also estimated by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP and Dot Blot assay. Results: Considering response surface methodology studies and from the solutions obtained using desirability function, it was found that hydro-ethanolic or methanolic solvent ratio of 52.46 ± 1.6 and at a temperature of 20.17 ± 0.6 gave an optimum yield of polyphenols with minimal chlorophyll leaching. The species also showed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, and saponins. Composites in the ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:1:2 gave synergistic effects in terms of polyphenol yield and anti-oxidant potentials. All composites (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2) showed synergistic anti

  20. Chemometrics Optimized Extraction Procedures, Phytosynergistic Blending and in vitro Screening of Natural Enzyme Inhibitors Amongst Leaves of Tulsi, Banyan and Jamun.

    PubMed

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Singla, Rajeev K; Katakam, Prakash; Samanta, Tanmoy; Kushwaha, Dilip Kumar; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2015-10-01

    Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun. The extraction process parameters of the leaves of three plant species (Ficus benghalensis, Syzigium cumini and Ocimum sanctum) were optimized by rotatable central composite design of chemometrics so as to get maximal yield of bio-actives. Phyto-blends of three species were prepared so as to achieve synergistic antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials and the ratios were optimized by chemometrics. Next, for in vitro screening of natural enzyme inhibitors the individual leaf extracts as well as composite blends were subjected to assay procedures to see their inhibitory potentials against the enzymes pathogenic in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potentials were also estimated by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP and Dot Blot assay. Considering response surface methodology studies and from the solutions obtained using desirability function, it was found that hydro-ethanolic or methanolic solvent ratio of 52.46 ± 1.6 and at a temperature of 20.17 ± 0.6 gave an optimum yield of polyphenols with minimal chlorophyll leaching. The species also showed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, and saponins. Composites in the ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:1:2 gave synergistic effects in terms of polyphenol yield and anti-oxidant potentials. All composites (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2) showed synergistic anti-oxidant actions. Inhibitory activities against the

  1. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and…

  2. Workplace justice and intention to leave the nursing profession.

    PubMed

    Chin, Weishan; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Hung, Yu-Ju; Hsieh, Yueh-Tzu; Wang, Li-Jie; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Poor psychosocial work environments are considered critical factors of nurses' intention to leave their profession. Workplace injustice has been proven to increase the incidence of psychiatric morbidity among workers. However, few studies have directly investigated the effect of workplace justice on nurses' intention to leave their profession and the population attributable risk among nurses. This study identified factors associated with workplace justice and nurses' intention to leave the profession. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Approximately 10% of all secondary referral centers in Taiwan were stratified and randomly sampled. Multiple logistic regression and population attributable risks were preformed to assess the effect of workplace justice on nurses' intention to leave the nursing profession. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Research and Ethical Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. Only nurses who consented to the study participated in the survey. A total of 2268 nurses were recruited, of whom 1417 (62.5%) satisfactorily completed the questionnaire. The participants were classified and 342 (24.1%) of them were placed into the low workplace justice group. Nurses with low workplace justice had a higher intention of leaving the profession (adjusted odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.77). "Employees' opinions are influential in hospital's decision making" and "employees' performance is evaluated fairly" were the most influential factors of the participants' intention to quit. The adjusted population attributable risk was 3.7% for low workplace justice. This study has identified that workplace justice is a protective factor of nurses' leaving their current profession. A fair performance appraisal system and increased autonomy at work are warranted to dissuade nurses from leaving the nursing profession.

  3. Sun and Shade leaves, SIF, and Photosynthetic Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in retrieval of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have opened up new possibilities for remote sensing of canopy physiology and structure. To date most of the emphasis has been placed on SIF as an indicator of stress and photosynthetic capacity. However, it is clear that canopy structure can also have an influence. To this point, simulations of SIF in land surface models tend to under predict observed variation in SIF. Also, large, systematic differences in SIF from different canopy types seem to correlate well with the photosynthetic capacity of these canopies. SIF emissions from pampered crops can be several-fold that from evergreen, needle-leaf forests. Yet, these may have similar vegetation indices and absorb a similar fraction of incident PAR. SIF photons produced in a conifer canopy do have a lower probability of escaping its dense, clumped foliage. However, this does not explain the correlated differences in photosynthetic rate and SIF. It is useful, in this regard, to consider the separate contributions of sun and shade leaves to the SIF emitted by a canopy. Sun leaves tend to be displayed to intercept the direct solar beam, and these highly illuminated leaves are often visible from above the canopy. Sun leaves produce more SIF and a large fraction of it escapes. Therefore, the intensity of SIF may be a sensitive indicator of the partitioning of absorbed PAR to sun and shade leaves. Many models account tor the different photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves in calculating canopy responses. However, the fraction of leaves in each category is usually parameterized by an assumed leaf angle distribution (e.g. spherical). In reality, the sun/shade fraction can vary over a wide range, and it has been difficult to measure. SIF and possibly near-IR reflectance of canopies can be used to specify this key parameter with obvious importance to understanding photosynthetic rate.

  4. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  5. Satisfaction of women urologists with maternity leave and childbirth timing.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Lori B; Baltrushes, Robin J; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Garshick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Women physicians must consider many conflicting issues when timing childbirth. We characterized maternity leave, breast-feeding practices and satisfaction associated with pregnancy timing in women urologists. A 114-item anonymous survey including questions on maternity leave duration for firstborn children, workplace policies, attitudes and satisfaction was mailed to all 365 American board certified women urologists in May and July 2007. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater satisfaction. A total of 243 women urologists (69%) responded, of whom 158 had at least 1 biological child. Average maternal age at first birth was 32.6 years. Of the children 10%, 32% and 52% were born before, during and after residency, respectively. Only 42% of women reported the existence of a formal maternity leave policy. Of the women 70% took 8 weeks or less of leave. Those with 9 weeks or greater were 3.8 times more likely to report satisfaction (p = 0.001). Although women in practice were 2.0 times more likely to take 9 weeks or greater compared to those in training or earlier (p = 0.046), only 30% in practice took this much time. Dissatisfaction with leave was not related to birth timing (residency vs practice) or maternal age at delivery but to work/residency related issues in 69% of respondents, financial concerns in 13% and personal/other in 18%. For breast-feeding 67% of respondents were satisfied with the duration and 22% were not. Dissatisfaction was secondary to work factors. Satisfaction with leave was related to the amount of maternity leave with women with 9 weeks or greater more likely to report satisfaction. Women in practice were more likely to take 9 weeks or greater but most did not due to strong stressors related to work, partners/peers or finances. Work factors were cited for dissatisfaction with breast-feeding.

  6. Organizational climate and intensive care unit nurses' intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L; Mooney-Kane, Cathy; Smolowitz, Janice; Lin, Susan X; Dick, Andrew W

    2006-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to a) estimate the incidence of intensive care units nurses' intention to leave due to working conditions; and b) identify factors predicting this phenomenon. Cross-sectional design. Hospitals and critical care units. Registered nurses (RNs) employed in adult intensive care units. Organizational climate, nurse demographics, intention to leave, and reason for intending to leave were collected using a self-report survey. Nurses were categorized into two groups: a) those intending to leave due to working conditions; and b) others (e.g., those not leaving or retirees). The measure of organizational climate had seven subscales: professional practice, staffing/resource adequacy, nurse management, nursing process, nurse/physician collaboration, nurse competence, and positive scheduling climate. Setting characteristics came from American Hospital Association data and a survey of chief nursing officers. A total of 2,323 RNs from 66 hospitals and 110 critical care units were surveyed across the nation. On average, the RN was 39.5 yrs old (SD = 9.40), had 15.6 yrs (SD = 9.20) experience in health care, and had worked in his or her current position for 8.0 yrs (SD = 7.50). Seventeen percent (n = 391) of the respondents indicated intending to leave their position in the coming year. Of those, 52% (n = 202) reported that the reason was due to working conditions. Organizational climate factors that had an independent effect on intensive care unit nurse intention to leave due to working conditions were professional practice, nurse competence, and tenure (p < .05). Improving professional practice in the work environment and clinical competence of the nurses as well as supporting new hires may reduce turnover and help ensure a stable and qualified workforce.

  7. Factors influencing Macao nurses' intention to leave current employment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Luk, Andrew Leung; Leong, Sok Man; Yeung, Siu Ming; Van, Iat Kio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate factors associated with nurses' intention to leave current employment in Macao. The shortage of nursing staff and nurses voluntarily leaving their jobs has continued to be a problem affecting the delivery of health care all over the world. One way to alleviate this shortfall is via recruitment, but this is not always successful. Another way is to reduce the rate at which nurses voluntarily leave their work places. A descriptive survey was conducted and data were collected using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Nurses were recruited in the Health Bureau and one private hospital in Macao. The status of nurses' intention to leave current employment (yes vs. no) was the dependent variable and nurses' predisposing characteristics, organisational environments and five components on job satisfaction outcomes were independent variables. Of 426 nurses, 166 (39.0%) indicated an intention to leave current employment. The results showed that age (p < 0.001), work experience (p < 0.001), workplace (p = 0.015) and job satisfaction: pay and benefits (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors to predict nurses' intention to leave current employment. More than one-third of the nurses in Macao indicated an intention to leave current employment. This figure may be a cause of concern for the hospital management and highlights the need to implement strategies to improve the communication between nurses and the organisation, to enhance nurse job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Our findings outline some issues contributing to this problem and provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on nurses' turnover in Macao. Given the complexity of issues outlined in this analysis, nurse managers should assist their nursing staff to deal with those influences, make efforts to address the nursing shortage that will require additional communications and recognise the needs and values of their staff and empower them to create a

  8. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  9. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

  11. Proanthocyanidins of mountain birch leaves: quantification and properties.

    PubMed

    Ossipova, S; Ossipov, V; Haukioja, E; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs; condensed tannins) are present in mountain birch leaves in soluble and cell wall-bound forms. Crude preparations of soluble PAs were isolated from birch leaves and purified by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column with a yield of about 7% of leaf dry mass. Some chemical characteristics were elucidated with 13C-NMR and HPLC-ECI-MS. Birch leaf PAs were mainly delphinidin type oligo- and polymers with average molecular mass of about 3000. In order to quantify PAs, the method involving heating PA-containing materials in 1-butanol:hydrochloric acid (95:5, v/v), and spectrophotometric determination of the anthocyanidin monomers so formed was modified and optimised. Mature leaves were characterised by a relatively high content of PAs: mean values for soluble and bound PAs were 103 and 40 mg/g dry mass, respectively. In mature leaves the soluble PAs determined the total protein precipitation capacity (PPC) of extracts. In young leaves, the contribution of PAs to the total content of phenolics and the total PPC of tannins was about 20-25% only.

  12. A Global Regulation Inducing the Shape of Growing Folded Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Etienne; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    Shape is one of the important characteristics for the structures observed in living organisms. Whereas biologists have proposed models where the shape is controlled on a molecular level [1], physicists, following Turing [2] and d'Arcy Thomson [3], have developed theories where patterns arise spontaneously [4]. Here, we propose that volume constraints restrict the possible shapes of leaves. Focusing on palmate leaves (with lobes), the central observation is that developing leaves first grow folded inside a bud, limited by the previous and subsequent leaves. We show that the lobe perimeters end at the border of this small volume. This induces a direct relationship between the way it was folded and the final unfolded shape of the leaf. These dependencies can be approximated as simple geometrical relationships that we confirm on both folded embryonic and unfolded mature leaves. We find that independent of their position in the phylogenetic tree, these relationships work for folded species, but do not work for non-folded species. This global regulation for the leaf growth could come from a mechanical steric constraint. Such steric regulation should be more general and considered as a new simple means of global regulation. PMID:19956690

  13. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  14. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  15. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  17. Proteomic analysis of strawberry leaves infected with Colletotrichum fragariae.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Xin, Ya; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Yu, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiao, Wenfei; Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Guizhen; Liu, Hongbo; Jin, Liang; Ma, Huasheng; Ruan, Songlin

    2012-07-16

    Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of β-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variability of 13C-labeling in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Tu, Thanh Thuy; Biron, Philippe; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Richard, Patricia; Zeller, Bernd; Quénéa, Katell; Alexis, Marie; Bardoux, Gérard; Vaury, Véronique; Girardin, Cyril; Pouteau, Valérie; Billiou, Daniel; Bariac, Thierry

    2013-09-15

    Plant tissues artificially labeled with (13)C are increasingly used in environmental studies to unravel biogeochemical and ecophysiological processes. However, the variability of (13)C-content in labeled tissues has never been carefully investigated. Hence, this study aimed at documenting the variability of (13)C-content in artificially labeled leaves. European beech and Italian ryegrass were subjected to long-term (13)C-labeling in a controlled-environment growth chamber. The (13)C-content of the leaves obtained after several months labeling was determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The (13)C-content of the labeled leaves exhibited inter- and intra-leaf variability much higher than those naturally occurring in unlabeled plants, which do not exceed a few per mil. This variability was correlated with labeling intensity: the isotope composition of leaves varied in ranges of ca 60‰ and 90‰ for experiments that led to average leaf (13)C-content of ca +15‰ and +450‰, respectively. The reported variability of isotope composition in (13)C-enriched leaves is critical, and should be taken into account in subsequent experimental investigations of environmental processes using (13)C-labeled plant tissues. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Peroxidase Release Induced by Ozone in Sedum album Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Federico J.; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ozone was studied on the peroxidase activity from various compartments of Sedum album leaves (epidermis, intercellular fluid, residual cell material, and total cell material). The greatest increase following a 2-hour ozone exposure (0.4 microliters O3 per liter) was observed in extracellular peroxidases. Most of the main bands of peroxidase activity separated by isoelectric focusing exhibited an increase upon exposure to ozone. Incubation experiments with isolated peeled or unpeeled leaves showed that leaves from ozone-treated plants release much more peroxidases in the medium than untreated leaves. The withdrawal of Ca2+ ions reduced the level of extracellular peroxidase activity either in whole plants or in incubation experiments. This reduction and the activation obtained after addition of Ca2+ resulted from a direct requirement of Ca2+ by the enzyme and from an effect of Ca2+ on peroxidase secretion. The ionophore A23187 promoted an increase of extracellular peroxidase activity only in untreated plants. The release of peroxidases by untreated and ozone-treated leaves is considerably lowered by metabolic inhibitors (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and sodium azide) and by puromycin. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663520

  20. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  1. Government clarifies rules for family and medical leave.

    PubMed

    1995-04-07

    The Labor Department issued its final regulations to clarify the interplay between the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. The regulations clarify leaves of absences, the employee's rights to return to work after a leave, and confidentiality of medical records. Other ADA-related aspects of the FMLA regulations state that when an employer violates both the FMLA and ADA, an employee may be able to recover under either or both statutes but may not be awarded double relief for the same loss; and FMLA does not modify or affect any law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, as does the ADA. Final FMLA regulations become effective April 6, 1995. A comparative list of ADA and FMLA laws is provided. More information can be obtained by consulting the Federal Register for Jan 6.

  2. Computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Wu, Dong-Yan; Fan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves.

  3. Biosynthesis of S-Methylcysteine in Radish Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John F.; Gering, Rose K.

    1966-01-01

    Investigation on the biosynthesis of S-methyl-L-cysteine in radish leaves has shown that it is formed by the methylation of cysteine. This conclusion is based on: A) the relatively high recovery of radioactivity in methylcysteine sulfoxide after the administration of cysteine or methyl-labeled methionine to radish leaves; B) the nearly complete recovery of label from methyl-labeled methionine in the methyl group of methylcysteine sulfoxide; and C) the similarity in the ratio of tritium to 14C in methylcysteine sulfoxide and in its methyl group to this ratio in the methyl group of methionine given to radish leaves. Direct evidence for the synthesis of methylcysteine in radishes was obtained for the first time. Conclusive evidence against the formation of methylcysteine from serine and a thiomethyl group from methionine as suggested for garlic was the more efficient incorporation of the methyl group of methionine as compared to the sulfur atom into methylcysteine sulfoxide. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16656400

  4. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    PubMed

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  5. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

  6. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Almatrafi, Manal Mused

    2017-01-01

    Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver. PMID:29144438

  7. Reasons for leaving nursing: a study among Turkish nurses.

    PubMed

    Gök, Ayşen Uğur; Kocaman, Gülseren

    2011-08-01

    Reasons for the growing nursing shortage are often complex and multidimensional. To explore the phenomenon of why Turkish nurses leave nursing. The sample in this descriptive study was 134 nurses who had left the profession. A snowball sampling method was used to identify subjects and multiple methods were used to elicit reasons for leaving. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. The main reasons for leaving nursing were related to unsatisfactory working conditions and a negative perception of nursing. Of the respondents, 69.4% received education in a non-nursing field. The most popular career choice was teaching (27.6%). The results of this study indicate that working conditions and public opinion adversely affect a nurse's interest in the profession. The results of the study indicate a need to improve working conditions and to approach this subject from a multidimensional perspective.

  8. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  9. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as "maçaranduba", "maçarandubinha" and "guracica", being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. NMR(1)H and (13)C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species.

  10. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    PubMed

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  11. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  12. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9.

  13. Relationship of water potential to growth of leaves.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J S

    1968-07-01

    A thermocouple psychrometer that measures water potentials of intact leaves was used to study the water potentials at which leaves grow. Water potentials and water uptake during recovery from water deficits were measured simultaneously with leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), and Abutilon striatum Dickson. Recovery occurred in 2 phases. The first was associated with elimination of water deficits; the second with cell enlargement. The second phase was characterized by a steady rate of water uptake and a relatively constant leaf water potential. Enlargement was 70% irreversible and could be inhibited by puromycin and actinomycin D. During this time, leaves growing with their petioles in contact with pure water remained at a water potential of -1.5 to -2.5 bars regardless of the length of the experiment. It was not possible to obtain growing leaf tissue with a water potential of zero. It was concluded that leaves are not in equilibrium with the potential of the water which is absorbed during growth. The nonequilibrium is brought about by a resistance to water flow which requires a potential difference of 1.5 to 2.5 bars in order to supply water at the rate necessary for maximum growth.Leaf growth occurred in sunflower only when leaf water potentials were above -3.5 bars. Sunflower leaves therefore require a minimum turgor for enlargement, in this instance equivalent to a turgor of about 6.5 bars. The high water potentials required for growth favored rapid leaf growth at night and reduced growth during the day.

  14. Relationship of Water Potential to Growth of Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, John S.

    1968-01-01

    A thermocouple psychrometer that measures water potentials of intact leaves was used to study the water potentials at which leaves grow. Water potentials and water uptake during recovery from water deficits were measured simultaneously with leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), and Abutilon striatum Dickson. Recovery occurred in 2 phases. The first was associated with elimination of water deficits; the second with cell enlargement. The second phase was characterized by a steady rate of water uptake and a relatively constant leaf water potential. Enlargement was 70% irreversible and could be inhibited by puromycin and actinomycin D. During this time, leaves growing with their petioles in contact with pure water remained at a water potential of —1.5 to —2.5 bars regardless of the length of the experiment. It was not possible to obtain growing leaf tissue with a water potential of zero. It was concluded that leaves are not in equilibrium with the potential of the water which is absorbed during growth. The nonequilibrium is brought about by a resistance to water flow which requires a potential difference of 1.5 to 2.5 bars in order to supply water at the rate necessary for maximum growth. Leaf growth occurred in sunflower only when leaf water potentials were above —3.5 bars. Sunflower leaves therefore require a minimum turgor for enlargement, in this instance equivalent to a turgor of about 6.5 bars. The high water potentials required for growth favored rapid leaf growth at night and reduced growth during the day. PMID:16656882

  15. To Stay or to Leave: Factors Influencing Victims' Decisions to Stay or Leave a Domestic Violence Emergency Shelter.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Elisa M; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-04-28

    Domestic violence (DV) emergency shelters play a vital role in supporting victims who seek to leave abusive partners and gain independence. Research indicates that numerous positive outcomes for victims and their children are associated with utilization of DV shelter programs. Yet, research also suggests that DV shelter programs may be unable to comprehensively meet the needs of all victims, and many choose to leave shelters soon after their arrival. To better understand the ways in which DV shelter programs support victims but also fail to meet their needs, this article explores the factors that influence victims' decisions to stay or leave a DV emergency shelter program through qualitative interviews with 33 DV shelter residents. Study participants indicate that three types of factors influence their decision to stay or leave the shelter program: (a) contextual factors, (b) partner or family relationship factors, and (c) shelter-specific factors. Shelter-specific factors cited as important contributors to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with shelter living include policies, staff and services, displacement from one's home community, and facilities. Findings provide information from the perspective of victims on the factors that influence one's decision to stay or leave a DV program and can be used to support service providers and advocates in building programs that are both supportive of victims' needs and conductive to longer shelter stays. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    PubMed

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  17. Leave or stay? Battered women's decision after intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A

    2008-10-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the police response to the domestic violence call. Findings regarding the first three factors are consistent with previous findings. However, a negative police response did not deter a woman from leaving, which is a different finding from previous studies.

  18. Ramifications of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.

    PubMed

    Luecke, R W; Wise, R J; List, M S

    1993-08-01

    Six months ago, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 was signed into law, and key provisions of the act became effective on August 5, 1993. This article examines the main provisions of the act, explains how employee leaves will be granted in compliance with the act, outlines the consequences of noncompliance with the act, analyzes the operational ramifications of the act, quantifies the financial implications of the act, and discusses the role of the healthcare financial manager in assisting with the formulation of a hospital policy to comply with the act.

  19. From dead leaves to sustainable organic resistive switching memory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai; Zhu, Shouhui; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zheng, Pingping; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Feng; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Yong

    2018-03-01

    An environmental-friendly, sustainable, pollution-free, biodegradable, flexible and wearable electronic device hold advanced potential applications. Here, an organic resistive switching memory device with Ag/Leaves/Ti/PET structure on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was fabricated for the first time. We observed an obvious resistive switching memory characteristic with large switching resistance ratio and stable cycle performance at room temperature. This work demonstrates that leaves, a useless waste, can be properly treated to make useful devices. Furthermore, the as-fabricated devices can be degraded naturally without damage to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  1. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  3. Is There Spectral Variation in the Polarized Reflectance of Leaves?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  4. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-08

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  5. Is there Spectral Variation in the Polarized Reflectance of Leaves?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  6. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...

  7. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule. 825.112 Section...

  8. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...

  9. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., calculation of leave. 825.802 Section 825.802 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable..., calculation of leave. (a) Amount of leave. (1) An eligible airline flight crew employee is entitled to 72 days...

  10. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... or leave on a reduced leave schedule to care for a family member with a serious health condition, to... foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, and the employee would be on leave for more than 20 percent of...

  11. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule. 825.112 Section...

  12. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: An Overview and Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)

  13. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... or leave on a reduced leave schedule to care for a family member with a serious health condition, to... foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, and the employee would be on leave for more than 20 percent of...

  14. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... or leave on a reduced leave schedule to care for a family member with a serious health condition, to... foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, and the employee would be on leave for more than 20 percent of...

  15. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...

  16. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...

  17. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or foster care of a... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule. 825.112 Section...

  18. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or foster care of a... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule. 825.112 Section...

  19. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., calculation of leave. 825.802 Section 825.802 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable..., calculation of leave. (a) Amount of leave. (1) An eligible airline flight crew employee is entitled to 72 days...

  20. Living with the Family Leave Act of 1993: Case Studies of Women in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Delores D.; Griffin, Marlynn M.; Hecker, Jeanette M.

    This preliminary study examined the effects of the Family Leave Act of 1993 on the maternity leave experiences of women in academe, as well as the effect of pregnancy leave on their career decisions. Case study interviews were conducted with seven women faculty from four universities, and family leave policies at these institutions were reviewed.…